6,064 results match your criteria Pregnancy Postpartum Infections

[Management algorithm for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (2021)].


Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 2021 Apr;29(4):313-318

The World Health Organization (WHO) has set the goal of eliminating viral hepatitis as a threat to public health by 2030. Blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the key step for eliminating viral hepatitis, at the same time, it is the hotspot in the field of hepatitis B prevention and control as well. The China Foundation of Hepatitis Prevention and Control (CFHPC) organized a team of specialists to develop an algorithm for preventing MTCT of HBV, based on the most recent hepatitis B guidelines and the latest evidence. Read More

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Coronavirus Diseases in Pregnant Women, the Placenta, Fetus, and Neonate.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1318:223-241

Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is similar to two other coronaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), in causing life-threatening respiratory infections and systemic complications in both children and adults. As the COVID-19 pandemic has continued to spread globally, increasing numbers of pregnant women have become infected, raising concern not only for their health but also for the health of their infants. This chapter discusses the effects of coronavirus infections, e. Read More

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Early human milk lactoferrin during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 9:1-4. Epub 2021 May 9.

Third Department of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, University General Hospital "ATTIKON", Athens, Greece.

Background/aim: Early human milk provides protection against viral infections due to its high nutritional value, abundance of maternal antibodies and the specific role of lactoferrin (Lf). Lf blocks the early interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host cells by binding to specific cell receptors and has been proposed as a preventative and adjunct treatment for COVID-19. This preliminary report aimed to investigate concentrations of Lf in early milk of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers versus non-infected controls. Read More

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Mental health of adolescents associated with sexual and reproductive outcomes: a systematic review.

Bull World Health Organ 2021 May 2;99(5):359-373K. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

UNDP-UNFPA-UNICEF-WHO-World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Objective: To systematically review the literature on the mental health of adolescents associated with sexual and reproductive outcomes, and compare the mental health outcomes with that of other age groups.

Methods: We searched seven databases for relevant peer-reviewed articles published between 1 January 2010 and 25 April 2019. Our inclusion criteria required that the study included age-disaggregated data on adolescents, and focused and assessed mental health outcomes associated with pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections. Read More

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The clinical utility of intrapartum screening urinalysis for the prevention of postpartum pyelonephritis.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 24;261:154-159. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Objectives: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection to complicate pregnancy. Medical authorities recommend screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy; albeit there is no consensus on ideal timing and frequency for testing. Due to the persistent physiologic changes of pregnancy postpartum, a recent trend to perform urinalysis upon presentation for delivery has been adopted at our institution and various satellite hospitals to putatively minimize cases of postpartum pyelonephritis. Read More

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Effect of Lymphatic Filariasis and Hookworm Infection on Pregnancy Course and Outcome in Women Living in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

1UMI 233, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), INSERM Unité 1175 and University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Little is known about the effect of helminth infections on the natural gynecological and pregnancy course. Our goal was to assess the relationship between Wuchereria bancrofti and hookworm (HW) infections with pregnancy course and outcome in a group of 82 women living in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Demographics and information on gynecological and obstetrical histories were collected retrospectively with standardized questionnaires. Read More

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COVID-19 Vaccine Considerations during Pregnancy and Lactation.

Am J Perinatol 2021 05 1;38(6):523-528. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

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Maternal sepsis update.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2021 Jun;34(3):254-259

Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Maternal sepsis is the second leading cause of maternal death in the United States. A significant number of these deaths are preventable and the purpose of this review is to highlight causes such as delays in recognition and early treatment.

Recent Findings: Maternal sepsis can be difficult to diagnose due to significant overlap of symptoms and signs of normal physiological changes of pregnancy, and current screening tools perform poorly to identify sepsis in pregnant women. Read More

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Optimizing mother-baby wellness during the 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic: A case for telemedicine.

Womens Health (Lond) 2021 Jan-Dec;17:17455065211013262

Women's Health Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease pandemic poses unique challenges to healthcare delivery. To limit the exposure of providers and patients to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention encourages providers to use telehealth platforms whenever possible. Given the maternal mortality crisis in the United States and the compounding 2019 coronavirus disease public health emergency, continued access to quality preconception, prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum care are essential to the health and well-being of mother and baby. Read More

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Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety, and Perceived Stress in Postpartum Mexican Women during the COVID-19 Lockdown.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 27;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Coordination of Gynecological and Perinatal Endocrinology, National Institute of Perinatology, Ministry of Health, Mexico City 11000, Mexico.

The COVID-19 lockdown represents a new challenge for mental health researchers and clinical practitioners. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and perceived stress in postpartum Mexican women. The study included 293, 4-12-week postpartum women over the age of 18. Read More

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Associations between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk among Postpartum Women.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 6;18(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT 06032, USA.

Epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is associated with sexual risk, especially during adolescence, and with maternal and child health outcomes for women of reproductive age. However, no work has examined how ACE exposure relates to sexual risk for women during the postpartum period. In a convenience sample of 460 postpartum women, we used linear and logistic regression to investigate associations between ACE exposure (measured using the Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale) and five sexual risk outcomes of importance to maternal health: contraceptive use, efficacy of contraceptive method elected, condom use, rapid repeat pregnancy, and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Read More

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Poor Adherence to the Screening-Based Strategy of Group B Streptococcus Despite Colonization of Pregnant Women in Greece.

Pathogens 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

2nd Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Children's Hospital "Pan. & Aglaia Kyriakou", 11527 Athens, Greece.

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. Maternal GBS colonization is associated with early- and late-onset neonatal disease (EOD/LOD). In Greece, a screening-based strategy is recommended, in which concurrent vaginal-rectal cultures should be obtained between 36 0/7 and 37 6/7 weeks' gestation. Read More

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Severe metabolic ketoacidosis as a primary manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection in non-diabetic pregnancy.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 19;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Amsterdam UMC Location AMC, Amsterdam, North Holland, The Netherlands.

We present a case of a metabolic acidosis in a term-pregnant woman with SARS-CoV-2 infection.Our patient presented with dyspnoea, tachypnoea, thoracic pain and a 2-day history of vomiting, initially attributed to COVID-19 pneumonia. Differential diagnosis was expanded when arterial blood gas showed a high anion gap metabolic non-lactate acidosis without hypoxaemia. Read More

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Peripartum Covid-19 Pneumonia with Severe ARDS - A Case Report.

Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol 2021 04 19;225(2):183-187. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vivantes Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that was first isolated in Wuhan, China, and resulted in a rapidly spreading pandemic worldwide. Currently there is only limited evidence on the effect of COVID-19 on pregnant women.

Case: Here we present one of the first serious COVID-19 cases in pregnancy at term with subsequent delivery. Read More

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Integrated early childhood development services improve mothers' experiences with prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) programs in Malawi: a qualitative study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Apr 15;21(1):348. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: HIV-positive mothers who face the dual burden of HIV-positive status and motherhood, may benefit from holistic services that include early childhood development (ECD). We evaluated the acceptability and impact of integrated ECD-PMTCT interventions for mothers and their children.

Methods: We implemented an integrated ECD-PMTCT intervention in 4 health facilities in Malawi for HIV-positive mothers and their infants. Read More

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Predictors of adherence to option B+ approach for the prevention of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in Abuja, 2017.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 18;38:54. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program Abuja, Abuja, Nigeria.

Introduction: option B+ ART is a lifelong regimen of ART using a combination of 3 ARVs and adherence to this regimen can reduce risk of MTCT to 1-2% as against 15-40% without treatment. To achieve an undetectable viral load and prevent the development of drug resistance, a person on ARV drugs need to take at least 95% of prescribed doses on time. This study assessed the level of adherence to Option B+ PMTCT program and its predictors among HIV+ Pregnant women accessing antenatal care in health facilities Abuja. Read More

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Depression, Anxiety, Resilience, and Coping: The Experience of Pregnant and New Mothers During the First Few Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2021 05 12;30(5):654-664. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

It is well-documented that the mental health of pregnant and postpartum women is essential for maternal, child, and family well-being. Of major public health concern is the perinatal mental health impacts that may occur during the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is essential to explore the symptom experience and predictors of mental health status, including the relationship between media use and mental health. Read More

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Pregnancy-associated pelvic vein thrombosis: Insights from a multicenter case series.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Pelvic vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare complication of pregnancy that can lead to life-threatening complications, such as pulmonary embolism (PE).

Objective: To describe characteristics of PVT and its treatment in pregnancy in the province of Quebec, Canada.

Patients/methods: We developed a province-wide case series of PVT in pregnancy including four tertiary care centers and the Registry of Rare Diseases of the Groupe d'Étude en Médecine Obstétricale du Québec. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 in Pregnancy-The First Wave.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Mar 5;57(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Bissaya Barreto Maternity-Obstetrics Service B, Coimbra Hospital and University Center, 3000 Coimbra, Portugal.

COVID-19, a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a public health emergency. Data on the effect of the virus on pregnancy are limited. We carried out a retrospective descriptive study, in order to evaluate the obstetric results on pregnant women in which SARS-CoV-2 was detected through RT-PCR of the nasopharyngeal swab, at admission to the maternity hospital. Read More

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A structured program for perinatal depression and anxiety to be adopted in the emergencies.

Ann Ist Super Sanita 2021 Jan-Mar;57(1):67-71

Centro di Riferimento per le Scienze Comportamentali e la Salute Mentale, Istituto Superiore di Sanità.

