4,602 results match your criteria Proceedings of the Nutrition Society [Journal]


Role of metabolomics in identification of biomarkers related to food intake.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 15:1-8. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science,Institute of Food and Health, UCD,Belfield, Dublin 4,Ireland.

Dietary assessment methods including FFQ and food diaries are associated with many measurement errors including energy under-reporting and incorrect estimation of portion sizes. Such errors can lead to inconsistent results especially when investigating the relationship between food intake and disease causation. To improve the classification of a person's dietary intake and therefore clarify proposed links between diet and disease, reliable and accurate dietary assessment methods are essential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002966511900048XDOI Listing
February 2019

Nutrient-nutrient interactions: competition, bioavailability, mechanism and function in health and diseases.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb;78(1):1-3

Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences,College of Medical,Veterinary and Lifesciences,University of Glasgow,Glasgow G12 8TA,UK.

The Nutrition Society Spring Conference 2018, held in Glasgow, brought together experts focusing on the interaction between different nutrients and how this impacts absorption, metabolism and health from biochemical and physiological perspectives. This cross-cutting theme was examined from a range of perspectives, bringing together experts on topics ranging from food processing to the impact of inflammation on nutrient status. Two plenary lectures provided a food landscape and lifecourse background to the proceedings, with on the first day a focus on processed/ultra-processed foods and their nutrient composition and, on the second day, a plenary lecture exploring the role that nutrient-nutrient interactions within the maternal diet have for the lifelong health of the offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002732DOI Listing
February 2019

β-Carotene in the human body: metabolic bioactivation pathways - from digestion to tissue distribution and excretion.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb;78(1):68-87

C2VN, Aix-Marseille Univ.,INRA, INSERM, Marseille,France.

β-Carotene intake and tissue/blood concentrations have been associated with reduced incidence of several chronic diseases. Further bioactive carotenoid-metabolites can modulate the expression of specific genes mainly via the nuclear hormone receptors: retinoic acid receptor- and retinoid X receptor-mediated signalling. To better understand the metabolic conversion of β-carotene, inter-individual differences regarding β-carotene bioavailability and bioactivity are key steps that determine its further metabolism and bioactivation and mediated signalling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002641DOI Listing
February 2019

Dietary sugars, exercise and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism - CORRIGENDUM.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department for Health,University of Bath,Bath BA2 7AY,UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665119000028DOI Listing
February 2019
5.273 Impact Factor

Is iodine deficiency still a problem in sub-Saharan Africa?: a review.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 11:1-13. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Nutritional Sciences,College of Human Sciences, Texas Tech University,Texas,USA.

Iodine is an essential trace mineral, vital for its functions in many physiological processes in the human body. Both iodine deficiency (ID) and excess are associated with adverse health effects; ID and excess iodine intake have both been identified in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The review aims to (1) review the iodine status among populations in SSA until October 2018, and (2) identify populations at risk of excess or inadequate iodine intakes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002859DOI Listing
February 2019

Challenges and opportunities to tackle the rising prevalence of diet-related non-communicable diseases in Africa.

Authors:
Victor O Owino

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 8:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Nutritional and Health-Related Environmental Studies Section, Division of Human Health,International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre,PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna,Austria.

Africa is experiencing a sharp rise in non-communicable diseases (NCD) related to rapid globalisation and urbanisation leading to shifts in dietary and lifestyle patterns characterised by increased energy intake and physical inactivity. However, unlike more resource-endowed regions, Africa has a double burden of disease: NCD co-exist with infectious diseases including lower respiratory tract infections, HIV/AIDS and diarrhoeal diseases. The African economy is also relatively weaker, making it difficult to cope with this burden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002823DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Understanding susceptibility and targeting treatment in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children; moving the fulcrum.

