201 results match your criteria Prion-Related Diseases
PLoS One 2018 25;13(10):e0206209. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
Korea Zoonosis Research Institute, Chonbuk National University, Iksan, Jeonbuk, Republic of Korea.
The polymorphisms of the prion protein (PRNP) gene, which encodes normal prion proteins (PrP), are known to be involved in the susceptibility of prion diseases. The prion-like protein (Doppel) gene (PRND) is the paralog of the PRNP gene and is closely located downstream of the PRNP gene. In addition, the polymorphisms of PRND correlate with disease susceptibility in several animals. Read More
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.
IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Objective: To assess whether the involvement of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) belongs to the phenotypic spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD).
Methods: We examined medical records of 117 sCJDVV2 (ataxic type), 65 sCJDMV2K (kuru-plaque type) and 121 sCJDMM(V)1 (myoclonic type) subjects for clinical symptoms, objective signs and neurophysiological data. We reviewed two diagnostic nerve biopsies and looked for abnormal prion protein (PrP) by western blotting and real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) in postmortem PNS samples from 14 subjects. Read More
Brain 2018 Sep;141(9):2700-2710
University of Cambridge, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OES, UK.
Mammalian prions propagate by template-directed misfolding and aggregation of normal cellular prion related protein PrPC as it converts into disease-associated conformers collectively referred to as PrPSc. Mammalian species may be permissive for prion disease because these hosts have co-evolved specific co-factors that assist PrPC conformational change and prion propagation. We have tested this hypothesis by examining whether faithful prion propagation occurs in the normally PrPC-null invertebrate host Drosophila melanogaster. Read More
Prion 2018 5;12(3-4):185-196. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
a College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University , Xi'an , Shaanxi , China.
Studies of the ovine prion-related protein (testis-specific) gene (PRNT), including studies of genetic diversity, have highlighted its potential relationship to scrapie infection and economically important ovine traits. PRNT was previously reported to be highly polymorphic in Portuguese sheep. To characterize genetic polymorphisms in this gene in Asian sheep, a direct sequencing method was used to detect polymorphic loci in PRNT in 285 individual sheep from four Chinese and one Mongolian breeds. Read More
Vet Rec 2018 06 17;182(25):717. Epub 2018 Apr 17.
Department of Bioactive Material Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, Republicof Korea.
Prion diseases are caused by structural changes in normal prion protein (PrP). The prion gene family includes four members: prion protein (), prion-like protein (), shadow of () and prion-related protein (). Genetic association studies of prion diseases and the other genes in the prion gene family, except for , have been performed in cattle. Read More
Cell Rep 2018 Jan;22(1):59-71
Department of Neuroscience, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Psychiatry, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute at Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Kavli Institute for Brain Science, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address:
Stress granules are non-membranous structures that transiently form in the cytoplasm during cellular stress, where they promote translational repression of non-essential RNAs and modulate cell signaling by sequestering key signal transduction proteins. These and other functions of stress granules facilitate an adaptive cellular response to environmental adversity. A key component of stress granules is the prion-related RNA-binding protein, T cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1). Read More
J Comput Aided Mol Des 2017 Dec 20;31(12):1053-1062. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry and Department of Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, People's Republic of China.
Conformational conversion of the normal cellular prion protein, PrP, into the misfolded isoform, PrP, is considered to be a central event in the development of fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Stabilization of prion protein at the normal cellular form (PrP) with small molecules is a rational and efficient strategy for treatment of prion related diseases. However, few compounds have been identified as potent prion inhibitors by binding to the normal conformation of prion. Read More
Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Apr 9;75(8):1445-1459. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland.
Hsp70 is a highly conserved chaperone that in addition to providing essential cellular functions and aiding in cell survival following exposure to a variety of stresses is also a key modulator of prion propagation. Hsp70 is composed of a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and substrate-binding domain (SBD). The key functions of Hsp70 are tightly regulated through an allosteric communication network that coordinates ATPase activity with substrate-binding activity. Read More
Chem Sci 2017 Sep 24;8(9):6626-6632. Epub 2017 Jul 24.
