132 results match your criteria Precancerous Lesions of the Prostate

Nanoparticle therapeutics for prostate cancer treatment.

Maturitas 2012 Sep 17;73(1):27-32. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

Porto Conte Ricerche, Località Tramariglio, Alghero, Sassari, Italy.

The application of nanotechnology in medicine is offering many exciting possibilities in healthcare. Engineered nanoparticles have the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis and the therapy of several diseases, particularly by targeted delivery of anticancer drugs and imaging contrast agents. Prostate cancer, the second most common cancer in men, represents one of the major epidemiological problems, especially for patients in the advanced age. Read More

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September 2012

[Influence of sodium selenite on carcinogenesis of the prostate and other organs induced by methylnitrosourea and testosterone in rats].

Vopr Onkol 2011 ;57(4):486-92

Influence of selenium on induced carcinogenesis of the prostate and other organs was studied in male Wistar rats. Carcinogenesis was induced (68) by using our modification of a combined double-stage model including surgical castration, single administration of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and long-term promotion by a mix of testosterone ethers (MTE). Seven days after MNU injection the rats were randomized to form 2 groups. Read More

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January 2012

Neonatal exposure to estradiol/bisphenol A alters promoter methylation and expression of Nsbp1 and Hpcal1 genes and transcriptional programs of Dnmt3a/b and Mbd2/4 in the rat prostate gland throughout life.

Endocrinology 2012 Jan 22;153(1):42-55. Epub 2011 Nov 22.

Department of Environmental Health, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA.

Evidence supporting an early origin of prostate cancer is growing. We demonstrated previously that brief exposure of neonatal rats to estradiol or bisphenol A elevated their risk of developing precancerous lesions in the prostate upon androgen-supported treatment with estradiol as adults. Epigenetic reprogramming may be a mechanism underlying this inductive event in early life, because we observed overexpression of phosphodiesterase 4D variant 4 (Pde4d4) through induction of hypomethylation of its promoter. Read More

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January 2012

Lipoprotein lipase as a candidate target for cancer prevention/therapy.

Biochem Res Int 2012 19;2012:398697. Epub 2011 Oct 19.

Division of Cancer Development System, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan.

Epidemiological studies have shown that serum triglyceride (TG) levels are linked with risk of development of cancer, including colorectal and pancreatic cancers, and their precancerous lesions. Thus, it is assumed that serum TG plays an important role in carcinogenesis, and the key enzyme lipoprotein lipase (LPL), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of plasma TG, may therefore be involved. Dysregulation of LPL has been reported to contribute to many human diseases, such as atherosclerosis, chylomicronaemia, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Read More

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November 2011

Opposing roles of ERα and ERβ in the genesis and progression of adenocarcinoma in the rat ventral prostate.

Prostate 2012 Jun 24;72(9):1013-22. Epub 2011 Oct 24.

Women's Health Department, MSD, Oss, The Netherlands.

Background: Prostate cancer is a common malignancy in men and although hormone ablation therapy is effective, men develop hormone resistance. There is need for therapies applicable earlier, such as treatment of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Estrogens besides androgens play a role in prostate cancer pathogenesis via two receptors ERα and ERβ and both receptors are thought to play different, opposing, roles with ERα having proliferative properties and ERβ having anti-proliferative properties. Read More

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Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: its morphological and molecular diagnosis and clinical significance.

BJU Int 2011 Nov 26;108(9):1394-401. Epub 2011 Aug 26.

Institute of Pathological Anatomy, School of Medicine, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region (Ancona), United Hospitals, Ancona, Italy.

The aim of the present paper was to review the morphological spectrum of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), its relationship to carcinoma of the prostate (PCa) and its clinical significance. We reviewed the literature on premalignant lesions of the prostate, with an emphasis on high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). HGPIN is the most likely precursor of PCa, according to almost all available evidence. Read More

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November 2011

Prostate cancer detection rate and the importance of premalignant lesion in rebiopsy.

Med Arh 2011 ;65(2):109-12

Department of Urology, KCUS, Bolnicka 24, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Objective: Establish the prostate cancer (PCa) detection rate and the premalignant lesion incidence, as well as their importance in cancer detection at the first rebiopsy.

Materials And Methods: In the period 2006-2008, at the CCUS Urology Clinic, there were 585 prostate biopsies performed in 515 patients. 12% of the patients underwent the first biopsy due to premalignant lesion findings. Read More

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A comprehensive analysis of PAX8 expression in human epithelial tumors.