Authors:
Emer Fitzpatrick

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 8:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Paediatric Liver Centre, King's College London, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine at King's College Hospital,London,UK.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of paediatric liver disease, affecting 10% of school-aged children and 44-70% of obese children and young people (CYP) in the western world. Encompassing a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis and progressive fibrosis, the disease is rapidly becoming the most common indication for liver transplantation. The molecular pathogenesis of NAFLD remains only partially understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002914DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Diet, menopause and the risk of ovarian, endometrial and breast cancer.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 1:1-11. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Nutritional Epidemiology Group,School of Food Science & Nutrition, University of Leeds,Leeds,UK.

Menopause, the permanent cessation of the menstrual cycle, marks the end of a woman's reproductive lifespan. In addition to changes in sex hormone levels associated with menopause, its timing is another predictor of future health outcomes such as duration of the presence of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) and the risk of hormone-related cancers. With ageing of the population, it is estimated that worldwide 1·2 billion women will be menopausal by the year 2030. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002884DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Dietary modulation of energy homoeostasis and metabolic-inflammation.

Authors:
Helen M Roche

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 1:1-6. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Nutrigenomics Research Group,School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Science, UCD Institute of Food and Health, Diabetes Complications Research Centre, University College Dublin,Dublin,Ireland.

Dietary intake and nutritional status is an important environmental factor which can modulate metabolic-inflammation. In recent years, research has made significant advances in terms of understanding the impact of dietary components on metabolic-inflammation, within the context of obesity, type-2 diabetes (T2D) and CVD risk. Our work demonstrated that different fatty acids differentially modulate metabolic-inflammation, initially focusing on Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing three protein (NLRP3) inflammasome mediated IL-1β biology and insulin signalling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002872DOI Listing
February 2019

Iron biofortification interventions to improve iron status and functional outcomes.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Jan 30:1-11. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Division of Nutritional Sciences,Cornell University,Ithaca, NY,USA.

This analysis was conducted to evaluate the evidence of the efficacy of iron biofortification interventions on iron status and functional outcomes. Iron deficiency is a major public health problem worldwide, with a disproportionate impact on women and young children, particularly those living in resource-limited settings. Biofortification, or the enhancing of micronutrient content in staple crops, is a promising and sustainable agriculture-based approach to improve nutritional status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002847DOI Listing
January 2019

Importance and use of reliable food composition data generation by nutrition/dietetic professionals towards solving Africa's nutrition problem: constraints and the role of FAO/INFOODS/AFROFOODS and other stakeholders in future initiatives.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Jan 30:1-10. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

INFOODS Coordinator,Regional Office for Latin America & the Caribbean, FAO/UN,Chile,Chile.

Despite the rich biodiversity of the African continent and the tremendous progress so far made in food production, Africa is still struggling with the problems of food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition. To combat these problems, the production and consumption of nutritious and safe foods need to be promoted. This cannot be achieved without reliable data on the quantity and quality of nutrients and other components provided through these foods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002926DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Nutritional challenges for older adults in Europe: current status and future directions.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Jan 30:1-13. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork,Cork,Republic of Ireland.

Population ageing is rapidly progressing and it is estimated that by 2050 one in every five people globally will be aged 60 years or over. Research has shown that adequate nutritional status can positively impact the ageing process, resulting in improved quality of life and the prevention of chronic disease and mortality. However, due to physiological and social changes associated with ageing, older adults may be at increased risk of nutrient deficiencies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002744DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Urban food environments in Africa: implications for policy and research.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Jan 28:1-13. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

IRD (French National Research Institute for Sustainable Development), NUTRIPASS Unit,Université de Montpellier,IRD, Montpellier SupAgro, Montpellier,France.

Africa is currently experiencing rapid urbanisation impacting on people's food environments and dietary habits. Such changes are associated with higher prevalence of obesity coexisting with undernutrition. The present paper provides an overview of the healthiness of African urban food environments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002938DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Nutrition from a climate change perspective.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Jan 28:1-8. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Rowett Institute, University of Aberdeen,Foresterhill, Aberdeen, Scotland AB25 2DZ,UK.

