17,706 results match your criteria Poxviruses


A poxvirus pseudokinase represses viral DNA replication via a pathway antagonized by its paralog kinase.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Feb 15;15(2):e1007608. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, United States of America.

Poxviruses employ sophisticated, but incompletely understood, signaling pathways that engage cellular defense mechanisms and simultaneously ensure viral factors are modulated properly. For example, the vaccinia B1 protein kinase plays a vital role in inactivating the cellular antiviral factor BAF, and likely orchestrates other pathways as well. In this study, we utilized experimental evolution of a B1 deletion virus to perform an unbiased search for suppressor mutations and identify novel pathways involving B1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007608DOI Listing
February 2019

Avian Poxvirus Infection in Polish Great Tits .

J Vet Res 2018 Dec 31;62(4):427-430. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Poultry Diseases National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Pulawy, Poland.

Introduction: Avian poxvirus infections are widespread in the domestic poultry population but are also reported in wild birds. In poultry, these infections cause significant economic losses, while wild birds may be a reservoir for poxvirus which affects breeding poultry. However, wild birds may also exhibit characteristic anatomopathological changes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jvetres-2018-0065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6364157PMC
December 2018

Viral and metazoan poxins are cGAMP-specific nucleases that restrict cGAS-STING signalling.

Nature 2019 Feb 6;566(7743):259-263. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Cytosolic DNA triggers innate immune responses through the activation of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and production of the cyclic dinucleotide second messenger 2',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). 2',3'-cGAMP is a potent inducer of immune signalling; however, no intracellular nucleases are known to cleave 2',3'-cGAMP and prevent the activation of the receptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Here we develop a biochemical screen to analyse 24 mammalian viruses, and identify poxvirus immune nucleases (poxins) as a family of 2',3'-cGAMP-degrading enzymes. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-0928-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-0928-6DOI Listing
February 2019
8 Reads

An Update on the Known Host Range of the Brazilian Vaccinia Virus: An Outbreak in Buffalo Calves.

Front Microbiol 2018 22;9:3327. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Even nearly forty years after the eradication of smallpox, members of the family continue to be the focus of an increasing number of studies. Among these studies, prominently stands vaccinia virus, an orthopoxvirus that is associated with bovine vaccinia outbreaks. Although more frequently associated with infections in cattle and humans, the host range of vaccinia virus is not restricted only to these hosts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6350457PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Insights into ligand binding by a viral tumor necrosis factor (TNF) decoy receptor yield a selective soluble human type 2 TNF receptor.

J Biol Chem 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Spain.

Etanercept is a soluble form of the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) that inhibits pathological tumor necrosis factor (TNF) responses in rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. However, besides TNF, etanercept blocks also lymphotoxin-α (LTα), which has no clear therapeutical value and might aggravate some of the adverse effects associated with etanercept. Poxviruses encode soluble TNFR2 homologs, termed viral TNF decoy receptors (vTNFRs), that display unique specificity properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.005828DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Poxviruses as Gene Therapy Vectors: Generating Poxviral Vectors Expressing Therapeutic Transgenes.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1937:189-209

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS), Little Rock, AR, USA.

Treatments with poxvirus vectors can have long-lasting immunological impact in the host, and thus they have been extensively studied to treat diseases and for vaccine development. More importantly, the oncolytic properties of poxviruses have led to their development as cancer therapeutics. Two poxviruses, vaccinia virus (VACV) and myxoma virus (MYXV), have been extensively studied as virotherapeutics with promising results. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-1-4939-9065-8_11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9065-8_11DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Poor Antigen Processing of Poxvirus Particles Limits CD4 T Cell Recognition and Impacts Immunogenicity of the Inactivated Vaccine.

J Immunol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104;

CD4 T cells play critical roles in defending against poxviruses, both by potentiating cellular and humoral responses and by directly killing infected cells. Despite this central role, the basis for pox-specific CD4 T cell activation, specifically the origin of the poxvirus-derived peptides (epitopes) that activate CD4 T cells, remains poorly understood. In addition, because the current licensed poxvirus vaccines can cause serious adverse events and even death, elucidating the requirements for MHC class II (MHC-II) processing and presentation of poxviral Ags could be of great use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1801099DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Atypical Cowpox Virus Infection in Smallpox-Vaccinated Patient, France.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 Feb;25(2):212-219

We report a case of atypical cowpox virus infection in France in 2016. The patient sought care for thoracic lesions after injury from the sharp end of a metallic guardrail previously stored in the ground. We isolated a cowpox virus from the lesions and sequenced its whole genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2502.171433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6346447PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Species-specific inhibition of antiviral protein kinase R by capripoxviruses and vaccinia virus.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

School of Medicine, Department of Medial Microbiology and Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, California.

Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase R (PKR) is an important and rapidly evolving antiviral kinase. Most poxviruses contain two distinct PKR inhibitors, called E3 and K3 in vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic orthopoxvirus. E3 prevents PKR homodimerization by binding double-stranded RNA, while K3 acts as a pseudosubstrate inhibitor by binding directly to activated PKR and thereby inhibiting interaction with its substrate eIF2α. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/nyas.14000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14000DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

RNA granules associated with SAMD9-mediated poxvirus restriction are similar to antiviral granules in composition but do not require TIA1 for poxvirus restriction.

Virology 2019 Jan 8;529:16-22. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Stress granule (SG)-like antiviral granules (AVG) had been found in some vaccinia virus infection conditions and shown to repress translation. Similar RNA granules are also associated with translational inhibition and poxvirus restriction mediated by the host restriction factor SAMD9, but their function is less clear. We studied the composition of these RNA granules by immunofluorescence and found them enriched with SG component TIA1 and viral dsRNA binding protein E3. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00426822193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.007DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

The Role of microRNAs in the viral Infections.