Institute of Biological Chemistry , Department of Chemistry , University of Vienna , Waehringer Strasse 38 , 1090 , Vienna-AT , Austria . Email:
The prion protein (PrP) is an -glycosylated protein attached to the outer leaflet of eukaryotic cell membranes a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Different prion strains have distinct glycosylation patterns and the extent of glycosylation of potentially pathogenic misfolded prion protein (PrP) has a major impact on several prion-related diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, TSEs). Based on these findings it is hypothesized that posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of PrP influence conversion of cellular prion protein (PrP) into PrP and, as such, modified PrP variants are critical tools needed to investigate the impact of PTMs on the pathogenesis of TSEs. Read More
J Vet Sci 2018 Jan;19(1):3-12
Department of Avian Infectious Diseases, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Shanghai 200241, China.
T-cell internal antigen-1 (TIA-1) has roles in regulating alternative pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA translation, and stress granule (SG) formation in human cells. As an evolutionarily conserved response to environmental stress, SGs have been reported in various species. However, SG formation in chicken cells and the role of chicken TIA-1 (cTIA-1) in SG assembly has not been elucidated. Read More
Acta Vet Hung 2017 06;65(2):291-300
Korea Zoonosis Research Institute, Chonbuk National University , 820-120, Hana-ro, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-390 , Republic of Korea.
Prion protein is encoded by the prion protein gene (PRNP). Polymorphisms of several members of the prion gene family have shown association with prion diseases in several species. Recent studies on a novel member of the prion gene family in rams have shown that prion-related protein gene (PRNT) has a linkage with codon 26 of prion-like protein (PRND). Read More
Prion 2017 03;11(2):143-150
a College of Animal Science and Technology , Northwest A&F University , Yangling , China.
Prion-related protein doppel gene (PRND), as an essential member of the mammalian prion gene family, is associated with the scrapie susceptibility as well as phenotype traits, so the genetic variation of the PRND has been highly concerned recently, including the single nucleiotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (indel). Therefore, the objective of present study was to examine the possible indel variants by mathematical expectation (ME) detection method as well as explore its associations with phenotype traits. A novel 20-bp indel was verified in 623 tested individuals representing 4 diversity sheep breeds. Read More
Cell Death Dis 2017 03 16;8(3):e2668. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
Ilsong Institute of Life Science, Hallym University, Anyang, Republic of Korea.
The cellular prion protein (PrP) is a highly conserved glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein that is involved in the signal transduction during the initial phase of neurite outgrowth. The Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) is a small GTPase that is known to have an essential role in regulating the development, differentiation, survival, and death of neurons in the central nervous system. Although recent studies have shown the dysregulation of RhoA in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, the role of RhoA in prion pathogenesis remains unclear. Read More
Curr Mol Med 2017 ;17(1):13-23
Institute of Biomedical Sciences (Sector A, Second Floor), Universidad de Chile, Independencia 1027, Santiago, P.O. Box 70031. Chile.
More than thirty years have passed since the discovery of the prion protein (PrP) and its causative role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathy. Since a combination of both gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms may underlay prion pathogenesis, understanding the physiological role of PrP may give important clues about disease mechanisms. Historically, the primary strategy for prion research has involved the use of human tissue, cell cultures and mammalian animal models. Read More
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2017 May 1;9(5). Epub 2017 May 1.
Department of Neuroscience, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, New York 10032.
Prions are self-propagating protein conformations that are traditionally regarded as agents of neurodegenerative disease in animals. However, it has become evident that prion-like aggregation of endogenous proteins can also occur under normal physiological conditions (e.g. Read More
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2016 11 29;480(4):734-740. Epub 2016 Oct 29.
Laboratory of Immunology and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
The conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP) to the protease-resistant isoform is the key event in chronic neurodegenerative diseases, including transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Increased iron in prion-related disease has been observed due to the prion protein-ferritin complex. Additionally, the accumulation and conversion of recombinant PrP (rPrP) is specifically derived from Fe(III) but not Fe(II). Read More
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2017 Mar 1;7(3). Epub 2017 Mar 1.
Department of Neurochemistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Seiryo-cho, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575, Japan.
