1,191 results match your criteria Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Patients Infected With HIV


Causes of Hospitalization and Death among Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected Adults in Thailand.

J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2020 Jan-Dec;19:2325958220919266

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

More than half of newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients enter to care with a low CD4 count. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults who were hospitalized. Of 148 patients, median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 39. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325958220919266DOI Listing

Determinants of Anemia among HIV-Positive Children on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Attending Hospitals of North Wollo Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia, 2019: A Case-Control Study.

Anemia 2020 18;2020:3720572. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Woldia University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, P.O.Box 400, Woldia, Ethiopia.

. Anemia is one of the most commonly observed hematological abnormalities and an independent poor prognostic marker of HIV disease. The rate of progression and mortality in this subgroup of patients is high compared to nonanemic patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3720572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7049326PMC
February 2020

Epidemiological characteristics of HIV infected Korean: Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study.

Epidemiol Health 2019 3;41:e2019037. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Division of Viral Disease Research Center for Infectious Disease Research, Korea National Institute of Health, Cheongju, Korea.

Objectives: To manage evidence-based diseases, it is important to identify the characteristics of patients in each country.

Methods: The Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study seeks to identify the epidemiological characteristics of 1,442 Korean individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (12% of Korean individuals with HIV infection in 2017) who visited 21 university hospitals nationwide. The descriptive statistics were presented using the Korea HIV/AIDS cohort data (2006-2016). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6815876PMC
October 2019
1 Read

pneumonia in the twenty-first century: HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected patients.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2019 10 4;17(10):787-801. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona; IDIBAPS; University of Barcelona , Barcelona , Spain.

: pneumonia (PcP) has classically been described as a serious complication in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the emerging number of conditions associated with immunosuppression has led to its appearance in other patient populations. : This article reviews the most recent publications on PcP in the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected population, focusing on epidemiology, diagnostic, therapy and prevention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2019.1671823DOI Listing
October 2019
4 Reads

Immunization with recombinant KEX1 induces robust and durable humoral responses in immunocompromised non-human primates.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 26;15(9):2075-2080. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Center for Vaccines and Immunology, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia , Athens , USA.

Infection with the opportunistic fungal pathogen, causes life-threatening pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals. In addition to HIV-1 infected patients, individuals at risk of infection include those receiving immunosuppressive therapies due to transplantation, cancer or autoimmune disease. Antibiotic treatment is not always successful, and it does not prevent obstructive lung disease after clearance of the pathogen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1631135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6773377PMC
March 2020
2 Reads

A case report of HIV-1 superinfection in an HIV controller leading to loss of viremia control: a retrospective of 10 years of follow-up.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Jul 5;19(1):588. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Laboratório de Aids e Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC) -FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900, Brazil.

Background: HIV controllers (HICs) are a rare group of HIV-1-infected individuals able to naturally control viral replication. Several studies have identified the occurrence of HIV dual infections in seropositive individuals leading to disease progression. In HICs, however, dual infections with divergent outcomes in pathogenesis have been described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4229-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612226PMC
July 2019
2 Reads

One Month of Rifapentine plus Isoniazid to Prevent HIV-Related Tuberculosis.

N Engl J Med 2019 03;380(11):1001-1011

From the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha (S.S., C.V.F.); Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston (R.R., J.L.-C., J.A.); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (A.G., E.N., R.E.C.), and Social and Scientific Systems, Silver Spring (L. Moran) - both in Maryland; University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, La Jolla (C.A.B.); GHESKIO, Port-au-Prince, Haiti (M.A.J.J., P.S.); Asociación Civil Impacta Salud y Educación, Lima, Peru (J.R.L., J.V.); Botswana-Harvard AIDS Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana (A.O.-O., G.M.); Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand (K.S.); Helen Joseph Hospital, Johannesburg (N.M.), Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Soweto (L. Mohapi), and the University of Kwa-Zulu Natal, Durban (S.M.) - all in South Africa; Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Rio de Janeiro (R.O.S.E.); Johns Hopkins-Blantyre Clinical Trials Unit, Blantyre (P.B.), and the University of North Carolina-Lilongwe Clinical Research Site, Lilongwe (C.K.) - both in Malawi; the University of Zimbabwe, Harare (J.H.); and Kenya Medical Research Institute-Walter Reed Clinical Research Site, Nairobi (D.L.).

