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    Vaccinia virus encodes a novel inhibitor of apoptosis that associates with the apoptosome.
    J Virol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA
    Apoptosis is an important anti-viral host defense mechanism. Here we report the identification of a novel apoptosis inhibitor encoded by the vaccinia virus (VACV) M1L gene. M1L is absent in the attenuated MVA strain of VACV, a strain that stimulates apoptosis in several types of immune cells. Read More

    Identification of diverse viruses in upper respiratory samples in dromedary camels from United Arab Emirates.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(9):e0184718. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Camels are known carriers for many viral pathogens, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). It is likely that there are additional, as yet unidentified viruses in camels with the potential to cause disease in humans. In this study, we performed metagenomic sequencing analysis on nasopharyngeal swab samples from 108 MERS-CoV-positive dromedary camels from a live animal market in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Read More

    Prenylation of viral proteins by enzymes of the host: Virus-driven rationale for therapy with statins and FT/GGT1 inhibitors.
    Bioessays 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
    Intracellular bacteria were recently shown to employ eukaryotic prenylation system for modifying activity and ensuring proper intracellular localization of their own proteins. Following the same logic, the proteins of viruses may also serve as prenylation substrates. Using extensively validated high-confidence prenylation predictions by PrePS with a cut-off for experimentally confirmed farnesylation of hepatitis delta virus antigen, we compiled in silico evidence for several new prenylation candidates, including IRL9 (CMV) and few other proteins encoded by Herpesviridae, Nef (HIV-1), E1A (human adenovirus 1), NS5A (HCV), PB2 (influenza), HN (human parainfluenza virus 3), L83L (African swine fever), MC155R (molluscum contagiosum virus), other Poxviridae proteins, and some bacteriophages of human associated bacteria. Read More

    A comparative review of viral entry and attachment during large and giant dsDNA virus infections.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 2. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Viruses enter host cells via several mechanisms, including endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis. They can also fuse at the plasma membrane and can spread within the host via cell-to-cell fusion or syncytia. The mechanism used by a given viral strain depends on its external topology and proteome and the type of cell being entered. Read More

    The 5'-poly(A) leader of poxvirus mRNA confers a translational advantage that can be achieved in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 30;13(8):e1006602. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.
    The poly(A) leader at the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) is an unusually striking feature of all poxvirus mRNAs transcribed after viral DNA replication (post-replicative mRNAs). These poly(A) leaders are non-templated and of heterogeneous lengths; and their function during poxvirus infection remains a long-standing question. Here, we discovered that a 5'-poly(A) leader conferred a selective translational advantage to mRNA in poxvirus-infected cells. Read More

    Viruses in cancers among the immunosuppressed.
    Int J Cancer 2017 Aug 25. Epub 2017 Aug 25.
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, 141 86, Sweden.
    Most cancer forms known to be caused by viruses are increased among the immunosuppressed, but several cancer forms without established viral etiology are also increased, notably nonmelanoma skin carcinoma (NMSC). We followed all 13,429 solid organ transplantation patients in Sweden for cancer occurrence after transplantation. We requested these tumor specimens and sequenced the first 89 specimens received (62 NMSCs, 27 other cancers). Read More

    Characterization of Monkeypox virus infection in African rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.).
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 21;11(8):e0005809. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa and is caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the most virulent Orthopoxvirus affecting humans since the eradication of Variola virus (VARV). Many aspects of the MPXV transmission cycle, including the natural host of the virus, remain unknown. African rope squirrels (Funisciurus spp. Read More

    Biophysical and Computational Studies of the vCCI:vMIP-II Complex.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Aug 16;18(8). Epub 2017 Aug 16.
    Departments of Molecular Cell Biology and Chemistry and Chemical Biology, and the Health Sciences Research Institute, University of California Merced 5200 North Lake Rd, Merced, CA 953402, USA.
    Certain viruses have the ability to subvert the mammalian immune response, including interference in the chemokine system. Poxviruses produce the chemokine binding protein vCCI (viral CC chemokine inhibitor; also called 35K), which tightly binds to CC chemokines. To facilitate the study of vCCI, we first provide a protocol to produce folded vCCI from Escherichia coli (E. Read More

