220,775 results match your criteria Preventive Cardiology [Journal]


Predicted short and long-term impact of deworming and water, hygiene, and sanitation on transmission of soil-transmitted helminths.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Dec 6;12(12):e0006758. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Research School of Population Health, College of Medicine, Biology and Environment, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Background: Regular preventive chemotherapy (PCT) targeting high-risk populations is an effective way to control STH in the short term, but sustainable long-term STH control is expected to require improved access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). However, experimental studies have not been able to conclusively demonstrate the benefit of WASH in preventing STH (re-)infections. We investigated the impact of WASH on STH infections during and after PCT using mathematical modelling. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Prevalence and correlates of physical inactivity among older adults in Malaysia: Findings from the National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2015.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2018 Nov 26;81:74-83. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Centre for Epidemiology and Evidence Based Practice, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Malaysia has an increasingly aging population. Despite the substantial benefits of physical activity for healthy aging, older adults are considered the most physically inactive segment of the Malaysian population. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity among older adults in Malaysia and its correlates. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Genus Psoralea A review of the traditional and modern uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, Plant Transgenic Laboratory, P.O. Box 436, Rana Pratap Marg,Lucknow-226 001, U.P., India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The genus Psoralea (Fabaceae) harbours 105 accepted species that are extensively used by local peoples and medicinal practitioners of China, India, and other countries for treatment of tooth decay, psoriasis, leucoderma, leprosy, kidney problems, tuberculosis, indigestion, constipation and impotence. Presently, pharmacological research reports are available on only few species namely Bituminaria bituminosa (Syn: P. bituminosa), P. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Non-GVHD ocular complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation: expert review from the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the CIBMTR and Transplant Complications Working Party of the EBMT.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Madrid, Spain.

Non-graft-versus-host disease (non-GVHD) ocular complications are generally uncommon after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but can cause prolonged morbidity affecting activities of daily living and quality of life. Here we provide an expert review of non-GVHD ocular complications in a collaboration between transplant physicians and ophthalmologists through the Late Effects and Quality of Life Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the Transplant Complications Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Complications discussed in this review include cataracts, glaucoma, ocular infections, ocular involvement with malignancy, ischemic microvascular retinopathy, central retinal vein occlusion, retinal hemorrhage, retinal detachment and ocular toxicities associated with medications. Read More

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December 2018

Oxidation of cystatin imparted by riboflavin generated free radicals: Spectral analysis.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of life sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002, India. Electronic address:

Thiol Protease inhibitors (cystatins) are endogenous natural inhibitors of cysteine proteases. They are present in all mammalians cells and body fluids. Cystatin are allocated into three major families. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Healthcare Providers' Advice on Lifestyle Modification in the US Population: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2016.

Am J Med 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15/1, 1090 Vienna, Austria; Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alberta Health Services, Holy Cross Centre, 2210-2nd Street SW, Box ACB, Calgary, AB, T2S 3C3, Canada; Preventive Oncology & Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Hospital Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: Healthcare providers are encouraged to prescribe lifestyle modifications for preventing and managing obesity and associated chronic conditions. However, the pattern of lifestyle advice provision is unknown. We investigate the prevalence of advised lifestyle modification according to weight status and chronic conditions in a US nationally representative sample. Read More

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December 2018

Pre-emptive and preventive opioids for postoperative pain in adults undergoing all types of surgery.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD012624. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Surgery and Anaesthesia, Division of Medical Sciences and Graduate Entry Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Uttoxeter New Road, Derby, UK, DE22 3DT.

Background: Postoperative pain is a common consequence of surgery and can have deleterious effects. It has been suggested that the administration of opioid analgesia before a painful stimulus may improve pain control. This can be done in two ways. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Association of colorectal polyps and cancer with low-dose persistent organic pollutants: A case-control study.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208546. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: Low-dose persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have recently been linked to immunosenescence, a key mechanism in carcinogenesis, as well as many aging-related chronic diseases. Since feces are the main excretion route of POPs, the large intestine is a potential target organ for these pollutants. We performed a case-control study to evaluate whether exposure to low-dose POPs is related to the risk of colorectal polyps and cancer. Read More

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December 2018

The relationship between perceptions and self-paid hepatitis B vaccination: A structural equation modeling approach.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208402. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Medical Research Unit, School of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.

