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    A novel HRM assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses of medical and veterinary importance.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 20;7:42892. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.
    Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]. The assay is based on high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMCA) of PCR amplicons produced using genus specific primer pairs and dsDNA binding dye. Read More

    Comparative analysis estimates the relative frequencies of co-divergence and cross-species transmission within viral families.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Feb 8;13(2):e1006215. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    The cross-species transmission of viruses from one host species to another is responsible for the majority of emerging infections. However, it is unclear whether some virus families have a greater propensity to jump host species than others. If related viruses have an evolutionary history of co-divergence with their hosts there should be evidence of topological similarities between the virus and host phylogenetic trees, whereas host jumping generates incongruent tree topologies. Read More

    Deletion of the Chemokine Binding Protein Gene from the Parapoxvirus Orf Virus Reduces Virulence and Pathogenesis in Sheep.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:46. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae and infects sheep and goats, often around the mouth, resulting in acute pustular skin lesions. ORFV encodes several secreted immunomodulators including a broad-spectrum chemokine binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are a large family of secreted chemotactic proteins that activate and regulate inflammation induced leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. Read More

    Seasonal Dynamics and Metagenomic Characterization of Marine Viruses in Goseong Bay, Korea.
    PLoS One 2017 25;12(1):e0169841. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    South Sea Environment Research Department, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Geoje, Republic of Korea.
    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans, and account for a significant amount of the genetic diversity of marine ecosystems. However, there is little detailed information about the biodiversity of viruses in marine environments. Rapid advances in metagenomics have enabled the identification of previously unknown marine viruses. Read More

    Detection, identification, and differentiation of sheep pox virus and goat pox virus from clinical cases in Giza Governorate, Egypt.
    Vet World 2016 Dec 18;9(12):1445-1449. Epub 2016 Dec 18.
    Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki 12622, Giza, Egypt.
    Aim: To isolate, identify, and differentiate Capripoxviruses (CaPV) (sheep pox virus and goat pox virus) infections by egg inoculation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RPO30) in clinically affected animals in Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt.

    Materials And Methods: A total of 37 scab samples were collected from clinically suspected field cases of sheep pox and goat pox. These samples were collected during (2014-2015) during different outbreaks of sheep pox and goat pox from Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. Read More

    Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development.
    Adv Virus Res 2017 1;97:187-243. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, LMU University of Munich, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. Read More

    Vector-based genetically modified vaccines: Exploiting Jenner's legacy.
    Vaccine 2016 Oct 28. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Earth & Life Sciences, Athena Institute, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    The global vaccine market is diverse while facing a plethora of novel developments. Genetic modification (GM) techniques facilitate the design of 'smarter' vaccines. For many of the major infectious diseases of humans, like AIDS and malaria, but also for most human neoplastic disorders, still no vaccines are available. Read More

    Capripox outbreak in a mixed flock of sheep and goats in India.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Feb 27;64(1):27-30. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Division of Virology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.
    Generally, capripoxvirus infections are host specific in nature and occasionally infect more than one species. In this study, an investigation was carried out from an outbreak of capripox in a mixed flock of sheep and goats which occurred in 2013 in the State of Jammu & Kashmir. The genetic analysis of P32, RPO30 and GPCR genes revealed that both goats and sheep were infected with goatpox virus. Read More

    A New Document on Smallpox Vaccination.
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2016 Dec 10;9(6):287-289. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:
    Modern medicine owes much to the invaluable heritage of the practices of past generations and their achievements that have now become medical rules. In the case of vaccination, there is evidence that the nomads of Baluchistan (Southeast Iran) demonstrated natural immunization against cowpox, a practice that was later introduced to the medical community by Edward Jenner. Although the discoveries of scientists cannot be ignored, they are certainly based on the traditional and indigenous experiences that have been transferred from generation to generation until reaching us. Read More