Although an effective therapy for prion disease has not yet been established, many advances have been made toward understanding its pathogenesis, which has facilitated research into therapeutics for the disease. Several compounds, including flupirtine, quinacrine, pentosan polysulfate, and doxycycline, have recently been used on a trial basis for patients with prion disease. Concomitantly, several lead antiprion compounds, including compound B (compB), IND series, and anle138b, have been discovered. Read More
J Cell Biol 2016 Nov;215(3):313-323
Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115
The accumulation of stalled translation preinitiation complexes (PICs) mediates the condensation of stress granules (SGs). Interactions between prion-related domains and intrinsically disordered protein regions found in SG-nucleating proteins promote the condensation of ribonucleoproteins into SGs. We propose that PIC components, especially 40S ribosomes and mRNA, recruit nucleators that trigger SG condensation. Read More
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2017 02 28;483(4):1148-1155. Epub 2016 Aug 28.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Via Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy; C.N.R. Institute of Neuroscience, University of Padova, Via Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy. Electronic address:
Prions are one of the few pathogens whose name is renowned at all population levels, after the dramatic years pervaded by the fear of eating prion-infected food. If now this, somehow irrational, scare of bovine meat inexorably transmitting devastating brain disorders is largely subdued, several prion-related issues are still unsolved, precluding the design of therapeutic approaches that could slow, if not halt, prion diseases. One unsolved issue is, for example, the role of the prion protein (PrP), whole conformational misfolding originates the prion but whose physiologic reason d'etre in neurons, and in cells at large, remains enigmatic. Read More
PLoS One 2016 25;11(5):e0155924. Epub 2016 May 25.
Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4467, United States of America.
Previous investigations aimed at determining whether the mammalian prion protein actually facilitates tangible molecular aspects of either a discrete or pleiotropic functional niche have been debated, especially given the apparent absence of overt behavioral or physiological phenotypes associated with several mammalian prion gene (PRNP) knockout experiments. Moreover, a previous evaluation of PRNP knockout cattle concluded that they were normal, suggesting that the bovine prion protein is physiologically dispensable. Herein, we examined the frequency and distribution of nucleotide sequence variation within the coding regions of bovine PRNP and the adjacent Doppel (PRND) gene, a proximal paralogue to PRNP on BTA13. Read More
Data Brief 2016 Jun 4;7:1643-51. Epub 2016 May 4.
Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA; Cardiovascular Pharmacology Division, Cardiovascular Institute, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
Protein misfolding and aggregation are responsible for a large number of diseases called protein conformational diseases or disorders that include Alzheimer׳s disease, Huntington׳s diseases, Prion related encephalopathies and type-II diabetes (http://dx.doi.org/10. Read More
Ultramicroscopy 2016 06 30;165:26-33. Epub 2016 Mar 30.
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986025 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, United States. Electronic address:
Aggregation of prion proteins is the cause of various prion related diseases. The infectious form of prions, amyloid aggregates, exist as multiple strains. The strains are thought to represent structurally different prion protein molecules packed into amyloid aggregates, but the knowledge on the structure of different types of aggregates is limited. Read More
J Alzheimers Dis 2016 ;51(3):637-56
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, Brno, Czech Republic.
Prion and other amyloid-forming diseases represent a group of neurodegenerative disorders that affect both animals and humans. The role of metal ions, especially copper and zinc is studied intensively in connection with these diseases. Their involvement in protein misfolding and aggregation and their role in creation of reactive oxygen species have been shown. Read More
Prion 2016 ;10(1):50-6
a Biomedical Neuroscience Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile , Santiago , Chile.
Disturbance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis is observed in Prion-related disorders (PrDs). The protein disulfide isomerase ERp57 is a stress-responsive ER chaperone up-regulated in the brain of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients. However, the actual role of ERp57 in prion protein (PrP) biogenesis and the ER stress response remained poorly defined. Read More
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2015 Dec;21(6 Neuroinfectious Disease):1612-38
Purpose Of Review: This article presents an update on the clinical aspects of human prion disease, including the wide spectrum of their presentations.
Recent Findings: Prion diseases, a group of disorders caused by abnormally shaped proteins called prions, occur in sporadic (Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease), genetic (genetic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia), and acquired (kuru, variant Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, and iatrogenic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease) forms. This article presents updated information on the clinical features and diagnostic methods for human prion diseases. Read More
Anim Genet 2016 Feb 5;47(1):128-32. Epub 2015 Nov 5.
