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    Molluscum Contagiosum of the Gluteal Cleft: Observations and Implications for Management in Five Children.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 May 25. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Section of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common, self-limited skin infection caused by a double-stranded DNA virus of the family Poxviridae. Although the morphology of the disease is well described, MC presenting at unusual sites can exhibit atypical morphology, resulting in misdiagnosis. This observational, retrospective case series discusses the novel morphology of MC presenting in the intergluteal cleft of five children seen in the outpatient dermatology clinic of an academic medical center. Read More

    Spread of poxviruses in livestock in Brazil associated with cases of double and triple infection.
    Arch Virol 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário de Minas Gerais, Avenida Rômulo Joviano, Centro, Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, 33600-000, Brazil.
    The objective of this work is to describe the distribution of outbreaks of vaccinia virus (VACV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BSPV) in Brazil. The Official Laboratory of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture received 89 samples from different locations in Brazil in 2015 and 2016 for diagnosis of vesicular and exanthematous disease. Poxvirus coinfections occurred in 11 out of 33 outbreaks, including the first reported triple infection by BPSV, PCPV, and VACV. Read More

    Deletion of the Vaccinia B1 Kinase Reveals Essential Functions of this Enzyme Complemented Partly by the Homologous Cellular Kinase VRK2.
    J Virol 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Nebraska Center for Virology, the School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, and the School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA.
    The vaccinia B1 kinase is highly conserved among poxviruses and is essential for the viral lifecycle. B1 exhibits a remarkable degree of similarity to VRKs, a family of cellular kinases, suggesting that the viral enzyme has evolved to mimic VRK activity. Indeed, B1 and VRKs have been demonstrated to target a shared substrate, the DNA binding protein BAF, elucidating a signaling pathway important for both mitosis and the antiviral response. Read More

    Enhanced Production of Enveloped Viruses in BST-2-deficient Cell Lines.
    Biotechnol Bioeng 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.
    Despite all the advantages that cell-cultured influenza vaccines have over egg-based influenza vaccines, the inferior productivity of cell-culture systems is a major drawback that must be addressed. BST-2 (tetherin) is a host restriction factor which inhibits budding-out of various enveloped viruses from infected host cells. We developed BST-2-deficient MDCK and Vero cell lines to increase influenza virus release in cell culture. Read More

    Molluscum Contagiosum Virus protein MC005 inhibits NFκB activation by targeting NEMO-regulated IKK activation.
    J Virol 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.
    Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV), the only known extant, human-adapted poxvirus, causes a long-duration infection characterized by skin lesions that typically display an absence of inflammation despite containing high titres of live virus. Despite this curious presentation, MCV is very poorly characterized in terms of host-pathogen interactions. The absence of inflammation around MCV lesions suggests the presence of potent inhibitors of human anti-viral immunity and inflammation. Read More

    Deletion of the Vaccinia Virus I2 Protein Interrupts Virion Morphogenesis Leading to Retention of the Scaffold Protein and Mislocalization of Membrane-Associated Entry Proteins.
    J Virol 2017 May 10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892;
    The I2L open reading frame of vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes a conserved 72-amino acid protein with a putative C-terminal transmembrane domain. Previous studies with a tetracycline-inducible mutant demonstrated that I2-deficient virions are defective in cell entry. The purpose of the present study was to determine the step of replication or entry that is affected by loss of the I2 protein. Read More

    Cytoplasmic ATR Activation Promotes Vaccinia Virus Genome Replication.
    Cell Rep 2017 May;19(5):1022-1032
    Cellular Signalling and Cytoskeletal Function Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, NW1 1AT London, UK. Electronic address:
    In contrast to most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm without host involvement. We find that vaccinia virus induces cytoplasmic activation of ATR early during infection, before genome uncoating, which is unexpected because ATR plays a fundamental nuclear role in maintaining host genome integrity. ATR, RPA, INTS7, and Chk1 are recruited to cytoplasmic DNA viral factories, suggesting canonical ATR pathway activation. Read More