    A bioinformatics pipeline to search functional motifs within whole-proteome data: a case study of poxviruses.
    Virus Genes 2016 Dec 20. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Proteins harbor domains or short linear motifs, which facilitate their functions and interactions. Finding functional motifs in protein sequences could predict the putative cellular roles or characteristics of hypothetical proteins. In this study, we present Shetti-Motif, which is an interactive tool to (i) map UniProt and PROSITE flat files, (ii) search for multiple pre-defined consensus patterns or experimentally validated functional motifs in large datasets protein sequences (proteome-wide), (iii) search for motifs containing repeated residues (low-complexity regions, e. Read More

    Functional characterization of recombinant major envelope protein (rB2L) of orf virus.
    Arch Virol 2016 Dec 19. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Bengaluru, 560 064, Karnataka, India.
    Orf, or contagious ecthyma, a highly contagious transboundary disease of sheep and goats, is caused by a double-stranded DNA virus (ORFV) belonging to the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. The ORFV genome encodes the major envelope proteins B2L and F1L, which have been found to be highly immunogenic and have multiple functional characteristics. In order to investigate the functional properties of the B2L protein, in this study, the B2L gene of ORFV strain 59/05, encoding recombinant mature B2L (aa 1M-D334), was produced as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Read More

    Genomic identification of human vaccinia virus keratoconjunctivitis and its importance as a laboratory-acquired infection.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2016 Nov;64(11):806-812
    Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord, Iran.
    Context: Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. VACVs are enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. Several species of this family, for example, molluscum contagiosum, smallpox, deerpox, horsepox, rabbitpox, and VACVs may cause conjunctivitis. Read More

    Acral manifestations of viral infections.
    Clin Dermatol 2017 Jan - Feb;35(1):40-49. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Emeritus Professor of Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Beşevler, Ankara, Turkey.
    Viruses are considered intracellular obligates with a nucleic acid RNA or DNA. They have the ability to encode proteins involved in viral replication and production of the protective coat within the host cells but require host cell ribosomes and mitochondria for translation. The members of the families Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Papovaviridae, and Picornaviridae are the most commonly known agents for cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin. Read More

    Emergence of a Viral RNA Polymerase Variant during Gene Copy Number Amplification Promotes Rapid Evolution of Vaccinia Virus.
    J Virol 2017 Feb 31;91(4). Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    Viruses are under relentless selective pressure from host immune defenses. To study how poxviruses adapt to innate immune detection pathways, we performed serial vaccinia virus infections in primary human cells. Independent courses of experimental evolution with a recombinant strain lacking E3L revealed several high-frequency point mutations in conserved poxvirus genes, suggesting important roles for essential poxvirus proteins in innate immune subversion. Read More

    A homolog of the variola virus B22 membrane protein contributes to ectromelia virus pathogenicity in the mouse footpad model.
    Virology 2017 Jan 26;501:107-114. Epub 2016 Nov 26.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:
    Most poxviruses encode a homolog of a ~200,000-kDa membrane protein originally identified in variola virus. We investigated the importance of the ectromelia virus (ECTV) homolog C15 in a natural infection model. In cultured mouse cells, the replication of a mutant virus with stop codons near the N-terminus (ECTV-C15Stop) was indistinguishable from a control virus (ECTV-C15Rev). Read More


    Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Dec 1;109:129-134. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Ethology and Biodiversity Conservation Department, Doñana Biological Station-CSIC, AméricoVespucio s/n, 41092 Seville, Spain; Wildlife Ecology and Management Team, Landcare Research, PO Box 1930, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand; Department of Zoology, Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain. Electronic address:
    Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Read More

    Occurrence of Pseudocowpox virus associated to Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, Brazilian Amazon.
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Dec 29;49:70-75. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    In 2011, an outbreak of severe vesicular disease occurred in the state of Pará, Amazon region. Besides proliferative or verrucous lesions, cattle showed atypical clinical signs such as diarrhea and leading to death. The animals were submitted to clinical, pathological and molecular diagnosis, and laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), a Parapoxvirus genus member, and have also found Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), probably causing persistent infection. Read More

    Recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of lumpy skin disease virus.
    BMC Vet Res 2016 Nov 2;12(1):244. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    Division of Microbiology and Animal Hygiene, Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, Georg-August-University, 37077, Goettingen, Germany.
    Background: Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is a Capripoxvirus infecting cattle and Buffalos. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) leads to significant economic losses due to hide damage, reduction of milk production, mastitis, infertility and mortalities (10 %). Early detection of the virus is crucial to start appropriate outbreak control measures. Read More

    Poxvirus uracil-DNA glycosylase-An unusual member of the family I uracil-DNA glycosylases.
    Protein Sci 2016 Dec 2;25(12):2113-2131. Epub 2016 Nov 2.
    Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, 35294.
    Uracil-DNA glycosylases are ubiquitous enzymes, which play a key role repairing damages in DNA and in maintaining genomic integrity by catalyzing the first step in the base excision repair pathway. Within the superfamily of uracil-DNA glycosylases family I enzymes or UNGs are specific for recognizing and removing uracil from DNA. These enzymes feature conserved structural folds, active site residues and use common motifs for DNA binding, uracil recognition and catalysis. Read More

    Molecular evidence of Orthopoxvirus DNA in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) stool samples.
    Arch Virol 2017 Feb 22;162(2):439-448. Epub 2016 Oct 22.
    Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil.
    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is responsible for outbreaks in Brazil and has immense potential as an emerging virus. VACV can be found naturally circulating in India, Pakistan and South America, where it causes infections characterised by exanthematic lesions in buffaloes, cattle and humans. The transmission cycle of Brazilian VACV has still not been fully characterised; one of the most important gaps in knowledge being the role of wild animals. Read More

    G-Protein-Coupled Chemokine Receptor Gene in Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Isolates from Cattle and Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Dec 9;63(6):e288-e295. Epub 2015 Mar 9.
    Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
    Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), sheep poxvirus (SPV) and goat poxvirus (GPV) are the most serious poxviruses of ruminants. In this study, we analysed the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) genes of LSDV isolates from cattle and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Egypt during the summer of 2011. Multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences revealed that the water buffalo LSDV isolate differed from the cattle isolate at four nucleotide positions, and both isolates had nine nucleotide mutations from the reference strain, Egyptian tissue culture-adapted cattle LSDV/Ismailyia88 strain. Read More

    Investigation of a Possible Link Between Vaccination and the 2010 Sheep Pox Epizootic in Morocco.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Dec 9;63(6):e278-e287. Epub 2015 Mar 9.
    Viral Diseases, Vesicular and Exotic Diseases, CODA-CERVA, Brussels, Belgium.
    Sheep pox is endemic in most parts of Northern Africa and has the potential to cause severe economic problems. Live attenuated vaccines are used in Morocco, and in many other countries, to control the disease. Sheep pox virus (SPPV) re-appeared in 2010 causing a nodular clinical form previously not observed in Morocco. Read More

    Outbreaks of Pox Disease Due to Canarypox-Like and Fowlpox-Like Viruses in Large-Scale Houbara Bustard Captive-Breeding Programmes, in Morocco and the United Arab Emirates.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Dec 4;63(6):e187-e196. Epub 2015 Feb 4.
    Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, UMR1225, IHAP, Toulouse, France.
    Infectious diseases can be serious threats for the success of reinforcement programmes of endangered species. Houbara Bustard species (Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii), whose populations declined in the last decades, have been captive-bred for conservation purposes for more than 15 years in North Africa and the Middle East. Field observations show that pox disease, caused by avipoxviruses (APV), regularly emerges in conservation projects of Houbara Bustard, despite a very strict implementation of both vaccination and biosecurity. Read More

    Cross-Neutralizing and Protective Human Antibody Specificities to Poxvirus Infections.
    Cell 2016 Oct;167(3):684-694.e9
    The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:
    Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses. Read More