    A parapoxviral virion protein inhibits NF-κB signaling early in infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 7;13(8):e1006561. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.
    Poxviruses have evolved unique proteins and mechanisms to counteract the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is an essential regulatory pathway of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe a NF-κB inhibitory virion protein of orf virus (ORFV), ORFV073, which functions very early in infected cells. Infection with ORFV073 gene deletion virus (OV-IA82Δ073) led to increased accumulation of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), marked phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) subunits IKKα and IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65 (NF-κB-p65), and to early nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 in virus-infected cells (≤ 30 min post infection). Read More

    Poxviruses Utilize Multiple Strategies to Inhibit Apoptosis.
    Viruses 2017 Aug 8;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ 07039, USA.
    Cells have multiple means to induce apoptosis in response to viral infection. Poxviruses must prevent activation of cellular apoptosis to ensure successful replication. These viruses devote a substantial portion of their genome to immune evasion. Read More

    A modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine vector expressing a mosaic H5 hemagglutinin reduces viral shedding in rhesus macaques.
    PLoS One 2017 3;12(8):e0181738. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Veterinary Medicine, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    The rapid antigenic evolution of influenza viruses requires frequent vaccine reformulations. Due to the economic burden of continuous vaccine reformulation and the threat of new pandemics, there is intense interest in developing vaccines capable of eliciting broadly cross-reactive immunity to influenza viruses. We recently constructed a "mosaic" hemagglutinin (HA) based on subtype 5 HA (H5) and designed to stimulate cellular and humoral immunity to multiple influenza virus subtypes. Read More

    Intratumoral delivery of inactivated modified vaccinia virus Ankara (iMVA) induces systemic antitumor immunity via STING and Batf3-dependent dendritic cells.
    Sci Immunol 2017 May;2(11)
    Dermatology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.
    Advanced cancers remain a therapeutic challenge despite recent progress in targeted therapy and immunotherapy. Novel approaches are needed to alter the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment and to facilitate the recognition of tumor antigens that leads to antitumor immunity. Poxviruses, such as modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), have potential as immunotherapeutic agents. Read More

    Two novel poxviruses with unusual genome rearrangements: NY_014 and Murmansk.
    Virus Genes 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    The National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
    The genome sequence and annotation of two novel poxviruses, NY_014 and Murmansk, are presented. Despite being isolated on different continents and from different hosts, the viruses are relatively similar, albeit distinct species. The closest known relative of the novel viruses is Yoka poxvirus. Read More

    OH1 from Orf Virus: A New Tyrosine Phosphatase that Displays Distinct Structural Features and Triple Substrate Specificity.
    J Mol Biol 2017 Sep 25;429(18):2816-2824. Epub 2017 Jul 25.
    Sección Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, 11400 Montevideo, Uruguay. Electronic address:
    Viral tyrosine phosphatases such as VH1 from Vaccinia and Variola virus are recognized as important effectors of host-pathogen interactions. While proteins sharing sequence to VH1 have been identified in other viruses, their structural and functional characterization is not known. In this work, we determined the crystal structure of the VH1 homolog in the Orf virus, herein named OH1. Read More

    Identification of Vaccinia Virus Replisome and Transcriptome Proteins by Isolation of Proteins on Nascent DNA Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.
    J Virol 2017 Oct 12;91(19). Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Poxviruses replicate within the cytoplasm and encode proteins for DNA and mRNA synthesis. To investigate poxvirus replication and transcription from a new perspective, we incorporated 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into nascent DNA in cells infected with vaccinia virus (VACV). The EdU-labeled DNA was conjugated to fluor- or biotin-azide and visualized by confocal, superresolution, and transmission electron microscopy. Read More