    Innate Immune Gene Transcript Level Associated with the Infection of Macrophages with Ectromelia Virus in Two Different Mouse Strains.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Apr 28. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    1 Division of Immunology, Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences , Warsaw, Poland .
    Poxviruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to avoid the immune response of the infected host, and many of these mechanisms have not been fully described. Here, we studied the transcriptional response of innate immune genes in BALB/c and C57BL/6 peritoneal macrophages following infection with the Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (ECTV-Mos) with the aim of delineating innate immune genes that contribute to the difference between susceptibility and resistance to lethal infection. We show a generalized downregulation of many genes in four categories (toll-like receptor signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling, and type I interferon signaling) of antiviral innate immune receptors, downstream signaling pathways, and responsive components. Read More

    Two glycosaminoglycan-binding domains of the mouse cytomegalovirus-encoded chemokine MCK-2 are critical for oligomerization of the full-length protein.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Apr 21. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    National Institutes of Health, United States
    Chemokines are essential for antimicrobial host defenses and tissue repair. Herpesviruses and poxviruses also encode chemokines, copied from their hosts and repurposed for multiple functions, including immune evasion. The CC chemokine MCK-2 encoded by mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) has an atypical structure consisting of a classic chemokine domain N-terminal to a second unique domain, resulting from the splicing of MCMV ORFs m131 and m129. Read More

    Distinct roles of vaccinia virus NF-kB inhibitor proteins A52, B15 and K7 in the immune response.
    J Virol 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Biocomputing Unit, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain
    Poxviruses use a complex strategy to escape immune control, by expressing immunomodulatory proteins that could limit their use as vaccine vectors. To test the role of poxvirus NF-κB pathway inhibitors A52, B15 and K7 in immunity, we deleted their genes in a NYVAC vaccinia virus strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens. After infection of mice, ablation of A52R, B15R and K7R increased dendritic cell, natural killer cell and neutrophil migration as well as chemokine/cytokine expression. Read More

    Structural Basis of Apoptosis Inhibition by the Fowlpox Virus Protein FPV039.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Apr 14. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    La Trobe University, Australia;
    Programmed cell death or apoptosis of infected host cells is an important defense mechanism in response to viral infections. This process is regulated by pro-apoptotic and pro-survival members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein family. To counter premature death of a virus-infected cell, poxviruses use a range of different molecular strategies, including the mimicry of pro-survival Bcl-2 proteins. Read More

    Genomic characterization of two novel pathogenic avipoxviruses isolated from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp.).
    BMC Genomics 2017 Apr 13;18(1):298. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.
    Background: Over the past 20 years, many marine seabird populations have been gradually declining and the factors driving this ongoing deterioration are not always well understood. Avipoxvirus infections have been found in a wide range of bird species worldwide, however, very little is known about the disease ecology of avian poxviruses in seabirds. Here we present two novel avipoxviruses from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp), one from a Flesh-footed Shearwater (A. Read More

    Transient dominant host-range selection using Chinese hamster ovary cells to generate marker-free recombinant viral vectors from vaccinia virus.
    Biotechniques 2017 Apr 1;62(4):183-187. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    Experimental Therapeutics Laboratory, Hanson Institute and Sansom Institute, Adelaide, Australia.
    Recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs) are promising antigen-delivery systems for vaccine development that are also useful as research tools. Two common methods for selection during construction of rVACV clones are (i) co-insertion of drug resistance or reporter protein genes, which requires the use of additional selection drugs or detection methods, and (ii) dominant host-range selection. The latter uses VACV variants rendered replication-incompetent in host cell lines by the deletion of host-range genes. Read More

    Construction and Rescue of a Functional Synthetic Baculovirus.
    ACS Synth Biol 2017 Apr 6. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Wuhan 430071, PR China.
    Synthetic viruses provide a powerful platform to delve deeper into the nature and function of viruses as well as to engineer viruses with novel properties. So far, most synthetic viruses have been RNA viruses (<30 kb) and small DNA viruses, such as bacteriophage phiX174. Baculoviruses contain a large circular dsDNA genome of 80-180 kb and have been used as biocontrol agents and protein expression vectors. Read More

