17,783 results match your criteria Poxviruses


Asparagine is a critical limiting metabolite for vaccinia virus protein synthesis during glutamine deprivation.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, USA

Viruses actively interact with host metabolism because viral replication relies on host cells to provide nutrients and energy. Vaccinia virus (VACV; the prototype poxvirus) prefers glutamine to glucose for efficient replication to the extent that VACV replication is hindered in glutamine-free medium. Remarkably, our data show that VACV replication can be fully rescued from glutamine depletion by asparagine supplementation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01834-18DOI Listing

A genome-wide haploid genetic screen identifies heparan sulfate-associated genes and the macropinocytosis modulator TMED10 as factors supporting vaccinia virus infection.

J Virol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands

Vaccinia virus is a promising viral vaccine and gene delivery candidate, and has historically been used as a model to study poxvirus-host cell interactions. We employed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis approach in human haploid cells to identify host factors crucial for vaccinia virus infection. A library of mutagenized HAP1 cells was exposed to Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02160-18DOI Listing

CrmA orthologs from diverse poxviruses potently inhibit caspases-1 and -8, yet cleavage site mutagenesis frequently produces caspase-1-specific variants.

Biochem J 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, 3086, Australia

Poxviruses encode many proteins that enable them to evade host anti-viral defense mechanisms. Spi-2 proteins, including Cowpox virus CrmA, suppress anti-viral immune responses and contribute to poxviral pathogenesis and lethality. These proteins are "serpin" protease inhibitors, which function via a pseudosubstrate mechanism involving initial interactions between the protease and a cleavage site within the serpin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20190202DOI Listing

Poxviral E3L ortholog (Viral Interferon resistance gene) of orf viruses of sheep and goats indicates species-specific clustering with heterogeneity among parapoxviruses.

Cytokine 2019 Apr 13;120:15-21. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Division of Virology, ICAR-IVRI, Mukteswar 263 138, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India. Electronic address:

Orf is a contagious disease posing a serious threat to animal and human health. E3L is one of the evolutionarily acquired immunomodulatory proteins present in orf virus (ORFV) and is responsible for conferring resistance to interferons among poxviruses. Genetic analysis of ORFV isolates of different geographical regions including Indian subcontinent targeting viral interferon resistance (VIR) gene (a homolog of vaccinia virus E3L gene) revealed a high percentage of identity among themselves and other ORFV isolates at both nt and aa levels as compared to low identity among parapoxviruses (PPVs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2019.04.001DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Crystal structure of protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 from Cydia pomonella granulovirus.

Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 2019 Apr 13;75(Pt 4):233-238. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand.

Many viral genomes encode kinase and phosphatase enzymes to manipulate pathways that are controlled by phosphorylation events. The majority of viral phosphatase genes occur in the Baculoviridae and Poxviridae families of large DNA viruses. The corresponding protein sequences belong to four major homology groups, and structures are currently available for only two of these. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2053230X19002322DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Harnessing poxviral know-how for anti-cytokine therapies.

Authors:
Andrew G Bowie

J Biol Chem 2019 Mar;294(13):5228-5229

From the School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland

Poxviruses have evolved efficient proteins that bind mammalian cytokines and chemokines to suppress host immunity. Here Pontejo examine in detail how one such poxviral protein, CrmD, that has activity against both mammalian tumor necrosis factor and chemokines, interacts with its host targets. They apply their findings to refine a human anti-cytokine therapeutic and increase its specificity, providing an elegant example of the benefits of mining viral proteins for therapeutically useful information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.H119.008151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442048PMC

Giant viruses: spore-like missing links between Rickettsia and mitochondria?

Authors:
Hervé Seligmann

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

The National Natural History Collections, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Phyloproteomics indicate common viral origin from ancient cells before archaea, bacteria, and eukaryota split and subsequent size and complexity reductions occurred. Further independent evidence for the cellular origin of viruses is reviewed for the virus order Megavirales, focusing on the family Poxviridae. Megavirales comprises giant viruses, double-stranded DNA viruses whose genomes exceed some bacterial ones and large enough to parasitize large-celled protists (amoeba). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14022DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Poxvirus oncolytic virotherapy.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2019 Mar 28:1-13. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

a Biodesign Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines and Virotherapy , Arizona State University , Tempe , AZ , USA.