Background: Tuberculosis is the leading killer of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Preventive therapy is effective, but current regimens are limited by poor implementation and low completion rates.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 noninferiority trial comparing the efficacy and safety of a 1-month regimen of daily rifapentine plus isoniazid (1-month group) with 9 months of isoniazid alone (9-month group) in HIV-infected patients who were living in areas of high tuberculosis prevalence or who had evidence of latent tuberculosis infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1806808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6563914PMC
March 2019
18 Reads

Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-1-infected patients.

Respir Investig 2019 May 26;57(3):213-219. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Respiratory Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 1-757 Asahimachidori, Chuoku, Niigata 951-8510, Japan. Electronic address:

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic disease that mainly affects patients with a deficiency of cell-mediated immunity, especially acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of PCP in these patients has declined substantially owing to the widespread use of antiretroviral therapy and PCP prophylaxis. However, PCP is still a major AIDS-related opportunistic infection, particularly in patients with advanced immunosuppression in whom human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains undiagnosed or untreated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resinv.2019.01.009DOI Listing
May 2019
3 Reads

[Molecular transmission clusters on HCV genotypes among newly reported HIV/HCV co-infection in Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefecture of Yunnan province, 2016].

Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 2019 Feb;40(2):191-195

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, The Key Laboratory for Public Health Safety of Ministry of Education, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

To understand the characteristics on major strain subtypes of hepatitis C virus among HIV/HCV co-infected patients, so as to explore the molecular transmission clusters and related risk factors of HCV strains. A total of 336 newly reported HIV-infected patients were diagnosed as HIV/HCV co-infection in Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefecture (Dehong) in 2016. We used Nested PCR to amplify CE1 and NS5B genes among 318 samples with plasma levels above 200 μl, before using the combining phylogenetic tree and constructing molecular propagation network method to analyze the related data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2019.02.013DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Evaluation of a national cryptococcal antigen screening program for HIV-infected patients in Uganda: A cost-effectiveness modeling analysis.

PLoS One 2019 10;14(1):e0210105. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Global Health, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Cryptococcal meningitis accounts for 15% of AIDS-related mortality. Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) is detected in blood weeks before onset of meningitis, and CrAg positivity is an independent predictor of meningitis and death. CrAg screening for patients with advanced HIV and preemptive treatment is recommended by the World Health Organization, though implementation remains limited. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210105PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328136PMC
September 2019
48 Reads

Discontinuing cotrimoxazole preventive therapy in HIV-infected adults who are stable on antiretroviral treatment in Uganda (COSTOP): A randomised placebo controlled trial.

PLoS One 2018 31;13(12):e0206907. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Medical Research Council / Uganda Virus Research Institute and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Uganda.

Background: Cotrimoxazole (CTX) preventive therapy (CPT) reduces opportunistic infections and malaria in HIV-infected patients. In Africa, policies on sustained CPT during antiretroviral therapy (ART) differ between countries. We assessed the safety of discontinuing CPT in stable patients on ART in Uganda. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206907PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312229PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Effect of Macrolide Prophylactic Therapy on AIDS-Defining Conditions and HIV-Associated Mortality.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 04;80(4):436-443

Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Muntinlupa, Philippines.

Background: Mycobacterium avium complex prophylaxis is recommended for patients with advanced HIV infection. With the decrease in incidence of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection and the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the benefits of macrolide prophylaxis were investigated. This study examined the impact of macrolide prophylaxis on AIDS-defining conditions and HIV-associated mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected patients on ART. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6391185PMC
April 2019
32 Reads

Prednisone for the Prevention of Paradoxical Tuberculosis-Associated IRIS.

N Engl J Med 2018 11;379(20):1915-1925

From the Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine (G. Meintjes, C. Stek, L.B., F.T., C. Schutz, A.N., A.J., R.J.W.), the Department of Medicine (G. Meintjes, C. Stek, F.T., C. Schutz, R.J.W.), and the Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine (G. Maartens), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; the Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium (C. Stek, J.B., R.R., H.L., R.C., L.L.); the Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland (F.T.); and the Department of Medicine, Imperial College London and the Francis Crick Institute, London (R.J.W.).