INIAV, Quinta da Fonte Boa, 2005-048, Vale de Santarém, Portugal.
The objective of this study was to search for polymorphisms in the ovine prion-related protein (testis-specific) gene (PRNT). Sampling included 567 sheep from eight Portuguese breeds. The PRNT gene-coding region was analyzed by single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing, allowing the identification of the first ovine PRNT polymorphisms, in codons 6, 38, 43 and 48: c. Read More
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015 Oct 14;466(3):486-92. Epub 2015 Sep 14.
Department of Mechanical Engineering Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:
Pathological amyloid proteins have been implicated in neuro-degenerative diseases, specifically Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Lewy-body diseases and prion related diseases. In prion related diseases, functional tau proteins can be transformed into pathological agents by environmental factors, including oxidative stress, inflammation, Aβ-mediated toxicity and covalent modification. These pathological agents are stable under physiological conditions and are not easily degraded. Read More
Oncotarget 2015 Sep;6(28):24660-74
Biosafety Research Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Korea.
Activation of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAchR) is regulated by prion protein (PrPC) expression and has a neuroprotective effect by modulating autophagic flux. In this study, we hypothesized that PrPC may regulate α7nAchR activation and that may prevent prion-related neurodegenerative diseases by regulating autophagic flux. PrP(106-126) treatment decreased α7nAchR expression and activation of autophagic flux. Read More
Neurochem Int 2015 Nov 8;90:152-65. Epub 2015 Aug 8.
Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:
Protein misfolding, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are common pathomechanisms that underlie neurodegenerative diseases. In prion disease, central to these processes is the post-translational transformation of cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) to the aberrant conformationally altered isoform; PrP(Sc). This can trigger oxidative reactions and impair mitochondrial function by increasing levels of peroxynitrite, causing damage through formation of hydroxyl radicals or via nitration of tyrosine residues on proteins. Read More
J Biol Chem 2015 Sep 13;290(39):23631-45. Epub 2015 Jul 13.
From the Biomedical Neuroscience Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago 8380453, Chile, the Program of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, University of Chile, Santiago 8380453, Chile, the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115
Although the accumulation of a misfolded and protease-resistant form of the prion protein (PrP) is a key event in prion pathogenesis, the cellular factors involved in its folding and quality control are poorly understood. PrP is a glycosylated and disulfide-bonded protein synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER foldase ERp57 (also known as Grp58) is highly expressed in the brain of sporadic and infectious forms of prion-related disorders. Read More
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2015 ;14(4):518-33
Institute of Physiology - Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra & CNC - Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal.
Neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and prion-related diseases) have in common the presence of protein aggregates in specific brain areas where significant neuronal loss is detected. Read More
J Mol Neurosci 2015 Aug 22;56(4):966-976. Epub 2015 Apr 22.
State Key Laboratories for Agrobiotechnology, Key Lab of Animal Epidemiology and Zoonosis, Ministry of Agriculture, National Animal Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.
Axonal degeneration is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders including transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE). However, the full complement of axonal degeneration triggers is not fully understood. In an in vitro prion model, we observed that treatment of rat spinal neurons with the prion peptide, PrP106-126, activated death receptor 6 (DR6, also known as TNFRSF21), caspase-6, caspase-3, and induced axonal degeneration. Read More
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2015 May 25;62:24-35. Epub 2015 Feb 25.
State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chang-Bai Rd 155, Beijing 102206, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003, China; Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:
Polo-like kinases (PLKs) family has long been known to be critical for cell cycle and recent studies have pointed to new dimensions of PLKs function in the nervous system. Our previous study has verified that the levels of PLK3 in the brain are severely downregulated in prion-related diseases. However, the associations of PLKs with prion protein remain unclear. Read More
Apoptosis 2015 May;20(5):621-34
Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena 324, 00161, Rome, Italy.