    Immunoglobulin superfamily members encoded by viruses and their multiple roles in immune evasion.
    Eur J Immunol 2017 May;47(5):780-796
    Immunology Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Medical School, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Pathogens have developed a plethora of strategies to undermine host immune defenses in order to guarantee their survival. For large DNA viruses, these immune evasion mechanisms frequently rely on the expression of genes acquired from host genomes. Horizontally transferred genes include members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, whose products constitute the most diverse group of proteins of vertebrate genomes. Read More

    Poxvirus Safety Analysis in the Pregnant Mouse Model, Vaccinia, and Raccoonpox Viruses.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1581:121-129
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.
    Poxviruses cause many diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and there is a need for vaccines with improved safety and good efficacy. In addition, poxvirus vectors are widely used as recombinant vaccines for various infectious diseases and as recombinant and oncolytic vaccines for cancer. One concern with poxvirus vaccine vectors is that some poxviruses can infect a developing fetus and cause fetal loss or congenital disease. Read More

    Development of Recombinant Canarypox Viruses Expressing Immunogens.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1581:15-28
    Instituto de Biotecnología, CICVyA-INTA, N. Repetto y de los Reseros, Hurlingham, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Canarypox viruses (CNPV) are excellent candidates to develop recombinant vector vaccines due to both their capability to induce protective immune responses and their incompetence to replicate in mammalian cells (safety profile). In addition, CNPV and the derived recombinants can be manipulated under biosafety level 1 conditions. There is no commercially available system to obtain recombinant CNPV; however, the methodology and tools required to develop recombinant vaccinia virus (VV), prototype of the Poxviridae family, can be easily adapted. Read More

    1st Workshop of the Canadian Society for Virology.
    Viruses 2017 Mar 20;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Département de Biochimie et Médecine Moléculaire, Université de Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada.
    The 1st Workshop of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV2016) was a Special Workshop of the 35th Annual Meeting for the American Society for Virology, held on 18 June 2016 on the beautiful Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, Virginia. The workshop provided a forum for discussion of recent advances in the field, in an informal setting conducive to interaction with colleagues. CSV2016 featured two internationally-renowned Canadian keynote speakers who discussed translational virology research; American Society for Virology President Grant McFadden (then from University of Florida, now relocated to Arizona State University) who presented his studies of oncolytic poxviruses, while Matthew Miller (McMaster University) reviewed the prospects for a universal influenza vaccine. Read More

    Monkeypox Virus Host Factor Screen Using Haploid Cells Identifies Essential Role of GARP Complex in Extracellular Virus Formation.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 12;91(11). Epub 2017 May 12.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. Read More

    Detection and Molecular Characterization of Zoonotic Poxviruses Circulating in the Amazon Region of Colombia, 2014.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Apr;23(4):649-653
    During 2014, cutaneous lesions were reported in dairy cattle and farmworkers in the Amazon Region of western Colombia. Samples from 6 patients were analyzed by serologic and PCR testing, and results demonstrated the presence of vaccinia virus and pseudocowpox virus. These findings highlight the need for increased poxvirus surveillance in Colombia. Read More

    Triad of human cellular proteins, IRF2, FAM111A, and RFC3, restrict replication of orthopoxvirus SPI-1 host-range mutants.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Apr 20;114(14):3720-3725. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892;
    Viruses and their hosts can reach balanced states of evolution ensuring mutual survival, which makes it difficult to appreciate the underlying dynamics. To uncover hidden interactions, virus mutants that have lost defense genes may be used. Deletion of the gene that encodes serine protease inhibitor 1 (SPI-1) of rabbitpox virus and vaccinia virus, two closely related orthopoxviruses, prevents their efficient replication in human cells, whereas certain other mammalian cells remain fully permissive. Read More