Background: Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who have tuberculosis reduces mortality among patients with low CD4 counts, but it increases the risk of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS).

Methods: We conducted this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess whether prophylactic prednisone can safely reduce the incidence of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated IRIS in patients at high risk for the syndrome. We enrolled HIV-infected patients who were initiating ART (and had not previously received ART), had started tuberculosis treatment within 30 days before initiating ART, and had a CD4 count of 100 cells or fewer per microliter. Read More

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http://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa1800762
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1800762DOI Listing
November 2018
71 Reads

Reflexive Laboratory-Based Cryptococcal Antigen Screening and Preemptive Fluconazole Therapy for Cryptococcal Antigenemia in HIV-Infected Individuals With CD4 <100 Cells/µL: A Stepped-Wedge, Cluster-Randomized Trial.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2019 02;80(2):182-189

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Background: HIV-infected persons with cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg) are at high risk for meningitis or death. We evaluated the effect of CrAg screening and preemptive fluconazole therapy, adjunctive to antiretroviral therapy (ART), on 6-month survival among persons with advanced HIV/AIDS.

Methods: We enrolled HIV-infected, ART-naive participants with <100 CD4 cells/µL, in a stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial from July 2012 to December 2014 at 17 Ugandan clinics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339522PMC
February 2019
33 Reads

Opportunistic ocular infections in the setting of HIV.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2018 Nov;29(6):558-565

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this review is to highlight recent changes in opportunistic ocular infections (OOIs) in the era of modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in the setting of HIV-infected patients.

Recent Findings: Improvements in modern cART has led to a progressive decline in the incidence of OOIs and mortality among patients with AIDS. Not only has there been a decreasing incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, but there also has been a decline in progression of such retinitis when it does occur in AIDS patients, since the introduction of cART. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0000000000000531DOI Listing
November 2018
43 Reads

Epidemiological and clinical profile of HIV-infected patients from Southwestern Goias State, Brazil.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2018 Jul 19;60:e34. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Universidade Federal de Goiás, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Aplicadas à Saúde, Jataí, Goiás, Brazil.

Knowledge about epidemiological distribution patterns of HIV infection in different geographic regions is relevant to understand the dynamics of the disease in Brazil. This study aims to characterize the epidemiological and clinical profile of HIV-infected patients from Southwestern Goias State, from 2005 to 2015. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect clinical-epidemiological, virological, and immunological data from the medical records of all HIV-infected patients (n=539) who were followed at the regional reference center of Jatai, Goias State, Brazil, from 2005 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-9946201860034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6056885PMC
July 2018
10 Reads

A Retrospective Study of Culture-confirmed Mycobacterial Infection among Hospitalized HIV-infected Patients in Beijing, China.

Biomed Environ Sci 2018 Jun;31(6):459-462

National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 102206, China.

A retrospective analysis was performed in two major HIV/AIDS referral hospitals in Beijing to evaluate the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections in HIV-infected patients. A total of 627 patients' data were reviewed, and 102 (16.3%) patients were diagnosed with culture-confirmed mycobacterial infection, including 84 with MTB, 16 with NTM, and 2 with both MTB and NTM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2018.060DOI Listing
June 2018
59 Reads

Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adult HIV-infected patients.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2018 07 12;16(7):579-588. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

a Department of Pulmonary Medicine Institut Clinic del Tórax, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona - Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) , University of Barcelona (UB) - SGR 911- Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (Ciberes) , Barcelona , Spain.

Introduction: Despite active antiretroviral therapy (ART), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and incurs high health costs. Areas covered: This article reviews the most recent publications on bacterial CAP in the HIV-infected population, focusing on epidemiology, prognostic factors, microbial etiology, therapy, and prevention. The data discussed here were mainly obtained from a non-systematic review using Medline, and references from relevant articles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2018.1495560DOI Listing
July 2018
11 Reads

Magnitude of opportunistic diseases and their predictors among adult people living with HIV enrolled in care: national level cross sectional study, Ethiopia.

