32,325 results match your criteria Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors


Human paleoneurology: shaping cortical evolution in fossil hominids.

Authors:
Emiliano Bruner

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana, Spain.

Evolutionary neuroanatomy must integrate two different sources of information, namely from fossil and from living species. Fossils supply information concerning the process of evolution, while living species supply information on the product of evolution. Unfortunately, the fossil record is partial and fragmented, and often cannot support validations for specific evolutionary hypotheses. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Clival Chondroid Chordoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Cureus 2018 Sep 28;10(9):e3381. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Teodoro Maldonado Carbo / Universidad Catolica De Santiago De Guayaquil, Guayaquil, ECU.

Chordomas are rare, slow-growing, and locally aggressive malignant neoplasms derived from primitive notochord remnants. The chondroid variety represents 14% of all chordomas mainly developing in the spheno-occipital region and presenting between the third and fifth decades of life. When developing intracranially, symptoms can range from headaches and neck pain to cranial nerve neuropathies and facial numbness. Read More

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September 2018

Comprehensive Review of Spinal Neurenteric Cysts with a Focus on Histopathological Findings.

Cureus 2018 Sep 28;10(9):e3379. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Neurosurgery, Seattle Science Foundation, Seattle, USA.

Among the occult spinal dysraphisms, neurenteric cysts (NECs) are rare and are thought to arise due to a failure of the separation of the primitive endoderm and ectoderm. Patients experience various neurological symptoms depending on the location of the lesion. As the epithelial morphology of NECs share similarities with other intracranial and intraspinal cystic growths, the definitive diagnosis of NEC can be made after a histochemical analysis with endodermal markers. Read More

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September 2018

Inner ear development in cyclostomes and evolution of the vertebrate semicircular canals.

Nature 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratory for Evolutionary Morphology, RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR), Kobe, Japan.

Jawed vertebrates have inner ears with three semicircular canals, the presence of which has been used as a key to understanding evolutionary relationships. Ostracoderms, the jawless stem gnathostomes, had only two canals and lacked the lateral canal. Lampreys, which are modern cyclostomes, are generally thought to possess two semicircular canals whereas the hagfishes-which are also cyclostomes-have only a single canal, which used to be regarded as a more primitive trait. Read More

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December 2018

Peribiliary glands are key in regeneration of the human biliary epithelium after severe bile duct injury.

Hepatology 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Section of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Department of Surgery, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Peribiliary glands (PBG) are a source of stem/progenitor cells organized in a cellular network encircling large bile ducts. Severe cholangiopathy with loss of luminal biliary epithelium has been proposed to activate PBG, resulting in cell proliferation and differentiation to restore biliary epithelial integrity. However, formal evidence for this concept in human livers is lacking. Read More

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December 2018

A unified continuum and variational multiscale formulation for fluids, solids, and fluid-structure interaction.

Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 2018 Aug 9;337:549-597. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Department of Pediatrics (Cardiology), Bioengineering, and Institute for Computational and Mathematical Engineering, Stanford University, Clark Center E1.3, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

We develop a unified continuum modeling framework using the Gibbs free energy as the thermodynamic potential. This framework naturally leads to a pressure primitive variable formulation for the continuum body, which is well-behaved in both compressible and incompressible regimes. Our derivation also provides a rational justification of the isochoric-volumetric additive split of free energies in nonlinear elasticity. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Bioreactor-based mass production of human iPSC-derived macrophages enables immunotherapies against bacterial airway infections.

Nat Commun 2018 Nov 30;9(1):5088. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

JRG Translational Hematology of Congenital Diseases, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

The increasing number of severe infections with multi-drug-resistant pathogens worldwide highlights the need for alternative treatment options. Given the pivotal role of phagocytes and especially alveolar macrophages in pulmonary immunity, we introduce a new, cell-based treatment strategy to target bacterial airway infections. Here we show that the mass production of therapeutic phagocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in industry-compatible, stirred-tank bioreactors is feasible. Read More

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November 2018
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Potential new approaches to the management of the Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome: the most severe form of α-thalassemia.

Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2018 Nov;2018(1):353-360

Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.

The α-thalassemia trait, associated with deletions removing both α-globin genes from 1 chromosome (genotype ζ αα/ζ--), is common throughout Southeast Asia. Consequently, many pregnancies in couples of Southeast Asian origin carry a 1 in 4 risk of producing a fetus inheriting no functional α-globin genes (ζ--/ζ--), leading to hemoglobin (Hb) Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome (BHFS). Expression of the embryonic α-globin genes (ζ-globin) is normally limited to the early stages of primitive erythropoiesis, and so when the ζ-globin genes are silenced, at ∼6 weeks of gestation, there should be no α-like globin chains to pair with the fetal γ-globin chains of Hb, which consequently form nonfunctional tetramers (γ) known as Hb Bart's. Read More

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November 2018

Nfe2 is dispensable for early but required for adult thrombocyte formation and function in zebrafish.

Blood Adv 2018 Dec;2(23):3418-3427

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

The NFE2 transcription factor is expressed in multiple hematopoietic lineages with a well-defined role in regulating megakaryocyte biogenesis and platelet production in mammals. Mice deficient in NFE2 develop severe thrombocytopenia with lethality resulting from neonatal hemorrhage. Recent data in mammals reveal potential differences in embryonic and adult thrombopoiesis. Read More

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December 2018

Hematopoiesis-supportive function of growth-arrested human adipose-tissue stromal cells under physiological hypoxia.

J Biosci Bioeng 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Cell Physiology Laboratory, Institute of Biomedical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Khoroshevskoye shosse, 76a, 123007 Moscow, Russia; Faculty of Basic Medicine, Moscow State University, Lomonosovsky Prospekt, 31-5, 117192 Moscow, Russia.

Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitors is considered as an attractive tool to increase the number of stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) for cell therapy. The efficacy of ex vivo expansion is strongly depends on the feeder cell activity to mimic hematopoietic microenvironment. Here we demonstrated, that combination of mitomycin C-induced growth arrest and tissue-related O (physiological hypoxia) modulated stromal capacity of adipose tissue derived stromal cells (ASCs). Read More

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November 2018

Spermatogenesis of the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera laevis (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae): A histological and ultrastructural study.

Tissue Cell 2018 Dec 25;55:39-45. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Sugadaira Research Station, Mountain Science Center, University of Tsukuba, Sugadaira Kogen, Ueda, Nagano, 386-2204, Japan.

Spermatogenesis in the freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera laevis was investigated using light and electron microscopy. The testes of M. laevis are composed of numerous acini. Read More

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December 2018

A new species of Simiolus from the middle Miocene of the Tugen Hills, Kenya.

J Hum Evol 2018 Dec 26;125:50-58. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Anthropology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

A new species of the "small-bodied ape" Simiolus is described here that extends the temporal range of the genus to the end of the Middle Miocene. As such, it is one of the few species of fossil primates known from East Africa during a time of significant change in which Old World monkeys and crown hominoids replaced the primitive ape-like primates that had dominated the early Miocene. The dynamics of this important event in our evolutionary history are obscured by the small number of fossil primates known from Africa between 14 and 6 million years ago, as well as persistent ambiguity regarding the phylogenetic status of the ape-like Miocene primates. Read More

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December 2018

Radiosurgery or hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy after craniospinal irradiation in children and adults with medulloblastoma and ependymoma.

Childs Nerv Syst 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Radiotherapy, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute - Oncology Center, Gliwice Branch, Ul. Wybrzeże AK 15, 44-101, Gliwice, Poland.

Purpose: To assess the results and tolerance of radiosurgery/hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy performed after craniospinal irradiation for recurrent tumor.