Am J Surg Pathol 2011 Jun;35(6):816-26

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

PAX8 is a paired-box gene important in embryogenesis of the thyroid, Müllerian, and renal/upper urinary tracts, and expression of PAX8 has been previously described in carcinomas from each of these sites. However, a large study including a wide variety of epithelial neoplasms from multiple organ sites other than the thyroid, kidney, or Müllerian system has not been performed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the utility of PAX8 immunostaining based on the evaluation of a wide range of epithelial tumors. Read More

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Is atypical adenomatous hyperplasia of the prostate a precursor lesion?

Prostate 2011 Dec 7;71(16):1746-51. Epub 2011 Apr 7.

Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.

Background: Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) is highly expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma. The precursor nature of atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) is uncertain.

Methods: One hundred twenty-one AAH foci from 101 patients who underwent transurethral prostatic resection or prostatectomy were immunohistochemically analyzed for AMACR, high molecular weight cytokeratin 34βE12, and p63 expression by a triple antibody (PIN4) cocktail stain. Read More

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December 2011

MYC cooperates with AKT in prostate tumorigenesis and alters sensitivity to mTOR inhibitors.

PLoS One 2011 Mar 4;6(3):e17449. Epub 2011 Mar 4.

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, United States of America.

MYC and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-pathway deregulation are common in human prostate cancer. Through examination of 194 human prostate tumors, we observed statistically significant co-occurrence of MYC amplification and PI3K-pathway alteration, raising the possibility that these two lesions cooperate in prostate cancer progression. To investigate this, we generated bigenic mice in which both activated human AKT1 and human MYC are expressed in the prostate (MPAKT/Hi-MYC model). Read More

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[Immunohistochemic staining for CK5/6 and P63 significance in prostate premalignant lesions and adenocarcinoma].

Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi 2010 Jul-Sep;114(3):818-22

Doctorand al Universităţii de Medicină şi Farmacie Gr.T. Popa Iaşi.

Unlabelled: The morphologic information from usual hematoxiline-eosine staining are sometimes insufficient in certifying or excluding the adenocarcinoma of the prostate, cases who must be study by immunohistochemistry.

Aim: The investigation of staining for CK5/6 and P63 in cases diagnosed with prostate adenocarcinoma associated with high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

Material And Methods: The study was realized on 56 cases analyzed in Pathology Laboratory of Focşani Emergency Hospital. Read More

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Transgenic overexpression of PKCε in the mouse prostate induces preneoplastic lesions.

Cell Cycle 2011 Jan 15;10(2):268-77. Epub 2011 Jan 15.

Department of Molecular Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Smithville, TX, USA.

It is well established that protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes play distinctive roles in mitogenic and survival signaling as well as in cancer progression. PKCε, the product of the PRKCE gene, is up-regulated in various types of cancers including prostate, lung and breast cancer. To address a potential role for PKCs in prostate cancer progression we generated three mouse transgenic lines expressing PKCα, PKCδ, or PKCε in the prostate epithelium under the control of the rat probasin (PB) promoter. Read More

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January 2011

Differential expression of anterior gradient gene AGR2 in prostate cancer.

BMC Cancer 2010 Dec 13;10:680. Epub 2010 Dec 13.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Background: The protein AGR2 is a putative member of the protein disulfide isomerase family and was first identified as a homolog of the Xenopus laevis gene XAG-2. AGR2 has been implicated in a number of human cancers. In particular, AGR2 has previously been found to be one of several genes that encode secreted proteins showing increased expression in prostate cancer cells compared to normal prostatic epithelium. Read More

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December 2010

E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, E6-associated protein (E6-AP) regulates PI3K-Akt signaling and prostate cell growth.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2011 Feb 6;1809(2):119-27. Epub 2010 Sep 6.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Universityof Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

This study elucidates the role of E6-associated protein, E6-AP (a dual function steroid hormone receptor coactivator and ubiquitin-protein ligase) in the regulation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, prostate gland growth and proliferation. Here, we report the generation of transgenic mice and prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP cells that overexpress E6-AP protein. Using these models we show that the levels of total Akt and phosphorylated Akt (active Akt) are increased in E6-AP overexpressing prostate gland and LNCaP cells suggesting that E6-AP regulates the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. Read More

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February 2011

Significance of focal proliferative atrophy lesions in prostate biopsy cores that test negative for prostate carcinoma.

Urol Oncol 2011 Nov-Dec;29(6):690-7. Epub 2010 May 7.

Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Policlinico Tor Vergata, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and short-term follow-up of focal proliferative atrophy lesions, either with or without the presence of inflammation (PIA/PA), and its correlation with the PSA levels, focusing on the prostate biopsy cores that test negative for prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa).

Methods: Five hundred fifty consecutive patients who had undergone a transrectal ultrasound-guided transperineal prostate biopsy were evaluated retrospectively for the presence and follow-up of focal proliferative atrophy lesions. PIA/PA were defined according to De Marzo. Read More

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Increased serum level of early prostate cancer antigen is associated with subsequent cancer risk in men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2010 Jun 18;17(2):505-12. Epub 2010 May 18.