BMC Public Health 2018 07 3;18(1):820. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Opportunistic diseases cause morbidity and mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons. There is dearth of evidence on the magnitude and predictors of opportunistic diseases among PLHIV in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude and predictors of opportunistic diseases among adults enrolled in the national HIV/AIDS care and treatment services and generate information for program planning and medicine quantification in the country. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5733-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6029130PMC
July 2018
3 Reads

Late presentation to HIV/AIDS care at the Douala general hospital, Cameroon: its associated factors, and consequences.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 07 3;18(1):298. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Douala General Hospital, P.0. Box 4856, Douala, Cameroon.

Background: The introduction of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) has significantly reduced mortality and morbidity associated with HIV/AIDS. While treatment at early stages of the disease is related to a better prognosis, late presentation (LP) to care is harmful to the infected person, the society and is more costly. We aimed to describe late presentation to HIV care, its associated factors and consequences in patients followed up in a tertiary hospital in Cameroon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3204-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6029364PMC
July 2018
29 Reads

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Early vs Late Diagnosis of HIV-Infected Patients in South Carolina.

South Med J 2018 06;111(6):355-358

From the University of South Carolina-Palmetto Health Richland, Columbia, and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia.

Objectives: It is anticipated that early diagnosis, linkage to care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and retention in care would lead to reduced opportunistic infections, reduction in human immunodeficiency virus-related morbidity and mortality and reduced rates of HIV transmission. This would be expected to lead to a reduction in the lifetime cost of care (LCC). This study analyzed existing data to determine to what extent early-versus-late HIV diagnosis affects LCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14423/SMJ.0000000000000819DOI Listing
June 2018
6 Reads

Dynamic changes of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and human beta defensin 2 in HIV-infected patients with oral candidiasis during the first year of highly active anti-retroviral therapy.

Arch Oral Biol 2018 Aug 3;92:62-67. Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, College of Stomatology, Guangxi Medical University, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the change of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and human beta defensin 2 (HBD-2) in HIV-infected patients with oral candidiasis (OC) and gather information about OC-specific immunity.

Design: During the 1st year of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), 25 HIV-infected patients were followed up at the baseline, 3rd, 6th, 12th month. At each visit, oral manifestations were examined; oral rinses were collected and cultured for Candida; peripheral venous blood was taken to determine CD4 + T cell counts and HIV RNA viral load (VL); both unstimulated whole saliva and peripheral venous blood were taken to determine cytokine (IL-4, IL-17(A/F), IFN-γ) and HBD-2 levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.05.003DOI Listing
August 2018
26 Reads

Effects of Talaromyces marneffei infection on mortality of HIV/AIDS patients in southern China: a retrospective cohort study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2019 Feb 24;25(2):233-241. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of AIDS Prevention and Treatment & Guangxi Universities Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control of Highly Prevalent Disease, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China; Guangxi Collaborative Innovation Centre for Biomedicine, Life Sciences Institute, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Talaromyces marneffei is an opportunistic infection with high morbidity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS patients in Southeast Asia and southern China. Its effects on mortality in HIV/AIDS patients has not been clearly elucidated.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized HIV-infected individuals at the Fourth People's Hospital of Nanning, Guangxi, China during 2012-2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2018.04.018DOI Listing
February 2019
69 Reads

In Reply: Latent tuberculous infection testing among HIV-infected persons in clinical care.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2018 04;22(4):468-469

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA , Email:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.17.0910-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7043792PMC
April 2018
8 Reads

Priorities for Decreasing Morbidity and Mortality in Children With Advanced HIV Disease.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 03;66(suppl_2):S147-S151

HIV Department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Early mortality and morbidity remain high in children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Many children still present with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Tuberculosis, pneumonia, and severe bacterial infections are the main causes of hospital admission in HIV-infected children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5850631PMC
March 2018
9 Reads

CD4 Cell Count Threshold for Cryptococcal Antigen Screening of HIV-Infected Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 03;66(suppl_2):S152-S159

Wellcome Trust Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine South Africa.