Introduction: Over the last decade, advances in biological therapies have resulted in remarkable clinical responses for the treatment of some previously incurable cancers. Oncolytic virotherapy is one of these promising novel strategies for cancer therapy. A successful oncolytic virus promotes tumor cell oncolysis and elicits a robust long-term anti-tumor immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14712598.2019.1600669DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

By binding CD80 and CD86, the vaccinia virus' M2 protein blocks their interactions with both CD28 and CTLA4 and potentiates CD80's binding to PD-L1.

J Virol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Transgene S. A., Boulevard Gonthier d'Andernach, 67405 Illkirch-Graffenstaden - France.

In this article we report that the M2 protein encoded by the vaccinia virus is secreted as a homo-oligomer by infected cells and binds two central co-stimulation molecules: CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2). These interactions block the ligation of the two B7 proteins to both soluble CD28 and soluble CTLA4, but favor the binding of soluble PD-L1 to soluble CD80. M2L gene orthologues are found in several other poxviruses and the B7/CD28-CTLA4 blocking activity has been identified for several culture supernatants of orthopoxvirus infected cells and for recombinant myxoma virus M2 protein homolog ( Gp120LP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00207-19DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Evolving resistance to pathogens.

Science 2019 03;363(6433):1277-1278

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw8710DOI Listing

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Genes (Basel) 2019 Mar 20;10(3). Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Section of Virology, Department of Medicine, St Mary's Campus, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, UK.

The discovery of mammalian pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESC) has revolutionised cell research and regenerative medicine. More recently discovered chicken ESC (cESC), though less intensively studied, are increasingly popular as vaccine substrates due to a dearth of avian cell lines. Information on the comparative performance of cESC with common vaccine viruses is limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes10030237DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Intertwined: SAMHD1 cellular functions, restriction, and viral evasion strategies.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Host-Pathogen Interactions, Paul-Ehrlich-Institute, 63225, Langen, Germany.

SAMHD1 was initially described for its ability to efficiently restrict HIV-1 replication in myeloid cells and resting CD4 T cells. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that SAMHD1-mediated restriction is by far not limited to lentiviruses, but seems to be a general concept that applies to most retroviruses and at least a number of DNA viruses. SAMHD1 anti-viral activity was long believed to be solely due to its ability to deplete cellular dNTPs by enzymatic degradation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-019-00593-xDOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

The Perennial Use of the Green Fluorescent Protein Marker in a Live Vaccinia Virus Ankara Recombinant Platform Shows No Acute Adverse Effects in Mice.

Braz J Microbiol 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Laboratory of Basic and Applied Virology, Departmento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Recombinant virus vectors represent a promising strategy for vaccine research. Among available viral vectors, members of the Poxviridae family-especially the modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-stand out as immunogenic and safe vaccine platforms. Because MVA usually does not produce plaques in cell culture, visible selection markers such as the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are frequently incorporated into the constructions in order to facilitate the recognition of recombinants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-019-00067-5DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Central memory CD8+ T cells become CD69+ tissue-residents during viral skin infection independent of CD62L-mediated lymph node surveillance.

PLoS Pathog 2019 03 15;15(3):e1007633. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States of America.

Memory CD8+ T cells in the circulation rapidly infiltrate non-lymphoid tissues following infection and provide protective immunity in an antigen-specific manner. However, the subsequent fate of memory CD8+ T cells after entering non-lymphoid tissues such as the skin during a secondary infection is largely unknown. Furthermore, because expression of CD62L is often used to identify the central memory (TCM) CD8+ T cell subset, uncoupling the physical requirement for CD62L-mediated lymph node homing versus other functional attributes of TCM CD8+ T cells remains unresolved. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6420010PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Humoral immune response to repeated lumpy skin disease virus vaccination and performance of serological tests.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Mar 6;15(1):80. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Südufer 10, D-17493, Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Background: In the presented study we investigated the development of the humoral immune response against LSDV during the process of re-vaccination of cattle over a time span of 5 months. In addition, the performance of different serological techniques for antibody detection against LSDV was compared. For sample collection, an area without previous LSD outbreak reports in Serbia was selected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-019-1831-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404298PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Virus Genomes from Deep Sea Sediments Expand the Ocean Megavirome and Support Independent Origins of Viral Gigantism.

