5,704 results match your criteria Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
Int J Soc Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5:20764018814271. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, India.
The connection between gender and health has intrigued health professionals in the last few decades. Silencing-the-self theory has brought a considerable clarity in this matter. After around three decades of the theory, the literature related to the theory has immensely flourished and has covered different branches of psychology. Read More
Ugeskr Laeger 2018 Nov;180(47)
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a cluster of severe affective symptoms recurring during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and it affects up to 8% of menstruating women. In Denmark, this disorder is often overlooked. Unlike in the treatment of anxiety and depression, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors need not be given continuously but can be effective when used only in the luteal phase. Read More
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2018 Nov 28;40(11):686-692. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Faculty of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess the anthropometric measures, food intake and food cravings during the menstrual cycle of undergraduate students of the faculty of nutrition.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed with 27 students from a public university in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, who had their food intake evaluated through a 24-hour food recall, their nutritional status evaluated based on anthropometric measures, and food cravings evaluated using the Food Desire Questionnaire. Data were collected during an evaluation in the follicular phase (between the 5 and the 9 day of the menstrual cycle) and another in the luteal phase (LP) (between the 20 and the 25 day of the menstrual cycle). Read More
Front Psychol 2018 13;9:2065. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Lab of Traditional Chinese Medicine Classical Theory, Ministry of Education, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, China.
To explore the targets, signal regulatory networks and mechanisms involved in Baixiangdan (BXD) capsule regulation of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) at the gene transcription level, since the etiology and pathogenesis of PMDD are not well understood. The PMDD rat model was prepared using the resident-intruder paradigm. The rats were tested for aggressive behavior, and those with scores in the lowest 30% were used as controls, while rats with scores in the highest 30% were divided into a PMDD model group, BXD administration group and fluoxetine administration group, which were evaluated with open-field tests and aggressive behavior tests. Read More
Women Health 2018 Nov 26:1-15. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
f Department of Psychiatry , Weill Cornell Medicine in Qatar , Doha , Qatar.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is not well-studied in Arab populations. The goal of this study was to validate the Arabic version of the Premenstrual Symptoms Screening Tool (PSST) using the DSM diagnosis of PMDD as the gold standard. The PSST was translated and culturally adapted using back translation and the approval of the original author. Read More
J Psychosom Res 2018 Dec 13;115:38-43. Epub 2018 Oct 13.
Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Department of Psychology, Philipps-University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
Although premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is assumed to be a homogenous diagnostic entity, it is hallmarked by highly diverse clinical symptoms. In this study, we investigate symptom clusters in women prospectively diagnosed with severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or PMDD using factor analysis; analyze the stability of the structures of different symptom patterns and their association with impairment at work, in recreation, and in relationships. A total of 174 prospective symptom diaries were analyzed with principal axis factoring revealing six clusters named affective dysphoria, somatic dysphoria, irritability, breast/body sensitivity, pain, and eating behavior. Read More
J Reprod Infant Psychol 2018 Nov 23:1-16. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
a Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychopathology , Institute of Psychology, University of Lodz , Łódź , Poland.
Background: The purpose of our study is to verify whether elements of cognitive vulnerability to affective disorders may enhance the occurrence of PMS/PMDD.
Methods: In total, 293 women with regular cycles took part in the study. The subjects were exposed to failure during the follicular phase or luteal phase, as appropriate, and the attributional style of failure, cognitive triad inventory (CTI) and presence of biased information processing were determined. Read More
Biol Psychol 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
University of Zurich, Institute of Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Binzumühlestrasse 14/ 26, 8050, Zürich, Switzerland. Electronic address:
Overlapping symptoms between premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and postpartum depression (PPD) suggest that these disorders may share a common etiology and pathology. Moreover, PMS is a risk factor for the development of PPD. This review aims to synthesize the evidence regarding associations between PMS and PPD. Read More
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 2018 Dec 25;45(4):629-640. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
The Saul R. Korey Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, 1300 Morris Park Avenue Block, Room 316, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.
Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are the primary menopausal symptoms, occurring in up 80% of women and peaking around the final menstrual period. The average duration is 10 years, longer in women with an earlier onset. Compared with non-Hispanic white women, black and Hispanic women are more likely and Asian women are less likely to report VMS. Read More
Chronobiol Int 2018 Nov 5:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 5.
b Laboratory of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Advanced Science and Engineering , Waseda University , Tokyo , Japan.
Menstrual symptoms may have a significant impact on women's lives. Many women experience menses-related health problems, such as menstrual pain, heavy menstrual bleeding, and premenstrual syndrome, during their reproductively fertile years. Circadian misalignment in shift workers has been reported to contribute to menstrual cycle irregularity and/or painful menstruation. Read More
Seizure 2018 Oct 28;63:26-36. Epub 2018 Oct 28.
The University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Toronto, Canada.
The anti-seizure effects of progesterone family compounds have long been known. Over the years, however, most studies have focused on progesterone and on its secondary metabolite allopregnanolone (ALLO), with less attention being paid to its primary metabolite 5a-dihydroprogesterone (DHP). Here we review animal and clinical studies related to the anti-seizure effects of progesterone and its 5a neuroactive metabolites, including DHP and ALLO. Read More
Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2018 Oct;26(3):276-277
Assoc. Prof. Suzana Ljubojević Hadžavdić, MD, PhD, Department of Dermatology and Venereology University Hospital Center Zagreb School of Medicine University of Zagreb, Šalata 4, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia;
Autoimmune progesterone dermatitis (APD) is rare autoimmune response to endogenous progesterone or to earlier exposure to exogenous progesterone (1). Skin lesions typically occur due to increases in progesterone during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (2). A-31-year-old mother of two children presented to our Department with a 5-year history of pruritic and painful erythematosus macules, papules, and patches on her neck, pectoral region, and face, which appeared 2-3 days before the onset of menses and gradually resolved 7-10 days later (Figure 1). Read More
J Eat Disord 2018 25;6:35. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
2Department of Gynecology, Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
Background: This case report details the presentation, treatment and post-operative outcome of an adult female with co-occurring binge eating disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD).
Case Presentation: The patient, self-presenting for treatment, reported having struggled with severe, debilitating physical and psychological PMDD symptoms for nearly a decade. After having taken part in a number of unsuccessful first- and second line treatments in primary and secondary care, the patient was referred to tertiary care at the Department of Gynecology at Oslo University Hospital in Norway. Read More
Mol Psychiatry 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.
Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) affects over 5% of women, with symptoms similar to anxiety and major depression, and is associated with differential sensitivity to circulating ovarian hormones. Little is known about the genetic and epigenetic factors that increase the risk to develop PMDD. We report that 17β-estradiol (E2) affects the behavior and the epigenome in a mouse model carrying a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF Val66Met), in a way that recapitulates the hallmarks of PMDD. Read More
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018 Nov;31(11):1231-1239
Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine, Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey.
Background Current literature suggests that diet is involved in either the development of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or contributes to symptom severity, but to date, there are no studies evaluating eating attitudes of adolescents with PMS. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake and eating attitudes in adolescents with PMS. Methods This study was conducted with 383 adolescents (214 with and 169 without PMS), aged 13-19 years. Read More
Int J Adolesc Med Health 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Psychology, Mashhad, Iran (Islamic Republic of).
Background Menstruation is universally experienced by all healthy females from menarche to menopause, although the cognitive and emotional dimension of this experience may differ across time and place. Objective This qualitative study was conducted to explore the menstruation experiences of Iranian women. Methods Eight Iranian university students, aged between 21 and 25 years, who were resident in Tehran, were interviewed and data were analyzed using an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach. Read More
Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USA.
Women are more likely than men to experience depression throughout the life span. Sex differences in neurochemistry and brain structure, as well as societal factors may contribute to women's increased likelihood of depression. Pharmacological research targeting depression has historically excluded women, leading to a knowledge gap regarding effective antidepressant treatment in women. Read More
J Headache Pain 2018 Oct 17;19(1):97. Epub 2018 Oct 17.
Head and Neck Research Group, Research Centre, Akershus University hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.