Department of Urology of Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical College, No. 1-3, Kangda Road, Guangzhou 510230, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China.

Early prostate cancer antigen (EPCA) has been recently suggested as a novel biomarker in malignant and premalignant lesions of the prostate. This study was to examine serum expression of EPCA and to further clarify the relationship between initial serum EPCA levels and the presence of subsequent cancer in the individuals with isolated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). An indirect ELISA was used for initial serum EPCA measurement in 112 men with isolated HGPIN, who were enrolled and completed a follow-up of >or=5 years. Read More

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Increased endogenous estrogen synthesis leads to the sequential induction of prostatic inflammation (prostatitis) and prostatic pre-malignancy.

Am J Pathol 2009 Sep 21;175(3):1187-99. Epub 2009 Aug 21.

Centre for Urological Research, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University, 27-31 Wright Street, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.

Prostatitis causes substantial morbidity to men, through associated urinary symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and pelvic pain; however, 90% to 95% of cases have an unknown etiology. Inflammation is associated with the development of carcinoma, and, therefore, it is imperative to identify and study the causes of prostatitis to improve our understanding of this disease and its role in prostate cancer. As estrogens cause prostatic inflammation, here we characterize the murine prostatic phenotype induced by elevated endogenous estrogens due to aromatase overexpression (AROM+). Read More

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September 2009

Morphological transition of proliferative inflammatory atrophy to high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and cancer in human prostate.

Prostate 2009 Sep;69(13):1378-86

Department of Urology, Lundberg Laboratory for Cancer Research, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Inflammation has been implicated as a potential etiological agent in human prostate cancer (PCa). Proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) in prostate consists of areas of glandular atrophy associated with chronic inflammation and epithelial cell proliferation. It has been suggested that PIA is a candidate precursor of prostate malignancy. Read More

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September 2009

The pace of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia development is determined by the timing of Pten tumor suppressor gene excision.

PLoS One 2008 15;3(12):e3940. Epub 2008 Dec 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and The McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Loss of the PTEN tumor suppressor is a common occurrence in human prostate cancer, particularly in advanced disease. In keeping with its role as a pivotal upstream regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway, experimentally-induced deletion of Pten in the murine prostate invariably results in neoplasia. However, and unlike humans where prostate tumorigenesis likely evolves over decades, disease progression in the constitutively Pten deficient mouse prostate is relatively rapid, culminating in invasive cancer within several weeks post-puberty. Read More

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February 2009

Precursor lesions to prostatic adenocarcinoma.

Virchows Arch 2009 Jan 2;454(1):1-16. Epub 2008 Dec 2.

Departments of Pathology, Urology and Oncology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 401 N. Broadway St., Rm 2242, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA.

High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) is the one well-documented precursor to adenocarcinoma of the prostate. This review article defines both low- and high-grade PIN. Unusual variants of high-grade PIN are illustrated. Read More

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January 2009

Androgen deprivation therapy for precancerous lesions of the prostate.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008 Apr;22(2):285-91

Bostwick Laboratories Inc, Glen Allen, VA 23060, USA.

Androgen deprivation therapy has become well-established in the treatment of prostate cancer. Luteinizing-hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists, anti-androgens, orchiectomy, and combination hormonal therapy are treatment options offered to select patients. The prospect of intervention prior to the development of adenocarcinoma is appealing, and high-grade prostate intra-epithelial neoplasia (PIN), the only known precursor, is the best possible target. Read More

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Proliferative inflammatory atrophy: a background lesion of prostate cancer?

Andrologia 2008 Apr;40(2):134-7

Institute of Pathology, University of Giessen and Marburg, Giessen, Germany.

Proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) belongs to the atrophic lesions that frequently occur in the prostate. The location of PIA in the periphery of the gland near to prostate carcinoma or even showing direct transition to malignant or pre-malignant epithelia suggested a connection between PIA and prostate cancer. Further findings in PIA, such as imbalance between proliferation and apoptosis and detection of molecular-biological abnormalities specific for oxidative stress or malignancy, supported this hypothesis. Read More

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Histopathological evidence for an association of inflammation with ductal pin-like lesions but not with ductal adenocarcinoma in the prostate of the noble rat.

Prostate 2008 May;68(7):728-39

Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: Chronic inflammation may contribute to the development of prostate cancer. The goal of this study was to determine the possible association of prostatic inflammation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)-like lesion, and prostate cancer, and to assess the androgen and estrogen dependency of the early steps of carcinogenesis.