MBio 2019 03 5;10(2). Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden

The nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) of eukaryotes (proposed order, "Megavirales") include the families , , , , , , and , as well as still unclassified pithoviruses, pandoraviruses, molliviruses, and faustoviruses. Several of these virus groups include giant viruses, with genome and particle sizes exceeding those of many bacterial and archaeal cells. We explored the diversity of the NCLDV in deep sea sediments from the Loki's Castle hydrothermal vent area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02497-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401483PMC

Molecular basis of cullin-3 (Cul3) ubiquitin ligase subversion by vaccinia virus protein A55.

J Biol Chem 2019 Apr 28;294(16):6416-6429. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

From the Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP and

BTB-Kelch proteins are substrate-specific adaptors for cullin-3 (Cul3) RING-box-based E3 ubiquitin ligases, mediating protein ubiquitylation for subsequent proteasomal degradation. Vaccinia virus encodes three BTB-Kelch proteins: A55, C2, and F3. Viruses lacking A55 or C2 have altered cytopathic effects in cultured cells and altered pathology Previous studies have shown that the ectromelia virus orthologue of A55 interacts with Cul3 in cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.006561DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Vaccinia virus BBK E3 ligase adaptor A55 targets importin-dependent NF-κB activation and inhibits CD8 T-cell memory.

J Virol 2019 02 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Viral infection of cells is sensed by pathogen recognition receptors that trigger an anti-viral innate immune response and consequently viruses have evolved countermeasures. Vaccinia virus (VACV) evades the host immune response by expressing scores of immunomodulatory proteins. One family of VACV proteins are the BTB-BACK domain containing, Kelch-like (BBK) family of predicted cullin-3 E3 ligase adaptors: A55, C2 and F3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00051-19DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

A cautionary note on the selectivity of oncolytic poxviruses.

Oncolytic Virother 2019 11;8:3-8. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA,

Background: Oncolytic viruses selectively infect cancer cells while avoiding infection of normal cells. Usually, selectivity is demonstrated by injecting a virus into tumor-bearing mice and observing infection and lysis of tumor cells without infection of other tissues. The general view is that this selectivity is due to tropisms of the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OV.S189832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375109PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Mutagenesis: A Method for Large-Scale Alteration of Viral Genomes.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Feb 20;20(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Heinrich Pette Institute, Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology, 20251 Hamburg, Germany.

The cloning of the large DNA genomes of herpesviruses, poxviruses, and baculoviruses as bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) in has opened a new era in viral genetics. Several methods of lambda Red-mediated genome engineering (recombineering) in have been described, which are now commonly used to generate recombinant viral genomes. These methods are very efficient at introducing deletions, small insertions, and point mutations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413233PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Prokaryotic expression, purification and evaluation of goatpox virus ORF117 protein as a diagnostic antigen in indirect ELISA to detect goatpox.

Arch Virol 2019 Apr 18;164(4):1049-1058. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Division of Virology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Nainital, Uttarakhand, 263 138, India.

Goatpox is an economically significant transboundary viral disease of goats that is caused by goatpox virus (GTPV). This study describes the prokaryotic expression of the GTPV ORF117 protein, a homologue of vaccinia virus A27L, and evaluation of its diagnostic potential in ELISA. The GTPV ORF117 gene was cloned into the pET32a vector to express recombinant ORF117 protein (rA27L) in E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04170-8DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.282 Impact Factor

Recombinant influenza A viruses as vaccine vectors.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2019 Apr 4;18(4):379-392. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

a Research Center for Emerging Infections and Zoonoses (RIZ) , University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover (TiHo) , Hannover , Germany.