    Vaccinia virus and Cowpox virus are not susceptible to the interferon-induced antiviral protein MxA.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0181459. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (I.N.I.A.), Madrid, Spain.
    MxA protein is expressed in response to type I and type III Interferon and constitute an important antiviral factor with broad antiviral activity to diverse RNA viruses. In addition, some studies expand the range of MxA antiviral activity to include particular DNA viruses like Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV). However, a broad profile of activity of MxA to large DNA viruses has not been established to date. Read More

    Species Specificity of Vaccinia Virus Complement Control Protein for the Bovine Classical Pathway Is Governed Primarily by Direct Interaction of Its Acidic Residues with Factor I.
    J Virol 2017 Oct 12;91(19). Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Complement Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, S. P. Pune University, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India
    Poxviruses display species tropism-variola virus is a human-specific virus, while vaccinia virus causes repeated outbreaks in dairy cattle. Consistent with this, variola virus complement regulator SPICE (smallpox inhibitor of complement enzymes) exhibits selectivity in inhibiting the human alternative complement pathway and vaccinia virus complement regulator VCP (vaccinia virus complement control protein) displays selectivity in inhibiting the bovine alternative complement pathway. In the present study, we examined the species specificity of VCP and SPICE for the classical pathway (CP). Read More

    Preferential Targeting of Conserved Gag Regions after Vaccination with a Heterologous DNA Prime-Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Boost HIV-1 Vaccine Regimen.
    J Virol 2017 Sep 24;91(18). Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical Center of the University of Munich (LMU), Munich, Germany
    Prime-boost vaccination strategies against HIV-1 often include multiple variants for a given immunogen for better coverage of the extensive viral diversity. To study the immunologic effects of this approach, we characterized breadth, phenotype, function, and specificity of Gag-specific T cells induced by a DNA-prime modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-boost vaccination strategy, which uses mismatched Gag immunogens in the TamoVac 01 phase IIa trial. Healthy Tanzanian volunteers received three injections of the DNA-SMI vaccine encoding a subtype B and AB-recombinant Gagp37 and two vaccinations with MVA-CMDR encoding subtype A Gagp55 Gag-specific T-cell responses were studied in 42 vaccinees using fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Read More

    Orf Virus Infection in Humans: A Review With a Focus on Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2017 Jul;16(7):684-689
    Ecthyma contagiosum, also called contagious pustular dermatosis, is a zoonotic disease caused by the orf virus (OrfV). As a member of the poxviridae family and parapoxvirus genus, this dermatotropic virus has developed an array of mechanisms by which to evade the host immune system in both humans and animals. The ubiquitousness of this pathogen in sheep, goats, and deer has led to the development of orf in diverse areas around the world. Read More

    Characterization of Eptesipoxvirus, a novel poxvirus from a microchiropteran bat.
    Virus Genes 2017 Jul 6. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    The genome of Eptesipoxvirus (EPTV) is the first poxvirus genome isolated from a microbat. The 176,688 nt sequence, which is believed to encompass the complete coding region of the virus, is 67% A+T and is predicted to encode 191 genes. 11 of these genes have no counterpart in GenBank and are therefore unique to EPTV. Read More

    Complement Evasion Strategies of Viruses: An Overview.
    Front Microbiol 2017 16;8:1117. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Complement Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune UniversityPune, India.
    Being a major first line of immune defense, the complement system keeps a constant vigil against viruses. Its ability to recognize large panoply of viruses and virus-infected cells, and trigger the effector pathways, results in neutralization of viruses and killing of the infected cells. This selection pressure exerted by complement on viruses has made them evolve a multitude of countermeasures. Read More

    Generalised cowpox virus infection.
    Lancet 2017 Jun 29. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Allergology, University Medical Centre Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; Lower Saxony Institute of Occupational Dermatology, University Medical Centre Göttingen and University of Osnabrück, Germany. Electronic address:

    Inhibition of Poxvirus Gene Expression and Genome Replication by Bisbenzimide Derivatives.
    J Virol 2017 Sep 24;91(18). Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    Virus infection of humans and livestock can be devastating for individuals and populations, sometimes resulting in large economic and societal impact. Prevention of virus disease by vaccination or antiviral agents is difficult to achieve. A notable exception was the eradication of human smallpox by vaccination over 30 years ago. Read More