Background: Malaysia has a comprehensive, publicly-funded immunization program for hepatitis B (HepB) among infants, but adults must pay for the vaccine. The number of HepB carriers among adults is expected to increase in the future; therefore, we examined the impact of five constructs (cues to action, perceived barriers, perceived benefit, perceived severity, and perceived susceptibility) on adults' willingness to pay (WTP) for HepB vaccine; secondarily, we examined the association between perceived barriers and perceived benefits.

Methods: Adults were selected through a stratified, two-stage cluster community sample in Selangor, Malaysia. Read More

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December 2018

The MJA-Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: Australian policy inaction threatens lives.

Med J Aust 2018 Dec;209(11):474

School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW.

Climate plays an important role in human health and it is well established that climate change can have very significant impacts in this regard. In partnership with The Lancet and the MJA, we present the inaugural Australian Countdown assessment of progress on climate change and health. This comprehensive assessment examines 41 indicators across five broad sections: climate change impacts, exposures and vulnerability; adaptation, planning and resilience for health; mitigation actions and health co-benefits; economics and finance; and public and political engagement. Read More

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December 2018

Choosing an ideal pharmacotherapeutic strategy for dyslipidemia in children.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2018 Dec 6:1-4. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Biomedical Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties , University of Palermo , Palermo , Italy.

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December 2018

Prediction of major depressive disorder onset in college students.

Depress Anxiety 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) in college students is associated with substantial burden.

Aims: To assess 1-year incidence of MDD among incoming freshmen and predictors of MDD-incidence in a representative sample of students.

Method: Prospective cohort study of first-year college students (baseline: n = 2,519, 1-year follow-up: n = 958) RESULTS: The incidence of MDD within the first year of college was 6. Read More

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December 2018

Citrus fruit intake and gastric cancer: the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) project consortium.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Diets rich in vegetables and fruit have been associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, and there is suggestive evidence that citrus fruits have a protective role. This study aimed at evaluating and quantifying the association between citrus fruit consumption and gastric cancer risk. We conducted a one-stage pooled analysis including 6340 cases and 14,490 controls from 15 case-control studies from the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project consortium. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read
5.085 Impact Factor

Erratum. Recommendations from the international evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome.

Hum Reprod 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

National Health and Medical Research Council Centre for Research Excellence in PCOS, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

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December 2018

Longitudinal Associations of Sensory and Cognitive Functioning: A Structural Equation Modelling approach.

J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: although visual and hearing impairments have been found to be associated with cognitive decline in the old age, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This study aims at assessing the predictive role of visual and hearing difficulties on subsequent cognitive functioning.

Method: 3,508 individuals aged 60 and over from the cohort of the first (2002) and fifth waves (2010) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Association of Body Fat and Risk of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women With Normal Body Mass Index: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial and Observational Study.

JAMA Oncol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

Importance: Obesity is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, including the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive subtype in postmenopausal women. Whether excess adiposity is associated with increased risk in women with a normal body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is unknown.

Objective: To investigate the association between body fat and breast cancer risk in women with normal BMI. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Does lifestyle matter? Individual lifestyle factors and their additive effects associated with cognitive function in older men and women.

Aging Ment Health 2018 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Department of Social Work and Social Administration , The University of Hong Kong , Hong Kong.

Objectives: This study investigated the association between healthy lifestyle comprised of multiple domains, gender, and cognitive function in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis with data from 1,831 community-dwellers aged 65 years and above. Participants' basic demographics, comorbidity, and six lifestyle factors: diet; smoking; alcohol drinking; and physical, mental, and social activities were surveyed. Read More

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December 2018

Peer Victimization in Preadolescent Children With ADHD in Turkey.

J Interpers Violence 2018 Dec 6:886260518816321. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

4 Istanbul University, Turkey.

The present study aims to investigate peer victimization and its relationship with comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and quality of life (QoL) among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study sample consisted of 66 children with ADHD (mean age = 8.6 ± 1. Read More

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December 2018

Factors affecting Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus time-to-stability in breeding herds in the Midwestern United States.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

The time needed to wean porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus negative pigs consistently from a breeding herd after an outbreak is referred to as time-to-stability (TTS). TTS is an important measure to plan herd closure as well as to manage economic expectations. Weekly PRRS incidence data from 82 sow farms in six production systems located in the Midwestern United States were used for the analysis. Read More

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December 2018
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Spatial analysis of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Eurasia - Predicting areas at risk for further spread within the region.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia, Budapest, Hungary.

