5,612 results match your criteria Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors of the Central Nervous System

Effects of hCG on DA neuronal death of Parkinson's disease.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Aug 30;617(Pt 2):41-47. Epub 2022 May 30.

The First Affiliated Hospital (School of Clinical Medicine), Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, 510080, China. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, with the incidence in men being about twice as compared to women. Gender differences may provide clues for finding key targets that mediate the death of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in PD. Luteinizing hormone (LH), analog of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and their receptor, luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR), are associated with the pathogenesis of PD. Read More

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Three dimensional reconstruction of the mouse cerebellum in Hedgehog-driven medulloblastoma models to identify Norrin-dependent effects on preneoplasia.

Commun Biol 2022 Jun 9;5(1):569. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Donald K. Johnson Eye Institute, Krembil Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5T 2S8, Canada.

Spontaneous mouse models of medulloblastoma (MB) offer a tractable system to study malignant progression in the brain. Mouse Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-MB tumours first appear at postnatal stages as preneoplastic changes on the surface of the cerebellum, the external granule layer (EGL). Here we compared traditional histology and 3DISCO tissue clearing in combination with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to identify and quantify preneoplastic changes induced by disrupting stromal Norrin/Frizzled 4 (Fzd4) signalling, a potent tumour inhibitory signal in two mouse models of spontaneous Shh-MB. Read More

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Myricetin improves cognitive function in SAMP8 mice and upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2022 Aug 20;616:33-40. Epub 2022 May 20.

Division of Applied Biological Chemistry, Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: Considering that neurodegeneration is an irreversible process, an efficient, low-burden approach to prevent dementia is strongly needed. Here, we show that the daily intake of myricetin normalised cognitive dysfunction in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice.

Methods: SAMP8 mice were fed a diet supplemented with myricetin and novel object recognition tests and Y-maze tests were performed. Read More

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Neuroblastoma: Essential genetic pathways and current therapeutic options.

Eur J Pharmacol 2022 Jul 20;926:175030. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Pharmacy, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, 23200, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Neuroblastoma is a very diverse pediatric tumor that starts from the neural crest, and it is responsible over more than 15% of all juvenile cancer deaths. Clinical signs and symptoms are highly dependent on tumor origin and spread. Bone, lymph nodes, liver, intracranial and orbital tissues, lungs, and the central nervous system are frequently involved in metastatic neuroblastoma. Read More

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Molecular pathological insights reveal a high number of unfavorable risk patients among children treated for medulloblastoma and CNS-PNET in Oslo 2005-2017.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022 May 15:e29736. Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: An unexplained regional difference in survival was observed in previous publications on outcome for children treated for medulloblastoma and supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS-PNET) in Norway. We aimed now to reevaluate and perform a retrospective molecular-based risk stratification of all embryonal brain tumors (excluding atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors [ATRT]) in pediatric patients, who underwent surgery and treatment at Oslo University Hospital between 2005 and 2017.

Procedure: Specimens from all patients <20 years of age with initial diagnosis of medulloblastoma or CNS-PNET were reviewed. Read More

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Embryonal tumors in the WHO CNS5 classification: A Review.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2022 May;65(Supplement):S73-S82

Department of Radiological, Oncological and Anatomo-pathological Sciences, University Sapienza of Rome, Rome; IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS), Italy.

Embryonal tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms mostly defined by recurrent genetic driver events. They have been, previously, broadly classified as either medulloblastoma or supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs). However, the application of DNA methylation/gene expression profiling in large series of neoplasms histologically defined as PNET, revealed tumors, which showed genetic events associated with glial tumors. Read More

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Ubiquitin-Specific Protease 2 in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Modifies Blood Glucose Levels by Controlling Sympathetic Nervous Activation.

J Neurosci 2022 Jun 3;42(23):4607-4618. Epub 2022 May 3.

Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu 0698501, Japan

Ubiquitin-specific protease 2 (USP2) participates in glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscles. However, the glucoregulatory role of USP2 in the CNS is not well known. In this study, we focus on USP2 in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), which has dominant control over systemic glucose homeostasis. Read More

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Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes in a teenager.