    Broad-complex, tramtrack, and bric-à-brac (BTB) proteins: Critical regulators of development.
    Genesis 2016 Oct 22;54(10):505-518. Epub 2016 Aug 22.
    Department of Biology, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL.
    Broad-complex, Tramtrack, and Bric-à-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) family proteins are a diverse family of proteins that are characterized by the presence of a common protein-protein interaction domain, known as the BTB domain. BTB proteins have been identified in poxviruses and many eukaryotes, and have diverse functions, ranging from transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling to protein degradation and cytoskeletal regulation. Specificity of function is determined in part by additional domains present in BTB family proteins, as well as by interaction partners. Read More

    Infectious Angiogenesis-Different Pathways, the Same Goal.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Nov;38(11):793-801
    *Resident, Department of Pathology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; †Dermatologist, Dermatopathologie Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany; ‡Dermatologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; and §Pathologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.
    Infectious angiogenesis is the biological response of neoangiogenesis induced by infectious organisms. The authors present 3 exemplary entities which show paradigmatic clinico-pathological settings of infectious angiogenesis: Bacillary angiomatosis, Orf (ecthyma contagiosum), and Kaposi sarcoma. The authors review the literature and elucidate etiopathogenetic pathways leading to the phenomenon of neovascularization stimulated by infectious organisms. Read More

    Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus and goatpox virus from an outbreak in goats with high mortality in Meghalaya state, India.
    Vet World 2016 Sep 28;9(9):1025-1027. Epub 2016 Sep 28.
    Division of Animal Health, Indian Council of Agricultural Research - North Eastern Hill Region, Umiam - 793 013, Meghalaya, India.
    Aim: We describe a laboratory investigation carried out to confirm the etiology of the heavy mortality (37 animals died out of total 44, i.e. 84%) in goats in Ri-Bhoi district of Meghalaya, Northeast region of India in December 2015. Read More

    Inhibitors of retrograde trafficking active against ricin and Shiga toxins also protect cells from several viruses, Leishmania and Chlamydiales.
    Chem Biol Interact 2016 Oct 3. Epub 2016 Oct 3.
    Institute of Biology and Technology of Saclay (IBITECS), CEA, LabEx LERMIT, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91191, Gif Sur Yvette, France. Electronic address:
    Medical countermeasures to treat biothreat agent infections require broad-spectrum therapeutics that do not induce agent resistance. A cell-based high-throughput screen (HTS) against ricin toxin combined with hit optimization allowed selection of a family of compounds that meet these requirements. The hit compound Retro-2 and its derivatives have been demonstrated to be safe in vivo in mice even at high doses. Read More

    Viruses as nanomedicine for cancer.
    Int J Nanomedicine 2016;11:4835-4847. Epub 2016 Sep 21.
    BIO-IT Foundry Technology Institute; Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Republic of Korea.
    Oncolytic virotherapy, a type of nanomedicine in which oncolytic viruses (OVs) are used to selectively infect and lyse cancer cells, is an emerging field in cancer therapy. Some OVs exhibit a specific tropism for cancer cells, whereas others require genetic modification to enhance their binding with and entry into cancer cells. OVs both kill tumor cells and induce the host's immune response against tumor cells. Read More

    Identification and function analysis of the host cell protein that interacted with Orf virus Bcl-2-like protein ORFV125.
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Oct 24;108:93-7. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture/State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology/Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046, China. Electronic address:
    Orf virus (ORFV) causes contagious ecthyma, a non-systemic skin disease in sheep and goat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that ORFV125 has Bcl-2-like homologous domain and 3D structurally, it is generally known that Bcl-2 protein is known to be a key protein to control cell apoptosis. Maybe ORFV125 act as a Bcl-2-like manner to control cell apoptosis, but its exact function isn't very clear. Read More