Data from affected lumpy skin disease (LSD) locations between July 2012 and September 2018 in the Balkans, Caucasus and Middle East were retrieved from FAO's Global Animal Disease Information System (EMPRES-i) from the European Commission's Animal Disease Notification System (ADNS) and completed with data from the official veterinary services of some countries. During this period, a total of 7,593 locations from twenty-two countries were affected. Within this period, over 46,000 cattle were clinically affected by LSD, 3,700 animals died and 17,500 were slaughtered due to culling policies to stop the spread of the disease. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Anti-Parasitic Activity of Auranofin Against Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri.

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Ames, Iowa, 50011.

We report that the gold containing anti-rheumatoid drug auranofin is amoebicidal against human pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Treatment of N. fowleri cultures at biologically relevant concentrations of 0. Read More

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December 2018

Lipid Lowering and Incidence of Cataract, a Role for Fibrates.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Epidemiology and Preventive Pharmacology Centre, Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Cataract is a pathological eye condition with loss of lens transparency. Age-related cataract is the most common type in adults, and opacity is believed to result from oxidative stress. According to estimates by the World Health Organization, cataract affects ≈100 million people worldwide. Read More

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December 2018
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Examining HPV Vaccination Practices and Differences Among Providers in Virginia.

J Cancer Educ 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Virginia has some of the lowest HPV vaccination rates, despite being one of the few states in the USA requiring adolescent girls receive the vaccine. Provider characteristics may be an important factor in HPV vaccination. Thus, the present study assessed provider vaccination, practices, knowledge about the vaccine, and confidence in performing behaviors related to the vaccine. Read More

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December 2018
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The significant role of health surveillance in the occupational heat stress assessment.

Int J Biometeorol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Occupational Health Section of the Department of Life Sciences and Public Health, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.

In order to address the heat stress hazard, the worker health surveillance makes a difference by providing information about individual factor, feedback, and evidence about efficacy of preventive measures and activities carried out through the risk assessment process, at individual and group levels. Every technical, procedural, or organizational measures could be ineffective without taking into account the results provided by health surveillance. Read More

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December 2018

Significance of Cholesterol-Binding Motifs in ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-B1 Structure.

J Membr Biol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

National Research Centre for Preventive Medicine, 10, Petroverigsky Street, Moscow, Russia, 101990.

ABCA1, ABCG1 transporters, and SR-B1 receptor are the major proteins involved in cholesterol efflux from cells. We superposed in silico the location of putative cholesterol (Chol)-binding motifs CRAC/CARC and CCM in human ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-B1 with (1) transmembrane protein topology, (2) a profile of structural order of protein, and (3) with an influence of single amino acid substitutions on protein structure and function. ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-B1 molecules contain 50, 19, and 13 Chol-binding motifs, respectively, that are localized either in membrane helices, or at membrane-water interface, or in water-exposed protein regions. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

RISK EFFECTS OF NEAR-ROADWAY POLLUTANTS AND ASTHMA STATUS ON BRONCHITIC SYMPTOMS IN CHILDREN.

Environ Epidemiol 2018 Jun;2(2)

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Bronchitic symptoms in children pose a significant clinical and public health burden. Exposures to criteria air pollutants affect bronchitic symptoms, especially in children with asthma. Less is known about near-roadway exposures. Read More

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1-(5-Bromo-2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)ethanone [SE1] Inhibits MMP-9 Expression by Regulating NF-κB and MAPKs Signaling Pathways in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 5;2018:5639486. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

College of Chemistry and Environment, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China.

Hippocampus is a traditional medicine in China, which can be used for treating tumors, aging, fatigue, thrombosis, inflammation, hypertension, prostatic hyperplasia, and other diseases. 1-(5-Bromo-2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)ethanone [SE1] from seahorse (a Bleeler) has been shown to suppress proinflammatory responses. In the present study, SE1 potently inhibited gelatin digestion by MMP-9 induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and migration of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells in dose-dependent manner. Read More

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November 2018

Just how much does it cost? A cost study of chronic pain following cardiac surgery.

J Pain Res 2018 8;11:2741-2759. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montreal, QC, Canada,

Objective: The study objective was to determine use of pain-related health care resources and associated direct and indirect costs over a two-year period in cardiac surgery patients who developed chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP).