Autops Case Rep 2022 14;12:e2021373. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Department of Pathology, Cape Coast, Ghana.

Background: Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes (ETMR), NOS/C19MC- altered, is a rare and recently classified highly aggressive malignant brain tumor in the 2021 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the central nervous system 5 edition. They are mostly diagnosed in children before the age of three years. Most of them are located in the supratentorial region. Read More

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Resilin, an insect-derived elastomeric protein, protects dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease models.

Neurosci Lett 2022 06 28;781:136667. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Herbal Medicine Resources Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, 111 Geonjae-ro, Naju-si, Jeollanam-do 58245, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Parkinson disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by motor and behavioral disturbances, including resting tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. The primary cause of PD is the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region that subsequently reduces the dopamine content in the striatum (ST); this is a promising therapeutic target for PD. Resilin is an elastomeric protein with high strain, low stiffness, and high resilience that is found in insect cuticles. Read More

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Macrophage-based delivery of interleukin-13 improves functional and histopathological outcomes following spinal cord injury.

J Neuroinflammation 2022 Apr 29;19(1):102. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Immunology and Infection, Biomedical Research Institute, Hasselt University, 3590, Diepenbeek, Belgium.

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) elicits a robust neuroinflammatory reaction which, in turn, exacerbates the initial mechanical damage. Pivotal players orchestrating this response are macrophages (Mφs) and microglia. After SCI, the inflammatory environment is dominated by pro-inflammatory Mφs/microglia, which contribute to secondary cell death and prevent regeneration. Read More

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What is your diagnosis? Cerebellar tumor in a dog.

Vet Clin Pathol 2022 06 25;51(2):283-285. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Département de Pathologie et Microbiologie, Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada.

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Reversal of genetic brain iron accumulation by N,N'-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide, a lipophilic metal chelator, in mice.

Arch Toxicol 2022 Jul 21;96(7):1951-1962. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Biomedical and Nutritional Sciences, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA.

N,N'-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide (NBMI) is a novel lipophilic metal chelator and antioxidant used in mercury poisoning. Recent studies have suggested that NBMI may also bind to other metals such as lead and iron. Since NBMI can enter the brain, we evaluated if NBMI removes excess iron from the iron-loaded brain and ameliorates iron-induced oxidative stress. Read More

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Taste and smell function in long-term survivors after childhood medulloblastoma/CNS-PNET.

Support Care Cancer 2022 Jul 15;30(7):6155-6162. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Dep. of Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: To investigate taste and smell function in survivors, with a minimum of 2 years since treatment of childhood medulloblastoma (MB)/central nervous system supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS-PNET).

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 40 survivors treated ≤ 20 years of age. Taste strips with four concentrations of sweet, sour, salt, and bitter were used to assess taste function in all participants. Read More

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Novel cyclic C-curcuminoids penetrating the blood-brain barrier: Design, synthesis and antiproliferative activity against astrocytoma and neuroblastoma cells.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2022 Jun 10;173:106184. Epub 2022 Apr 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

Novel series of cyclic C-curcuminoids 17a-j and 19-22 were prepared as cytotoxic agents and evaluated against human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) or human grade IV astrocytoma (CCF-STTG1) cell lines in low (∼0.1 nM - 10 nM) concentrations. Among the tested 21 derivatives, 16 displayed potent antiproliferative activity with IC values in the low nanomolar to picomolar range (IC = 7. Read More

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Patient-Derived Xenotransplant of CNS Neoplasms in Zebrafish: A Systematic Review.

Cells 2022 04 2;11(7). Epub 2022 Apr 2.

School of Medicine, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá 11711, Colombia.

Glioblastoma and neuroblastoma are the most common central nervous system malignant tumors in adult and pediatric populations. Both are associated with poor survival. These tumors are highly heterogeneous, having complex interactions among different cells within the tumor and with the tumor microenvironment. Read More

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Enhancement of blood-brain barrier penetration and the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol.