Background: Current guidelines recommend screening all people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) who have a CD4 count ≤100 cells/µL for cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) to identify those patients who could benefit from preemptive fluconazole treatment prior to the onset of meningitis. We conducted a systematic review to assess the prevalence of CrAg positivity at different CD4 cell counts.

Methods: We searched 4 databases and abstracts from 3 conferences up to 1 September 2017 for studies reporting prevalence of CrAg positivity according to CD4 cell count strata. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix1143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5850628PMC
March 2018
21 Reads

Socio-economic status and risk of tuberculosis: a case-control study of HIV-infected patients in Asia.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2018 02;22(2):179-186

The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Setting: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related opportunistic infection and cause of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome related death. TB often affects those from a low socio-economic background.

Objective: To assess the socio-economic determinants of TB in HIV-infected patients in Asia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.17.0348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5880624PMC
February 2018
9 Reads

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium, microsporidia and Isospora infection in HIV-infected people: a global systematic review and meta-analysis.

Parasit Vectors 2018 01 9;11(1):28. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, 730046, People's Republic of China.

Background: Diarrhea caused by opportunistic intestinal protozoa is a common problem in HIV infection. We aimed to establish the prevalence of Cryptosporidium, misrosporidia, and Isospora in HIV-infected people using a systematic review and meta-analysis, which is central to developing public policy and clinical services.

Methods: We searched PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Embase, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP databases for studies reporting Cryptosporidium, microsporidia, or Isospora infection in HIV-infected people. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2558-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5759777PMC
January 2018
21 Reads

Screening for active tuberculosis before isoniazid preventive therapy among HIV-infected West African adults.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2017 12;21(12):1237-1244

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Unité 1219, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, Institut de Santé Publique, d'Epidémiologie et de Développement, France; Programme PAC-CI, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Treichville, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

Setting: TEMPRANO was a multicentre, open-label trial in which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected adults with high CD4 counts were randomised into early or deferred antiretroviral therapy (ART) arms with or without 6-month isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in a setting where the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends IPT in HIV-infected patients. Despite the WHO recommendation, IPT coverage remains low due to fear of the presence of undiagnosed active TB before prescribing IPT, and the related risk of drug resistance.

Objective: To report the frequency of undiagnosed TB in patients enrolled for IPT and describe the results of a 1-month buffer period to avoid prescribing IPT for active TB cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.17.0016DOI Listing
December 2017
8 Reads

Most common oral manifestations in pediatric patients HIV positive and the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Jan;23(1):115-122

Departamento de Odontologia II, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Maranhão. Av. Portugueses s/n, Bacangá. 65000-000 São Luís MA Brasil.

This integrative literature review aims to identify the main oral lesions affecting pediatric patients with HIV, and describe the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on these injuries, comparing it to antiretroviral therapy (ART). A search was conducted in PubMed and Scielo databases, following predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. 19 papers were selected and the main information on the prevalence and frequency of oral manifestations in HIV-positive pediatric patients and effect of therapy applied were extracted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232018231.19072015DOI Listing
January 2018
21 Reads

Treatment adherence in patients living with HIV/AIDS assisted at a specialized facility in Brazil.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2017 Sep-Oct;50(5):607-612

Programa de Pós-graduação Stricto Sensu em Odontologia Preventiva e Social, Faculdade de Odontologia de Araçatuba, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araçatuba, SP, Brasil.

Introduction: In the 1990s, Brazil adopted a public policy that allowed for universal, free access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Since then, treatment adherence has become a new challenge for administrators of sexually transmitted disease/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (STD/AIDS) policies. This study quantified adherence to ART and verified whether there is an association between sociodemographic variables and clinical/laboratory data in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Read More

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http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0266-2017DOI Listing
December 2017
13 Reads

[Treatment outcome, survival and their risk factors among new tuberculosis patients co-infected with HIV during the Ebola outbreak in Conakry].

Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 2017 Nov 22;65(6):419-426. Epub 2017 Oct 22.

Service de pneumo-phtisiologie, hôpital national Ignace Deen, CHU de Conakry, Conakry, Guinée.