Introduction: Various viruses, including poxviruses, adenoviruses and vesicular stomatitis virus, have been considered as vaccine vectors for the delivery of antigens of interest in the development of vaccines against newly emerging pathogens. Areas covered: Here, we review results that have been obtained with influenza A viruses (IAV) as vaccine vectors. With the advent of reverse genetics technology, IAV-based recombinant vaccine candidates have been constructed that induce protective immunity to a variety of different pathogens of interest, including West Nile virus, Plasmodium falciparum and respiratory syncytial virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2019.1582338DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

A poxvirus pseudokinase represses viral DNA replication via a pathway antagonized by its paralog kinase.

PLoS Pathog 2019 02 15;15(2):e1007608. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, United States of America.

Poxviruses employ sophisticated, but incompletely understood, signaling pathways that engage cellular defense mechanisms and simultaneously ensure viral factors are modulated properly. For example, the vaccinia B1 protein kinase plays a vital role in inactivating the cellular antiviral factor BAF, and likely orchestrates other pathways as well. In this study, we utilized experimental evolution of a B1 deletion virus to perform an unbiased search for suppressor mutations and identify novel pathways involving B1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395007PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Avian Poxvirus Infection in Polish Great Tits .

J Vet Res 2018 Dec 31;62(4):427-430. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Poultry Diseases National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.

Introduction: Avian poxvirus infections are widespread in the domestic poultry population but are also reported in wild birds. In poultry, these infections cause significant economic losses, while wild birds may be a reservoir for poxvirus which affects breeding poultry. However, wild birds may also exhibit characteristic anatomopathological changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2018-0065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364157PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Viral and metazoan poxins are cGAMP-specific nucleases that restrict cGAS-STING signalling.

Nature 2019 Feb 6;566(7743):259-263. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Cytosolic DNA triggers innate immune responses through the activation of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and production of the cyclic dinucleotide second messenger 2',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). 2',3'-cGAMP is a potent inducer of immune signalling; however, no intracellular nucleases are known to cleave 2',3'-cGAMP and prevent the activation of the receptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Here we develop a biochemical screen to analyse 24 mammalian viruses, and identify poxvirus immune nucleases (poxins) as a family of 2',3'-cGAMP-degrading enzymes. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-0928-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-0928-6DOI Listing
February 2019
21 Reads

An Update on the Known Host Range of the Brazilian Vaccinia Virus: An Outbreak in Buffalo Calves.

Front Microbiol 2018 22;9:3327. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Even nearly forty years after the eradication of smallpox, members of the family continue to be the focus of an increasing number of studies. Among these studies, prominently stands vaccinia virus, an orthopoxvirus that is associated with bovine vaccinia outbreaks. Although more frequently associated with infections in cattle and humans, the host range of vaccinia virus is not restricted only to these hosts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350457PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Insights into ligand binding by a viral tumor necrosis factor (TNF) decoy receptor yield a selective soluble human type 2 TNF receptor.

J Biol Chem 2019 Mar 5;294(13):5214-5227. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

From the Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain

Etanercept is a soluble form of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) that inhibits pathological tumor necrosis factor (TNF) responses in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. However, besides TNF, etanercept also blocks lymphotoxin-α (LTα), which has no clear therapeutic value and might aggravate some of the adverse effects associated with etanercept. Poxviruses encode soluble TNFR2 homologs, termed viral TNF decoy receptors (vTNFRs), that display unique specificity properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.005828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442024PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Poxviruses as Gene Therapy Vectors: Generating Poxviral Vectors Expressing Therapeutic Transgenes.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1937:189-209

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), Little Rock, AR, USA.

Treatments with poxvirus vectors can have long-lasting immunological impact in the host, and thus they have been extensively studied to treat diseases and for vaccine development. More importantly, the oncolytic properties of poxviruses have led to their development as cancer therapeutics. Two poxviruses, vaccinia virus (VACV) and myxoma virus (MYXV), have been extensively studied as virotherapeutics with promising results. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-1-4939-9065-8_11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9065-8_11DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads

Poor Antigen Processing of Poxvirus Particles Limits CD4 T Cell Recognition and Impacts Immunogenicity of the Inactivated Vaccine.