J Control Release 2022 Jun 6;346:1-19. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

College of Pharmacy, Keimyung University, 1095 Dalgubeol-daero, Dalseo-Gu, Daegu 42601, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative condition characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. The specific molecular mechanisms through which PD-associated neuronal loss occurs remain unclear, and there is no available effective treatment against PD-related neurodegeneration. Resveratrol (RSV) has exhibited promising neuroprotective effects via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Read More

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Global variation in young adult central nervous system tumor incidence by region, age, and sex from 1988 to 2012.

Cancer Epidemiol 2022 Jun 5;78:102151. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States; Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States; Brain Tumor Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) tumors result in tremendous morbidity and mortality. Incidence of CNS tumors in young adults is less studied. It is unknown how young adult CNS tumor incidence has changed globally in recent decades. Read More

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Neuroprotective Effect of Luteolin-7-O-Glucoside against 6-OHDA-Induced Damage in Undifferentiated and RA-Differentiated SH-SY5Y Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Mar 8;23(6). Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Cell Culture Laboratory, Graduate Program in Biotechnology, University of Vale do Taquari (Univates), Lajeado 95914-014, RS, Brazil.

Luteolin is one of the most common flavonoids present in edible plants and its potential benefits to the central nervous system include decrease of microglia activation, neuronal damage and high antioxidant properties. The aim of this research was to evaluate the neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of luteolin-7-O-glucoside (Lut7). Undifferentiated and retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with Lut7 and incubated with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Read More

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Anti-GD2 Directed Immunotherapy for High-Risk and Metastatic Neuroblastoma.

Biomolecules 2022 02 24;12(3). Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 7BH, UK.

Neuroblastoma is one of the few childhood cancers that carries a tumor-specific antigen in the form of a glycolipid antigen known as GD2. It has restricted expression in normal tissue, such as peripheral afferent nerves. Monoclonal antibodies targeting GD2 have been applied clinically to high-risk neuroblastoma with significant success. Read More

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February 2022

Conventional Therapies Deplete Brain-Infiltrating Adaptive Immune Cells in a Mouse Model of Group 3 Medulloblastoma Implicating Myeloid Cells as Favorable Immunotherapy Targets.

Front Immunol 2022 3;13:837013. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Centre for Child Health Research, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Medulloblastoma is the most common childhood brain cancer. Mainstay treatments of radiation and chemotherapy have not changed in decades and new treatment approaches are crucial for the improvement of clinical outcomes. To date, immunotherapies for medulloblastoma have been unsuccessful, and studies investigating the immune microenvironment of the disease and the impact of current therapies are limited. Read More

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Long noncoding RNA LINC01296 regulates the cell proliferation, migration and invasion in neuroblastoma.

Metab Brain Dis 2022 04 19;37(4):1247-1258. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Arts and Science, No.2, Chunyuandong Road, Fancheng District, Xiangyang, 441000, China.

Neuroblastoma (NB) is a childhood cancer that often occurs in the sympathetic nervous system. Previous reports showed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) could affect the progress of NB, but the mechanism is still indistinct. In this study, we unfolded the roles of LINC01296 in NB tissues and cells. Read More

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Targeted Analysis of Cell-free Circulating Tumor DNA is Suitable for Early Relapse and Actionable Target Detection in Patients with Neuroblastoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2022 May;28(9):1809-1820

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: Treating refractory or relapsed neuroblastoma remains challenging. Monitoring body fluids for tumor-derived molecular information indicating minimal residual disease supports more frequent diagnostic surveillance and may have the power to detect resistant subclones before they give rise to relapses. If actionable targets are identified from liquid biopsies, targeted treatment options can be considered earlier. Read More

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CERKL alleviates ischemia reperfusion-induced nervous system injury through modulating the SIRT1/PINK1/Parkin pathway and mitophagy induction.

Biol Chem 2022 06 2;403(7):691-701. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Department of Neurology Cangzhou Central Hospital, No. 16 Xinhua Western Road, Cangzhou 061000, Hebei, China.