Background: Mortality among TB/HIV co-infected patients remains high in Africa. The study aimed to estimate survival and associated factors in a cohort of TB/HIV co-infected patients who started tuberculosis treatment during the Ebola outbreak in Conakry, Guinea.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.respe.2017.05.011DOI Listing
November 2017
4 Reads

Myeloid Dendritic Cells Repress Human Cytomegalovirus Gene Expression and Spread by Releasing Interferon-Unrelated Soluble Antiviral Factors.

J Virol 2018 01 14;92(1). Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Immune Ageing and Chronic Infections Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a betaherpesvirus that latently infects most adult humans worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Latent human CMV (HCMV) is believed to reside in precursors of myeloid-lineage leukocytes and monocytes, which give rise to macrophages and dendritic cells (DC). We report here that human monocyte-derived DC (mo-DC) suppress HCMV infection in coculture with infected fibroblast target cells in a manner dependent on the effector-to-target ratio. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.01138-17
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01138-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5730771PMC
January 2018
25 Reads

Inadequacy of High-Dose Fluconazole Monotherapy Among Cerebrospinal Fluid Cryptococcal Antigen (CrAg)-Positive Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons in an Ethiopian CrAg Screening Program.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Nov;65(12):2126-2129

Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

A total of 817 human immunodeficiency virus-infected Ethiopians with CD4 <150 cells/mL underwent plasma cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) screening. CRAG prevalence was 6.2%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5850618PMC
November 2017
29 Reads

Risk factors for mortality in patients with tuberculosis and HIV in Douala (Cameroon).

Med Sante Trop 2017 Aug;27(3):286-291

Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB), École de santé, Belgique.

Despite prevention efforts, and free treatment, TB-HIV co-infection still occurs in Cameroon. The objective of this work is to present the risk factors for mortality in patients co-infected with TB and HIV in Douala from 2009 to 2014. This transversal, analytic, and retrospective study took place from November 2014 to May 2015 in the Laquintinie Hospital in Douala. Read More

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http://www.john-libbey-eurotext.fr/medline.md?doi=10.1684/ms
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/mst.2017.0713DOI Listing
August 2017
4 Reads

How I treat patients with HIV-related hematological malignancies using hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Blood 2017 11 7;130(18):1976-1984. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

Hematological Malignancies and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA.

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has now been shown to be safe and effective for selected HIV-infected patients with hematological malignancies. Autologous HCT is now the standard of care for patients with HIV-related lymphomas who otherwise meet standard transplant criteria. Limited data also support use of allogeneic HCT (alloHCT) in selected HIV-infected patients who meet standard transplant criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2017-04-551606DOI Listing
November 2017
10 Reads

Infectious complications in HIV-infected kidney transplant recipients.

Int J STD AIDS 2018 03 1;29(4):341-349. Epub 2017 Sep 1.

1 Renal Transplant Department, 26933 Pitié-Salpêtriere Hospital , Paris, France.

Renal transplantation is now a viable alternative for dialysis in HIV-infected patients who achieve good immunovirological control with current antiretroviral therapy regimens available. However, there are few studies that analyze the incidence of post-transplant infections in this population. In this study, a retrospective analysis of data files of 24 HIV-infected kidney transplant (KT) recipients was undertaken, matched to 21 non-infected controls. Read More

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http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0956462417726213
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462417726213DOI Listing
March 2018
4 Reads

Immunological recovery in tuberculosis/HIV co-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy: implication for tuberculosis preventive therapy.

BMC Infect Dis 2017 07 25;17(1):517. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

Department for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute (RKI), Seestr. 10, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Understanding the immune response to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is essential for a clear approach to tuberculosis (TB) preventive therapy. We investigated the immunological recovery in cART-treated HIV-infected patients developing TB compared to those who remained free of TB.

Methods: We extracted data of HIV-infected patients from a multicenter cohort for the HIV clinical surveillance in Germany. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2627-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5526303PMC
July 2017
24 Reads

Enhanced Prophylaxis plus Antiretroviral Therapy for Advanced HIV Infection in Africa.