J Immunol 2019 Mar 30;202(5):1340-1349. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104;

CD4 T cells play critical roles in defending against poxviruses, both by potentiating cellular and humoral responses and by directly killing infected cells. Despite this central role, the basis for pox-specific CD4 T cell activation, specifically the origin of the poxvirus-derived peptides (epitopes) that activate CD4 T cells, remains poorly understood. In addition, because the current licensed poxvirus vaccines can cause serious adverse events and even death, elucidating the requirements for MHC class II (MHC-II) processing and presentation of poxviral Ags could be of great use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1801099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394857PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Sequential detection of pseudocowpox virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus in a same calf in Japan.

J Vet Med Sci 2019 Mar 22;81(3):440-443. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Laboratory of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.

We detected parapoxviruses from environmental samples and calves with and without intraoral clinical signs and conducted molecular and serological analyses. Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) was detected from a calf showing anorexia, frothy salivation, and erosion in the mucosa of the lip and tongue. At the time that PCPV was detected, bovine papular stomatitis viruses (BPSVs) were detected in environmental samples as well as in calves without intraoral clinical signs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.18-0367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451898PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Atypical Cowpox Virus Infection in Smallpox-Vaccinated Patient, France.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 02;25(2):212-219

We report a case of atypical cowpox virus infection in France in 2016. The patient sought care for thoracic lesions after injury from the sharp end of a metallic guardrail previously stored in the ground. We isolated a cowpox virus from the lesions and sequenced its whole genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2502.171433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346447PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA 1 Associates with Orf Virus OV20.0 and Enhances Viral Replication.

J Virol 2019 Apr 21;93(7). Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Graduate Institute of Microbiology and Public Health, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan

Orf virus (ORFV) infects sheep and goats and is also an important zoonotic pathogen. The viral protein OV20.0 has been shown to suppress innate immunity by targeting the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) by multiple mechanisms. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.01912-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01912-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430553PMC
April 2019
8 Reads

Species-specific inhibition of antiviral protein kinase R by capripoxviruses and vaccinia virus.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2019 Feb 15;1438(1):18-29. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

School of Medicine, Department of Medial Microbiology and Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, California.

Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) is an important and rapidly evolving antiviral kinase. Most poxviruses contain two distinct PKR inhibitors, called E3 and K3 in vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic orthopoxvirus. E3 prevents PKR homodimerization by binding double-stranded RNA, while K3 acts as a pseudosubstrate inhibitor by binding directly to activated PKR and thereby inhibiting interaction with its substrate eIF2α. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/nyas.14000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14000DOI Listing
February 2019
15 Reads

RNA granules associated with SAMD9-mediated poxvirus restriction are similar to antiviral granules in composition but do not require TIA1 for poxvirus restriction.

Virology 2019 Mar 8;529:16-22. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Stress granule (SG)-like antiviral granules (AVG) had been found in some vaccinia virus infection conditions and shown to repress translation. Similar RNA granules are also associated with translational inhibition and poxvirus restriction mediated by the host restriction factor SAMD9, but their function is less clear. We studied the composition of these RNA granules by immunofluorescence and found them enriched with SG component TIA1 and viral dsRNA binding protein E3. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00426822193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6382536PMC
March 2019
16 Reads

The Role of microRNAs in the Viral Infections.

Curr Pharm Des 2018 ;24(39):4659-4667

Computational Optics Research Group, Advanced Institute of Materials Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs with 19 to 24 nucleotides which are evolutionally conserved. MicroRNAs play a regulatory role in many cellular functions such as immune mechanisms, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. The main function of miRNAs is the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression via mRNA degradation or inhibition of translation. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/168861/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666190110161034DOI Listing
January 2018
14 Reads

Evolution of the Large Nucleocytoplasmic DNA Viruses of Eukaryotes and Convergent Origins of Viral Gigantism.

Adv Virus Res 2019 10;103:167-202. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

The Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) of eukaryotes (proposed order "Megavirales") comprise an expansive group of eukaryotic viruses that consists of the families Poxviridae, Asfarviridae, Iridoviridae, Ascoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Marseilleviridae, Pithoviridae, and Mimiviridae, as well as Pandoraviruses, Molliviruses, and Faustoviruses that so far remain unaccounted by the official virus taxonomy. All these viruses have double-stranded DNA genomes that range in size from about 100 kilobases (kb) to more than 2.5 megabases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.09.002DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions of Tyrosine Phosphatases with Microarrayed Fragment Libraries Displayed on Phosphopeptide Substrate Scaffolds.