    Infectivity of attenuated poxvirus vaccine vectors and immunogenicity of a raccoonpox vectored rabies vaccine in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis).
    Vaccine 2016 Oct 17;34(44):5352-5358. Epub 2016 Sep 17.
    U.S. Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Rd., Madison, WI 53711, USA. Electronic address:
    Bats (Order Chiroptera) are an abundant group of mammals with tremendous ecological value as insectivores and plant dispersers, but their role as reservoirs of zoonotic diseases has received more attention in the last decade. With the goal of managing disease in free-ranging bats, we tested modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and raccoon poxvirus (RCN) as potential vaccine vectors in the Brazilian Free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis), using biophotonic in vivo imaging and immunogenicity studies. Animals were administered recombinant poxviral vectors expressing the luciferase gene (MVA-luc, RCN-luc) through oronasal (ON) or intramuscular (IM) routes and subsequently monitored for bioluminescent signal indicative of viral infection. Read More

    Protection of mice against the highly pathogenic VVIHD-J by DNA and fowlpox recombinant vaccines, administered by electroporation and intranasal routes, correlates with serum neutralizing activity.
    Antiviral Res 2016 Oct 13;134:182-191. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Via Balzaretti, 9, 20133 Milano, Italy; Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology Section, National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Neurosciences, University of Milan, Via Vanvitelli, 32, 20129 Milano, Italy. Electronic address:
    The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980. However, emergence of smallpox outbreaks caused by accidental or deliberate release of variola virus has stimulated new research for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains. Read More

    The gene therapy of collagen-induced arthritis in rats by intramuscular administration of the plasmid encoding TNF-binding domain of variola virus CrmB protein.
    Dokl Biochem Biophys 2016 Jul 7;469(1):284-7. Epub 2016 Sep 7.
    Research Institute of Clinical Immunology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, ul. Yadrintsevskaya 14, Novosivirsk, 630099, Russia.
    Wistar rats with collagen-induced arthritis were intramuscularly injected with the recombinant plasmid pcDNA/sTNF-BD encoding the sequence of the TNF-binding protein domain of variola virus CrmB protein (VARV sTNF-BD) or the pcDNA3.1 vector. Quantitative analysis showed that the histopathological changes in the hind-limb joints of rats were most severe in the animals injected with pcDNA3. Read More

    Finishing monkeypox genomes from short reads: assembly analysis and a neural network method.
    BMC Genomics 2016 Aug 31;17 Suppl 5:497. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, 30333, USA.
    Background: Poxviruses constitute one of the largest and most complex animal virus families known. The notorious smallpox disease has been eradicated and the virus contained, but its simian sister, monkeypox is an emerging, untreatable infectious disease, killing 1 to 10 % of its human victims. In the case of poxviruses, the emergence of monkeypox outbreaks in humans and the need to monitor potential malicious release of smallpox virus requires development of methods for rapid virus identification. Read More

    Vaccinia virus uses retromer-independent cellular retrograde transport pathways to facilitate the wrapping of intracellular mature virions during viral morphogenesis.
    J Virol 2016 Aug 31. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Roslin, Midlothian EH25 9RG, UK The Pirbright Institute, Ash Rd, Pirbright, Surrey GH24 0NF, UK
    Poxviruses such as Vaccinia virus (VACV) undertake a complex cytoplasmic replication cycle which involves morphogenesis through four distinct virion forms, and includes a crucial "wrapping" step whereby intracellular mature virions (IMVs) are wrapped in two additional membranes to form intracellular enveloped virions (IEVs). To determine if cellular retrograde transport pathways were required for this wrapping step we examined VACV morphogenesis in cells with reduced expression of the tetrameric tethering factor complex GARP (Golgi-associated retrograde pathway complex), a central component of retrograde transport. VACV multi-step replication was significantly impaired in cells transfected with siRNA targeting the GARP complex or in cells with a mutated GARP complex. Read More