N Engl J Med 2017 07;377(3):233-245

From the University of Zimbabwe Clinical Research Center, Harare, Zimbabwe (J.H., M.B.-D., G.M., K.N.); Joint Clinical Research Center, Kampala (V.M., C.K., P.M.), Mbarara (A.L.), and Fort Portal (S. Kabahenda) - all in Uganda; Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit at University College London (A.J.S., S.L.P., A.G., M.J.T., A.S.W., D.M.G.), Wellcome Trust Centre for Clinical Tropical Medicine and Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College (K.M.), and Queen Mary University of London (A.J.P.), London, and the Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York (S.W.) - all in the United Kingdom; the Department of Medicine and Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Program, Blantyre, Malawi (J.M., S. Kaunda); and Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret (A.S., M.K.), and the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) Wellcome Trust Research Program, Kilifi (C.A., K.M.) - both in Kenya.

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the rate of death from infection (including tuberculosis and cryptococcus) shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approximately 10%.

Methods: In this factorial open-label trial conducted in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and Kenya, we enrolled HIV-infected adults and children 5 years of age or older who had not received previous ART and were starting ART with a CD4+ count of fewer than 100 cells per cubic millimeter. They underwent simultaneous randomization to receive enhanced antimicrobial prophylaxis or standard prophylaxis, adjunctive raltegravir or no raltegravir, and supplementary food or no supplementary food. Read More

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http://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa1615822
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1615822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5603269PMC
July 2017
60 Reads

Assessment of isoniazid preventive therapy in the reduction of tuberculosis among ART patients in Arba Minch Hospital, Ethiopia.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2017 24;13:361-366. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent life-threatening opportunistic disease among people living with HIV and remains a leading cause of mortality, even among persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis have been recommended for the benefit of HIV/AIDS-infected individuals to prevent opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to assess IPT prophylaxis in the reduction of TB among ART patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S127765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5373837PMC
March 2017
14 Reads

Primary Prophylaxis for Cryptococcosis With Fluconazole in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With CD4 T-Cell Counts <100 Cells/µL and Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy.

Clin Infect Dis 2017 Apr;64(7):967-970

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

A prospective observational cohort study was conducted in 302 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients who had a CD4 T-cell count <100 cells/µL and negative serum cryptococcal antigen initiating antiretroviral therapy in a resource-limited setting. During 2-year follow-up, there were no differences of survival rates and occurrences of newly diagnosed cryptococcosis between patients with and without fluconazole for primary prophylaxis of cryptococcosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix036DOI Listing
April 2017
32 Reads

Health systems in the Republic of Congo: challenges and opportunities for implementing tuberculosis and HIV collaborative service, research, and training activities.

Int J Infect Dis 2017 Mar 27;56:62-67. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Médicale, Cité OMS, villa D6, Djoué, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University Marien Ngouabi, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo; Institute for Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

The Republic of Congo is on the World Health Organization (WHO) list of 'high burden' countries for tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. TB is the leading cause of death among HIV-infected patients in the Republic of Congo. In this viewpoint, the available data on TB and HIV in the Republic of Congo are reviewed, and the gaps and bottlenecks that the National TB Control Program (NTCP) faces are discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2016.10.012DOI Listing
March 2017
13 Reads

Cost-effectiveness of CRAG-LFA screening for cryptococcal meningitis among people living with HIV in Uganda.

BMC Infect Dis 2017 03 23;17(1):225. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe St. PCTB building-224, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Background: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) constitutes a significant source of mortality in resource-limited regions. Cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) can be detected in the blood before onset of meningitis. We sought to determine the cost-effectiveness of implementing CRAG screening using the recently developed CRAG lateral flow assay in Uganda compared to current practice without screening. Read More

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http://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1287
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2325-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5364591PMC
March 2017
7 Reads

Association between enteric protozoan parasites and gastrointestinal illness among HIV- and tuberculosis-infected individuals in the Chowke district, southern Mozambique.

Acta Trop 2017 Jun 14;170:197-203. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Department of Parasitology, Pharmacy Faculty, Valencia University, Av. Vicente Andrés Estellés s/n, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections remain major public health issues globally, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Impairment of both cell-mediated and humoral immunity by HIV and/or TB infections may limit the host's defences against other pathogens, including the diarrheagenic protozoan Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.03.010DOI Listing
June 2017
37 Reads

Seroprevalence of among HIV Patients in Jahrom, Southern Iran.