    Differential Innate Immune Signaling in Macrophages by Wild-Type Vaccinia Mature Virus and a Mutant Virus with a Deletion of the A26 Protein.
    J Virol 2017 Sep 24;91(18). Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Molecular Cell Biology, Taiwan International Graduate Program Academia Sinica, and Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
    The Western Reserve (WR) strain of mature vaccinia virus contains an A26 envelope protein that mediates virus binding to cell surface laminin and subsequent endocytic entry into HeLa cells. Removal of the A26 protein from the WR strain mature virus generates a mutant, WRΔA26, that enters HeLa cells through plasma membrane fusion. Here, we infected murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) with wild-type strain WR and the WRΔA26 mutant and analyzed viral gene expression and cellular innate immune signaling. Read More

    Enhanced light microscopy visualization of virus particles from Zika virus to filamentous ebolaviruses.
    PLoS One 2017 26;12(6):e0179728. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Department of Microbiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States of America.
    Light microscopy is a powerful tool in the detection and analysis of parasites, fungi, and prokaryotes, but has been challenging to use for the detection of individual virus particles. Unlabeled virus particles are too small to be visualized using standard visible light microscopy. Characterization of virus particles is typically performed using higher resolution approaches such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. Read More

    Going against the Tide: Selective Cellular Protein Synthesis during Virally Induced Host Shutoff.
    J Virol 2017 Sep 10;91(17). Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA
    Many viral infections cause host shutoff, a state in which host protein synthesis is globally inhibited. Emerging evidence from vaccinia and influenza A virus infections indicates that subsets of cellular proteins are resistant to host shutoff and continue to be synthesized. Remarkably, the proteins of oxidative phosphorylation, the cellular-energy-generating machinery, are selectively synthesized in both cases. Read More

    Trans-kingdom mimicry underlies ribosome customization by a poxvirus kinase.
    Nature 2017 Jun 21;546(7660):651-655. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA.
    Ribosomes have the capacity to selectively control translation through changes in their composition that enable recognition of specific RNA elements. However, beyond differential subunit expression during development, evidence for regulated ribosome specification within individual cells has remained elusive. Here we report that a poxvirus kinase phosphorylates serine/threonine residues in the human small ribosomal subunit protein, receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), that are not phosphorylated in uninfected cells or cells infected by other viruses. Read More

    Vaccinia virus egress mediated by virus protein A36 is reliant on the F12 protein.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Jun 20;98(6):1500-1514. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK.
    Egress of vaccinia virus from its host cell is mediated by the microtubule-associated motor kinesin-1, and three viral proteins, A36 and the F12/E2 complex, have been implicated in this process. Deletion of F12 expression causes a more severe reduction in egress than deletion of A36 but whether these proteins are involved in the same or different mechanisms of kinesin-1 recruitment is unknown. Here it is shown that a virus lacking both proteins forms a smaller plaque than mutants lacking either gene alone, indicating non-redundant functions. Read More

    Ectromelia virus accumulates less double-stranded RNA compared to vaccinia virus in BS-C-1 cells.
    Virology 2017 Sep;509:98-111
    Department of Biology, Albright College, Reading, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    Most orthopoxviruses, including vaccinia virus (VACV), contain genes in the E3L and K3L families. The protein products of these genes have been shown to combat PKR, a host defense pathway. Interestingly, ectromelia virus (ECTV) contains an E3L ortholog but does not possess an intact K3L gene. Read More

    A systemic macrophage response is required to contain a peripheral poxvirus infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jun 14;13(6):e1006435. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, United States of America.
    The goal of the innate immune system is to reduce pathogen spread prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. Following an infection at a peripheral site, virus typically drains through the lymph to the lymph node prior to entering the blood stream and being systemically disseminated. Therefore, there are three distinct spatial checkpoints at which intervention to prevent systemic spread of virus can occur, namely: 1) the site of infection, 2) the draining lymph node via filtration of lymph or 3) the systemic level via organs that filter the blood. Read More