Methods: Fourteen patients aged 3-46 years, diagnosed with medulloblastoma (10), anaplastic ependymoma (3), and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (1). All patients had craniospinal irradiation (CSI) with the total dose of 30. Read More

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December 2018

Innate Immunity Cells and the Neurovascular Unit.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 3;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Health Sciences, University "Magna Græcia" of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.

Recent studies have clarified many still unknown aspects related to innate immunity and the blood-brain barrier relationship. They have also confirmed the close links between effector immune system cells, such as granulocytes, macrophages, microglia, natural killer cells and mast cells, and barrier functionality. The latter, in turn, is able to influence not only the entry of the cells of the immune system into the nervous tissue, but also their own activation. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical applications of feature-tracking cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

World J Cardiol 2018 Nov;10(11):210-221

NorthWest Cardiac Imaging Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M23 9LT, United Kingdom.

Cardiovascular diseases represent the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the western world. Assessment of cardiac function is pivotal for early diagnosis of primitive myocardial disorders, identification of cardiac involvement in systemic diseases, detection of drug-related cardiac toxicity as well as risk stratification and monitor of treatment effects in patients with heart failure of various etiology. Determination of ejection fraction with different imaging modalities currently represents the gold standard for evaluation of cardiac function. Read More

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November 2018
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Memory in Fungal Pathogens Promotes Immune Evasion, Colonisation, and Infection.

Trends Microbiol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Medical Research Council Centre for Medical Mycology at the University of Aberdeen, Institute of Medical Sciences, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK.

By analogy with Pavlov's dogs, certain pathogens have evolved anticipatory behaviours that exploit specific signals in the human host to prepare themselves against imminent host challenges. This adaptive prediction, a type of history-dependent microbial behaviour, represents a primitive form of microbial memory. For fungal pathogens, adaptive prediction helps them circumvent nutritional immunity, protects them against phagocytic killing, and activates immune evasion strategies. Read More

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November 2018

Arterial Identity Of Hemogenic Endothelium: A Key To Unlock Definitive Hematopoietic Commitment In hPSC Cultures.

Exp Hematol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin Graduate School, 1220 Capitol Court, Madison, WI 53715, USA.

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have been suggested as a potential source for the de novo production of blood cells for transfusion, immunotherapies and transplantation. However, even with advanced hematopoietic differentiation methods, the primitive and myeloid-restricted waves of hematopoiesis dominate in hPSC differentiation cultures while cell-surface markers to distinguish these waves of hematopoiesis from lympho-myeloid hematopoiesis remain unknown. In the embryo, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) arise from hemogenic endothelium (HE) lining arteries, but not veins. Read More

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November 2018

Molecular PET imaging in adaptive radiotherapy: brain.

Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018 Dec;62(4):337-348

Department of Radiation Therapy, Claudius Regaud Institute, Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse Oncopole, Toulouse, France -

Introduction: Owing to their heterogeneity and radioresistance, the prognosis of primitive brain tumors, which are mainly glial tumors, remains poor. Dose escalation in radioresistant areas is a potential issue for improving local control and overall survival. This review focuses on advances in biological and metabolic imaging of brain tumors that are proving to be essential for defining tumor target volumes in radiation therapy (RT) and for increasing the use of DPRT (dose painting RT) and ART (adaptative RT), to optimize dose in radio-resistant areas. Read More

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December 2018

Case of Aneurism by Anastomosis, in Which Both the Primitive Carotid Arteries Were Tied.

Authors:
R D Mussey

Lond Med Phys J 1830 Jun;8(48):482-484

Professor of Anatomy and Surgery in Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire.

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Clinical features and long-term outcome of primary intracranial Ewing sarcoma/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors: 14 cases from a single institution.

World Neurosurg 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical School, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: Primary intracranial Ewing sarcoma (ES)/peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (pPNETs) are extremely rare, and only a few studies have reported more than four cases of this disease. The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical features, treatment, and outcome of primary intracranial ES/pPNETs.