Climate change is threatening future global food and nutrition security. Limiting the increase in global temperature to 1·5 °C set out in The Paris Agreement (2015) while achieving nutrient security means overhauling the current food system to create one that can deliver healthy and sustainable diets. To attain this, it is critical to understand the implications for nutrition of actions to mitigate climate change as well as the impacts of climate change on food production and the nutrient composition of foods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002896DOI Listing
January 2019

The effect of iodine deficiency during pregnancy on child development.

Authors:
Sarah C Bath

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Jan 15:1-11. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences,University of Surrey,Guildford GU2 7XH,UK.

It is well known that severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy may cause impaired brain development in the child, with effects on cognitive and motor function, hearing and speech. Whether mild-to-moderate deficiency also affects neurological development is less well known, but in the past decade a number of observational studies have been conducted to answer this question and these studies are reviewed in this article. The picture is now emerging that even mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency during pregnancy may be associated with subtle impairments in cognition and school performance, although the evidence from randomised controlled trials is still lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002835DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Approaches to improving micronutrient status assessment at the population level.

Authors:
Yvonne Lamers

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Jan 15:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Food, Nutrition, and Health Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems,The University of British Columbia,Vancouver BC,Canada.

Optimising micronutrient status globally is a major health priority. Nutritional biomarkers are critical for the identification of nutrient inadequacies in light of the limitations of dietary assessment methods. Early diagnosis and prevention of nutrient inadequacies require sensitive, validated and harmonised methods to determine and monitor micronutrient status in individual healthcare and population-based surveys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002781DOI Listing
January 2019
7 Reads

Dietary fat composition: replacement of saturated fatty acids with PUFA as a public health strategy, with an emphasis on α-linolenic acid.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Jan 11:1-12. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Nutrigenomics Research Group,UCD Conway Institute,Belfield,Dublin 4,Ireland.

SFA intakes have decreased in recent years, both in Ireland and across other European countries; however a large proportion of the population are still not meeting the SFA recommendation of <10% of total energy (TE). High SFA intakes have been associated with increased CVD and type-2 diabetes (T2D) risk, due to alterations in cholesterol homoeostasis and adipose tissue inflammation. PUFA, in particular EPA and DHA, have been associated with health benefits, including anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002793DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads

Identifying and improving adherence to the gluten-free diet in people with coeliac disease.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Jan 11:1-8. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Life Sciences,University of Roehampton,London SW15 4JD,UK.

Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune gastrointestinal disorder whereby the ingestion of gluten, a storage protein found in wheat, barley and rye, causes damage to intestinal mucosa with resultant malabsorption, increased risk of anaemia and osteoporosis. Worldwide estimates suggest 1% of the population have CD. With no cure, the only treatment is a gluten-free diet (GFD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002966511800277XDOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Contribution of the gut microbiota to the regulation of host metabolism and energy balance: a focus on the gut-liver axis.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Jan 10:1-10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université catholique de Louvain,Brussels,Belgium.

This review presents mechanistic studies performed in vitro and in animal models, as well as data obtained in patients that contribute to a better understanding of the impact of nutrients interacting with the gut microbiota on metabolic and behavioural alterations linked to obesity. The gut microbiota composition and function are altered in several pathological conditions including obesity and related diseases i.e. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S002966511
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002756DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Maternal folate nutrition and offspring health: evidence and current controversies.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Dec 26:1-13. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Nutrition Innovation Centre for Food and Health,School of Biomedical Sciences,Ulster University,Coleraine,Northern Ireland BT52 1SA.

Periconceptional folic acid (FA) is known to have a protective effect in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD), leading to global recommendations for FA supplementation before and in early pregnancy. Maternal folate throughout pregnancy may have other roles in offspring health, including neurodevelopment and cognitive performance in childhood. Folate is essential for C1 metabolism, a network of pathways involved in several biological processes including nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair and methylation reactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002689DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Dietary interventions for cancer survivors.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Dec 19:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

School of Health Sciences, University of Manchester,Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL,UK.