Quarantine, loss of routine and social support can negatively impact mothers who have just given birth and their babies, generating concerns and reactions of intense fear. Following the COVID-19 emergency, we described a structured program for screening and treatment of perinatal depression and anxiety as a medium for constant monitoring of perinatal risk factors and early screening, which can also be implemented in emergencies with remote intervention methods, to offer women an appropriate, timely and effective treatment. In this scenario, it is desirable that the monitoring of the psychological well-being of women in postpartum is maintained over time, with the participation of all the professional figures with whom the woman comes into contact, to intercept any forms of psychological distress related to the epidemic and that could occur even after some time. Read More

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A qualitative assessment of structural barriers to prenatal care and congenital syphilis prevention in Kern County, California.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(4):e0249419. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Community Health Sciences, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Congenital syphilis is the result of placental transmission from mother to fetus of Treponema pallidum. Although congenital syphilis is preventable through timely treatment, the rate of new infections in the United States (US) has increased each year since 2013, and is increasing at a noticeably greater pace in California (CA). Most research into congenital syphilis has focused on individual psychosocial and behavioral factors that contribute to maternal vulnerability for syphilis. Read More

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Optimizing HIV retesting during pregnancy and postpartum in four countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

J Int AIDS Soc 2021 Apr;24(4):e25686

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Introduction: HIV retesting during late pregnancy and breastfeeding can help detect new maternal infections and prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), but the optimal timing and cost-effectiveness of maternal retesting remain uncertain.

Methods: We constructed deterministic models to assess the health and economic impact of maternal HIV retesting on a hypothetical population of pregnant women, following initial testing in pregnancy, on MTCT in four countries: South Africa and Kenya (high/intermediate HIV prevalence), and Colombia and Ukraine (low HIV prevalence). We evaluated six scenarios with varying retesting frequencies from late in antenatal care (ANC) through nine months postpartum. Read More

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Prevalence of common symptoms of neonatal illness in Northwest Ethiopia: A repeated measure cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(3):e0248678. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Departments of Pediatrics and Child Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: The neonatal period is the most vulnerable stage of life. In Ethiopia, neonatal illness is common and the reduction in neonatal mortality is not as significant as for under-five mortality.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with neonatal illness symptoms reported by mothers delivering in health facilities in Northwest Ethiopia. Read More

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A survey of postpartum depression and health care needs among Chinese postpartum women during the pandemic of COVID-19.

Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2021 04 17;35(2):172-177. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

West China School of Nursing/West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic seriously endangers the public's mental health, especially to pregnant and postpartum women. But little is known about postpartum depression and health care needs among Chinese postpartum women.

Aim: To investigate the status and risk factors of postpartum depression and health care needs among Chinese postpartum women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Congenital and Intrapartum SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Neonates: Hypotheses, Evidence and Perspectives.

MEDICC Rev 2021 Jan 30;23(1):72-83. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Eliseo Noel Caamaño Pediatric Provincial Hospital, Medical University of Matanzas, Matanzas, Cuba.

Introduction: Both intrauterine and intrapartum mother-to-child transmission of SARS-CoV-2 have been reported. However, there is still disagreement as to the likelihood and frequency of such vertical transmission.

Objective: Summarize and analyze the published evidence on forms of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission (either intrauterine or intrapartum). Read More

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January 2021

Guillain Barre Syndrome following delivery in a pregnant woman infected with SARS-CoV-2.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Apr 2;86:190-192. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sehit Prof. Dr. Ilhan Varank Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the neurological system have been investigated. Evidence of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) cases associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection have recently been reported. A 34-year-old multiparous woman with COVID-19 infection at her 37th (4/7) gestational week was presented here. Read More

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Maternal vaccines-safety in pregnancy.

Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Fellowship (IVF &Reproductive Medicine) Milann Fertility Centre, Bengaluru, India.

Vaccination during pregnancy is important for active immunity of the mother against serious infectious diseases, and also for passive immunity of the neonate to infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality. As a rule, live vaccines are contraindicated during pregnancy as they may cause fetal viremia/bacteremia. Inactivated vaccines are generally safe. Read More

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February 2021

Integrated substance use and prenatal care delivery in the era of COVID-19.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 05 2;124:108273. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Boston University School of Public Health, Department of Health Law, Policy and Management, 715 Albany St, Talbot Building, Boston, MA 02118, United States of America. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 pandemic has directly impacted integrated substance use and prenatal care delivery in the United States and has driven a rapid transformation from in-person prenatal care to a hybrid telemedicine care model. Additionally, changes in regulations for take home dosing for methadone treatment for opioid use disorder due to COVID-19 have impacted pregnant and postpartum women. We review the literature on prenatal care models and discuss our experience with integrated substance use and prenatal care delivery during COVID-19 at New England's largest safety net hospital and national leader in substance use care. Read More

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Vaginal streptococcus B colonization is not associated with increased infectious morbidity in labor induction.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: Labor induction rates are increasing and, in Finland today, one of three labors is induced. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a bacterium found in 10%-30% of pregnant women and it can be transmitted to the neonate during vaginal delivery. Although GBS is rarely harmful in the general population, it is the leading cause of severe neonatal infections such as sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Read More

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