Methods: This multicentric observational prospective study recruited patients prior to cardiac surgery; these patients completed research assistant-administered questionnaires on pain and psychological characteristics at 6, 12 and 24 months post-operatively. Patients reporting CPSP also completed a one-month pain care record (PCR) (self-report diary) at each follow-up. Read More

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November 2018

Walking activity during ambulant cardiac rehabilitation is related to maximum working capacity, age, and smoking behavior.

Vasc Health Risk Manag 2018 9;14:361-369. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Institute of Sports and Preventive Medicine, Saarbrücken, Germany,

Background: A total of 6,500 to 8,000 steps per day are recommended for cardiovascular secondary prevention. The aim of this research was to examine how many steps per day patients achieve during ambulant cardiac rehabilitation (CR), and if there is a correlation between the number of steps and physical and cardiological parameters.

Methods: In all, 192 stable CR patients were included and advised for sealed pedometry. Read More

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November 2018

Peritumoral implantation of hydrogel-containing nanoparticles and losartan for enhanced nanoparticle penetration and antitumor effect.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 13;13:7409-7426. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, China,

Background And Purpose: Nanoparticle-loaded hydrogels - localized drug delivery devices containing a combination of therapeutic nanoparticles and implantable hydrogel - have been recipients of increased focus and interest for cancer treatment. However, it is difficult for the released nanoparticles to penetrate deeply into tumors because of the dense collagen network in the tumor extracellular matrix, which greatly limits their antitumor effect. We hypothesized that the implantation of a hydrogel loaded with both nanoparticles and losartan (Los) might enhance penetration because Los has been proven to effectively reduce collagen levels in various tumors. Read More

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November 2018

Frailty and health care use among community-dwelling older adults with diabetes: a population-based study.

Clin Interv Aging 2018 8;13:2295-2300. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Division of Preventive Medicine and Health Service Research, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Maoli 350, Taiwan,

Purpose: The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of frailty and its relationship with health care use among community-dwelling older adults with diabetes.

Methods: We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of people aged 65 years and above (n=3,203) participating in the 2013 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan. A total of 719 participants had a history of self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes. Read More

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November 2018

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction - current preventive strategies.

Clin Interv Aging 2018 8;13:2267-2273. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Surgery, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysore, Karnataka, India.

Improving trends in global health care have resulted in a steady increase in the geriatric population. However, as the population ages, surgery is being performed more frequently in progressively older patients and those with higher prevalence of comorbidities. A significant percentage of elderly patients experience transient postoperative delirium following surgery or long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Read More

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November 2018

The therapeutic effects of traditional Chinese medicine Fusu agent in LPS-induced acute lung injury model rats.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2018 13;12:3867-3878. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

College of Basic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China,

Purpose: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common and fatal oxidative stress in the lung, mainly induced by endothelial injury and capillary leakage. In our previous study, "Fusu agent", a traditional Chinese medicine, was found to exert preventive effect on endothelial damage in lipopoly-saccharide (LPS)-induced ALI model rats partially via inhibiting heparanase1 (HPA1) activation and inhibiting the inflammatory factors. However, it is still unknown whether Fusu agent exerts its therapeutic effect in LPS-induced ALI model rats and its potential mechanism. Read More

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November 2018

The extracellular SEMA domain attenuates intracellular apoptotic signaling of semaphorin 6A in lung cancer cells.

Oncogenesis 2018 Dec 5;7(12):95. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Semaphorin 6A (SEMA6A), a membrane-bound protein, is downregulated in lung cancer tissue compared to its adjacent normal tissue. However, the functions of SEMA6A in lung cancer cells are still unclear. In the present study, full length SEMA6A and various truncations were transfected into lung cancer cells to investigate the role of the different domains of SEMA6A in cell proliferation and survival, apoptosis, and in vivo tumor growth. Read More

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December 2018

Estimating the effect of a reduction of sodium intake in childhood on cardiovascular diseases later in life.

J Hum Hypertens 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP), Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.

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December 2018

[Evaluation of real-time surveillance of influenza incidence in Kawasaki City by comparison using the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases].

Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2018 ;65(11):666-676

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Toho University, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives In Japan, nationwide data of the incidence of infectious diseases have been collected via the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID) since 1981. In addition, since March 2014, Kawasaki City has operated its own real-time surveillance (RTS) system to collect data of the incidence of influenza from medical institutions across the city. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of the RTS system and compare the two surveillance systems to improve measures against infectious diseases in the future. Read More

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January 2018

[The relationship between sleep and subjective mental health at one month postpartum in Japanese women].

Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi 2018 ;65(11):646-654

Faculty of Psychology, Kansai University of Welfare Sciences.

Objectives This study aimed to separately ascertain and examine the association between sleep and mental health among primiparas and multiparas at one month postpartum.Methods The subjects were 234 primiparas and 223 multiparas (a total of 457) at one month postpartum who agreed to participate in the questionnaire survey during a health check-up at a maternity hospital. According to the delivery records, they had no history of mental diseases. Read More

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January 2018
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Marginal Zinc Deficiency and Environmentally Relevant Concentrations of Arsenic Elicit Combined Effects on the Gut Microbiome.

mSphere 2018 Dec 5;3(6). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

Extensive research shows that dietary variation and toxicant exposure impact the gut microbiome, yielding effects on host physiology. However, prior work has mostly considered such exposure-microbiome interactions through the lens of single-factor exposures. In practice, humans exposed to toxicants vary in their dietary nutritional status, and this variation may impact subsequent exposure of the gut microbiome. Read More

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December 2018

A Longitudinal Epidemiology Study of Meningococcal Carriage in Students 13 to 25 Years Old in Quebec.

mSphere 2018 Dec 5;3(6). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Vaccine Clinical Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Pearl River, New York, USA.

carriage data are necessary to inform serogroup B (NmB) immunization program implementation. This longitudinal study compared detection methods to measure throat carriage prevalence in Quebec from November 2010 to December 2013 using cultured swab isolates and direct swab PCR from students in ninth grade (aged 13 to 15 years; = 534) and eleventh grade/college entry (16 to 18 years; = 363) and in university students in dormitories (18 to 25 years; = 360) at 3 time points per group. Meningococcal and NmB carriage rates were lower in ninth- and eleventh-grade/college entry students than university students, regardless of methodology. Read More

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December 2018

Identifying patient-important outcomes in medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder patients: a systematic review protocol.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 4;8(12):e025059. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Illicit opioid use has become a national crisis in Canada, with over 65 000 people seeking treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) in Ontario and British Columbia alone. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is a common treatment for OUD. There is substantial variability in treatment outcomes used to evaluate effectiveness of MAT, making it difficult to establish clinically and scientifically relevant treatment effect. Read More

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December 2018
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Atrial cardiopathy in patients with embolic strokes of unknown source and other stroke etiologies.

Neurology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

From the Department of Medicine (Neurology) (S.J.), Queens' University, Kingston; Departments of Medicine (Neurology) (R.R., A.P.) and Medicine (Cardiology) (A.D.J., A.W.), Toronto Western Hospital/University Health Network, and Dalla Lana School of Public Health (R.N.), University of Toronto; and Centre for Urban Health Solutions (R.N.), Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada.

Objective: To investigate the prevalence and clinical determinants of atrial cardiopathy in patients with embolic stroke of unknown source (ESUS) and compare with other established stroke etiologies.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 846 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke, we compared the prevalence of atrial cardiopathy (defined by p-wave terminal force in V1 >5,000 µV·ms or severe left atrial enlargement) between ESUS patients and patients with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and small vessel disease (SVD) strokes. Baseline characteristics were also compared between ESUS and cardioembolic (CE) patients. Read More

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December 2018

Beliefs About Medication and Uptake of Preventive Therapy in Women at Increased Risk of Breast Cancer: Results From a Multicenter Prospective Study.

Clin Breast Cancer 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: Uptake of preventive therapies for breast cancer is low. We examined whether women at increased risk of breast cancer can be categorized into groups with similar medication beliefs, and whether belief group membership was prospectively associated with uptake of preventive therapy.

Patients And Methods: Women (n = 732) attending an appointment to discuss breast cancer risk were approached; 408 (55. Read More

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November 2018

Economic evaluation of the NET intervention versus guideline dissemination for management of mild head injury in hospital emergency departments.

Implement Sci 2018 Dec 5;13(1):147. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Evidence-based guidelines for the management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in the emergency department (ED) are now widely available, and yet, clinical practice remains inconsistent with the guidelines. The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) intervention was developed to increase the uptake of guideline recommendations and improve the management of minor head injury in Australian emergency departments (EDs). However, the adoption of this type of intervention typically entails an upfront investment that may or may not be fully offset by improvements in clinical practice, health outcomes and/or reductions in health service utilisation. Read More

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December 2018

Cost-effectiveness of vaccination of immunocompetent older adults against herpes zoster in the Netherlands: a comparison between the adjuvanted subunit and live-attenuated vaccines.