    A G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: A putative insertion site for a multi-pathogen recombinant capripoxvirus vaccine strategy.
    J Immunol Methods 2017 Sep 31;448:112-115. Epub 2017 May 31.
    INRA, UMR1309 CMAEE, F-34398 Montpellier, France; CIRAD UMR ASTRE, F-97170 Petit-Bourg, France.
    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs) have been shown to be ideal viral vectors for the development of recombinant multivalent vaccines to enable delivery of immunogenic genes from ruminant pathogens. So far, the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene is the only gene used to generate recombinants. A putative non-essential gene encoding a G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor subfamily homologue (GPCR) was targeted as an additional insertion site. Read More

    Characterization of DNA Binding by the Isolated N-Terminal Domain of Vaccinia Virus DNA Topoisomerase IB.
    Biochemistry 2017 Jul 19;56(26):3307-3317. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The City College of New York , New York, New York 10031, United States.
    Vaccinia TopIB (vTopIB), a 314-amino acid eukaryal-type IB topoisomerase, recognizes and transesterifies at the DNA sequence 5'-(T/C)CCTT↓, leading to the formation of a covalent DNA-(3'-phosphotyrosyl(274))-enzyme intermediate in the supercoil relaxation reaction. The C-terminal segment of vTopIB (amino acids 81-314), which engages the DNA minor groove at the scissile phosphodiester, comprises an autonomous catalytic domain that retains cleavage specificity, albeit with a cleavage site affinity lower than that of the full-length enzyme. The N-terminal domain (amino acids 1-80) engages the major groove on the DNA face opposite the scissile phosphodiester. Read More

    Recombination events and variability among full-length genomes of co-circulating molluscum contagiosum virus subtypes 1 and 2.
    J Gen Virol 2017 May 30;98(5):1073-1079. Epub 2017 May 30.
    4​Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal; Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Valdeolmos, Madrid 28130, Spain.
    Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is the sole member of the Molluscipoxvirus genus and causes a highly prevalent human disease of the skin characterized by the formation of a variable number of lesions that can persist for prolonged periods of time. Two major genotypes, subtype 1 and subtype 2, are recognized, although currently only a single complete genomic sequence corresponding to MCV subtype 1 is available. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we report the complete genomic sequence of four new MCV isolates, including the first one derived from a subtype 2. Read More

    Molluscum Contagiosum of the Gluteal Cleft: Observations and Implications for Management in Five Children.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Jul 25;34(4):e191-e195. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Section of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common, self-limited skin infection caused by a double-stranded DNA virus of the family Poxviridae. Although the morphology of the disease is well described, MC presenting at unusual sites can exhibit atypical morphology, resulting in misdiagnosis. This observational, retrospective case series discusses the novel morphology of MC presenting in the intergluteal cleft of five children seen in the outpatient dermatology clinic of an academic medical center. Read More

    Viral exploitation of the MEK/ERK pathway - A tale of vaccinia virus and other viruses.
    Virology 2017 Jul;507:267-275
    Signal Transduction Group/Viruses Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, CEP: 31.270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The VACV replication cycle is remarkable in the sense that it is performed entirely in the cytoplasmic compartment of vertebrate cells, due to its capability to encode enzymes required either for regulating the macromolecular precursor pool or the biosynthetic processes. Although remarkable, this gene repertoire is not sufficient to confer the status of a free-living microorganism to the virus, and, consequently, the virus relies heavily on the host to successfully generate its progeny. During the complex virus-host interaction, viruses must deal not only with the host pathways to accomplish their temporal demands but also with pathways that counteract viral infection, including the inflammatory, innate and acquired immune responses. Read More