Recent studies showed that Ceramide Kinase-Like Protein (CERKL)was expressed in the nerve cells and could regulate autophagy. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is the regulator of the mitophagy, which can be stabilized by CERKL. Furthermore, the study also revealed that the SIRT1 induced mitophagy by activating PINK1/Parkin signaling. Read More

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Medulloblastoma cerebrospinal fluid reveals metabolites and lipids indicative of hypoxia and cancer-specific RNAs.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2022 02 24;10(1):25. Epub 2022 Feb 24.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, 1650 Orleans St, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA.

Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. There remains an unmet need for diagnostics to sensitively detect the disease, particularly recurrences. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides a window into the central nervous system, and liquid biopsy of CSF could provide a relatively non-invasive means for disease diagnosis. Read More

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February 2022

Pediatric neurological cancer incidence and trends in the United States, 2000-2018.

Cancer Causes Control 2022 May 22;33(5):687-699. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Department of Neurology and ICCTR Biostatistics and Research Design Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: To characterize the epidemiological trends and sociodemographic variation of pediatric and adolescent neurological cancers by histological subtypes over time in the USA.

Methods: A total of 16,511 patients aged 0-19 years diagnosed with neurological cancers between 2000 and 2018, including 13,024 with central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms and 3,487 with neuroblastomas, were identified from 18 registries of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Incidence trends over time and incidence rate ratios by race/ethnicity, sex, and age were calculated for histological subtype. Read More

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Evaluation and Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors (Non-Medulloblastoma).

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2022 Jan-Feb;25(1):34-45

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Since the 1990s, the sheer number of defined central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumor entities has continuously increased, with the trend accelerating in the most recent editions of the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours of the CNS. The introduction of increasingly specific tumor groups is an effort to create more internally homogeneous categories, to allow more precise prognostication, and potentially to develop targeted therapies. However, these ever-smaller categories within an already rare group of tumors pose a challenge for pediatric pathologists. Read More

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February 2022

Neuregulin-1 regulates the conversion of M1/M2 microglia phenotype via ErbB4-dependent inhibition of the NF-κB pathway.

Mol Biol Rep 2022 May 15;49(5):3975-3986. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Human Anatomy and Histoembryology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

Background: The inflammatory response caused by microglia in the central nervous system plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is a member of the neuregulin family and has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory properties. The relationship between NRG1, microglia phenotype and neuroinflammation remains unclear. Read More

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Omega-3 fatty acids decrease CRYAB, production of oncogenic prostaglandin E and suppress tumor growth in medulloblastoma.

Life Sci 2022 Apr 11;295:120394. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Childhood Cancer Research Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: Medulloblastoma (MB) is one of the most common malignant central nervous system tumors of childhood. Despite intensive treatments that often leads to severe neurological sequelae, the risk for resistant relapses remains significant. In this study we have evaluated the effects of the ω3-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on MB cell lines and in a MB xenograft model. Read More

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Electrochemical biosensing of circulating microRNA-21 in cerebrospinal fluid of medulloblastoma patients through target-induced redox signal amplification.

Mikrochim Acta 2022 02 14;189(3):105. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China.

Monitoring of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microRNAs (miRs) offers a promising option for the diagnosis and management of patients with central nervous system tumors. However, the sensitive detection of miRs in clinical CSF samples has been hindered by the ultra-low abundance of target miRs. Here, we report an electrochemical biosensor for the highly sensitive label-free detection of CSF miR-21 relying on target-induced redox signal amplification (eTIRSA). Read More

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February 2022

Transcriptome of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in response to 2B protein of enterovirus-A71.

Sci Rep 2022 02 2;12(1):1765. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, 12120, Thailand.

Infection with enterovirus-A71 (EV-A71) can cause hand-foot-mouth disease associated with fatal neurological complications. The host response to EV-A71 has not yet been fully elucidated, thus, hampering the development of a precise therapeutic approach. A nonstructural 2B protein of EV-A71 has been reported to involve with calcium dysregulation and apoptosis induction in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Read More

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February 2022