ACS Comb Sci 2019 Mar 31;21(3):158-170. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Molecular and Translational Sciences Division , United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases , Frederick , Maryland 21702 , United States.

Chemical library screening approaches that focus exclusively on catalytic events may overlook unique effects of protein-protein interactions that can be exploited for development of specific inhibitors. Phosphotyrosyl (pTyr) residues embedded in peptide motifs comprise minimal recognition elements that determine the substrate specificity of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). We incorporated aminooxy-containing amino acid residues into a 7-residue epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) derived phosphotyrosine-containing peptide and subjected the peptides to solution-phase oxime diversification by reacting with aldehyde-bearing druglike functionalities. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acscombsci.8b00122
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscombsci.8b00122DOI Listing
March 2019
11 Reads

Is host heparanase required for the rapid spread of heparan sulfate binding viruses?

Virology 2019 Mar 3;529:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Cancer & Vascular Biology Group, ACRF Department of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Vaccinia virus (VACV), like many other viruses, binds to cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) prior to infecting cells. Since HS is ubiquitously expressed extracellularly, it seemed likely that VACV-HS interaction may impede virus spread, with host heparanase, the only known mammalian endoglycosidase that can degrade HS, potentially overcoming this problem. In support of this hypothesis, we found that, compared to wild type, mice deficient in heparanase showed a 1-3 days delay in the spread of VACV to distant organs, such as ovaries, following intranasal inoculation, or to ovaries and spleen following intramuscular inoculation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.001DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Comparison of the sensitivity of three cell cultures to ORFV.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Jan 7;15(1):13. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, Lanzhou, 730046, China.

Background: Contagious ecthyma (CE) appears in the countries and regions containing goat and sheep farms, and it is considered a global epidemic. CE not only severely endangers the healthy development of the sheep and goat industries but also threatens human health. For viral infectious diseases, fast and effective isolation and culture of the pathogen is critical for CE diagnosis, and for disease prevention and control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-018-1760-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322270PMC
January 2019
7 Reads

Recovery of recombinant infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus strain Sn1203 using the mammalian cell line BHK-21.

J Virol Methods 2019 03 4;265:84-90. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Heilongjiang River Fishery Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Harbin 150070, China. Electronic address:

Reverse genetics systems are powerful tools for understanding the virulence mechanisms and gene functions of negative-sense RNA viruses. The reverse genetics systems commonly used for recombinant infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) are based on vaccinia virus infection. To avoid the potential biological safety risks associated with vaccinia virus, a recombinant IHNV virus strain Sn1203 (rIHNV-Sn1203) was rescued in this study using a mammalian cell line, BHK-21. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2019.01.002DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

The Vaccinia virion: Filling the gap between atomic and ultrastructure.

PLoS Pathog 2019 01 7;15(1):e1007508. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, UC-Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.

We have investigated the molecular-level structure of the Vaccinia virion in situ by protein-protein chemical crosslinking, identifying 4609 unique-mass crosslink ions at an effective FDR of 0.33%, covering 2534 unique pairs of crosslinked protein positions, 625 of which were inter-protein. The data were statistically non-random and rational in the context of known structures, and showed biological rationality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336343PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Poxvirus infection in a Steller's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus).

J Vet Med Sci 2019 Feb 1;81(2):338-342. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Department of Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduated School of Veterinary Science, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193, Japan.

A severely emaciated adult Steller's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) was found dead with electrocution-induced severe wing laceration, and with multiple cutaneous pock nodules at the periocular regions of both sides nearby the medial canthi and rhamphotheca. Histopathological examination of the nodules revealed hyperplasia of the epidermis with vacuolar degeneration and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies). The proventriculus was severely affected by nematodes and was ulcerated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.18-0566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395218PMC
February 2019
2 Reads
0.782 Impact Factor

Virotherapy as Potential Adjunct Therapy for Graft-Vs-Host Disease.