    Spread of poxviruses in livestock in Brazil associated with cases of double and triple infection.
    Arch Virol 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário de Minas Gerais, Avenida Rômulo Joviano, Centro, Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, 33600-000, Brazil.
    The objective of this work is to describe the distribution of outbreaks of vaccinia virus (VACV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BSPV) in Brazil. The Official Laboratory of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture received 89 samples from different locations in Brazil in 2015 and 2016 for diagnosis of vesicular and exanthematous disease. Poxvirus coinfections occurred in 11 out of 33 outbreaks, including the first reported triple infection by BPSV, PCPV, and VACV. Read More

    Deletion of the Vaccinia Virus B1 Kinase Reveals Essential Functions of This Enzyme Complemented Partly by the Homologous Cellular Kinase VRK2.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 12;91(15). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
    The vaccinia virus B1 kinase is highly conserved among poxviruses and is essential for the viral life cycle. B1 exhibits a remarkable degree of similarity to vaccinia virus-related kinases (VRKs), a family of cellular kinases, suggesting that the viral enzyme has evolved to mimic VRK activity. Indeed, B1 and VRKs have been demonstrated to target a shared substrate, the DNA binding protein BAF, elucidating a signaling pathway important for both mitosis and the antiviral response. Read More

    Molluscum Contagiosum Virus MC159 Abrogates cIAP1-NEMO Interactions and Inhibits NEMO Polyubiquitination.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 12;91(15). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, USA
    Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a dermatotropic poxvirus that causes benign skin lesions. MCV lesions persist because of virally encoded immune evasion molecules that inhibit antiviral responses. The MCV MC159 protein suppresses NF-κB activation, a powerful antiviral response, via interactions with the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) subunit of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex. Read More

    Enhanced production of enveloped viruses in BST-2-deficient cell lines.
    Biotechnol Bioeng 2017 Oct 29;114(10):2289-2297. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.
    Despite all the advantages that cell-cultured influenza vaccines have over egg-based influenza vaccines, the inferior productivity of cell-culture systems is a major drawback that must be addressed. BST-2 (tetherin) is a host restriction factor which inhibits budding-out of various enveloped viruses from infected host cells. We developed BST-2-deficient MDCK and Vero cell lines to increase influenza virus release in cell culture. Read More

    Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Protein MC005 Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Targeting NEMO-Regulated IκB Kinase Activation.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 12;91(15). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV), the only known extant human-adapted poxvirus, causes a long-duration infection characterized by skin lesions that typically display an absence of inflammation despite containing high titers of live virus. Despite this curious presentation, MCV is very poorly characterized in terms of host-pathogen interactions. The absence of inflammation around MCV lesions suggests the presence of potent inhibitors of human antiviral immunity and inflammation. Read More

    Deletion of the Vaccinia Virus I2 Protein Interrupts Virion Morphogenesis, Leading to Retention of the Scaffold Protein and Mislocalization of Membrane-Associated Entry Proteins.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 12;91(15). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    The I2L open reading frame of vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes a conserved 72-amino-acid protein with a putative C-terminal transmembrane domain. Previous studies with a tetracycline-inducible mutant demonstrated that I2-deficient virions are defective in cell entry. The purpose of the present study was to determine the step of replication or entry that is affected by loss of the I2 protein. Read More

    Deletion of the K1L Gene Results in a Vaccinia Virus That Is Less Pathogenic Due to Muted Innate Immune Responses, yet Still Elicits Protective Immunity.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 12;91(15). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA
    All viruses strategically alter the antiviral immune response to their benefit. The vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 protein has multiple immunomodulatory effects in tissue culture models of infection, including NF-κB antagonism. However, the effect of K1 during animal infection is poorly understood. Read More

    Cytoplasmic ATR Activation Promotes Vaccinia Virus Genome Replication.
    Cell Rep 2017 May;19(5):1022-1032
    Cellular Signalling and Cytoskeletal Function Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, NW1 1AT London, UK. Electronic address:
    In contrast to most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm without host involvement. We find that vaccinia virus induces cytoplasmic activation of ATR early during infection, before genome uncoating, which is unexpected because ATR plays a fundamental nuclear role in maintaining host genome integrity. ATR, RPA, INTS7, and Chk1 are recruited to cytoplasmic DNA viral factories, suggesting canonical ATR pathway activation. Read More