Methods: Noble rats were treated with testosterone and estradiol implants for 13, 18, or 26 weeks. Read More

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Perinatal exposure to oestradiol and bisphenol A alters the prostate epigenome and increases susceptibility to carcinogenesis.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008 Feb;102(2):134-8

Department of Urology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

An important and controversial health concern is whether low-dose exposures to hormonally active environmental oestrogens such as bisphenol A can promote human diseases including prostate cancer. Our studies in rats have shown that pharmacological doses of oestradiol administered during the critical window of prostate development result in marked prostate pathology in adulthood that progress to neoplastic lesions with ageing. Our recent studies have also demonstrated that transient developmental exposure of rats to low, environmentally relevant doses of bisphenol A or oestradiol increases prostate gland susceptibility to adult-onset precancerous lesions and hormonal carcinogenesis. Read More

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February 2008

The natural history of aberrant crypt foci.

Gastrointest Endosc 2008 Jun 21;67(7):1097-102. Epub 2008 Feb 21.

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are the putative precursors to colorectal adenomas and may be useful as biomarkers. Knowledge of their natural history is essential to understanding their potential utility.

Objective: Our purpose was to examine ACF detection 1 year after initial observation. Read More

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Complex patterns of ETS gene alteration arise during cancer development in the human prostate.

Oncogene 2008 Mar 8;27(14):1993-2003. Epub 2007 Oct 8.

Institute of Cancer Research, Male Urological Cancer Research Centre, Sutton, Surrey, UK.

An ERG gene 'break-apart' fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay has been used to screen whole-mount prostatectomy specimens for rearrangements at the ERG locus. In cancers containing ERG alterations the observed pattern of changes was often complex. Different categories of ERG gene alteration were found either together in a single cancerous region or within separate foci of cancer in the same prostate slice. Read More

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Mechanisms of disease: high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other proposed preneoplastic lesions in the prostate.

Nat Clin Pract Urol 2007 Jun;4(6):321-32

Uropathology Section, Institute of Pathological Anatomy and Histopathology, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region (Ancona), School of Medicine, United Hospitals, Torrette, Ancona, Italy.

High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is the most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma according to virtually all available evidence. This lesion is characterized by cellular proliferations within pre-existing ducts and acini, with nuclear and nucleolar enlargements similar to those seen in prostate cancer, although unlike cancer HGPIN retains a basal-cell layer. The recognition of HGPIN is clinically important because of the strong association between this disease and prostatic carcinoma. Read More

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RASSF1A promoter methylation is frequently detected in both pre-malignant and non-malignant microdissected prostatic epithelial tissues.

Prostate 2007 May;67(6):638-44

Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Hills Road, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: The RASSF1A gene is a tumor suppressor gene inactivated by hypermethylation in a very wide variety of malignant tumors including prostate cancer.

Methods: In this study we have used laser capture microdissection to provide pure cell populations to investigate the methylation status of 16 CpG sites in the promoter region of this gene in prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia, in histologically normal epithelial cells associated with these lesions and in epithelial cells from benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Results: Unexpectedly, frequent methylation, detected by sequence analysis following bisulphite treatment, was observed in benign epithelium as well as in the lesions associated with prostatic intra-epithelial neoplasia and at high risk of cancer formation. Read More

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Protective effects of citrus nobiletin and auraptene in transgenic rats developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate (TRAP) and human prostate carcinoma cells.

Cancer Sci 2007 Apr 31;98(4):471-7. Epub 2007 Jan 31.

Department of Experimental Pathology and Tumor Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan.

Dietary phytochemicals, including nobiletin and auraptene, have been shown to exert inhibiting effects in several chemically induced carcinogenesis models. We here investigated the influence of nobiletin and auraptene on prostate carcinogenesis using transgenic rats developing adenocarcinoma of the prostate (TRAP) bearing the SV40 T antigen transgene under control of the probasin promoter and human prostate cancer cells. Starting at 5 weeks of age, male TRAP rats received powder diet containing 500 p. Read More

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Finasteride as a chemopreventive agent in prostate cancer: impact of the PCPT on urologic practice.

Nat Clin Pract Urol 2006 Aug;3(8):422-9

Department of Urology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA.

Prostate cancer chemoprevention involves the use of natural and/or synthetic agents that inhibit or reverse the development of precancerous lesions or delay progression of these lesions to invasive disease. The recent completion of the first Phase III trial for prostate cancer prevention, the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) using the drug finasteride, has provided the urologic community with the first evidence that a chemopreventive agent can reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer. The enthusiasm for the clear relative risk reduction in the finasteride arm of the trial has been tempered by the observation that the incidence of high-grade tumors was higher in men receiving finasteride compared to those on placebo. Read More

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