Methods: The clinical data of 14 patients who had been surgically treated from February 2003 to November 2017 and in whom immunohistochemical staining results had confirmed the diagnosis of primary intracranial ES/pPNETs were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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November 2018

Spontaneous calcium activity in metanephric mesenchymal cells regulates branching morphogenesis in the embryonic kidney.

FASEB J 2018 Nov 29:fj201802054R. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Applied Physics, Science for Life Laboratory, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH) Royal Institute of Technology, Solna, Sweden.

The central role of calcium signaling during development of early vertebrates is well documented, but little is known about its role in mammalian embryogenesis. We have used immunofluorescence and time-lapse calcium imaging of cultured explanted embryonic rat kidneys to study the role of calcium signaling for branching morphogenesis. In mesenchymal cells, we recorded spontaneous calcium activity that was characterized by irregular calcium transients. Read More

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November 2018

Current state of renal regenerative therapies.

Transplantation 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Transplantation.

The worldwide increase in the number of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients leads to a growing waiting list for kidney transplantation due to the scarcity of kidney donors. Therefore, alternative treatment options for patients with ESRD are being sought. In vitro differentiation of stem cells into renal tissue is a promising approach to repair non-functional kidney tissue. Read More

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November 2018
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Ewing's sarcoma of kidney in a 60-year-old patient with local recurrence: A rare occurrence.

J Cancer Res Ther 2018 Oct-Dec;14(6):1422-1424

Department of Medical Oncology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Ewing's family of tumors is aggressive tumors and frequently arises from bone and soft tissue. They might also arise from nonosseous structures such as gastrointestinal tract, adrenal glands, or kidney. Primary renal Ewing's sarcoma (ES)/primitive neuroectodermal tumor is an extremely rare entity which has aggressive clinical course. Read More

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November 2018
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Lipid acquisition and tissue storage in hagfish: new insights from an ancient vertebrate.

J Comp Physiol B 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, 116 St and 85 Ave, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2R3, Canada.

Hagfishes are ancient vertebrates, which have the ability to tolerate nearly a year of food deprivation with energy during fasting maintained using lipid stores. While lipid transporters are evolutionarily conserved, there are relatively few studies examining mechanisms of lipid acquisition in teleosts and no reports in the primitive and evolutionarily important agnathans. We examined tissue lipid droplet distribution and used gut sac preparations to characterize uptake mechanisms of the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid (OA; 18:1 cis-9), in the Pacific hagfish. Read More

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November 2018

Growth zone segmentation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus sheds light on the evolution of insect segmentation.

BMC Evol Biol 2018 Nov 28;18(1):178. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

The Department of Ecology, Evolution & Behavior, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Edmond J. Safra Campus, Givat Ram, 91904, Jerusalem, Israel.

Background: One of the best studied developmental processes is the Drosophila segmentation cascade. However, this cascade is generally considered to be highly derived and unusual, with segments being patterned simultaneously, rather than the ancestral sequential segmentation mode. We present a detailed analysis of the segmentation cascade of the milkweed bug Oncopletus fasciatus, an insect with a more primitive segmentation mode, as a comparison to Drosophila, with the aim of reconstructing the evolution of insect segmentation modes. Read More

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November 2018

Automated Detection and Classification of Microcalcification Clusters with Enhanced Preprocessing and Fractal Analysis

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Nov 29;19(11):3093-3098. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Information Technology, Velammal Engineering College, Chennai, India. Email:

This paper addresses the automated detection of microcalcification clusters from mammogram images by enhanced preprocessing operations on digital mammograms for automated extraction of breast tissue from background, removing artefacts occurring during image registration using X-rays, followed by fractal analysis of suspicious regions. Identification of breast of either left or right and realigning them to a standard position forms a primitive step in preprocessing of mammograms. As the next step in the process, pectoral muscles are separated. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Two new genera of hard ticks, Robertsicus n. gen. and Archaeocroton n. gen., and the solution to the mystery of Hoogstraal's and Kaufman's "primitive" tick from the Carpathian Mountains.