    Infection with diverse immune-modulating poxviruses elicits different compositional shifts in the mouse gut microbiome.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(3):e0173697. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, Spain.
    It is often not possible to demonstrate causality within the context of gut microbiota dysbiosis-linked diseases. Thus, we need a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby an altered host immunophysiology shapes its resident microbiota. In this regard, immune-modulating poxvirus strains and mutants could differentially alter gut mucosal immunity in the context of a natural immune response, providing a controlled natural in vivo setting to deepen our understanding of the immune determinants of microbiome composition. Read More

    RNA-Seq Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Type I Interferon Host Response upon Vaccinia Virus Infection of Mouse Cells.
    J Immunol Res 2017 9;2017:5157626. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (CSIC-UAM), 28049 Madrid, Spain.
    Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes the soluble type I interferon (IFN) binding protein B18 that is secreted from infected cells and also attaches to the cell surface, as an immunomodulatory strategy to inhibit the host IFN response. By using next generation sequencing technologies, we performed a detailed RNA-seq study to dissect at the transcriptional level the modulation of the IFN based host response by VACV and B18. Transcriptome profiling of L929 cells after incubation with purified recombinant B18 protein showed that attachment of B18 to the cell surface does not trigger cell signalling leading to transcriptional activation. Read More

    Vaccinia Virus A6 Is a Two-Domain Protein Requiring a Cognate N-Terminal Domain for Full Viral Membrane Assembly Activity.
    J Virol 2017 May 28;91(10). Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA
    Poxvirus virion biogenesis is a complex, multistep process, starting with the formation of crescent-shaped viral membranes, followed by their enclosure of the viral core to form spherical immature virions. Crescent formation requires a group of proteins that are highly conserved among poxviruses, including A6 and A11 of vaccinia virus (VACV). To gain a better understanding of the molecular function of A6, we established a HeLa cell line that inducibly expressed VACV-A6, which allowed us to construct VACV mutants with an A6 deletion or mutation. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequence of the BeAn 58058 Virus Isolated from Oryzomys sp. Rodents in the Amazon Region of Brazil.
    Genome Announc 2017 Mar 2;5(9). Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Brazil
    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the BeAn 58058 virus (prototype) strain, isolated from a wild rodent Oryzomys sp. in the Utinga forest, Belém, state of Pará, Brazil in 1963. The genome of this virus showed similarity to the Poxviridae family, suggesting its inclusion in a possible new genus. Read More

    The Molluscum Contagiosum Virus protein MC163 localizes to the mitochondria and dampens mitochondrial mediated apoptotic responses.
    Virology 2017 May 21;505:91-101. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seton Hall University, 400 S. Orange Ave, South Orange, NJ 07079, United States. Electronic address:
    Apoptosis is a powerful host cell defense to prevent viruses from completing replication. Poxviruses have evolved complex means to dampen cellular apoptotic responses. The poxvirus, Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV), encodes numerous host interacting molecules predicted to antagonize immune responses. Read More

    A novel HRM assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses of medical and veterinary importance.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 20;7:42892. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.
    Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]. The assay is based on high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMCA) of PCR amplicons produced using genus specific primer pairs and dsDNA binding dye. Read More

    HIV/AIDS Vaccine Candidates Based on Replication-Competent Recombinant Poxvirus NYVAC-C-KC Expressing Trimeric gp140 and Gag-Derived Virus-Like Particles or Lacking the Viral Molecule B19 That Inhibits Type I Interferon Activate Relevant HIV-1-Specific B and T Cell Immune Functions in Nonhuman Primates.
    J Virol 2017 May 13;91(9). Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain
    The nonreplicating attenuated poxvirus vector NYVAC expressing clade C(CN54) HIV-1 Env(gp120) and Gag-Pol-Nef antigens (NYVAC-C) showed limited immunogenicity in phase I clinical trials. To enhance the capacity of the NYVAC vector to trigger broad humoral responses and a more balanced activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, here we compared the HIV-1-specific immunogenicity elicited in nonhuman primates immunized with two replicating NYVAC vectors that have been modified by the insertion of the K1L and C7L vaccinia virus host range genes and express the clade C(ZM96) trimeric HIV-1 gp140 protein or a Gag(ZM96)-Pol-Nef(CN54) polyprotein as Gag-derived virus-like particles (termed NYVAC-C-KC). Additionally, one NYVAC-C-KC vector was generated by deleting the viral gene B19R, an inhibitor of the type I interferon response (NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R). Read More

    Comparative analysis estimates the relative frequencies of co-divergence and cross-species transmission within viral families.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Feb 8;13(2):e1006215. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    The cross-species transmission of viruses from one host species to another is responsible for the majority of emerging infections. However, it is unclear whether some virus families have a greater propensity to jump host species than others. If related viruses have an evolutionary history of co-divergence with their hosts there should be evidence of topological similarities between the virus and host phylogenetic trees, whereas host jumping generates incongruent tree topologies. Read More

    Deletion of the Chemokine Binding Protein Gene from the Parapoxvirus Orf Virus Reduces Virulence and Pathogenesis in Sheep.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:46. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae and infects sheep and goats, often around the mouth, resulting in acute pustular skin lesions. ORFV encodes several secreted immunomodulators including a broad-spectrum chemokine binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are a large family of secreted chemotactic proteins that activate and regulate inflammation induced leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. Read More

    Seasonal Dynamics and Metagenomic Characterization of Marine Viruses in Goseong Bay, Korea.
    PLoS One 2017 25;12(1):e0169841. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    South Sea Environment Research Department, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Geoje, Republic of Korea.
    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in the oceans, and account for a significant amount of the genetic diversity of marine ecosystems. However, there is little detailed information about the biodiversity of viruses in marine environments. Rapid advances in metagenomics have enabled the identification of previously unknown marine viruses. Read More

    Detection, identification, and differentiation of sheep pox virus and goat pox virus from clinical cases in Giza Governorate, Egypt.
    Vet World 2016 Dec 18;9(12):1445-1449. Epub 2016 Dec 18.
    Department of Parasitology and Animal Diseases, Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki 12622, Giza, Egypt.
    Aim: To isolate, identify, and differentiate Capripoxviruses (CaPV) (sheep pox virus and goat pox virus) infections by egg inoculation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RPO30) in clinically affected animals in Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt.

    Materials And Methods: A total of 37 scab samples were collected from clinically suspected field cases of sheep pox and goat pox. These samples were collected during (2014-2015) during different outbreaks of sheep pox and goat pox from Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. Read More

    Immunogenicity of modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin stalk domain of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus.
    Pathog Glob Health 2017 Mar 12;111(2):69-75. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    a Department of Infectious Diseases , Istituto Superiore di Sanità , Rome , Italy.
    Background: Vaccination offers protection against influenza, although current vaccines need to be reformulated each year. The development of a broadly protective influenza vaccine would guarantee the induction of heterosubtypic immunity also against emerging influenza viruses of a novel subtype. Vaccine candidates based on the stalk region of the hemagglutinin (HA) have the potential to induce broad and persistent protection against diverse influenza A viruses. Read More

    Protective immunity against influenza in HLA-A2 transgenic mice by modified vaccinia virus Ankara vectored vaccines containing internal influenza proteins.
    Pathog Glob Health 2017 Mar 12;111(2):76-82. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    a Department of Infectious Diseases , Istituto Superiore di Sanità , Rome , Italy.
    Background: The emergence of novel strains of influenza A viruses with hemagglutinins (HAs) that are antigenically distinct from those circulating in humans, and thus have pandemic potential, pose concerns and call for the development of more broadly protective influenza vaccines. In the present study, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) encoding internal influenza antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicity and ability to protect HLA-A2.1 transgenic (AAD) mice from infection with influenza viruses. Read More

    Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara: History, Value in Basic Research, and Current Perspectives for Vaccine Development.
    Adv Virus Res 2017 1;97:187-243. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, LMU University of Munich, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    Safety tested Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is licensed as third-generation vaccine against smallpox and serves as a potent vector system for development of new candidate vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Historically, MVA was developed by serial tissue culture passage in primary chicken cells of vaccinia virus strain Ankara, and clinically used to avoid the undesirable side effects of conventional smallpox vaccination. Adapted to growth in avian cells MVA lost the ability to replicate in mammalian hosts and lacks many of the genes orthopoxviruses use to conquer their host (cell) environment. Read More

    Recombinant fowlpox virus vector-based vaccines: expression kinetics, dissemination and safety profile following intranasal delivery.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Mar 1;98(3):496-505. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    Molecular Mucosal Vaccine Immunology Group, Department of Immunology and Infectious Disease, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia.
    We have previously established that mucosal uptake of recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV) vaccines is far superior to other vector-based vaccines. Specifically, intranasal priming with rFPV vaccines can recruit unique antigen-presenting cells, which induce excellent mucosal and systemic HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell immunity. In this study, we have for the first time investigated the in vivo dissemination, safety and expression kinetics of rFPV post intranasal delivery using recombinant viruses expressing green fluorescent protein or mCherry. Read More

    Vector-based genetically modified vaccines: Exploiting Jenner's legacy.
    Vaccine 2016 Dec 28;34(50):6436-6448. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Earth & Life Sciences, Athena Institute, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    The global vaccine market is diverse while facing a plethora of novel developments. Genetic modification (GM) techniques facilitate the design of 'smarter' vaccines. For many of the major infectious diseases of humans, like AIDS and malaria, but also for most human neoplastic disorders, still no vaccines are available. Read More

    Capripox outbreak in a mixed flock of sheep and goats in India.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Feb 27;64(1):27-30. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Division of Virology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.
    Generally, capripoxvirus infections are host specific in nature and occasionally infect more than one species. In this study, an investigation was carried out from an outbreak of capripox in a mixed flock of sheep and goats which occurred in 2013 in the State of Jammu & Kashmir. The genetic analysis of P32, RPO30 and GPCR genes revealed that both goats and sheep were infected with goatpox virus. Read More

    A New Document on Smallpox Vaccination.
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2016 Dec 10;9(6):287-289. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:
    Modern medicine owes much to the invaluable heritage of the practices of past generations and their achievements that have now become medical rules. In the case of vaccination, there is evidence that the nomads of Baluchistan (Southeast Iran) demonstrated natural immunization against cowpox, a practice that was later introduced to the medical community by Edward Jenner. Although the discoveries of scientists cannot be ignored, they are certainly based on the traditional and indigenous experiences that have been transferred from generation to generation until reaching us. Read More

    A bioinformatics pipeline to search functional motifs within whole-proteome data: a case study of poxviruses.
    Virus Genes 2017 Apr 20;53(2):173-178. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Proteins harbor domains or short linear motifs, which facilitate their functions and interactions. Finding functional motifs in protein sequences could predict the putative cellular roles or characteristics of hypothetical proteins. In this study, we present Shetti-Motif, which is an interactive tool to (i) map UniProt and PROSITE flat files, (ii) search for multiple pre-defined consensus patterns or experimentally validated functional motifs in large datasets protein sequences (proteome-wide), (iii) search for motifs containing repeated residues (low-complexity regions, e. Read More

    Functional characterization of recombinant major envelope protein (rB2L) of orf virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Apr 19;162(4):953-962. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Bengaluru, 560 064, Karnataka, India.
    Orf, or contagious ecthyma, a highly contagious transboundary disease of sheep and goats, is caused by a double-stranded DNA virus (ORFV) belonging to the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. The ORFV genome encodes the major envelope proteins B2L and F1L, which have been found to be highly immunogenic and have multiple functional characteristics. In order to investigate the functional properties of the B2L protein, in this study, the B2L gene of ORFV strain 59/05, encoding recombinant mature B2L (aa 1M-D334), was produced as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Read More

    Genomic identification of human vaccinia virus keratoconjunctivitis and its importance as a laboratory-acquired infection.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2016 Nov;64(11):806-812
    Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord, Iran.
    Context: Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. VACVs are enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. Several species of this family, for example, molluscum contagiosum, smallpox, deerpox, horsepox, rabbitpox, and VACVs may cause conjunctivitis. Read More

    Acral manifestations of viral infections.
    Clin Dermatol 2017 Jan - Feb;35(1):40-49. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Emeritus Professor of Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Beşevler, Ankara, Turkey.
    Viruses are considered intracellular obligates with a nucleic acid RNA or DNA. They have the ability to encode proteins involved in viral replication and production of the protective coat within the host cells but require host cell ribosomes and mitochondria for translation. The members of the families Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Papovaviridae, and Picornaviridae are the most commonly known agents for cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin. Read More

    Emergence of a Viral RNA Polymerase Variant during Gene Copy Number Amplification Promotes Rapid Evolution of Vaccinia Virus.
    J Virol 2017 Feb 31;91(4). Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
    Viruses are under relentless selective pressure from host immune defenses. To study how poxviruses adapt to innate immune detection pathways, we performed serial vaccinia virus infections in primary human cells. Independent courses of experimental evolution with a recombinant strain lacking E3L revealed several high-frequency point mutations in conserved poxvirus genes, suggesting important roles for essential poxvirus proteins in innate immune subversion. Read More

    Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Primaquine-Cinnamic Acid Conjugates of the Amide and Acylsemicarbazide Type.
    Molecules 2016 Nov 28;21(12). Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, A. Kovačića 1, HR-10 000 Zagreb, Croatia.
    In this paper design and synthesis of a scaffold comprising primaquine (PQ) motif and cinnamic acid derivatives (CADs) bound directly (compounds 3a-k) or via a spacer (compounds 7a-k) are reported. In the first series of compounds, PQ and various CADs were connected by amide bonds and in the second series by acylsemicarbazide functional groups built from the PQ amino group, CONHNH spacer and the carbonyl group originating from the CADs. PQ-CAD amides 3a-k were prepared by a simple one-step condensation reaction of PQ with a series of CAD chlorides (method A) or benzotriazolides 2 (method B). Read More

    Genetic Variability of Myxoma Virus Genomes.
    J Virol 2017 Feb 31;91(4). Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Animal Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Georg August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
    Myxomatosis is a recurrent problem on rabbit farms throughout Europe despite the success of vaccines. To identify gene variations of field and vaccine strains that may be responsible for changes in virulence, immunomodulation, and immunoprotection, the genomes of 6 myxoma virus (MYXV) strains were sequenced: German field isolates Munich-1, FLI-H, 2604, and 3207; vaccine strain MAV; and challenge strain ZA. The analyzed genomes ranged from 147. Read More

    A homolog of the variola virus B22 membrane protein contributes to ectromelia virus pathogenicity in the mouse footpad model.
    Virology 2017 Jan 26;501:107-114. Epub 2016 Nov 26.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:
    Most poxviruses encode a homolog of a ~200,000-kDa membrane protein originally identified in variola virus. We investigated the importance of the ectromelia virus (ECTV) homolog C15 in a natural infection model. In cultured mouse cells, the replication of a mutant virus with stop codons near the N-terminus (ECTV-C15Stop) was indistinguishable from a control virus (ECTV-C15Rev). Read More

    [New subtype of molluscipoxvirus detected].
    Lakartidningen 2016 11 28;113. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset - Laboratoriemedicin Goteborg, Sweden Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset - Laboratoriemedicin Goteborg, Sweden.
    Molluscum contagiosum is a viral infection of the epidermis characterized by skin-colored papules or nodules frequently with a central depression. Atypical variants may occur, primarily in immunosuppressed individuals. We here report a case of »giant Molluscum contagiosum« in an immunocompetent child. Read More


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