1,224 results match your criteria Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Patients Infected With HIV

[Couple life and management of HIV infection in the pneumology department of the Teaching hospital center of Cocody, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

Med Trop Sante Int 2021 09 20;1(3). Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Les auteurs ne déclarent aucun conflit d'intérêt.

Introduction: The life of a couple is a place of emotional support. It can allow the management of patients infected with HIV on antiretroviral therapy to be optimized.The objective of our study was to analyze the impact of married life on the therapeutic follow-up of patients living with HIV. Read More

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September 2021

Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among People Living With HIV in Wuhan, China.

Front Public Health 2022 29;10:833783. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, people living with HIV (PLWH) face more challenges. However, it is unclear if PLWH is more susceptible to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection than HIV-negative individuals. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the associated risk factors among PLWH. Read More

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A nomogram for predicting paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with cryptococcal meningitis among HIV-infected individuals in China.

AIDS Res Ther 2022 04 26;19(1):20. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 8 Jingshundong Street, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100015, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CM-IRIS) is the second most common complication in HIV-infected individuals with cryptococcal meningitis, with a reported mortality rate ranging from 8 to 30%. Given the devastating consequences of CM-IRIS related intracranial neuroinflammation and its challenging in diagnosis, we conducted a study to explore the risk factors and the occurrence of paradoxical CM-IRIS in HIV-infected patients, which is of great value for prevention and clinical management.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to identify the indicators associated with paradoxical CM-IRIS among 86 HIV-infected patients with CM using univariate and multivariate cox analysis. Read More

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AIDS at 40: The progress of HIV treatment in Japan.

Shinichi Oka

Glob Health Med 2022 Feb;4(1):1-8

AIDS Clinical Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Forty years have passed since the first five AIDS cases in Los Angeles were reported in 1981. Looking back at the history, these 40 years could be divided into 3 phases. During the first 15 years, when there was little efficacious therapy against HIV, clinical research was directed to develop diagnosis and treatment for opportunistic infections, mainly pneumonia. Read More

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February 2022

The Role of Innate Immunity in Natural Elite Controllers of HIV-1 Infection.

Front Immunol 2022 8;13:780922. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of AIDS Prevention and Treatment, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China.

The natural process of human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1) infection is characterized by high viral load, immune cell exhaustion, and immunodeficiency, which eventually leads to the stage of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and opportunistic infections. Rapidly progressing HIV-1 individuals often die of AIDS several years after infection without treatment. The promotion of ART greatly prolongs the survival time of HIV-infected persons. Read More

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Distribution patterns of drug resistance Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV negative and positive tuberculosis patients in Western Kenya.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Nov 22;21(1):1175. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Medicine, Moi University School of Medicine, Eldoret, Kenya.

Introduction: Globally anti-tuberculosis drug resistance is one of the major challenges affecting control and prevention of tuberculosis. Kenya is ranked among 30 high burden TB countries globally. However, there is scanty information on second line antituberculosis drug resistance among tuberculosis patients. Read More

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November 2021

Case Report: Intravenous Pentamidine Rescue Treatment for Active Chronic Visceral Leishmaniasis in an HIV-1 Infected Patient.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 11 15;106(2):639-642. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

The management of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in HIV-infected patients is complex because of high mortality rates, toxic drug-related side effects, and a high risk of treatment failure and relapse. We report a case of active chronic VL in an HIV-1-infected woman presenting multiple secondary VL episodes over 7 years leading to massive splenomegaly and blood transfusion-dependent anemia despite several treatment courses and secondary prophylaxis. The patient was finally successfully treated with rescue treatment based on intravenous pentamidine. Read More

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November 2021

Ezrin Peptide Therapy from HIV to COVID: Inhibition of Inflammation and Amplification of Adaptive Anti-Viral Immunity.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 28;22(21). Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Institute of Immunology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 115478 Moscow, Russia.

Human Ezrin Peptides (HEPs) are inhibitors of expression of IL-6 and other inflammatory cytokines, amplifiers of adaptive B cell and T cell immunity and enhancers of tissue repair. The mutation stable -terminus of HIV gp120, mimics 69% of the "Hep-receptor", a zipped α-helical structure in the middle of the α domain of human ezrin protein. Synthetic peptides homologous to the Hep-receptor of ezrin of five to fourteen amino acids, activate anti-viral immunity against a wide range of viruses (HIV, HCV, herpes, HPV, influenza and other human respiratory viruses). Read More

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October 2021

COVID-19 Vaccines for HIV-Infected Patients.

Viruses 2021 09 22;13(10). Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, New York Institute of Technology, NYIT College of Osteopathic Medicine, Old Westbury, NY 11568, USA.

Nearly 40 years have passed since the initial cases of infection with the human mmunodeficiency virus (HIV) were identified as a new disease entity and the cause of acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). This virus, unlike any other, is capable of causing severe suppression of our adaptive immune defense mechanisms by directly infecting and destroying helper T cells leading to increased susceptibility to a wide variety of microbial pathogens, especially those considered to be intracellular or opportunistic. After T cells are infected, HIV reproduces itself via a somewhat unique mechanism involving various metabolic steps, which includes the use of a reverse transcriptase enzyme that enables the viral RNA to produce copies of its complementary DNA. Read More

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September 2021

Diagnosis of fungal opportunistic infections in people living with HIV from Guatemala and El Salvador.

Mycoses 2021 Dec 29;64(12):1563-1570. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Mycotic Diseases Branch, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Objectives: Histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis are important public health problems in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Central America. Conventional laboratory tests, such as culture and microscopy, are not optimal; however, antigen (Ag) tests are rapid, highly sensitive, and specific for diagnosis of fungal opportunistic infections (OI). The aim of this study was to describe the results of a laboratory-based surveillance system for histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis. Read More

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December 2021

Low prevalence of isoniazid preventive therapy uptake among HIV-infected patients attending tertiary health facility in Lagos, Southwest Nigeria.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 13;39:123. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

University of Lagos, College of Medicine, Lagos, Nigeria.

Introduction: the burden of HIV and tuberculosis co-infection is a global public health challenge. Despite the benefit of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in reducing the rate of co-infection, the uptake is generally limited in developing countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of IPT use and the factors affecting the uptake among HIV-infected patients attending our Teaching Hospital. Read More

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October 2021

Predictive factors of ART adherence in people living with HIV in Guangxi, China: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

AIDS Care 2021 Aug 17:1-6. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of AIDS Prevention and Treatment, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, People's Republic of China.

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a prerequisite to improve immunity and reduce the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV (PLWH). To describe ART adherence and associated factors among PLWH, patients who initiated ART in Liuzhou between 1998 and 2013 were recruited. Socio-demographic characteristics, HIV infection-related characteristics and clinical tests were analyzed. Read More

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Seizure in HIV-infected patients: clinical presentation, cause and treatment outcome in Ethiopia-a retrospective study.

Amanuel Amare

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Aug 10;21(1):790. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Neurology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: The estimated number of adult patients living with HIV infection in Ethiopia in 2012 was approximately 800,000. Seizure occurs in 2 to 3% and 6.1% to 34. Read More

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Hepatitis B virus infection and its determinants among HIV positive pregnant women: Multicenter unmatched case-control study.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(4):e0251084. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) kills millions of people globally; it is worse in pregnant women. HBV and Human Immune Virus (HIV) co-infection is associated with increased liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This study aimed at identifying the determinants of HBV infection among HIV-positive pregnant women. Read More

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October 2021

Risk Factors for Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes among the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Tuberculosis Population in Tashkent City, Uzbekistan: 2013-2017.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 27;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Phthisiology and Pulmonology of the Tashkent Medical Academy, Tashkent 100109, Uzbekistan.

Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection poses a growing clinical challenge. People living with HIV have a higher chance of developing TB, and once the disease has progressed, are at greater risk of having unfavorable TB treatment outcomes. Data on TB treatment outcomes among the HIV-associated TB population in Uzbekistan are limited. Read More

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Efficacy of induction regimens for cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 04 21;11(1):8565. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the most fatal adult meningitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There is no conclusive evidence for the superiority of 1-week amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmphB) + flucytosine (5-FC) regimen over other antifungals in the management of HIV patients with CM (HIV-CM patients). We aimed to evaluate the differences in efficacy and tolerability of different antifungal agents in HIV-CM patients by conducting a current network meta-analysis NMA. Read More

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Timing of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis: study protocol of a multi-center prospective randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Mar 18;22(1):218. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Chongqing Public Health Medical Center, 109 Baoyu Road, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400036, China.

Background: Cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) is an important opportunistic infection (OI) occurring mainly in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and has the potential to cause severe visual impairment and blindness among AIDS patients. Subsequent to the adoption and implementation of widespread antiretroviral therapy (ART), the prognosis of AIDS-associated CMVR has been substantially improved. Nevertheless, the equivocal clinical evidence as regards the optimal timing for ART initiation in patients with an established CMVR diagnosis is required. Read More

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Oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Dis Mon 2021 Sep 25;67(9):101169. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

College of Dental Medicine, Roseman University of Health Sciences, South Jordan, Utah, USA. Electronic address:

Human immunodeficiency virus has plagued mankind since the 1980's when the first case was documented. Human immunodeficiency virus-induced immunocompromised state can lead to several systemic and local manifestations, which often culminates in mortality. Oral candidiasis was one of the most prevalent opportunistic infections noted in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Read More

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September 2021

Cardiac Transplantation in HIV-Positive Patients: A Narrative Review.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 06;87(2):763-768

Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth Australia.

Abstract: Before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, patients infected with HIV experienced poor prognosis including high rates of opportunistic infections, rapid progression to AIDS, and significant mortality. Increased life expectancy after therapeutic improvements has led to an increase in other chronic diseases for these patients, including cardiovascular disease and, in particular, end-stage heart failure. Historically, HIV infection was deemed an absolute contraindication for transplantation. Read More

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Predictors of Virological Failure after Adherence-Enhancement Counseling among First-Line Adults Living with HIV/AIDS in Kombolcha Town, Northeast Ethiopia.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2021 26;13:91-97. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Dessie City Zonal Health Department, CDC-Ethiopia, Dessie, Ethiopia.

Background: HIV virological failure is a common challenging problem, even after adherence-enhancement counseling. However, there have been few studies on the determinants of virological failure after adherence-enhancement counseling among adult patients on antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia in general, and there is variation across clients and settings for unknown reasons. Therefore, this study aimed to identify predictors of virological failure after adherence-enhancement counseling among adults living with HIV/AIDS. Read More

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January 2021

Predictors of AIDS-related death among adult HIV-infected inpatients in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 8;37:144. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Kisangani, Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Introduction: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection continues to be a major public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to evaluate potential factors associated with AIDS-related death among adult HIV-infected inpatients in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

Methods: this is a hospital-based retrospective, observational analysis carried out between 1 January 2019 and 31 March 2020 among inpatients HIV, at 12 facilities integrating the HIV prevention and care packages in Kisangani. Read More

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January 2021

Insufficient tuberculosis treatment leads to earlier and higher mortality in individuals co-infected with HIV in southern China: a cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Nov 23;20(1):873. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of AIDS Prevention and Treatment, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi, China.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are leading causes of death globally. However, little is known about the long-term mortality risk and the timeline of death in those co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). This study sought to understand the long-term mortality risk, factors, and the timeline of death in those with HIV-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) coinfection, particularly in those with insufficient TB treatment. Read More

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November 2020

Early antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected patients admitted to an intensive care unit (EARTH-ICU): A randomized clinical trial.

PLoS One 2020 21;15(9):e0239452. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Infectious Disease Department, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Background: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced HIV-related morbidity and mortality at all stages of infection and reduced transmission of HIV. Currently, the immediate start of HAART is recommended for all HIV patients, regardless of the CD4 count. There are several concerns, however, about starting treatment in critically ill patients. Read More

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November 2020

Female sex is strongly associated with cognitive impairment in HIV infection.

Neurol Sci 2021 May 14;42(5):1853-1860. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Division of Neuropathology, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.

Background: Neurocognitive disorders remain frequent despite highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). The CNS is known as the sanctuary of HIV infection, where persistent neuroinflammation occurs regardless of viral suppression. Moreover, opportunistic infections, neurovascular damage and HAART neurotoxicity contribute to neurocognitive impairment. Read More

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Risk Factors of Infection among HIV-Infected Patients in Trang Province, Southern Thailand: A Study on Three Prevalent Species.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 10;103(4):1502-1509

Department of Parasitology, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand.

There are two main species of reported in Thailand, that is, and Moreover, leishmaniasis cases caused by complex were also reported. There is still a lack of information concerning risk factors of infection in Thailand. This study aimed to identify the risk factors of infection caused by these three species among HIV-infected patients. Read More

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October 2020

Systematic or Test-Guided Treatment for Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Adults.

N Engl J Med 2020 06;382(25):2397-2410

From the Department of Respiratory Medicine, L'Institut du Thorax, Nantes University Hospital, and the Medical School, University of Nantes, Nantes (F.-X.B.), INSERM Unité 1219, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (A.D.B., D.G., X.A.), Relations Translationnelles sur le VIH et les Maladies Infectieuses, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, University of Montpellier, INSERM (M.B.), and Research Unit 1058 Pathogenesis and Control Chronical Infections, INSERM, French Blood Center, University of Montpellier (D.L.), Montpellier, and the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Nîmes University Hospital, Nîmes (D.L.) - all in France; Programme ANRS (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida et les Hépatites Virales) Coopération Côte d'Ivoire, ANRS research site (A.D.B., E.M., S.J.), and Félix Houphouët-Boigny University (S.P.E., S.K.D.) - both in Abidjan, Ivory Coast; Epicentre (M.B., N.N.) and Mbarara University of Science and Technology (C.M.) - both in Mbarara, Uganda; the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (S.S.), Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (L.B.), and Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope (S.T.) - all in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital (B.D.N.) and ANRS, Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital (A.D., D.R.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; and the Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (S.D.L.).

Background: In regions with high burdens of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), many HIV-infected adults begin antiretroviral therapy (ART) when they are already severely immunocompromised. Mortality after ART initiation is high in these patients, and tuberculosis and invasive bacterial diseases are common causes of death.

Methods: We conducted a 48-week trial of empirical treatment for tuberculosis as compared with treatment guided by testing in HIV-infected adults who had not previously received ART and had CD4+ T-cell counts below 100 cells per cubic millimeter. Read More

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Cryptococcal antigenemia and its predictors among HIV infected patients in resource limited settings: a systematic review.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jun 11;20(1):407. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that primarily affects people with advanced HIV/AIDS and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. By far the most common presentation of the disease is cryptococcal meningitis (CM), which leads to an estimated 15-20% of all HIV related deaths worldwide, 75% of which are in sub-Saharan Africa. However, to the best of our knowledge there is quite limited reviewed data on the epidemiology of cryptococcal antigenemia in a large HIV-infected population in resource limited settings. Read More

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Causes of Hospitalization and Death among Newly Diagnosed HIV-Infected Adults in Thailand.

J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2020 Jan-Dec;19:2325958220919266

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

More than half of newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients enter to care with a low CD4 count. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults who were hospitalized. Of 148 patients, median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 39. Read More

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Determinants of Anemia among HIV-Positive Children on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Attending Hospitals of North Wollo Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia, 2019: A Case-Control Study.

Anemia 2020 18;2020:3720572. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Woldia University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, P.O.Box 400, Woldia, Ethiopia.

. Anemia is one of the most commonly observed hematological abnormalities and an independent poor prognostic marker of HIV disease. The rate of progression and mortality in this subgroup of patients is high compared to nonanemic patients. Read More

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February 2020