Korean J Parasitol 2017 Feb 28;55(1):99-103. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

is an important opportunistic agent especially in immunocompromised hosts and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, detection and monitoring of anti- antibodies are of a great interest in HIV-infected patients. A study on the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and associated risk factors was carried out among HIV-infected patients in Jahrom, southern Iran. Read More

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http://parasitol.kr/journal/view.php?doi=10.3347/kjp.2017.55
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2017.55.1.99DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5365268PMC
February 2017
28 Reads
0.965 Impact Factor

An association between decreasing incidence of invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis and increased use of antiretroviral therapy, Gauteng Province, South Africa, 2003-2013.

PLoS One 2017 6;12(3):e0173091. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.

Background: HIV-infected persons are at increased risk of opportunistic infections, including invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections; antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces this risk. We explored changing iNTS incidence associated with increasing ART availability in South Africa.

Methods: Laboratory-based surveillance for iNTS was conducted in Gauteng Province, South Africa, with verification using the National Health Laboratory Service's Central Data Warehouse (CDW), between 2003 and 2013. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0173091PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5338796PMC
September 2017
34 Reads

Early use of corticosteroids in infants with a clinical diagnosis of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in Malawi: a double-blind, randomised clinical trial.

Paediatr Int Child Health 2017 May 1;37(2):121-128. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

a College of Medicine, University of Malawi , Blantyre , Malawi.

Background: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) is the most common opportunistic infection in infants with vertically acquired HIV infection and the most common cause of death in HIV-infected infants.

Objectives: To determine whether early administration of adjuvant corticosteroids in addition to standard treatment reduces mortality in infants with vertically acquired HIV and clinically diagnosed PJP when co-infection with cytomegalovirus and other pathogens cannot be excluded.

Methods: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of adjuvant prednisolone treatment in HIV-exposed infants aged 2-6 months admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre who were diagnosed clinically with PJP was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20469047.2016.1260891DOI Listing
May 2017
23 Reads

Concurrent Plasmodium infection, anemia and their correlates among newly diagnosed people living with HIV/AIDS in Northern Ethiopia.

Acta Trop 2017 May 21;169:8-13. Epub 2017 Jan 21.

Department of public health, College of Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, P.o. Box: 75, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

The magnitude of concurrent malaria infection and the impact it has on hematological abnormalities, such as anemia in people living with HIV/AIDS, is not well studied in Ethiopian set up. In this cross sectional study, therefore, we assessed the prevalence of concurrent malaria infection and anemia among highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) naive people living with HIV/AIDS between October, 2012 to May, 2013 in Northern Ethiopia. After obtaining consent, socio demographic, clinical, immunological and behavioural data was obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.01.007DOI Listing
May 2017
66 Reads
2 Citations
2.270 Impact Factor

Venous Thromboembolism Requiring Extended Anticoagulation Among HIV-Infected Patients in a Rural, Resource-Constrained Setting in Western Kenya.

Ann Pharmacother 2017 May 6;51(5):380-387. Epub 2017 Jan 6.

2 Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH), Eldoret, Kenya.

Background: HIV-infected patients are at an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), and minimal data are available to describe the need for extended treatment.

Objective: To evaluate the frequency of and determine predictive risk factors for extended anticoagulation of VTE in HIV-infected patients in rural, western Kenya.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted at the Anticoagulation Monitoring Service affiliated with Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital and the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1060028016686106DOI Listing
May 2017
17 Reads

Classical and alternative macrophages have impaired function during acute and chronic HIV-1 infection.

Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jan - Feb;21(1):42-50. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Laboratório de Imunologia e Epigenética, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Three decades after HIV recognition and its association with AIDS development, many advances have emerged - especially related to prevention and treatment. Undoubtedly, the development of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) dramatically changed the future of the syndrome that we know today. In the present study, we evaluate the impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy on macrophage function and its relevance to HIV pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2016.10.004DOI Listing
August 2017
18 Reads