This review evaluates evidence on dietary interventions for cancer survivors giving an overview of people's views and preferences for service attributes and provides a narrative review. After cancer, people often want to change their diet and there is a plethora of evidence why dietary optimisation would be beneficial. However, cancer survivors have different preferences about attributes of services including: place, person and communication mode. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002690DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Oral processing in elderly: understanding eating capability to drive future food texture modifications.

Authors:
Anwesha Sarkar

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Dec 19:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Food Colloids and Bioprocessing Group,School of Food Science and Nutrition,University of Leeds,Leeds LS2 9JT,UK.

Ageing population suffer from increased risk of malnutrition which is a major determinant of accelerated loss of autonomy, adverse health outcomes and substantial health-care costs. Malnutrition is largely attributed to reduced nutrient intake which may be associated with several endogenous factors, such as decline of muscle mass, oral functions and coordination that can make the eating process difficult. From an exogenous viewpoint, nutritionally dense foods with limited innovations in food texture have been traditionally offered to elderly population that negatively affected pleasure of eating and ultimately, nutrient intake. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002768DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Gut microbiota and health: connecting actors across the metabolic system.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Dec 18:1-12. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Food Quality and Nutrition,Research and Innovation Center, Fondazione Edmund Mach,San Michele all'Adige, Trento,Italy.

Overweight-related metabolic diseases are an important threat to health in the Western world. Dietary habits are one of the main causative factors for metabolic syndrome, CVD and type 2 diabetes. The human gut microbiota is emerging as an important player in the interaction between diet and metabolic health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002719DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Strategies for online personalised nutrition advice employed in the development of the eNutri web app.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Dec 18:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition,University of Reading,Reading RG6 6AH,UK.

The internet has considerable potential to improve health-related food choice at low-cost. Online solutions in this field can be deployed quickly and at very low cost, especially if they are not dependent on bespoke devices or offline processes such as the provision and analysis of biological samples. One key challenge is the automated delivery of personalised dietary advice in a replicable, scalable and inexpensive way, using valid nutrition assessment methods and effective recommendations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002707DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Malnutrition in older adults: screening and determinants.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Dec 3:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

UCD Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin,Dublin,Republic of Ireland.

Older adults are at risk of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). PEM detrimentally impacts on health, cognitive and physical functioning and quality of life. Given these negative health outcomes in the context of an ageing global population, the Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life Joint Programming Initiative Malnutrition in the Elderly (MaNuEL) sought to create a knowledge hub on malnutrition in older adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002628DOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Effects of consuming sugars and alternative sweeteners during pregnancy on maternal and child health: evidence for a secondhand sugar effect.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Dec 3:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Preventive Medicine,University of Southern California Health Sciences Campus,2250 Alcazar Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033,USA.

Consumption of sugar and alternative low- or no-energy sweeteners has increased in recent decades. However, it is still uncertain how consumption of sugar and alternative sweeteners during pregnancy affects pregnancy outcomes and long-term offspring health. This review aims to collate the available evidence surrounding the consequences of sugar and alternative sweetener consumption during pregnancy, a so-called secondhand sugar effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002966511800263XDOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Hepatic fatty acid synthesis and partitioning: the effect of metabolic and nutritional state.

Authors:
Leanne Hodson

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 20;78(1):126-134. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford,Churchill Hospital, Oxford OX3 7LE,UK.

When we consume dietary fat, a series of complex metabolic processes ensures that fatty acids are absorbed, transported around the body and used/stored appropriately. The liver is a central metabolic organ within the human body and has a major role in regulating fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Studying hepatic metabolism in human subjects is challenging; the use of stable isotope tracers and measurement of particles or molecules secreted by the liver such as VLDL-TAG and 3-hydroxybutyrate offers the best insight into postprandial hepatic fatty acid metabolism in human subjects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002653DOI Listing
February 2019
19 Reads

Role of hypothalamic tanycytes in nutrient sensing and energy balance.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Nov 20:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham Medical School, Queen's Medical Centre,Nottingham NG7 2UH,UK.