Background: Menstrual migraine (MM) and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are two conditions linked to specific phases of the menstrual cycle. The exact pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood, but both conditions are hypothesized to be triggered by female sex hormones. Co-occurrence of MM and PMS is controversial. Read More
Front Physiol 2018 1;9:1384. Epub 2018 Oct 1.
Department of Internal Medicine F, J. Recanati Autonomic Dysfunction Center, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
The premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a constellation of somatic and psychogenic symptoms that appear during late luteal (LL) phase of the menstrual cycle. Since many symptoms could be related to the autonomic nervous system, we hypothesized that the sympathetic nervous system is perturbed in PMS. The cardiovascular autonomic profile of nine women with PMS (30. Read More
Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Oct 5;100:85-95. Epub 2018 Oct 5.
Department of Neurology, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
Sex differences in the neural processing of emotion are of special interest considering that mood and anxiety disorders predominant in females. However, these sex-related differences were typically studied without considering the hormonal status of female subjects, although emotion processing in the brain was shown to differ between phases of the menstrual cycle. In this functional MRI study, we demonstrated the influence of the menstrual cycle phase on sex differences in brain activity and functional connectivity during negative and positive emotions, using two different paradigms: emotion perception and emotion experience. Read More
Arch Womens Ment Health 2018 Oct 6. Epub 2018 Oct 6.
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
We examined the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (+PTSD) symptoms and incident premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in a longitudinal study with 14 years follow-up of 2924 women aged 27-44. Compared to women with no trauma exposure, women with trauma/PTSD were at significantly increased risk of PMS (p-trend < .001): 1) trauma/no PTSD odds ratio (OR) = 1. Read More
Curr Pain Headache Rep 2018 Oct 5;22(12):81. Epub 2018 Oct 5.
Department of Neurology, Jefferson Headache Clinic, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Purpose Of Review: A wide variety of triggers prompt attacks in episodic migraine. Although experimental triggers such as glyceryl trinitrate reliably produce migraine, natural triggers are much less predictable and vary in importance between individuals. This review describes the most common triggers in episodic migraine and provides strategies for managing them in clinical practice. Read More
Clin Imaging 2018 Sep 9;52:334-336. Epub 2018 Sep 9.
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, United States of America. Electronic address:
Granular cell tumor is an exceedingly rare pediatric breast mass, derived from Schwann cells which are most commonly observed in the oral cavity, skin, and subcutaneous tissue. When they occur in the breast, they can mimic intrinsic breast masses. Most cases are benign, but malignant cases have been reported. Read More
J Family Med Prim Care 2018 Jul-Aug;7(4):804-808
Department of Zoology and Biotechnology, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India.
Background: This study tried to find out the prevalence of menstrual abnormalities in adolescent girls and their association with dietary and exercise pattern in Garhwal region of India.
Materials And Methods: In this study, cross-sectional questionnaires survey was conducted in different schools of Garhwal. These questionnaires were based on socioeconomic data, dietary and physical activities, and menstrual abnormalities. Read More
Qual Life Res 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
Purpose: The majority of studies on quality of life (QoL) of women with menstrual disturbances have not taken menstrual cycle phase into account. We aimed to determine the size of changes in QoL score during perimenstrual week compared to those during late follicular phase in women suffering from dysmenorrhea with or without premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and also to compare the two groups.
Methods: In this observational analytical study, participants were selected purposively from among single students aged 18-30 years, who were residing at university dormitories in Tabriz, Iran, and had moderate or severe dysmenorrhea. Read More
J Nat Prod 2018 Sep 10;81(9):1962-1967. Epub 2018 Sep 10.
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy and Center for Biomolecular Sciences, College of Pharmacy , University of Illinois at Chicago , 833 S. Wood Street , Chicago , Illinois 60612 , United States.
The use of botanical dietary supplements is becoming increasingly popular for the alleviation of hormonal-based conditions such as hot flashes, premenstrual syndrome, and fertility. Estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR) play an essential role in these processes. However, despite the fact that many therapies used to alleviate gynecological conditions act through PR-mediated mechanisms, few studies have investigated or identified any herbal natural product components that act on this receptor. Read More
Depress Anxiety 2018 Sep 5. Epub 2018 Sep 5.
Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Background: The molecular mechanisms underpinning the progesterone-triggering mood symptoms in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) are unknown. Cell metabolism is a potential source of variability. Very little is known about the effect of progesterone sensitivity on the metabolome. Read More
J Acad Nutr Diet 2018 Aug 31. Epub 2018 Aug 31.
Background: Premenstrual symptoms are experienced by up to 95% of women, and few treatments are available. Previous studies suggest that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) may be associated with the severity of premenstrual symptoms, but the findings have been inconclusive.
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether vitamin D status is associated with the severity of individual premenstrual symptoms. Read More
J Reprod Infertil 2018 Jul-Sep;19(3):152-156
Department of Community Medicine, M.S. Ramaiah Medical College, Bangalore, India.
Background: Levonorgestrel is most commonly utilized as an emergency oral contraceptive. Little is known and/or studied about the adverse effects of levonorgestrel, therefore, current investigation was aimed to generate signal for unreported adverse drug reactions of levonorgestrel using disproportionality analysis in food and drug administration adverse events reporting system database.
Methods: In FDA Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) database, all adverse event reports for levonorgestrel between January 2006 to June 2015 were identified and disproportionality analysis was conducted for selected adverse events of levonorgestrel using Reporting Odds Ratio, Proportional Reporting Ratio and Information Component with 95% confidence interval. Read More
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2018 Aug 23. Epub 2018 Aug 23.
Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Conventional treatments for cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort, while numerous and diverse, have drawbacks including side effects, interference with women's reproductive function and, importantly, failure to address symptoms. Many women turn to herbal medicine to treat a myriad of menstrual symptoms. Clinical evidence supports the efficacy of Vitex agnus-castus but other medicinal herbs typically used by Western herbalists for treating menstrual symptoms are unsupported by clinical trials. Read More
Viral Immunol 2018 09 22;31(7):486-491. Epub 2018 Aug 22.
1 Division of Molecular Pathology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University , Yonago, Japan .
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma-herpesvirus persisting mainly in human B lymphocytes. EBV reactivation induces host cells to differentiate into plasma cells and is related to autoimmune diseases. Graves' disease, an autoimmune hyperthyroidism, is caused by the thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb), which overstimulates thyroid stimulating hormone receptor. Read More
Eur J Breast Health 2018 Jul 1;14(3):156-159. Epub 2018 Jul 1.
Department of General Surgery, İstanbul Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey.
Objective: Smoking, caffeine, oral contraception, and exercise are the most cited factors for premenstrual mastalgia in the literature, but remain controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the most often proposed nutritional factors for cyclic breast pain.
Materials And Methods: Patients who met the criteria for participation in the mastalgia or control group were included in this case-control study. Read More
Sao Paulo Med J 2018 Jul-Aug;136(4):339-345. Epub 2018 Aug 13.
MSc. Nurse, Children's Clinic, Application and Research Hospital, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi, Aydin, Turkey.
Background: Although many studies have investigated premenstrual syndrome and related factors, there is still only a limited number of studies investigating the relationship between premenstrual syndrome and basic personality traits. This study was conducted to investigate the association between premenstrual syndrome and basic personality traits among university students.
Design And Setting: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted in a city in western Turkey. Read More
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 08 14;8:CD005290. Epub 2018 Aug 14.
NICM Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Building 5, Campbelltown Campus, Penrith, NSW, Australia, 2751.
Background: Acupuncture has a history of traditional use in China for women's health conditions including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), but its effectiveness for this condition remains unclear. This review examined the available evidence supporting the use of acupuncture or acupressure to treat PMS.
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture or acupressure for women with PMS or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Read More
Sleep Med Clin 2018 Sep;13(3):283-294
Department of Family Health Care Nursing, UCSF School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, Box 0606, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
Subjective and objective sleep changes occur during the menstrual cycle. Poorer sleep quality in the premenstrual phase and menstruation is common in women with premenstrual symptoms or painful menstrual cramps. There is increased sleep spindle activity from follicular to luteal phase, potentially progesterone related. Read More
Clin Med Insights Ear Nose Throat 2018 7;11:1179550618786934. Epub 2018 Aug 7.
