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    Vaccinia virus and Cowpox virus are not susceptible to the interferon-induced antiviral protein MxA.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0181459. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (I.N.I.A.), Madrid, Spain.
    MxA protein is expressed in response to type I and type III Interferon and constitute an important antiviral factor with broad antiviral activity to diverse RNA viruses. In addition, some studies expand the range of MxA antiviral activity to include particular DNA viruses like Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV). However, a broad profile of activity of MxA to large DNA viruses has not been established to date. Read More

    Species specificity of vaccinia virus complement control protein towards bovine classical pathway is governed primarily by direct interaction of its acidic residues with factor I.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 19. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    Complement Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, S. P. Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India
    Poxviruses display species tropism - variola virus is a human-specific virus, while vaccinia virus causes repeated outbreaks in dairy cattle. Consistent with this, variola virus complement regulator SPICE exhibit selectivity in inhibiting the human alternative complement pathway and vaccinia virus complement regulator VCP display selectivity in inhibiting the bovine alternative complement pathway. In the present study, we examined the species-specificity of VCP and SPICE towards the classical pathway (CP). Read More

    Orf Virus Infection in Humans: A Review With a Focus on Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.
    J Drugs Dermatol 2017 Jul;16(7):684-689
    Ecthyma contagiosum, also called contagious pustular dermatosis, is a zoonotic disease caused by the orf virus (OrfV). As a member of the poxviridae family and parapoxvirus genus, this dermatotropic virus has developed an array of mechanisms by which to evade the host immune system in both humans and animals. The ubiquitousness of this pathogen in sheep, goats, and deer has led to the development of orf in diverse areas around the world. Read More

    Characterization of Eptesipoxvirus, a novel poxvirus from a microchiropteran bat.
    Virus Genes 2017 Jul 6. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    The genome of Eptesipoxvirus (EPTV) is the first poxvirus genome isolated from a microbat. The 176,688 nt sequence, which is believed to encompass the complete coding region of the virus, is 67% A+T and is predicted to encode 191 genes. 11 of these genes have no counterpart in GenBank and are therefore unique to EPTV. Read More

    Complement Evasion Strategies of Viruses: An Overview.
    Front Microbiol 2017 16;8:1117. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Complement Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Savitribai Phule Pune UniversityPune, India.
    Being a major first line of immune defense, the complement system keeps a constant vigil against viruses. Its ability to recognize large panoply of viruses and virus-infected cells, and trigger the effector pathways, results in neutralization of viruses and killing of the infected cells. This selection pressure exerted by complement on viruses has made them evolve a multitude of countermeasures. Read More

    Generalised cowpox virus infection.
    Lancet 2017 Jun 29. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Allergology, University Medical Centre Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; Lower Saxony Institute of Occupational Dermatology, University Medical Centre Göttingen and University of Osnabrück, Germany. Electronic address:

    Inhibition of Poxvirus Gene Expression and Genome Replication by Bisbenzimide Derivatives.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 28. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zurich
    Virus infection of humans and livestock can be devastating for individuals and populations, sometimes resulting in large economic and societal impact. Prevention of virus disease by vaccination or anti-viral agents is difficult to achieve. A notable exception was the eradication of human smallpox by vaccination over 30 years ago. Read More

    Trans-kingdom mimicry underlies ribosome customization by a poxvirus kinase.
    Nature 2017 Jun 21;546(7660):651-655. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA.
    Ribosomes have the capacity to selectively control translation through changes in their composition that enable recognition of specific RNA elements. However, beyond differential subunit expression during development, evidence for regulated ribosome specification within individual cells has remained elusive. Here we report that a poxvirus kinase phosphorylates serine/threonine residues in the human small ribosomal subunit protein, receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), that are not phosphorylated in uninfected cells or cells infected by other viruses. Read More

    Vaccinia virus egress mediated by virus protein A36 is reliant on the F12 protein.
    J Gen Virol 2017 Jun 20;98(6):1500-1514. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK.
    Egress of vaccinia virus from its host cell is mediated by the microtubule-associated motor kinesin-1, and three viral proteins, A36 and the F12/E2 complex, have been implicated in this process. Deletion of F12 expression causes a more severe reduction in egress than deletion of A36 but whether these proteins are involved in the same or different mechanisms of kinesin-1 recruitment is unknown. Here it is shown that a virus lacking both proteins forms a smaller plaque than mutants lacking either gene alone, indicating non-redundant functions. Read More