Lipid rafts are envisaged as lateral assemblies of specific lipids and proteins that dissociate and associate rapidly and form functional clusters in cell membranes. These structural platforms are not confined to the plasma membrane; indeed lipid microdomains are similarly formed at subcellular organelles, which include endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi and mitochondria, named raft-like microdomains. In addition, some components of raft-like microdomains are present within ER-mitochondria associated membranes. Read More
Virus Res 2015 Sep 31;207:69-75. Epub 2014 Dec 31.
Biomedical Neuroscience Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Center for Molecular Studies of the Cell, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; Neurounion Biomedical Foundation, Santiago, Chile; Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, USA. Electronic address:
Alzheimer's and Prion diseases are two neurodegenerative conditions sharing different pathophysiological characteristics. Disease symptoms are associated with the abnormal accumulation of protein aggregates, which are generated by the misfolding and oligomerization of specific proteins. Recent functional studies uncovered a key role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the occurrence of synaptic dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Prion-related disorders and Alzheimer's disease. Read More
J Pineal Res 2014 Nov 16;57(4):427-34. Epub 2014 Oct 16.
Bio-Safety Research Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, South Korea.
Activation of β-catenin in neurons regulates mitochondrial function and protects against protein misfolding disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. Melatonin, a natural secretory product of the pineal gland, exerts neuroprotective effects through the activation of β-catenin. In this study, melatonin increased β-catenin protein expression and activation in human neuroblastoma cell lines SH-SY5Y cells. Read More
Biosens Bioelectron 2015 May 20;67:256-62. Epub 2014 Aug 20.
Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan; Institute for Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, Waseda University, 513 Waseda-tsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041, Japan. Electronic address:
Simple and accurate detection of prion proteins in biological samples is of utmost importance in recent years. In this study, we developed a label-free electrical detection-based field effect transistor (FET) biosensor using thiamine as a probe molecule for a non-invasive and specific test of human prion protein detection. We found that thiamine-immobilized FETs can be used to observe the prion protein oligomer, and might be a significant test for the early diagnosis of prion-related diseases. Read More
J Alzheimers Dis 2014 ;42(3):833-9
Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Department of Neurology, Washington, DC, USA Department of Neurology, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.
Background: Prion diseases are rapidly progressive neurodegenerative diseases that frequently mimic other forms of dementia making them difficult to diagnose.
Objective: To explore factors associated with the initial diagnoses of cases later determined to be caused by prion disease in an attempt to recognize key clinical variables that impact the timely diagnosis of prion disease.
Methods: A retrospective chart review performed at Johns Hopkins Medicine and the Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System (1995-2008) was conducted. Read More
Eur J Neurosci 2014 Aug 26;40(3):2479-86. Epub 2014 Apr 26.
Departamento de Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, UFSC, Florianópolis, Brazil; Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Rua Larga University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal.
Cellular prion protein (PrP(C) ) is widely expressed in the brain. Although the precise role of PrP(C) remains uncertain, it has been proposed to be a pivotal modulator of neuroplasticity events by regulating the glutamatergic and serotonergic systems. Here we report the existence of neurochemical and functional interactions between PrP(C) and the dopaminergic system. Read More
Prion 2014 Jan-Feb;8(1):143-53
Prion diseases are infectious and inevitably fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by prion replication, widespread protein aggregation and spongiform degeneration of major brain regions controlling motor function. Oxidative stress has been implicated in prion-related neuronal degeneration, but the molecular mechanisms underlying prion-induced oxidative damage are not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the role of oxidative stress-sensitive, pro-apoptotic protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) in prion-induced neuronal cell death using cerebellar organotypic slice cultures (COSC) and mouse models of prion diseases. Read More
J Neurophysiol 2014 May 19;111(10):1927-39. Epub 2014 Feb 19.
Neuroscience Department, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut;
Mice with a single copy of the peptide amidating monooxygenase (Pam) gene (PAM(+/-)) are impaired in contextual and cued fear conditioning. These abnormalities coincide with deficient long-term potentiation (LTP) at excitatory thalamic afferent synapses onto pyramidal neurons in the lateral amygdala. Slice recordings from PAM(+/-) mice identified an increase in GABAergic tone (Gaier ED, Rodriguiz RM, Ma XM, Sivaramakrishnan S, Bousquet-Moore D, Wetsel WC, Eipper BA, Mains RE. Read More
Prion 2014 Mar-Apr;8(2). Epub 2014 Feb 18.