    A heterologous prime-boosting strategy with replicating Vaccinia virus vectors and plant-produced HIV-1 Gag/dgp41 virus-like particles.
    Virology 2017 Jul 28;507:242-256. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA; School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA. Electronic address:
    Showing modest efficacy, the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine clinical trial utilized a non-replicating canarypox viral vector and a soluble gp120 protein boost. Here we built upon the RV144 strategy by developing a novel combination of a replicating, but highly-attenuated Vaccinia virus vector, NYVAC-KC, and plant-produced HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Both components contained the full-length Gag and a membrane anchored truncated gp41 presenting the membrane proximal external region with its conserved broadly neutralizing epitopes in the pre-fusion conformation. Read More

    Innate Immune Gene Transcript Level Associated with the Infection of Macrophages with Ectromelia Virus in Two Different Mouse Strains.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Jun 28;30(5):315-329. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    1 Division of Immunology, Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences , Warsaw, Poland .
    Poxviruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to avoid the immune response of the infected host, and many of these mechanisms have not been fully described. Here, we studied the transcriptional response of innate immune genes in BALB/c and C57BL/6 peritoneal macrophages following infection with the Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (ECTV-Mos) with the aim of delineating innate immune genes that contribute to the difference between susceptibility and resistance to lethal infection. We show a generalized downregulation of many genes in four categories (toll-like receptor signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling, and type I interferon signaling) of antiviral innate immune receptors, downstream signaling pathways, and responsive components. Read More

    Two glycosaminoglycan-binding domains of the mouse cytomegalovirus-encoded chemokine MCK-2 are critical for oligomerization of the full-length protein.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Jun 21;292(23):9613-9626. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    From the Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Chemokines are essential for antimicrobial host defenses and tissue repair. Herpesviruses and poxviruses also encode chemokines, copied from their hosts and repurposed for multiple functions, including immune evasion. The CC chemokine MCK-2 encoded by mouse CMV (MCMV) has an atypical structure consisting of a classic chemokine domain N-terminal to a second unique domain, resulting from the splicing of MCMV ORFs m131 and m129 MCK-2 is essential for full MCMV infectivity in macrophages and for persistent infection in the salivary gland. Read More

    Modification of two capripoxvirus quantitative real-time PCR assays to improve diagnostic sensitivity and include beta-actin as an internal positive control.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 May;29(3):351-356
    Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY (Das, Deng, McIntosh).
    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs), consisting of Sheeppox virus (SPV), Goatpox virus (GPV), and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) species, cause economically significant diseases in sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays are routinely used for rapid detection of CaPVs in surveillance and outbreak management programs. We further modified and optimized 2 previously published CaPV qPCR assays, referred to as the Balinsky and Bowden assays, by changing commercial PCR reagents used in the tests. Read More

    Distinct Roles of Vaccinia Virus NF-κB Inhibitor Proteins A52, B15, and K7 in the Immune Response.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 9;91(13). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain
    Poxviruses use a complex strategy to escape immune control, by expressing immunomodulatory proteins that could limit their use as vaccine vectors. To test the role of poxvirus NF-κB pathway inhibitors A52, B15, and K7 in immunity, we deleted their genes in an NYVAC (New York vaccinia virus) strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens. After infection of mice, ablation of the A52R, B15R, and K7R genes increased dendritic cell, natural killer cell, and neutrophil migration as well as chemokine/cytokine expression. Read More

    Structural basis of apoptosis inhibition by the fowlpox virus protein FPV039.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Jun 14;292(22):9010-9021. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    From the Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia and
    Programmed cell death or apoptosis of infected host cells is an important defense mechanism in response to viral infections. This process is regulated by proapoptotic and prosurvival members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein family. To counter premature death of a virus-infected cell, poxviruses use a range of different molecular strategies including the mimicry of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins. Read More

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