    Ectromelia virus accumulates less double-stranded RNA compared to vaccinia virus in BS-C-1 cells.
    Virology 2017 Sep;509:98-111
    Department of Biology, Albright College, Reading, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    Most orthopoxviruses, including vaccinia virus (VACV), contain genes in the E3L and K3L families. The protein products of these genes have been shown to combat PKR, a host defense pathway. Interestingly, ectromelia virus (ECTV) contains an E3L ortholog but does not possess an intact K3L gene. Read More

    A systemic macrophage response is required to contain a peripheral poxvirus infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jun 14;13(6):e1006435. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, United States of America.
    The goal of the innate immune system is to reduce pathogen spread prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. Following an infection at a peripheral site, virus typically drains through the lymph to the lymph node prior to entering the blood stream and being systemically disseminated. Therefore, there are three distinct spatial checkpoints at which intervention to prevent systemic spread of virus can occur, namely: 1) the site of infection, 2) the draining lymph node via filtration of lymph or 3) the systemic level via organs that filter the blood. Read More

    Recombination events and variability among full-length genomes of co-circulating molluscum contagiosum virus subtypes 1 and 2.
    J Gen Virol 2017 May 30;98(5):1073-1079. Epub 2017 May 30.
    4​Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal; Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Valdeolmos, Madrid 28130, Spain.
    Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is the sole member of the Molluscipoxvirus genus and causes a highly prevalent human disease of the skin characterized by the formation of a variable number of lesions that can persist for prolonged periods of time. Two major genotypes, subtype 1 and subtype 2, are recognized, although currently only a single complete genomic sequence corresponding to MCV subtype 1 is available. Using next-generation sequencing techniques, we report the complete genomic sequence of four new MCV isolates, including the first one derived from a subtype 2. Read More

    Molluscum Contagiosum of the Gluteal Cleft: Observations and Implications for Management in Five Children.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Jul 25;34(4):e191-e195. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Section of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common, self-limited skin infection caused by a double-stranded DNA virus of the family Poxviridae. Although the morphology of the disease is well described, MC presenting at unusual sites can exhibit atypical morphology, resulting in misdiagnosis. This observational, retrospective case series discusses the novel morphology of MC presenting in the intergluteal cleft of five children seen in the outpatient dermatology clinic of an academic medical center. Read More

    Viral exploitation of the MEK/ERK pathway - A tale of vaccinia virus and other viruses.
    Virology 2017 Jul;507:267-275
    Signal Transduction Group/Viruses Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, CEP: 31.270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The VACV replication cycle is remarkable in the sense that it is performed entirely in the cytoplasmic compartment of vertebrate cells, due to its capability to encode enzymes required either for regulating the macromolecular precursor pool or the biosynthetic processes. Although remarkable, this gene repertoire is not sufficient to confer the status of a free-living microorganism to the virus, and, consequently, the virus relies heavily on the host to successfully generate its progeny. During the complex virus-host interaction, viruses must deal not only with the host pathways to accomplish their temporal demands but also with pathways that counteract viral infection, including the inflammatory, innate and acquired immune responses. Read More

    Spread of poxviruses in livestock in Brazil associated with cases of double and triple infection.
    Arch Virol 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário de Minas Gerais, Avenida Rômulo Joviano, Centro, Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, 33600-000, Brazil.
    The objective of this work is to describe the distribution of outbreaks of vaccinia virus (VACV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BSPV) in Brazil. The Official Laboratory of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture received 89 samples from different locations in Brazil in 2015 and 2016 for diagnosis of vesicular and exanthematous disease. Poxvirus coinfections occurred in 11 out of 33 outbreaks, including the first reported triple infection by BPSV, PCPV, and VACV. Read More

    Deletion of the Vaccinia Virus B1 Kinase Reveals Essential Functions of This Enzyme Complemented Partly by the Homologous Cellular Kinase VRK2.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 12;91(15). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
    The vaccinia virus B1 kinase is highly conserved among poxviruses and is essential for the viral life cycle. B1 exhibits a remarkable degree of similarity to vaccinia virus-related kinases (VRKs), a family of cellular kinases, suggesting that the viral enzyme has evolved to mimic VRK activity. Indeed, B1 and VRKs have been demonstrated to target a shared substrate, the DNA binding protein BAF, elucidating a signaling pathway important for both mitosis and the antiviral response. Read More

    Enhanced production of enveloped viruses in BST-2-deficient cell lines.
    Biotechnol Bioeng 2017 May 12. Epub 2017 May 12.
    College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.
    Despite all the advantages that cell-cultured influenza vaccines have over egg-based influenza vaccines, the inferior productivity of cell-culture systems is a major drawback that must be addressed. BST-2 (tetherin) is a host restriction factor which inhibits budding-out of various enveloped viruses from infected host cells. We developed BST-2-deficient MDCK and Vero cell lines to increase influenza virus release in cell culture. Read More

    Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Protein MC005 Inhibits NF-κB Activation by Targeting NEMO-Regulated IκB Kinase Activation.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 12;91(15). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV), the only known extant human-adapted poxvirus, causes a long-duration infection characterized by skin lesions that typically display an absence of inflammation despite containing high titers of live virus. Despite this curious presentation, MCV is very poorly characterized in terms of host-pathogen interactions. The absence of inflammation around MCV lesions suggests the presence of potent inhibitors of human antiviral immunity and inflammation. Read More

    Deletion of the Vaccinia Virus I2 Protein Interrupts Virion Morphogenesis, Leading to Retention of the Scaffold Protein and Mislocalization of Membrane-Associated Entry Proteins.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 12;91(15). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    The I2L open reading frame of vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes a conserved 72-amino-acid protein with a putative C-terminal transmembrane domain. Previous studies with a tetracycline-inducible mutant demonstrated that I2-deficient virions are defective in cell entry. The purpose of the present study was to determine the step of replication or entry that is affected by loss of the I2 protein. Read More

    Cytoplasmic ATR Activation Promotes Vaccinia Virus Genome Replication.
    Cell Rep 2017 May;19(5):1022-1032
    Cellular Signalling and Cytoskeletal Function Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, NW1 1AT London, UK. Electronic address:
    In contrast to most DNA viruses, poxviruses replicate their genomes in the cytoplasm without host involvement. We find that vaccinia virus induces cytoplasmic activation of ATR early during infection, before genome uncoating, which is unexpected because ATR plays a fundamental nuclear role in maintaining host genome integrity. ATR, RPA, INTS7, and Chk1 are recruited to cytoplasmic DNA viral factories, suggesting canonical ATR pathway activation. Read More

    A heterologous prime-boosting strategy with replicating Vaccinia virus vectors and plant-produced HIV-1 Gag/dgp41 virus-like particles.
    Virology 2017 Jul 28;507:242-256. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, The Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA; School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA. Electronic address:
    Showing modest efficacy, the RV144 HIV-1 vaccine clinical trial utilized a non-replicating canarypox viral vector and a soluble gp120 protein boost. Here we built upon the RV144 strategy by developing a novel combination of a replicating, but highly-attenuated Vaccinia virus vector, NYVAC-KC, and plant-produced HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Both components contained the full-length Gag and a membrane anchored truncated gp41 presenting the membrane proximal external region with its conserved broadly neutralizing epitopes in the pre-fusion conformation. Read More

    Innate Immune Gene Transcript Level Associated with the Infection of Macrophages with Ectromelia Virus in Two Different Mouse Strains.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Jun 28;30(5):315-329. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    1 Division of Immunology, Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences , Warsaw, Poland .
    Poxviruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to avoid the immune response of the infected host, and many of these mechanisms have not been fully described. Here, we studied the transcriptional response of innate immune genes in BALB/c and C57BL/6 peritoneal macrophages following infection with the Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (ECTV-Mos) with the aim of delineating innate immune genes that contribute to the difference between susceptibility and resistance to lethal infection. We show a generalized downregulation of many genes in four categories (toll-like receptor signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling, and type I interferon signaling) of antiviral innate immune receptors, downstream signaling pathways, and responsive components. Read More

    Two glycosaminoglycan-binding domains of the mouse cytomegalovirus-encoded chemokine MCK-2 are critical for oligomerization of the full-length protein.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Jun 21;292(23):9613-9626. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    From the Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Chemokines are essential for antimicrobial host defenses and tissue repair. Herpesviruses and poxviruses also encode chemokines, copied from their hosts and repurposed for multiple functions, including immune evasion. The CC chemokine MCK-2 encoded by mouse CMV (MCMV) has an atypical structure consisting of a classic chemokine domain N-terminal to a second unique domain, resulting from the splicing of MCMV ORFs m131 and m129 MCK-2 is essential for full MCMV infectivity in macrophages and for persistent infection in the salivary gland. Read More

    Modification of two capripoxvirus quantitative real-time PCR assays to improve diagnostic sensitivity and include beta-actin as an internal positive control.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 May;29(3):351-356
    Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY (Das, Deng, McIntosh).
    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs), consisting of Sheeppox virus (SPV), Goatpox virus (GPV), and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) species, cause economically significant diseases in sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays are routinely used for rapid detection of CaPVs in surveillance and outbreak management programs. We further modified and optimized 2 previously published CaPV qPCR assays, referred to as the Balinsky and Bowden assays, by changing commercial PCR reagents used in the tests. Read More

    Distinct Roles of Vaccinia Virus NF-κB Inhibitor Proteins A52, B15, and K7 in the Immune Response.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 9;91(13). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain
    Poxviruses use a complex strategy to escape immune control, by expressing immunomodulatory proteins that could limit their use as vaccine vectors. To test the role of poxvirus NF-κB pathway inhibitors A52, B15, and K7 in immunity, we deleted their genes in an NYVAC (New York vaccinia virus) strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens. After infection of mice, ablation of the A52R, B15R, and K7R genes increased dendritic cell, natural killer cell, and neutrophil migration as well as chemokine/cytokine expression. Read More

    Structural basis of apoptosis inhibition by the fowlpox virus protein FPV039.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Jun 14;292(22):9010-9021. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    From the Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria 3086, Australia and
    Programmed cell death or apoptosis of infected host cells is an important defense mechanism in response to viral infections. This process is regulated by proapoptotic and prosurvival members of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) protein family. To counter premature death of a virus-infected cell, poxviruses use a range of different molecular strategies including the mimicry of prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins. Read More

    Genomic characterization of two novel pathogenic avipoxviruses isolated from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp.).
    BMC Genomics 2017 Apr 13;18(1):298. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.
    Background: Over the past 20 years, many marine seabird populations have been gradually declining and the factors driving this ongoing deterioration are not always well understood. Avipoxvirus infections have been found in a wide range of bird species worldwide, however, very little is known about the disease ecology of avian poxviruses in seabirds. Here we present two novel avipoxviruses from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp), one from a Flesh-footed Shearwater (A. Read More

    Transient dominant host-range selection using Chinese hamster ovary cells to generate marker-free recombinant viral vectors from vaccinia virus.
    Biotechniques 2017 Apr 1;62(4):183-187. Epub 2017 Apr 1.
    Experimental Therapeutics Laboratory, Hanson Institute and Sansom Institute, Adelaide, Australia.
    Recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs) are promising antigen-delivery systems for vaccine development that are also useful as research tools. Two common methods for selection during construction of rVACV clones are (i) co-insertion of drug resistance or reporter protein genes, which requires the use of additional selection drugs or detection methods, and (ii) dominant host-range selection. The latter uses VACV variants rendered replication-incompetent in host cell lines by the deletion of host-range genes. Read More

    Construction and Rescue of a Functional Synthetic Baculovirus.
    ACS Synth Biol 2017 Jul 6;6(7):1393-1402. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Wuhan 430071, PR China.
    Synthetic viruses provide a powerful platform to delve deeper into the nature and function of viruses as well as to engineer viruses with novel properties. So far, most synthetic viruses have been RNA viruses (<30 kb) and small DNA viruses, such as bacteriophage phiX174. Baculoviruses contain a large circular dsDNA genome of 80-180 kb and have been used as biocontrol agents and protein expression vectors. Read More

    Immunoglobulin superfamily members encoded by viruses and their multiple roles in immune evasion.
    Eur J Immunol 2017 May;47(5):780-796
    Immunology Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Medical School, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Pathogens have developed a plethora of strategies to undermine host immune defenses in order to guarantee their survival. For large DNA viruses, these immune evasion mechanisms frequently rely on the expression of genes acquired from host genomes. Horizontally transferred genes include members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, whose products constitute the most diverse group of proteins of vertebrate genomes. Read More

    Poxvirus Safety Analysis in the Pregnant Mouse Model, Vaccinia, and Raccoonpox Viruses.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1581:121-129
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.
    Poxviruses cause many diseases in humans and animals worldwide, and there is a need for vaccines with improved safety and good efficacy. In addition, poxvirus vectors are widely used as recombinant vaccines for various infectious diseases and as recombinant and oncolytic vaccines for cancer. One concern with poxvirus vaccine vectors is that some poxviruses can infect a developing fetus and cause fetal loss or congenital disease. Read More

    Development of Recombinant Canarypox Viruses Expressing Immunogens.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1581:15-28
    Instituto de Biotecnología, CICVyA-INTA, N. Repetto y de los Reseros, Hurlingham, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Canarypox viruses (CNPV) are excellent candidates to develop recombinant vector vaccines due to both their capability to induce protective immune responses and their incompetence to replicate in mammalian cells (safety profile). In addition, CNPV and the derived recombinants can be manipulated under biosafety level 1 conditions. There is no commercially available system to obtain recombinant CNPV; however, the methodology and tools required to develop recombinant vaccinia virus (VV), prototype of the Poxviridae family, can be easily adapted. Read More

    1st Workshop of the Canadian Society for Virology.
    Viruses 2017 Mar 20;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Département de Biochimie et Médecine Moléculaire, Université de Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada.
    The 1st Workshop of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV2016) was a Special Workshop of the 35th Annual Meeting for the American Society for Virology, held on 18 June 2016 on the beautiful Virginia Tech campus in Blacksburg, Virginia. The workshop provided a forum for discussion of recent advances in the field, in an informal setting conducive to interaction with colleagues. CSV2016 featured two internationally-renowned Canadian keynote speakers who discussed translational virology research; American Society for Virology President Grant McFadden (then from University of Florida, now relocated to Arizona State University) who presented his studies of oncolytic poxviruses, while Matthew Miller (McMaster University) reviewed the prospects for a universal influenza vaccine. Read More

    Monkeypox Virus Host Factor Screen Using Haploid Cells Identifies Essential Role of GARP Complex in Extracellular Virus Formation.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 12;91(11). Epub 2017 May 12.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. Read More

    Detection and Molecular Characterization of Zoonotic Poxviruses Circulating in the Amazon Region of Colombia, 2014.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Apr;23(4):649-653
    During 2014, cutaneous lesions were reported in dairy cattle and farmworkers in the Amazon Region of western Colombia. Samples from 6 patients were analyzed by serologic and PCR testing, and results demonstrated the presence of vaccinia virus and pseudocowpox virus. These findings highlight the need for increased poxvirus surveillance in Colombia. Read More

    Triad of human cellular proteins, IRF2, FAM111A, and RFC3, restrict replication of orthopoxvirus SPI-1 host-range mutants.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 Apr 20;114(14):3720-3725. Epub 2017 Mar 20.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892;
    Viruses and their hosts can reach balanced states of evolution ensuring mutual survival, which makes it difficult to appreciate the underlying dynamics. To uncover hidden interactions, virus mutants that have lost defense genes may be used. Deletion of the gene that encodes serine protease inhibitor 1 (SPI-1) of rabbitpox virus and vaccinia virus, two closely related orthopoxviruses, prevents their efficient replication in human cells, whereas certain other mammalian cells remain fully permissive. Read More

    Infection with diverse immune-modulating poxviruses elicits different compositional shifts in the mouse gut microbiome.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(3):e0173697. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, Spain.
    It is often not possible to demonstrate causality within the context of gut microbiota dysbiosis-linked diseases. Thus, we need a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby an altered host immunophysiology shapes its resident microbiota. In this regard, immune-modulating poxvirus strains and mutants could differentially alter gut mucosal immunity in the context of a natural immune response, providing a controlled natural in vivo setting to deepen our understanding of the immune determinants of microbiome composition. Read More

    RNA-Seq Based Transcriptome Analysis of the Type I Interferon Host Response upon Vaccinia Virus Infection of Mouse Cells.
    J Immunol Res 2017 9;2017:5157626. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (CSIC-UAM), 28049 Madrid, Spain.
    Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes the soluble type I interferon (IFN) binding protein B18 that is secreted from infected cells and also attaches to the cell surface, as an immunomodulatory strategy to inhibit the host IFN response. By using next generation sequencing technologies, we performed a detailed RNA-seq study to dissect at the transcriptional level the modulation of the IFN based host response by VACV and B18. Transcriptome profiling of L929 cells after incubation with purified recombinant B18 protein showed that attachment of B18 to the cell surface does not trigger cell signalling leading to transcriptional activation. Read More

    Vaccinia Virus A6 Is a Two-Domain Protein Requiring a Cognate N-Terminal Domain for Full Viral Membrane Assembly Activity.
    J Virol 2017 May 28;91(10). Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA
    Poxvirus virion biogenesis is a complex, multistep process, starting with the formation of crescent-shaped viral membranes, followed by their enclosure of the viral core to form spherical immature virions. Crescent formation requires a group of proteins that are highly conserved among poxviruses, including A6 and A11 of vaccinia virus (VACV). To gain a better understanding of the molecular function of A6, we established a HeLa cell line that inducibly expressed VACV-A6, which allowed us to construct VACV mutants with an A6 deletion or mutation. Read More

    The sleeping beauty kissed awake: new methods in electron microscopy to study cellular membranes.
    Biochem J 2017 Mar 7;474(6):1041-1053. Epub 2017 Mar 7.
    Ultrapole, Ultra-Structural Bio-Imaging, Institut Pasteur, 28, rue du Dr. Roux, Paris 75015, France
    Electron microscopy (EM) for biological samples, developed in the 1940-1950s, changed our conception about the architecture of eukaryotic cells. It was followed by a period where EM applied to cell biology had seemingly fallen asleep, even though new methods with important implications for modern EM were developed. Among these was the discovery that samples can be preserved by chemical fixation and most importantly by rapid freezing without the formation of crystalline ice, giving birth to the world of cryo-EM. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequence of the BeAn 58058 Virus Isolated from Oryzomys sp. Rodents in the Amazon Region of Brazil.
    Genome Announc 2017 Mar 2;5(9). Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Department of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers, Evandro Chagas Institute, Ministry of Health, Ananindeua, Brazil
    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of the BeAn 58058 virus (prototype) strain, isolated from a wild rodent Oryzomys sp. in the Utinga forest, Belém, state of Pará, Brazil in 1963. The genome of this virus showed similarity to the Poxviridae family, suggesting its inclusion in a possible new genus. Read More

    Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Mar 2;13(3):e1006252. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.
    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955) and between 2008-2013. Read More

    Safety and immunogenicity of mammalian cell derived and Modified Vaccinia Ankara vectored African swine fever subunit antigens in swine.
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2017 Mar 24;185:20-33. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory,1 Sippel Rd., College Station, TX, 77843, United States. Electronic address:
    A reverse vaccinology system, Vaxign, was used to identify and select a subset of five African Swine Fever (ASF) antigens that were successfully purified from human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK) cells and produced in Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) viral vectors. Three HEK-purified antigens [B646L (p72), E183L (p54), and O61R (p12)], and three MVA-vectored antigens [B646L, EP153R, and EP402R (CD2v)] were evaluated using a prime-boost immunization regimen swine safety and immunogenicity study. Antibody responses were detected in pigs following prime-boost immunization four weeks apart with the HEK-293-purified p72, p54, and p12 antigens. Read More

    The Molluscum Contagiosum Virus protein MC163 localizes to the mitochondria and dampens mitochondrial mediated apoptotic responses.
    Virology 2017 May 21;505:91-101. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seton Hall University, 400 S. Orange Ave, South Orange, NJ 07079, United States. Electronic address:
    Apoptosis is a powerful host cell defense to prevent viruses from completing replication. Poxviruses have evolved complex means to dampen cellular apoptotic responses. The poxvirus, Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV), encodes numerous host interacting molecules predicted to antagonize immune responses. Read More

    Survival of tissue-resident memory T cells requires exogenous lipid uptake and metabolism.
    Nature 2017 03 20;543(7644):252-256. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Dermatology and Harvard Skin Disease Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells persist indefinitely in epithelial barrier tissues and protect the host against pathogens. However, the biological pathways that enable the long-term survival of TRM cells are obscure. Here we show that mouse CD8(+) TRM cells generated by viral infection of the skin differentially express high levels of several molecules that mediate lipid uptake and intracellular transport, including fatty-acid-binding proteins 4 and 5 (FABP4 and FABP5). Read More

    A novel HRM assay for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses of medical and veterinary importance.
    Sci Rep 2017 Feb 20;7:42892. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria.
    Poxviruses belonging to the Orthopoxvirus, Capripoxvirus and Parapoxvirus genera share common host species and create a challenge for diagnosis. Here, we developed a novel multiplex PCR method for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of eight poxviruses, belonging to three genera: cowpox virus (CPXV) and camelpox virus (CMLV) [genus Orthopoxvirus]; goatpox virus (GTPV), sheeppox virus (SPPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) [genus Capripoxvirus]; orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV) [genus Parapoxvirus]. The assay is based on high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRMCA) of PCR amplicons produced using genus specific primer pairs and dsDNA binding dye. Read More

    AC dielectrophoretic manipulation and electroporation of vaccinia virus using carbon nanoelectrode arrays.
    Electrophoresis 2017 Jun 8;38(11):1515-1525. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA.
    This paper reports the capture and detection of vaccinia virus particles based on AC dielectrophoresis (DEP) and electrochemical impedance measurements employing an embedded vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) nanoelectrode array (NEA) versus a macroscopic indium-tin-oxide (ITO) transparent electrode in a "points-and-lid" configuration. The nano-DEP device was fabricated by bonding two SU-8 covered electrodes patterned using photolithography. The bottom electrode contains a 200 × 200 μm(2) active region on a randomly distributed NEA and the top electrode contains a microfluidic channel in SU-8 spin-coated on ITO to guide the flow of the virus solution. Read More

    HIV/AIDS Vaccine Candidates Based on Replication-Competent Recombinant Poxvirus NYVAC-C-KC Expressing Trimeric gp140 and Gag-Derived Virus-Like Particles or Lacking the Viral Molecule B19 That Inhibits Type I Interferon Activate Relevant HIV-1-Specific B and T Cell Immune Functions in Nonhuman Primates.
    J Virol 2017 May 13;91(9). Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain
    The nonreplicating attenuated poxvirus vector NYVAC expressing clade C(CN54) HIV-1 Env(gp120) and Gag-Pol-Nef antigens (NYVAC-C) showed limited immunogenicity in phase I clinical trials. To enhance the capacity of the NYVAC vector to trigger broad humoral responses and a more balanced activation of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, here we compared the HIV-1-specific immunogenicity elicited in nonhuman primates immunized with two replicating NYVAC vectors that have been modified by the insertion of the K1L and C7L vaccinia virus host range genes and express the clade C(ZM96) trimeric HIV-1 gp140 protein or a Gag(ZM96)-Pol-Nef(CN54) polyprotein as Gag-derived virus-like particles (termed NYVAC-C-KC). Additionally, one NYVAC-C-KC vector was generated by deleting the viral gene B19R, an inhibitor of the type I interferon response (NYVAC-C-KC-ΔB19R). Read More

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