Department of Biology; McGill University; Montreal, QC Canada.
The universe of prion and prion-like phenomena has expanded significantly in the past several years. Here, we overview the challenges in classifying this data informatically, given that terms such as "prion-like", "prion-related" or "prion-forming" do not have a stable meaning in the scientific literature. We examine the spectrum of proteins that have been described in the literature as forming prions, and discuss how "prion" can have a range of meaning, with a strict definition being for demonstration of infection with in vitro-derived recombinant prions. Read More
Semin Neurol 2013 Sep 14;33(4):348-56. Epub 2013 Nov 14.
Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology Unit, Department of Neurology, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Prion diseases are a group of diseases caused by abnormally conformed infectious proteins, called prions. They can be sporadic (Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease [JCD]), genetic (genetic JCD, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker, and familial fatal insomnia), or acquired (kuru, variant JCD, and iatrogenic JCD). The clinical features associated with each form of prion disease, the neuroimaging findings, cerebrospinal fluid markers, and neuropathological findings are reviewed. Read More
Curr Alzheimer Res 2014 Jan;11(1):69-78
National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.
Amyloid oligomers have a critical function in the pathologic processes of various amyloidoses, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), Huntington's disease, prion-related diseases, type 2 diabetes, and hereditary renal amyloidosis. Our previous reports demonstrated that a conformation-dependent oligomer-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, W20, isolated from a naïve human scFv library, can recognize oligomers assembled from α-synuclein, amylin, insulin, Aβ40/42, prion peptide 106-126, and lysozyme, inhibit the aggregation of various amyloid, and attenuate amyloid oligomer-induced cytotoxicity In vitro. Furthermore, W20 recognized the amyloid oligomers in all types of plaques, Lewy bodies, and amylin deposits in the brain tissues of AD and PD patients and in the pancreas of type 2 diabetes patients. Read More
Minn Med 2013 May;96(5):46-9
University of Minnesota, USA.
Rapidly progressive dementia is a neurological condition that results in subacute deterioration in cognitive, behavioral and motor function. The most serious diagnosis for a patient with rapidly progressive dementia is Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), a prion-related illness that typically results in death within one year. However, there are numerous autoimmune, infectious and toxic-metabolic causes of rapidly progressive dementia that are potentially reversible with treatment. Read More
Neurol Neurochir Pol 2013 Mar-Apr;47(2):161-9
Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii, II Klinika Neurologii, ul. Sobieskiego 9, 02-957 Warszawa.
Wilson disease (WD) is a genetic disorder with copper metabolism disturbances leading to copper accumulation in many organs with their secondary damage. It is caused by mutation in the ATP7B gene on chromosome 13, which encodes ATP-ase 7B involved in copper transport. The age of neurologic symptom onset in WD is 20-30 years, but there is a wide spectrum of disease including: age at onset, clinical signs and treatment efficacy. Read More
Neurol India 2013 Mar-Apr;61(2):107-10
Department of Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) typically commences in a discrete location in a limb or bulbar territory muscles and then spreads to the adjacent anatomical regions. This pattern is consistent with a contiguous spread of the disease process in motor neuron network resulting in progressive motor weakness. The etiology of ALS onset and the mechanism of the regional ALS spread remain elusive. Read More
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2013 Jun 26;45(6):503-8. Epub 2013 Mar 26.
State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China.
Amyloid fibrils play causal roles in the pathogenesis of amyloid-related degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, type II diabetes mellitus, and the prion-related transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The mechanism of fibril formation and protein aggregation is still hotly debated and remains an important open question in order to develop therapeutic method of these diseases. However, traditional molecular biological and crystallographic experiments could hardly observe atomic details and aggregation process. Read More
Vet Res 2013 Mar 11;44:14. Epub 2013 Mar 11.
Centro de Investigación en Encefalopatías y Enfermedades Transmisibles Emergentes, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
The molecular pathogenic mechanisms of prion diseases are far from clear. Genomic analyses have revealed genetic biomarkers potentially involved in prion neuropathology in naturally scrapie-infected sheep, a good animal model of infectious prionopathies. However, these biomarkers must be validated in independent studies at different stages of the disease. Read More