    Protein Primary Structure of the Vaccinia Virion at Increased Resolution
    J Virol 2016 Nov 14;90(21):9905-9919. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
    Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California, USA
    Here we examine the protein covalent structure of the vaccinia virus virion. Within two virion preparations, >88% of the theoretical vaccinia virus-encoded proteome was detected with high confidence, including the first detection of products from 27 open reading frames (ORFs) previously designated "predicted," "uncharacterized," "inferred," or "hypothetical" polypeptides containing as few as 39 amino acids (aa) and six proteins whose detection required nontryptic proteolysis. We also detected the expression of four short ORFs, each of which was located within an ORF ("ORF-within-ORF"), including one not previously recognized or known to be expressed. Read More

    Genetic characterization of poxviruses in Camelus dromedarius in Ethiopia, 2011-2014.
    Antiviral Res 2016 Oct 18;134:17-25. Epub 2016 Aug 18.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:
    Camelpox and camel contagious ecthyma are infectious viral diseases of camelids caused by camelpox virus (CMLV) and camel contagious ecthyma virus (CCEV), respectively. Even though, in Ethiopia, pox disease has been creating significant economic losses in camel production, little is known on the responsible pathogens and their genetic diversity. Thus, the present study aimed at isolation, identification and genetic characterization of the causative viruses. Read More

    Multivalent and Multipathogen Viral Vector Vaccines.
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 2017 Jan 5;24(1). Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    University of Manchester, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Manchester, United Kingdom.
    The presentation and delivery of antigens are crucial for inducing immunity and, desirably, lifelong protection. Recombinant viral vectors-proven safe and successful in veterinary vaccine applications-are ideal shuttles to deliver foreign proteins to induce an immune response with protective antibody levels by mimicking natural infection. Some examples of viral vectors are adenoviruses, measles virus, or poxviruses. Read More

    Molecular detection and analysis of Sheeppox and Orf viruses isolated from sheep from Qalubia, Egypt.
    Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2016 Jul-Aug;129(7-8):310-7
    In this study an outbreak with Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and Orf virus (ORFV) in one sheep herd in the Qalubia province, Egypt, was investigated. Both, SPPV and ORFV caused clinically manifest infections among sheep. The affected sheep showed skin lesions around the mouth or all over the body. Read More

    Live-Cell Imaging of Vaccinia Virus Recombination.
    PLoS Pathog 2016 Aug 15;12(8):e1005824. Epub 2016 Aug 15.
    Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology and Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
    Recombination between co-infecting poxviruses provides an important mechanism for generating the genetic diversity that underpins evolution. However, poxviruses replicate in membrane-bound cytoplasmic structures known as factories or virosomes. These are enclosed structures that could impede DNA mixing between co-infecting viruses, and mixing would seem to be essential for this process. Read More

    Natural Vaccinia Virus Infection: Diagnosis, Isolation, and Characterization.
    Curr Protoc Microbiol 2016 Aug 12;42:14A.5.1-14A.5.43. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Natural infections of Vaccinia virus (VACV)-the prototype species of the Orthopoxvirus genus, from the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae-cause an occupational emergent zoonotic disease that is primarily associated with the handling of infected dairy cattle. In humans, VACV infection is characterized by skin lesions, primarily on the hands, and accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, myalgia, headache, and lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis of VACV is usually performed according to the methods described for other orthopoxviruses. Read More

    Outbreak of sheeppox in farmed sheep in Kyrgystan: Histological, eletron microscopical and molecular characterization.
    Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2016 Jul;158(7):529-32
    PathoVet AG, Tagelswangen, Switzerland.
    Introduction: On a farm in the Kyrgyz Republic, several dead sheep were found without any history of illness. The sheep showed several ulcerations on lips and bare-skinned areas. At necropsy the lungs showed multiple firm nodules, which were defined as pox nodules histologically. Read More