Animal models are valuable for the study of complex behaviours and physiology such as the control of appetite because genetic, pharmacological and surgical approaches allow the investigation of underlying mechanisms. However, the majority of such studies are carried out in just two species, laboratory mice and rats. These conventional laboratory species have been intensely selected for high growth rate and fecundity, and have a high metabolic rate and short lifespan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002665DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads

Picky eating in children: causes and consequences.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Nov 5:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Centre for Academic Child Health, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol,UK.

Picky eating is a common behaviour in early childhood. There is neither a universally accepted definition of picky eating, nor is there agreement on the best tool to identify it. Causes of picky eating include early feeding difficulties, late introduction of lumpy foods at weaning, pressure to eat and early choosiness, especially if the mother is worried by this; protective factors include the provision of fresh foods and eating the same meal as the child. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002586DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Interactions between nutrients in the maternal diet and the implications for the long-term health of the offspring.

Authors:
William D Rees

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 31;78(1):88-96. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

The Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, The University of Aberdeen,Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland,UK.

Nutritional science has traditionally used the reductionist approach to understand the roles of individual nutrients in growth and development. The macronutrient dense but micronutrient poor diets consumed by many in the Western world may not result in an overt deficiency; however, there may be situations where multiple mild deficiencies combine with excess energy to alter cellular metabolism. These interactions are especially important in pregnancy as changes in early development modify the risk of developing non-communicable diseases later in life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002537DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Addressing malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries with double-duty actions.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Oct 31:1-10. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Public Health Section,School of Health and Related Research-ScHARR, The University of Sheffield,Sheffield,UK.

Multiple forms of malnutrition co-exist (the double burden) in low- and middle-income countries, but most interventions and policies target only one form. Identifying shared drivers of the double burden of malnutrition is a first step towards establishing effective interventions that simultaneously address the double burden of malnutrition (known as double-duty actions). We identified shared drivers for the double burden of malnutrition, to assess which double-duty actions are likely to have the greatest reach in preventing all forms of malnutrition, in the context of the sustainable development goals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002616DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

The balance between food and dietary supplements in the general population.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 30;78(1):97-109. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Public Health & Primary Care,Strangeways Research Laboratories, University of Cambridge,Worts Causeway, Cambridge CB1 8RN,UK.

In the past, vitamins and minerals were used to cure deficiency diseases. Supplements nowadays are used with the aim of reducing the risk of chronic diseases of which the origins are complex. Dietary supplement use has increased in the UK over recent decades, contributing to the nutrient intake in the population, but not necessarily the proportion of the population that is sub-optimally nourished; therefore, not reducing the proportion below the estimated average requirement and potentially increasing the number at risk of an intake above the safety limits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366563PMC
February 2019
13 Reads

Turning over our fat stores: the key to metabolic health Blaxter Award Lecture 2018.

Authors:
Keith N Frayn

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Oct 29:1-9. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Radcliffe Department of Medicine,University of Oxford,Oxford,UK.

The present paper results from my receiving the Nutrition Society's first Blaxter Award, and describes briefly my academic history. My interest in human fat metabolism began in the Medical Research Council's Trauma Unit, studying metabolic changes in critically ill patients and their responses to nutrition. On moving to Oxford in 1986, I began to study pathways for depositing fat in adipose tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002598DOI Listing
October 2018
23 Reads

Dietary sugars, exercise and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Oct 23:1-11. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department for Health,University of Bath,Bath BA2 7AY,UK.

The present paper reviews the physiological responses of human liver carbohydrate metabolism to physical activity and ingestion of dietary sugars. The liver represents a central link in human carbohydrate metabolism and a mechanistic crux point for the effects of dietary sugars on athletic performance and metabolic health. As a corollary, knowledge regarding physiological responses to sugar ingestion has potential application to either improve endurance performance in athletes, or target metabolic diseases in people who are overweight, obese and/or sedentary. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002604DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read
5.273 Impact Factor

Is exercise best served on an empty stomach?