Keck Medical Center of USC and USC Tina and Rick Caruso Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Background: Menstruation-related hormonal alteration can be detrimental to the professional singing voice of women. Resonance Voice Therapy (RVT) has been proven to improve vocal production. However, no research to date has been conducted examining the subjective, acoustic, and stroboscopic effects of RVT on professional female singers having premenstrual or postmenopausal voice disorders. Read More
J Family Med Prim Care 2018 Mar-Apr;7(2):346-356
Research Center of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.
Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of the most prevalent disorders at reproductive age and has a negative impact on emotions and performance of women. Since various factors play a role in the development of this syndrome, the present study was aimed to examine biopsychosocial etiology of PMS in the form of a narrative review.
Materials And Methods: Relevant studies were collected based on the three subjects of biological, psychological, and social etiologies during 1987-2015. Read More
Evol Med Public Health 2018 3;2018(1):138-150. Epub 2018 Jul 3.
2018 BOOST THYROID BY VLM HEALTH UG, Pufendorfstrasse 7, Berlin, Germany.
Background And Objectives: The underlying reasons why some women experience debilitating premenstrual symptoms and others do not are largely unknown. Here, we test the evolutionary ecological hypothesis that some negative premenstrual symptoms may be exacerbated by the presence of chronic sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Methodology: 34 511 women were recruited through a digital period-tracker app. Read More
Indian J Dermatol 2018 Jul-Aug;63(4):328-331
Department of Dermatology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kannur, Kerala, India.
Background: Although acne is principally a disorder of adolescence, the number of adult patients with acne is increasing. Adult acne is defined as the presence of acne beyond the age of 25 years. There is relatively few data on the prevalence and studies of acne in adult population. Read More
JIMD Rep 2018 Aug 2. Epub 2018 Aug 2.
Institute of Medical Research, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
Background: There is minimal information available about acute hepatic porphyrias (AHPs) in developing countries. The aim of this study was to describe the demographics, clinical features, and mortality of AHPs in Colombia.
Patients And Methods: 121 patients with presumed diagnosis of AHPs were reported in Colombia between 1944 and 2018. Read More
Complement Ther Clin Pract 2018 Aug 14;32:1-5. Epub 2018 Apr 14.
Maternal -fetal Medicine Research Center, Department of Midwifery, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:
Background: The aim was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy using Citrus aurantium blossom essential oil on premenstrual syndrome in university students.
Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial controlled on 62 students from March 2016 to February 2017. The intervention with 0. Read More
Rev Neurol (Paris) 2018 Jul 23. Epub 2018 Jul 23.
Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 81746-73461 Isfahan, Iran; Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 81746-73461 Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:
Background: Gender issues and the female preponderance in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) have been investigated before, yet the interplay between NMOSD and menstrual characteristics has remained unknown. Thus, the aim was to compare menstrual cycle patterns and their symptoms in NMOSD patients and healthy women.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 2015-2016 in Isfahan, Iran, and included female patients aged>14years with a diagnosis of NMOSD and healthy subjects as controls. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Jul;97(29):e11629
Department of General Surgery, Xuzhou Infectious Disease Hospital, Xuzhou, China.
Timely treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is not always available for rural women, because the local medical resources are insufficient. The efficacy of remote intervention by smartphone on PMS has not been confirmed.A retrospective analysis was performed on rural PMS patients between January 2014 and December 2015. Read More
BMJ Open 2018 Jul 18;8(7):e023314. Epub 2018 Jul 18.
Clinical Research Center, Kindai University Hospital, Osaka-Sayama, Japan.
Introduction: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) comprises a range of mood, behavioural and physical symptoms, and impairs many women's quality of life. Isoflavones are expected to stabilise the natural fluctuation of the oestrogen cycle through their selective oestrogen receptor modulator-like activities that alleviate PMS symptoms. Equol, a metabolite of a soy isoflavone converted from daidzein by specific gut bacteria, has a greater bioavailability compared with other soy isoflavones. Read More