    Brincidofovir treatment of acyclovir-resistant disseminated varicella zoster virus infection in an immunocompromised host.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2016 Oct 16;18(5):785-790. Epub 2016 Sep 16.
    Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
    Brincidofovir (BCV) is a broad-spectrum antiviral agent active in vitro against double-stranded DNA viruses including herpesviruses, adenoviruses, polyomaviruses, and poxviruses. We report successful BCV use in management of disseminated acyclovir- and cidofovir-resistant varicella zoster virus in an immunocompromised hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient with chronic graft-versus-host disease who was intolerant to foscarnet. Read More

    Vaccinia virus dissemination requires p21-activated kinase 1.
    Arch Virol 2016 Nov 27;161(11):2991-3002. Epub 2016 Jul 27.
    Signal Transduction Group, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, 31270-901, Brazil.
    The orthopoxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) interacts with both actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in order to generate and spread progeny virions. Here, we present evidence demonstrating the involvement of PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) in the dissemination of VACV. Although PAK1 activation has previously been associated with optimal VACV entry via macropinocytosis, its absence does not affect the production of intracellular mature virions (IMVs) and extracellular enveloped virions (EEVs). Read More

    [THE USE OF THE MODEL MOUSE ICR--VARIOLA VIRUS FOR EVALUATION OF ANTIVIRAL DRUG EFFICACY].
    Vopr Virusol 2016 ;61(2):79-84
    Mice of the ICR outbred population were infected intranasally (i/n) with the variola virus (VARV, strain Ind-3a). Clinical signs of the disease did not appear even at the maximum possible dose of the virus 5.2 lg PFU/head (plaque-forming units per head). Read More

    [EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN SENSITIVITY TO SMALLPOX VIRUS BY THE PRIMARY CULTURES OF THE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGES].
    Vopr Virusol 2016 ;61(2):69-73
    Studies of the primary cultures of granulocytes, mononuclear, and monocyte-macrophage cells derived from human blood were performed using variola virus (VARV) in the doses of 0.001-0.021 PFU/cell (plaques-forming units per cell). Read More

    Membrane fusion during poxvirus entry.
    Semin Cell Dev Biol 2016 Dec 14;60:89-96. Epub 2016 Jul 14.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:
    Poxviruses comprise a large family of enveloped DNA viruses that infect vertebrates and invertebrates. Poxviruses, unlike most DNA viruses, replicate in the cytoplasm and encode enzymes and other proteins that enable entry, gene expression, genome replication, virion assembly and resistance to host defenses. Entry of vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family, can occur at the plasma membrane or following endocytosis. Read More

    Multiple consecutive initiation of replication producing novel brush-like intermediates at the termini of linear viral dsDNA genomes with hairpin ends.
    Nucleic Acids Res 2016 Oct 12;44(18):8799-8809. Epub 2016 Jul 12.
    Archaea Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
    Linear dsDNA replicons with hairpin ends are found in the three domains of life, mainly associated with plasmids and viruses including the poxviruses, some phages and archaeal rudiviruses. However, their replication mechanism is not clearly understood. In this study, we find that the rudivirus SIRV2 undergoes multiple consecutive replication reinitiation events at the genomic termini. Read More

    Immunobiological properties of influenza A (H7N9) hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins.
    Arch Virol 2016 Oct 12;161(10):2693-704. Epub 2016 Jul 12.
    Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10700, Thailand.
    Recombinant vaccinia viruses harboring the complete hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA) genes from the influenza A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) virus were constructed (rVac-H7 HA and rVac-N9 NA viruses). The HA and NA proteins were expressed in the cytoplasm and on the plasma membrane of thymidine-kinase-negative (TK(-)) cells infected with these recombinant viruses. Only one form of the HA protein was expressed in infected TK(-) cells, with a molecular weight (MW) of 75 kDa, but three forms were found when the culture medium was supplemented with trypsin (MWs of 75, 50 and 27 kDa), which was similar to what was found in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with reverse genetic (rg) influenza viruses carrying HA genes of H7N9 virus origin. Read More

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