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 18;78(1):110-117. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department for Health,University of Bath,Bath BA2 7AY,UK.

The objective of this review paper is to evaluate the impact of undertaking aerobic exercise in the overnight-fasted v. fed-state, in the context of optimising the health benefits of regular physical activity. Conducting a single bout of aerobic exercise in the overnight-fasted v. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002574DOI Listing
February 2019
35 Reads
5.273 Impact Factor

Breaking bread!

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 16;78(1):118-125. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Academic Unit of Gastroenterology,Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals,Sheffield,UK.

Humankind has existed for 2·5 million years but only in the past 10 000 years have we been exposed to wheat. Therefore, it could be considered that wheat (gluten) is a novel introduction to humankind's diet! Prior to 1939, the rationing system had already been devised. This led to an imperative to try to increase agricultural production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002549DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Global cities and cultural diversity: challenges and opportunities for young people's nutrition.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 11 27;77(4):456-469. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Nutritional Sciences,School of Life Course Sciences,Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine,King's College London,Franklin Wilkins Building,London SE1 9NH,UK.

Childhood obesity is a common concern across global cities and threatens sustainable urban development. Initiatives to improve nutrition and encourage physical exercise are promising but are yet to exert significant influence on prevention. Childhood obesity in London is associated with distinct ethnic and socio-economic patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118000472DOI Listing
November 2018
14 Reads

Food processing: criteria for dietary guidance and public health?

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 25;78(1):4-18. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Exercise Science and Nutrition, St. Catherine University,2004 Randolph Ave. St. Paul, MN 55105,USA.

The NOVA food categorisation recommends 'avoiding processed foods (PF), especially ultra-processed foods (UPF)' and selecting minimally PF to address obesity and chronic disease. However, NOVA categories are drawn using non-traditional views of food processing with additional criteria including a number of ingredients, added sugars, and additives. Comparison of NOVA's definition and categorisation of PF with codified and published ones shows limited congruence with respect to either definition or food placement into categories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002513DOI Listing
February 2019
27 Reads

Relationship between nutritional status and the systemic inflammatory response: micronutrients.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 17;78(1):56-67. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

The Scottish Trace Element and Micronutrient Reference Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry,Royal Infirmary,Glasgow,UK.

Micronutrients such as trace elements and vitamins are important as enzyme cofactors in the metabolism of all cells in the body and therefore key to determining nutritional status. The present systematic review examined the evidence of the impact of the systemic inflammatory response on plasma micronutrient status in acute (surgical) and chronic tissue injury. A literature review using targeted subject headings was carried out. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002501DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

Multiple nutritional factors and thyroid disease, with particular reference to autoimmune thyroid disease.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 13;78(1):34-44. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Department of Nutritional Sciences,Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences,University of Surrey,Guildford GU2 7XH,UK.

Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) are examples of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), the commonest autoimmune condition. Antibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the enzyme that catalyses thyroid-hormone production and antibodies to the receptor for the thyroid-stimulating hormone, are characteristic of HT and GD, respectively. It is presently accepted that genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, including nutritional factors and immune disorders contribute to the development of AITD. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S002966511
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118001192DOI Listing
February 2019
35 Reads

Protein and bone health across the lifespan.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 10;78(1):45-55. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Musculoskeletal Physiology Research Group,Sport, Health and Performance Enhancement Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University,UK.

Bone health is determined by the rate of accrual in early life, followed by the rate of age-associated bone loss. Dietary protein intake might have a role in bone health across both of these phases via pleiotropic mechanistic pathways. Herein we summarise the pathways through which protein may exert either a positive or negative influence on bone. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S002966511
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118001180DOI Listing
February 2019
7 Reads

Approaches used to estimate bioavailability when deriving dietary reference values for iron and zinc in adults.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 Jul 27:1-7. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Nutrition Unit,European Food Safety Authority,Parma,Italy.