Zootaxa 2018 Oct 18;4500(4):543-552. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Parasitology, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4072, Australia..

We establish two new monotypic genera, Robertsicus n. gen. and Archaeocroton n. Read More

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October 2018

Resveratrol improves ex vivo expansion of CB-CD34 cells via downregulating intracellular reactive oxygen species level.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.

Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). In this study, the effects of resveratrol (RES), on the ex vivo expansion of HSPCs were investigated by analyzing CD34 cells expansion and biological functions, with the objective to optimize ex vivo culture conditions for CD34 cells. Among the five tested doses (0, 0. Read More

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November 2018

Trifurcated external carotid artery and complete gamma-loop of its maxillary branch.

Surg Radiol Anat 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department II of Surgical Clinical Divisions, Faculty of Medicine, "Ovidius" University, Constanţa, Romania.

The external carotid artery (ECA) normally bifurcates terminally with the superficial temporal artery (STA) and the maxillary artery (MA). From the horizontally coursing, mandibular segment of the MA leaves the middle meningeal artery (MMA). We hereby report a previously unknown anatomic possibility, incidentally found during an angio-CT scan in an adult female patient. Read More

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November 2018

MYCN is amplified during S phase, and c‑myb is involved in controlling MYCN expression and amplification in MYCN‑amplified neuroblastoma cell lines.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir 35340, Turkey.

Neuroblastoma derived from primitive sympathetic neural precursors is a common type of solid tumor in infants. MYCN proto‑oncogene bHLH transcription factor (MYCN) amplification and 1p36 deletion are important factors associated with the poor prognosis of neuroblastoma. Expression levels of MYCN and c‑MYB proto‑oncogene transcription factor (c‑myb) decline during the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells; E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) activates the MYCN promoter. Read More

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November 2018

The Drosophila Blood-Brain Barrier Adapts to Cell Growth by Unfolding of Pre-existing Septate Junctions.

Dev Cell 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

University of Münster, Institute for Neuro and Behavioral Biology, Badestr. 9, 48149 Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

The blood-brain barrier is crucial for nervous system function. It is established early during development and stays intact during growth of the brain. In invertebrates, septate junctions are the occluding junctions of this barrier. Read More

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October 2018

On the Enigma of the Human Neurenteric Canal.

Cells Tissues Organs 2018 Nov 27:1-23. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Institute of Anatomy and Embryology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Existence and biomedical relevance of the neurenteric canal, a transient midline structure during early neurulation in the human embryo, have been controversially discussed for more than a century by embryologists and clinicians alike. In this study, the authors address the long-standing enigma by high-resolution histology and three-dimensional reconstruction using new and historic histological sections of 5 human 17- to 21-day-old embryos and of 2 marmoset monkey embryos of the species Callithrix jacchus at corresponding stages. The neurenteric canal presents itself as the classical vertical connection between the amniotic cavity and the yolk sac cavity and is lined (a) craniolaterally by a horseshoe-shaped "hinge of involuting notochordal cells" within Hensen's node and (b) caudally by the receding primitive streak epiblast dorsally and by notochordal plate epithelium ventrally, the latter of which covered the (longitudinal) notochordal canal on its ventral side at the preceding stage. Read More

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November 2018

Redefining the signaling pathways from pluripotency to pancreas development: In vitro β-cell differentiation.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Joundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Pancreatic β-cells are destroyed by the immune system, in type 1 diabetes (T1D) and are impaired by glucose insensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Islet-cells transplantation is a promising therapeutic approach based on in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to insulin-producing cells (IPCs). According to evolutionary stages in β-cell development, there are several distinct checkpoints; each one has a unique characteristic, including definitive endoderm (DE), primitive gut (PG), posterior foregut (PF), pancreatic epithelium (PE), endocrine precursor (EP), and immature β-cells up to functional β-cells. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Complex sexual behaviors during sleep as a manifestation of epilepsy: A case series.