Curr Pathobiol Rep 2018 19;6(4):247-263. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Biodesign Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines and Virotherapy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review discusses the pathophysiology, risk factors, and the advances in the prevention or treatment of graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) by exploiting adjunct virotherapy. In addition, nonviral adjunct therapeutic options for the prevention of GvHD in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are discussed. The role of oncolytic viruses to treat different HSCT-eligible hematological cancers is also considered and correlated with the issue of GvHD in the context of allo-HSCT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40139-018-0186-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290699PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Mutation and structure guided discovery of an antiviral small molecule that mimics an essential C-Terminal tripeptide of the vaccinia D4 processivity factor.

Antiviral Res 2019 Feb 20;162:178-185. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine and the Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The smallpox virus (variola) remains a bioterrorism threat since a majority of the human population has never been vaccinated. In the event of an outbreak, at least two drugs against different targets of variola are critical to circumvent potential viral mutants that acquire resistance. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the model virus used in the laboratory for studying smallpox. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.12.011DOI Listing
February 2019
20 Reads
3.938 Impact Factor

A virus-encoded type I interferon decoy receptor enables evasion of host immunity through cell-surface binding.

Nat Commun 2018 12 21;9(1):5440. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), 28049, Madrid, Spain.

Soluble cytokine decoy receptors are potent immune modulatory reagents with therapeutic applications. Some virus-encoded secreted cytokine receptors interact with glycosaminoglycans expressed at the cell surface, but the biological significance of this activity in vivo is poorly understood. Here, we show the type I interferon binding protein (IFNα/βBP) encoded by vaccinia and ectromelia viruses requires of this cell binding activity to confer full virulence to these viruses and to retain immunomodulatory activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-07772-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303335PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Sounding the alarm: Defining thresholds to trigger a public health response to monkeypox.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 20;12(12):e0007034. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. Observed fluctuations in reported cases over time raises questions about when it is appropriate to mount a public health response, and what specific actions should be taken. We evaluated three different thresholds to differentiate between baseline and heightened disease incidence, and propose a novel, tiered algorithm for public health action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319745PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

A System Based-Approach to Examine Cytokine Response in Poxvirus-Infected Macrophages.

Viruses 2018 12 5;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Labs, Singapore 117510, Singapore.

The poxviruses are large, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses about 130 to 230 kbp, that have an animal origin and evolved to infect a wide host range. Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is a poxvirus that infects only humans, but other poxviruses such as monkey poxvirus and cowpox virus (CPXV) have crossed over from animals to infect humans. Therefore understanding the biology of poxviruses can devise antiviral strategies to prevent these human infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10120692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316232PMC
December 2018
7 Reads

CD8+ T Cells Responding to the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Protein Delivered by Vaccinia Virus MVA in Mice.

Viruses 2018 12 16;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, LMU Munich, 80539 Munich, Germany.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), a novel infectious agent causing severe respiratory disease and death in humans, was first described in 2012. Antibodies directed against the MERS-CoV spike (S) protein are thought to play a major role in controlling MERS-CoV infection and in mediating vaccine-induced protective immunity. In contrast, relatively little is known about the role of T cell responses and the antigenic targets of MERS-CoV that are recognized by CD8+ T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10120718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316859PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Oncolytic properties of non-vaccinia poxviruses.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 13;9(89):35891-35906. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Transgene SA, Illkirch-Graffenstaden 67405, France.

Vaccinia virus, a member of the family, has been extensively used as an oncolytic agent and has entered late stage clinical development. In this study, we evaluated the potential oncolytic properties of other members of the family. Numerous tumor cell lines were infected with ten non-vaccinia poxviruses to identify which virus displayed the most potential as an oncolytic agent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267605PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

Engineering oncolytic vaccinia virus with functional peptides through mild and universal strategy.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2019 Feb 7;411(4):925-933. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, China.

Oncolytic virotherapy is one of promising tumor therapy modalities. However, its therapeutic efficacy is still limited due to the immunogenicity and poor tumor-targeting capability. In this report, an engineered oncolytic vaccinia virus (OVV) was constructed by site-specifically introducing azide groups to the envelope of OVV during the in situ assembling process of virions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-018-1519-3DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads