N Engl J Med 2020 06;382(25):2397-2410
From the Department of Respiratory Medicine, L'Institut du Thorax, Nantes University Hospital, and the Medical School, University of Nantes, Nantes (F.-X.B.), INSERM Unité 1219, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux (A.D.B., D.G., X.A.), Relations Translationnelles sur le VIH et les Maladies Infectieuses, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, University of Montpellier, INSERM (M.B.), and Research Unit 1058 Pathogenesis and Control Chronical Infections, INSERM, French Blood Center, University of Montpellier (D.L.), Montpellier, and the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Nîmes University Hospital, Nîmes (D.L.) - all in France; Programme ANRS (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida et les Hépatites Virales) Coopération Côte d'Ivoire, ANRS research site (A.D.B., E.M., S.J.), and Félix Houphouët-Boigny University (S.P.E., S.K.D.) - both in Abidjan, Ivory Coast; Epicentre (M.B., N.N.) and Mbarara University of Science and Technology (C.M.) - both in Mbarara, Uganda; the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology, and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (S.S.), Institut Pasteur du Cambodge (L.B.), and Sihanouk Hospital Center of Hope (S.T.) - all in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital (B.D.N.) and ANRS, Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital (A.D., D.R.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; and the Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (S.D.L.).
Background: In regions with high burdens of tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), many HIV-infected adults begin antiretroviral therapy (ART) when they are already severely immunocompromised. Mortality after ART initiation is high in these patients, and tuberculosis and invasive bacterial diseases are common causes of death.
Methods: We conducted a 48-week trial of empirical treatment for tuberculosis as compared with treatment guided by testing in HIV-infected adults who had not previously received ART and had CD4+ T-cell counts below 100 cells per cubic millimeter. Read More