Sleep 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Minnesota Regional Sleep Disorders Center, Departments of Psychiatry, Hennepin County Medical Center and University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Study Objectives: Complex sexual behavior during sleep (CSBS) is a well described clinical entity in NREM sleep parasomnias (i.e. sexsomnia). Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

How do plastids and mitochondria divide?

Microscopy (Oxf) 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Science, College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki, Japan.

Plastids and mitochondria are thought to have originated from free-living cyanobacterial and alpha-proteobacterial ancestors, respectively, via endosymbiosis. Their evolutionary origins dictate that these organelles do not multiply de novo but through the division of pre-existing plastids and mitochondria. Over the past three decades, studies have shown that plastid and mitochondrial division are performed by contractile ring-shaped structures, broadly termed the plastid and mitochondrial-division machineries. Read More

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November 2018

Visualizing the Node and Notochordal Plate In Gastrulating Mouse Embryos Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Whole Mount Immunofluorescence.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 6(141). Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital of Cologne; Cologne Cluster of Excellence in Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD), University of Cologne;

The post-implantation mouse embryo undergoes major shape changes after the initiation of gastrulation and morphogenesis. A hallmark of morphogenesis is the formation of the transient organizers, the node and notochordal plate, from cells that have passed through the primitive streak. The proper formation of these signaling centers is essential for the development of the body plan and techniques to visualize them are of high interest to mouse developmental biologists. Read More

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November 2018

Ultrasensitive quantification of tumor mRNAs in extracellular vesicles with an integrated microfluidic digital analysis chip.

Lab Chip 2018 Dec;18(24):3790-3801

Department of Chemistry, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) present a promising liquid biopsy for cancer diagnosis. However, it remains a daunting challenge to quantitatively measure molecular contents of EVs including tumor-associated mRNAs. Herein, we report a configurable microwell-patterned microfluidic digital analysis platform combined with a dual-probe hybridization assay for PCR-free, single-molecule detection of specific mRNAs in EVs. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Glioblastoma with primitive neuronal component: Cytologic findings in intraoperative squash preparations.

Diagn Cytopathol 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Pathology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois.

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November 2018

High-accuracy large-scale DFT calculations using localized orbitals in complex electronic systems: the case of graphene-metal interfaces.

J Phys Condens Matter 2018 Dec 23;30(50):505901. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain. First-Principles Simulation Group, Nano-Theory Field, International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan.

Over many years, computational simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been used extensively to study many different materials at the atomic scale. However, its application is restricted by system size, leaving a number of interesting systems without a high-accuracy quantum description. In this work, we calculate the electronic and structural properties of a graphene-metal system significantly larger than in previous plane-wave calculations with the same accuracy. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

New compact density matrix averaged ANO basis sets for relativistic calculations.

J Chem Phys 2018 Nov;149(19):194102

Division of Theoretical Chemistry, Kemicentrum, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.

When including relativistic effects in quantum chemical calculations, basis sets optimized for relativistic Hamiltonians such as the atomic natural orbital-relativistic core-correlated (ANO-RCC) basis set have to be used to avoid large errors that appear upon contraction of the basis set. While the large size of the ANO-RCC basis set in terms of primitive basis functions allows for highly accurate calculations, it also hinders its applicability to large sized systems due to the computational costs. To tackle this problem, a new compact relativistic ANO basis set, the ANO-eXtra Small (XS) basis set, is introduced for elements H-Ca. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Dual Neural Network Method for Solving Multiple Definite Integrals.

Neural Comput 2018 Nov 21:1-25. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

College of Sciences, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051, China

This study, which examines a calculation method on the basis of a dual neural network for solving multiple definite integrals, addresses the problems of inefficiency, inaccuracy, and difficulty in finding solutions. First, the method offers a dual neural network method to construct a primitive function of the integral problem; it can approximate the primitive function of any given integrand with any precision. On this basis, a neural network calculation method that can solve multiple definite integrals whose upper and lower bounds are arbitrarily given is obtained with repeated applications of the dual neural network to construction of the primitive function. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

The stabilization of primitive bicontinuous cubic phases with tunable swelling over a wide composition range.

Soft Matter 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign, USA.

In this paper we investigate the pseudo-ternary phase diagram of glycerol monooleate (GMO), a cationic lipid (DOTAP - 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane), and a "PEGylated" lipid (DOPE-PEG - 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000 kDa]) in excess water. We use small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) to map out a phase diagram in a regime of low DOPE-PEG content (1-5 mol%), which is pertinent for the application of lipid systems as carriers of biomolecular cargo to cells. Pure GMO is known to self-assemble into bicontinuous cubic phases of the gyroid type at low water content and of the diamond type in excess water. Read More

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November 2018

A Rare Case of Dumbbell-shaped Primary Intraspinal Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Involving Thoracic Spinal Epidural Space.

Asian J Neurosurg 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):1216-1218

Indo American Brain and Spine Centre, Kottayam, Kerala, India.

Primary intraspinal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) is a type of round cell malignant tumor which is reported only above 100 in literature. We report a case of epidural thoracic peripheral PNET, discuss its pathological features, radiology, and treatment options. Read More

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November 2018

Sellar Embryonal Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Asian J Neurosurg 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):1197-1201

Department of Neurosurgery, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are aggressive, poorly differentiated tumors in children and young adults. However, the embryonal tumor group did not include the central nervous system (CNS) PNET title and ependymoblastoma subtitle in the 2016 World Health Organization CNS tumor classification. Here, we report the case of a 6-year-old boy with a sellar embryonal tumor and present a review of the related literature. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Pediatric Intracranial Tumors over a 5-Year Period in a Tertiary Care Center of North Kerala, India: A Retrospective Analysis.

Asian J Neurosurg 2018 Oct-Dec;13(4):1112-1117

Department of Neurosurgery, Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala, India.

Background: Pediatric brain tumors are unique in terms of distribution, clinical presentation, pathologic types, management, and prognosis. There are not many studies from India which have looked into the epidemiology of pediatric brain tumors.

Aims: This study aimed to analyze the epidemiology of pediatric brain tumors in North Kerala and compare it with data from the rest of India and other countries. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Zebrafish miR-462-731 regulates hematopoietic specification and pu.1-dependent primitive myelopoiesis.

Cell Death Differ 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Key Lab of Freshwater Animal Breeding, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education, College of Fishery, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, P.R. China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play significant roles in both embryonic hematopoiesis and hematological malignancy. Zebrafish miR-462-731 cluster is orthologous of miR-191-425 in human which regulates proliferation and tumorigenesis. In our previous work, miR-462-731 was found highly and ubiquitously expressed during early embryogenesis. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Proteins of generalist and specialist pathogens differ in their amino acid composition.

Life Sci Alliance 2018 Aug 17;1(4):e201800017. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, USA.

Pathogens differ in their host specificities, with species infecting a unique host (specialist pathogens) and others having a wide host range (generalists). Molecular determinants of pathogen's host range remain poorly understood. Secreted proteins of generalist pathogens are expected to have a broader range of intermolecular interactions (i. Read More

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August 2018
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Transcriptome analysis of hopanoid deficient mutant of Rhodopseuodomonas palustris TIE-1.

Microbiol Res 2019 Jan 29;218:108-117. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Plant Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, P.O. Central University, Hyderabad, 500 046, India. Electronic address:

All three domains of life have an ordered plasma membrane which is pivotal in the selective fitness of primitive life. Like cholesterol in eukaryotes, hopanoids are important in bacteria to modulate membrane order. Hopanoids are pentacyclic triterpenoid lipids biosynthesised in many eubacteria, few ferns and lichens. Read More

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January 2019
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