BMC Med 2018 Dec 6;16(1):228. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Unit of PharmacoTherapy, -Epidemiology & -Economics (PTE2), University of Groningen, Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The newly registered adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) has a higher efficacy than the available live-attenuated vaccine (ZVL). National decision-makers soon need to decide whether to introduce HZ/su or to prefer HZ/su above ZVL.

Methods: Using a Markov model with a decision tree, we conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of vaccination with HZ/su (two doses within 2 months) or zoster vaccine live (ZVL) (single dose, or single dose with a booster after 10 years) for cohorts of 50-, 60-, 70- or 80-year-olds in the Netherlands. Read More

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December 2018

Drug overdose in the ED: a record linkage study examining emergency department ICD-10 coding practices in a cohort of people who inject drugs.

BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 5;18(1):945. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Centre For Population Health, Burnet Institute, 85 Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia.

Background: Drug overdose is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity amongst people who inject drugs (PWID). Drug overdose surveillance typically relies on the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) coding system, however its real world utilisation and the implications for surveillance have not been well characterised. This study examines the patterns of ICD-10 coding pertaining to drug overdoses within emergency departments for a cohort of known PWID. Read More

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December 2018

Mechanisms associated with maternal adverse childhood experiences on offspring's mental health in Nairobi informal settlements: a mediational model testing approach.

BMC Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5;18(1):381. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA.

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is a significant public health and social welfare problem in low-and middle income countries (LMICs). However, most ACEs research is based on developed countries, and little is known about mechanisms of early ACEs on adulthood health and offspring's wellbeing for populations in LMICs. This area is needed to guide social welfare policy and intervention service planning. Read More

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December 2018

Norm values and psychometric properties of the brief symptom inventory-18 regarding individuals between the ages of 60 and 95.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2018 Dec 5;18(1):164. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Objective: The SCL-90 and the SCL-90-R are the most applied measures regarding psychological distress. To reduce and prevent an overload to of the individuals, the Brief Symptom Inventory with 18 items (BSI-18) was developed based on the SCL-90. Since psychological disorders more frequently occur at an older age, there is a growing need for efficient instruments to measure distress in the elderly. Read More

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December 2018

Methods for trustworthy nutritional recommendations NutriRECS (Nutritional Recommendations and accessible Evidence summaries Composed of Systematic reviews): a protocol.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2018 Dec 5;18(1):162. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: Recent systematic reviews and editorials suggest that many organizations that produce nutritional guideline recommendations do not adhere to internationally recognized standards set forth by the Institute of Medicine (IoM), Guidelines International Network (GIN), Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE), and Grading Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE).

Methods: The potential solution is an independent group with content expertise and skilled in the methodology of systematic reviews and practice guidelines to produce trustworthy guideline recommendations, recommendations that are supported by publication in a top tier journal. The BMJ Rapid Recommendations project has recently demonstrated the feasibility and utility of this approach. Read More

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December 2018

Thirty-year cardiovascular risk score in patients with newly diagnosed bipolar disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5:4867418815987. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

1 The Copenhagen Affective Disorder Research Center (CADIC), Psychiatric Center Copenhagen, Denmark; Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objectives:: Bipolar disorder is associated with a decreased life expectancy of 8-12 years. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of excess mortality. For the first time, we investigated the Framingham 30-year risk score of cardiovascular disease in patients with newly diagnosed/first-episode bipolar disorder, their unaffected first-degree relatives and healthy individuals. Read More

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December 2018

Changes in Dietary Intake and Adherence to the NU-AGE Diet Following a One-Year Dietary Intervention among European Older Adults-Results of the NU-AGE Randomized Trial.

Nutrients 2018 Dec 4;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background: The Mediterranean Diet has been proposed as an effective strategy to reduce inflammaging, a chronic low grade inflammatory status, and thus, to slow down the aging process. We evaluated whether a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern specifically targeting dietary recommendations of people aged over 65 years (NU-AGE diet) could be effective to shift dietary intake of older adults towards a healthful diet.

Methods: Adults aged 65⁻80 years across five EU-centers were randomly assigned to a NU-AGE diet group or control group. Read More

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December 2018