This review aims to describe approaches used to estimate bioavailability when deriving dietary reference values (DRV) for iron and zinc using the factorial approach. Various values have been applied by different expert bodies to convert absorbed iron or zinc into dietary intakes, and these are summarised in this review. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) derived zinc requirements from a trivariate saturation response model describing the relationship between zinc absorption and dietary zinc and phytate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118000484DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Nutrition support and clinical outcome in advanced cancer patients.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 11 13;77(4):388-393. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine,Sapienza University,Rome,Italy.

Newly diagnosed cancer patients are frequently found suffering from a metastatic disease, which poses additional challenges to the delivery of effective therapies. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are associated with side effects which reduce tolerance to treatment and likelihood of tumour response. Identifying preventable factors of reduced response to therapy would translate into better care of cancer patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118000459DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

Iron deficiency anaemia: experiences and challenges.

Proc Nutr Soc 2019 Feb 10;78(1):19-26. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Pathology,University of Cambridge,Cambridge CB2 1QP,UK.

Iron deficiency remains the largest nutritional deficiency worldwide and the main cause of anaemia. Severe iron deficiency leads to anaemia known as iron deficiency anaemia (IDA), which affects a total of 1·24 billion people, the majority of whom are children and women from resource-poor countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, iron deficiency is frequently exacerbated by concomitant parasitic and bacterial infections and contributes to over 120 000 maternal deaths a year, while it irreparably limits the cognitive development of children and leads to poor outcomes in pregnancy. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S002966511
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118000460DOI Listing
February 2019
11 Reads

Early breast cancer: why does obesity affect prognosis?

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 11 4;77(4):369-381. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Cancer Sciences Academic Unit, Faculty of Medicine,University of Southampton,Somers Cancer Sciences Building,Southampton General Hospital,Tremona Road, Southampton SO16 6YD,UK.

High BMI is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women but poorer outcomes in all age groups. The underlying mechanism is likely to be multi-factorial. Patients with a high BMI may present later due to body habitus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118000447DOI Listing
November 2018
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Clinical implications of low skeletal muscle mass in early-stage breast and colorectal cancer.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 11 4;77(4):382-387. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Department of Medical Oncology,Dana Farber Cancer Institute,Boston, MA,USA.

Although obesity has now been widely accepted to be an important risk factor for cancer survival, the associations between BMI and cancer mortality have not been consistently linear. Although morbid obesity has clearly been associated with worse survival, some studies have suggested a U-shaped association with no adverse association with overweight or lower levels of obesity. This 'obesity paradox' may be due to the fact that BMI likely incompletely captures key measures of body composition, including distribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118000423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6197885PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Prevention of overweight and obesity in early life.

Authors:
Julie Lanigan

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 08 29;77(3):247-256. Epub 2018 May 29.

The Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, University College London,30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH,UK.

Childhood obesity is a serious challenge for public health. The problem begins early with most excess childhood weight gained before starting school. In 2016, the WHO estimated that 41 million children under 5 were overweight or obese. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118000411DOI Listing
August 2018
15 Reads

Understanding the science of portion control and the art of downsizing.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 08 24;77(3):347-355. Epub 2018 May 24.

School of Design, University of Leeds,Leeds LS2 9JT,UK.

Offering large portions of high-energy-dense (HED) foods increases overall intake in children and adults. This is known as the portion size effect (PSE). It is robust, reliable and enduring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118000435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088523PMC
August 2018
15 Reads

Dark matters: effects of light at night on metabolism.

Proc Nutr Soc 2018 08 11;77(3):223-229. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Neuroscience,The Ohio State University,Columbus, OH 43210,USA.

Life on earth has evolved during the past several billion years under relatively bright days and dark night conditions. The wide-spread adoption of electric lights during the past century exposed animals, both human and non-human, to significant light at night for the first time in their evolutionary history. Endogenous circadian clocks depend on light to entrain to the external daily environment and seasonal rhythms depend on clear nightly melatonin signals to assess time of year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118000198DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads