863 results match your criteria Primary Lung Tuberculosis Imaging

Sarcoidosis Mimicking Primary Lung Cancer on Tc-3PRGD2 Scintigraphy in a PTC Patient.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Jun 8;12(6). Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disease of unknown etiology that typically occurs in middle-aged adults, often presenting as the formation of granulomas in various organs, including the lungs. Non-typical pulmonary sarcoidosis is rare, and it isnecessary to distinguish its imaging features from lung cancer and tuberculosis. They may appear as an irregular mass with multiple nodules on thoracic computed tomography (CT). Read More

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Characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to a tertiary academic hospital in Pretoria with HIV and severe pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Jun 15;22(1):548. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality in South Africa. Pneumonia and opportunistic infections remain a major cause for hospital admission among those living with HIV, even in the era of the widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the records of patients admitted with HIV and severe pneumonia, requiring high care/intensive care admission, during a period of 12 months (February 2018 to January 2019) were reviewed. Read More

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Paediatric progressive primary tuberculosis.

J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis 2022 Aug 18;28:100318. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan.

A previously healthy 13-year-old Japanese girl with a BCG vaccination history and no tuberculosis (TB) exposure history presented to the hospital with mild dyspnea for 1 month and fever for 5 days. Computed tomography showed consolidation with a pleural effusion, obstructed left main bronchus with an air bronchogram, and traction bronchiectasis of the left upper lobe (Fig. 1A, B). Read More

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LungNet22: A Fine-Tuned Model for Multiclass Classification and Prediction of Lung Disease Using X-ray Images.

J Pers Med 2022 Apr 24;12(5). Epub 2022 Apr 24.

College of Engineering, IT and Environment, Charles Darwin University, Casuarina, NT 0909, Australia.

In recent years, lung disease has increased manyfold, causing millions of casualties annually. To combat the crisis, an efficient, reliable, and affordable lung disease diagnosis technique has become indispensable. In this study, a multiclass classification of lung disease from frontal chest X-ray imaging using a fine-tuned CNN model is proposed. Read More

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Reduction of Lung Hyperinflation Improves Cardiac Preload, Contractility, and Output in Emphysema: A Prospective Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Study in Patients Who Received Endobronchial Valves.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

University Medical Center Groningen, Pulmonary diseases, Groningen, Netherlands.

Rationale: Pulmonary hyperinflation in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) has been related to smaller cardiac chamber sizes and impaired cardiac function. Nowadays, bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) with endobronchial valves is a treatment option to reduce pulmonary hyperinflation in patients with severe emphysema.

Objectives: We hypothesized that reduction of hyperinflation would improve cardiac preload in this patient group. Read More

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Primary psoas tuberculosis abscess with an iliac bone lytic lesion: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 May 18;16(1):209. Epub 2022 May 18.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Internal Medicine Department, AL-Mouwasat Hospital, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria.

Background: Primary psoas tuberculosis is the presence of "Koch's bacillus'' within the iliopsoas muscle caused by hematogenous or lymphatic seeding from a distant site. Muscular tuberculosis has relatively low prevalence in comparison with other cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, which explains the difficulties in establishing the diagnosis.

Case Presentation: In this report, we present a challenging diagnostic case of primary psoas tuberculosis in a 38-year-old middle eastern female from southern Syria. Read More

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Efficacy of 12-months oral itraconazole versus 6-months oral itraconazole to prevent relapses of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis: an open-label, randomised controlled trial in India.

Lancet Infect Dis 2022 Jul 13;22(7):1052-1061. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis has a 5-year mortality of 50-80% globally, and the optimal duration of treatment for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis remains unclear. We aimed to compare the effect of 6-months of oral itraconazole with 12-months of oral itraconazole on chronic pulmonary aspergillosis clinical outcomes.

Methods: In this single-centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial conducted in one chest clinic in Chandigarh, India, we screened consecutive patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis who were naive to antifungal treatment and randomised eligible patients, using block randomisation, to receive a starting dose of 400 mg/day of oral itraconazole for either 6 months or 12 months. Read More

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[Clinical features of children with post-primary tuberculosis].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2022 Apr;60(4):307-310

Department No.2 of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing 100045, China.

The aim of this study was to summarize the clinical and imaging characteristics of post-primary tuberculosis in children, so as to improve the early identification and diagnosis of post-primary tuberculosis. This was a retrospective study which enrolled children who were admitted to the Department No.2 of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University between January 2015 to December 2020 and with a diagnosis of post-primary tuberculosis. Read More

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Screening of Long Non-coding RNAs Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Preliminary Construction of a Clinical Diagnosis Model.

Front Microbiol 2022 3;13:774663. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Laboratory Medicine, Panzhihua Central Hospital, Panzhihua, China.

Background: Pathogenic testing for tuberculosis (TB) is not yet sufficient for early and differential clinical diagnosis; thus, we investigated the potential of screening long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) from human hosts and using machine learning (ML) algorithms combined with electronic health record (EHR) metrics to construct a diagnostic model.

Methods: A total of 2,759 subjects were included in this study, including 12 in the primary screening cohort [7 TB patients and 5 healthy controls (HCs)] and 2,747 in the selection cohort (798 TB patients, 299 patients with non-TB lung disease, and 1,650 HCs). An Affymetrix HTA2. Read More

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Microarchitecture of historic bone samples with tuberculosis.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2022 Jun 20;134(11-12):449-457. Epub 2022 Mar 20.

Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology. Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Tuberculosis is among the leading causes of death from infectious diseases and affects many organ systems, including the skeleton. Skeletal tuberculosis is an extrapulmonary stage of tuberculosis, which occurs after the early and post-primary pulmonary stages of the disease. The aim of our study was to assess the microarchitecture of historic dry bone samples of subjects who have died of tuberculosis documented by post-mortem examinations. Read More

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Case Report: Disseminated Infection With More Than 1-Year Follow-Up in a Young Boy With Deficiency.

Front Pediatr 2022 28;10:761265. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

All members of the genus are collectively labeled as "non-tuberculous mycobacterium" (NTM), with the exception of the complex and . Recently, the incidence of NTM infection and number of cases have been increasing, but their identification remains difficult in some countries. Usually, NTM infections and diseases are associated with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), and their prognoses can be improved with a timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Read More

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February 2022

Mild SARS-CoV-2 infection in rhesus macaques is associated with viral control prior to antigen-specific T cell responses in tissues.

Sci Immunol 2022 Mar 10:eabo0535. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

T lymphocyte Biology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Disease, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 primarily replicates in mucosal sites, and more information is needed about immune responses in infected tissues. Here, we used rhesus macaques to model protective primary immune responses in tissues during mild COVID-19. Viral RNA levels were highest on days 1-2 post-infection and fell precipitously thereafter. Read More

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Influence of Aerosol Delivered BCG Vaccination on Immunological and Disease Parameters Following SARS-CoV-2 Challenge in Rhesus Macaques.

Front Immunol 2021 9;12:801799. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Research and Evaluation, United Kingdom Health Security Agency, Salisbury, United Kingdom.

The tuberculosis vaccine, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), also affords protection against non-tuberculous diseases attributable to heterologous immune mechanisms such as trained innate immunity, activation of non-conventional T-cells, and cross-reactive adaptive immunity. Aerosol vaccine delivery can target immune responses toward the primary site of infection for a respiratory pathogen. Therefore, we hypothesised that aerosol delivery of BCG would enhance cross-protective action against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and be a deployable intervention against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Read More

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No Difference Among Inhaled Anesthetics on the Growth and Metastasis of Murine 4T1 Breast Cancers in a Mouse Model of Spontaneous Metastasis.

Front Pharmacol 2022 9;13:794109. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Department of Anesthesiology, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, United States.

This study evaluates the effect of the commonly used inhaled anesthetics isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane on the viability and migration of murine 4T1 breast cancer cells, the growth, and lung metastasis in a syngenetic model of spontaneous metastasis. The murine 4T1 breast cancer cells were exposed to isoflurane (2%), sevoflurane (3.6%), or desflurane (10. Read More

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February 2022

Asymptomatic gastric tuberculosis in the gastric body mimicking an isolated microscopic erosion: A rare case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2022 Feb;101(8):e28888

Department of General Practice, Banan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University (People's Hospital of chongqing Banan District), Chongqing, China.

Introduction: Gastric tuberculosis is rarely seen in clinical practice, which occurs mostly secondary to lung tuberculosis, intestinal tuberculosis, and other common tuberculosis. Gastric tuberculosis rarely presents as a single microscopic superficial erosion. We recently diagnosed such a case, hence reporting it herein. Read More

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February 2022

Latent tuberculosis reactivation in the setting of SARS-Cov-2 infection: The analysis of the radiologic features that help the diagnosis.

Radiol Case Rep 2022 Apr 17;17(4):1309-1312. Epub 2022 Feb 17.

Radiology Department, San Giuliano Hospital, Giugliano (NA), Italy.

In Italy tuberculosis is a relatively rare disease and people coming from developing nations are usually affected. The radiological findings are variable and depend on the tuberculosis activity, if primary or post-primary. In literature, few data are reported about the co-existence of COVID-19 and lung tuberculosis. Read More

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Steatotic Hepatitis Presenting as a Huge Hypermetabolic Liver Mass.

Clin Nucl Med 2022 May;47(5):e399-e400

From the Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract: FDG PET/CT scan is a diagnostic imaging modality for oncologic patients, but with false-positive findings in inflammatory diseases. In this interesting case, we present a 24-year-old woman with history of giant cell tumor of the bone (lumbar vertebrae) who underwent whole-body FDG PET/CT scan for treatment response evaluation. FDG PET/CT scan demonstrated a large hypermetabolic tumoral mass lesion in segment VI/VII of the right hepatic lobe. Read More

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Systemic Manifestation of Miliary Tuberculosis in Patient With Advanced Diabetic Retinopathy Presenting With Electrolyte Imbalance, Seizures, and Adrenal Insufficiency.

Cureus 2022 Jan 9;14(1):e21047. Epub 2022 Jan 9.

Internal Medicine/Diabetes and Endocrinology, Barking, Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, London, GBR.

Extra-pulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis can have diverse presentations depending on the affected organs. In this case report, we describe a case of a 50-year-old man of South Asian origin who presented with acute adrenal crisis on a background of undiagnosed miliary tuberculosis. Imaging after repeated episodes of adrenal crisis and seizures revealed bilaterally enlarged adrenals and cerebral tuberculomas, suggesting adrenal and central nervous system involvement. Read More

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January 2022

Artificial intelligence for early diagnosis of lung cancer through incidental nodule detection in low- and middle-income countries-acceleration during the COVID-19 pandemic but here to stay.

Am J Cancer Res 2022 15;12(1):1-16. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Therapeutic Area Lead, AstraZeneca 1st Krasnogvardeyskiy Proezd 21, Building 1, Moscow 123100, Russian Federation.

Although the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had profound pernicious effects, it revealed deficiencies in health systems, particularly among low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). With increasing uncertainty in healthcare, existing unmet needs such as poor outcomes of lung cancer (LC) patients in LMICs, mainly due to late stages at diagnosis, have been challenging-necessitating a shift in focus for judicious health resource utilization. Leveraging artificial intelligence (AI) for screening large volumes of pulmonary images performed for noncancerous reasons, such as health checks, immigration, tuberculosis screening, or other lung conditions, including but not limited to COVID-19, can facilitate easy and early identification of incidental pulmonary nodules (IPNs), which otherwise could have been missed. Read More

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January 2022

Miliary brain metastases from lung adenocarcinoma as non-enhancing lesions on MRI: a case report and literature review.

Transl Cancer Res 2021 Feb;10(2):1162-1168

Department of Neurosurgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Miliary dissemination is common in tuberculosis, but is an extremely rare form of brain metastasis. It is mainly found in patients with primary lung cancer (small cell and adenocarcinoma). Here, we presented a case of miliary metastases of lung adenocarcinoma to the brain without lesion enhancement on MRI after administration of contrast. Read More

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February 2021

Ga-DOTATATE Radioisotope scan to detect neuroendocrine tumors; A Cross-Sectional Study.

Asia Ocean J Nucl Med Biol 2022 ;10(1):14-19

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National research institute of tuberculosis and lung diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objevtives: Neuroendocrine tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that arise from the peptide-producing cells of the neuroendocrine system. Different functional imaging methods have been suggested to diagnose NETs. There is still not enough evidence to recommend Ga-DOTATATE as a standard diagnostic tool in NETs. Read More

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January 2022

Multidetector CT findings of primary pleural angiosarcoma : a systematic review, an additional cases report.

Cancer Imaging 2022 Jan 12;22(1). Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Department of Pathology, Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, Colloge of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: To demonstrate and analyze the relatively common imaging findings in this rare primary pleural angiosarcoma (PPA).

Case Presentation: Three cases of PPA, proven by video-assisted thoracic surgery biopsies are retrospectively reviewed. Patients were all male. Read More

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January 2022

Active pulmonary tuberculosis: something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue.

Insights Imaging 2022 Jan 9;13(1). Epub 2022 Jan 9.

Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Hills Rd, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.

Tuberculosis remains a major global health issue affecting all countries and age groups. Radiology plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). This review aims to improve understanding and diagnostic value of imaging in PTB. Read More

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January 2022

Isolated Chest Wall Necrotizing Fasciitis: An Unusual Fatal Manifestation of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis.

Cureus 2021 Dec 21;13(12):e20585. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

General Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Jodhpur, IND.

Primary tuberculosis of the chest wall is a rare disease and very difficult to diagnose without clinical suspicion. Here, we present an unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis due to an aggressive form of chest wall tuberculosis. A 22-year-old male presented in emergency with acute-onset swelling and redness over the right side of the neck and chest wall. Read More

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December 2021

Pulmonary manifestations in a cohort of patients with inborn errors of immunity: an 8-year follow-up study.

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2022 1;50(1):80-84. Epub 2022 Jan 1.

Pediatric Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Inborn errors of immunity (IEIs) are a group of congenital diseases caused by genetic defects in the development and function of the immune system. The involvement of the respiratory tract is one of the most common presentations in IEIs.

Methods: Overall, 117 patients with diagnosed IEIs were followed-up within 8 years at the National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD). Read More

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Evaluation of radiological sequelae after treatment completion in new cases of pulmonary and pleural tuberculosis.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2021 Oct-Dec;10(4):398-404

Department of Respiratory Medicine, SRMS IMS, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual parenchymal and pleural lesions on chest X-ray posttherapy in new tuberculosis (TB) cases.

Methods: This prospective study was done from January 2018 to December 2020, which involved the evaluation of medical records of 60 pulmonary or pleural TB patients who underwent successful treatment. Chest X-rays of the patients at the start and end of treatment were studied as per the guidelines by Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program. Read More

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January 2022

Impact of early chest radiography on delay in pulmonary tuberculosis case notification in Ethiopia.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2021 Oct-Dec;10(4):364-372

Centre for Innovative Drug Development and Therapeutic Trials for Africa, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University; Ohio State Global One Health Initiative, Office of International Affairs, The Ohio State University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: One-third of tuberculosis (TB) cases are missed each year and delays in the diagnosis of TB are hampering the whole cascade of care. Early chest X-ray (CXR) in patients with cough irrespective of duration may reduce TB diagnostic and treatment delays and increase the number of TB patients put into TB care. We aimed to evaluate the impact of CXR on delay in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among people with cough of any duration. Read More

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January 2022

Elucidating the Etiologies of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Mediastinal Lymph Nodes Among Cancer Patients in a Tuberculosis-Endemic Region Using Endobronchial Ultrasound.

Cureus 2021 Nov 7;13(11):e19339. Epub 2021 Nov 7.

Internal Medicine, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, PAK.

Background Non-malignant conditions, including infections (such as tuberculosis [TB]), can mimic malignancy with regards to their uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) tracer utilized for positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scan, as part of the diagnostic and staging workup of cancer patients. This poses a diagnostic challenge, for which tissue sampling is decisive. In this study, we aimed to determine the underlying etiologies of F-FDG-avid mediastinal lymph nodes among cancer patients in a TB-endemic demographic using endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and the respective sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT and EBUS in diagnosing malignancy. Read More

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November 2021

Evaluating the relationship between high-resolution computed tomography findings and their extent in eosinophilic lung diseases with peripheral blood eosinophil level.

Pol J Radiol 2021 18;86:e542-e547. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Chronic Respiratory Diseases Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Eosinophilic lung diseases are a group of pulmonary disorders associated with peripheral or tissue eosinophilia. They can be classified into primary (idiopathic) and secondary groups based on their aetiology. On the other hand, blood eosinophilia is a common clinical problem with various causes. Read More

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September 2021

DenResCov-19: A deep transfer learning network for robust automatic classification of COVID-19, pneumonia, and tuberculosis from X-rays.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2021 12 23;94:102008. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK; Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Electronic address:

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is continuing to have a significant effect on the well-being of the global population, thus increasing the demand for rapid testing, diagnosis, and treatment. As COVID-19 can cause severe pneumonia, early diagnosis is essential for correct treatment, as well as to reduce the stress on the healthcare system. Along with COVID-19, other etiologies of pneumonia and Tuberculosis (TB) constitute additional challenges to the medical system. Read More

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December 2021