Curr Pharm Des 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Computational Optics Research Group, Advanced Institute of Materials Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City. Viet Nam.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs with 19 to 24 nucleotides which are evolutionally conserved. MicroRNAs play a regulatory role in many cellular functions such as immune mechanisms, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. The main function of miRNAs is the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression via mRNA degradation or inhibition of translation. Read More

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http://www.eurekaselect.com/168861/article
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666190110161034DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Evolution of the Large Nucleocytoplasmic DNA Viruses of Eukaryotes and Convergent Origins of Viral Gigantism.

Adv Virus Res 2019 10;103:167-202. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

The Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) of eukaryotes (proposed order "Megavirales") comprise an expansive group of eukaryotic viruses that consists of the families Poxviridae, Asfarviridae, Iridoviridae, Ascoviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Marseilleviridae, Pithoviridae, and Mimiviridae, as well as Pandoraviruses, Molliviruses, and Faustoviruses that so far remain unaccounted by the official virus taxonomy. All these viruses have double-stranded DNA genomes that range in size from about 100 kilobases (kb) to more than 2.5 megabases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.aivir.2018.09.002DOI Listing
November 2018

Targeting Protein-Protein Interactions of Tyrosine Phosphatases with Microarrayed Fragment Libraries Displayed on Phosphopeptide Substrate Scaffolds.

ACS Comb Sci 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Molecular and Translational Sciences Division , United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases , Frederick , Maryland 21702 , United States.

Chemical library screening approaches that focus exclusively on catalytic events may overlook unique effects of protein-protein interactions that can be exploited for development of specific inhibitors. Phosphotyrosyl (pTyr) residues embedded in peptide motifs comprise minimal recognition elements that determine the substrate specificity of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). We incorporated aminooxy-containing amino acid residues into a 7-residue epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) derived phosphotyrosine-containing peptide and subjected the peptides to solution-phase oxime diversification by reacting with aldehyde-bearing druglike functionalities. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acscombsci.8b00122
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscombsci.8b00122DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Is host heparanase required for the rapid spread of heparan sulfate binding viruses?

Virology 2019 Jan 3;529:1-6. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Cancer & Vascular Biology Group, ACRF Department of Cancer Biology and Therapeutics, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Vaccinia virus (VACV), like many other viruses, binds to cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) prior to infecting cells. Since HS is ubiquitously expressed extracellularly, it seemed likely that VACV-HS interaction may impede virus spread, with host heparanase, the only known mammalian endoglycosidase that can degrade HS, potentially overcoming this problem. In support of this hypothesis, we found that, compared to wild type, mice deficient in heparanase showed a 1-3 days delay in the spread of VACV to distant organs, such as ovaries, following intranasal inoculation, or to ovaries and spleen following intramuscular inoculation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2019.01.001DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Comparison of the sensitivity of three cell cultures to ORFV.

BMC Vet Res 2019 Jan 7;15(1):13. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, Lanzhou, 730046, China.

Background: Contagious ecthyma (CE) appears in the countries and regions containing goat and sheep farms, and it is considered a global epidemic. CE not only severely endangers the healthy development of the sheep and goat industries but also threatens human health. For viral infectious diseases, fast and effective isolation and culture of the pathogen is critical for CE diagnosis, and for disease prevention and control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-018-1760-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6322270PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Virotherapy as Potential Adjunct Therapy for Graft-Vs-Host Disease.

Curr Pathobiol Rep 2018 19;6(4):247-263. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Biodesign Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines and Virotherapy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review discusses the pathophysiology, risk factors, and the advances in the prevention or treatment of graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) by exploiting adjunct virotherapy. In addition, nonviral adjunct therapeutic options for the prevention of GvHD in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are discussed. The role of oncolytic viruses to treat different HSCT-eligible hematological cancers is also considered and correlated with the issue of GvHD in the context of allo-HSCT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40139-018-0186-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290699PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Mutation and structure guided discovery of an antiviral small molecule that mimics an essential C-Terminal tripeptide of the vaccinia D4 processivity factor.

Antiviral Res 2019 Feb 20;162:178-185. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine and the Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The smallpox virus (variola) remains a bioterrorism threat since a majority of the human population has never been vaccinated. In the event of an outbreak, at least two drugs against different targets of variola are critical to circumvent potential viral mutants that acquire resistance. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the model virus used in the laboratory for studying smallpox. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2018.12.011DOI Listing
February 2019
11 Reads
3.938 Impact Factor

Sounding the alarm: Defining thresholds to trigger a public health response to monkeypox.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 12 20;12(12):e0007034. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Endemic to the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), monkeypox is a zoonotic disease that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. Observed fluctuations in reported cases over time raises questions about when it is appropriate to mount a public health response, and what specific actions should be taken. We evaluated three different thresholds to differentiate between baseline and heightened disease incidence, and propose a novel, tiered algorithm for public health action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319745PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

A System Based-Approach to Examine Cytokine Response in Poxvirus-Infected Macrophages.

Viruses 2018 12 5;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Labs, Singapore 117510, Singapore.

The poxviruses are large, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses about 130 to 230 kbp, that have an animal origin and evolved to infect a wide host range. Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is a poxvirus that infects only humans, but other poxviruses such as monkey poxvirus and cowpox virus (CPXV) have crossed over from animals to infect humans. Therefore understanding the biology of poxviruses can devise antiviral strategies to prevent these human infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10120692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316232PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Oncolytic properties of non-vaccinia poxviruses.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 13;9(89):35891-35906. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Transgene SA, Illkirch-Graffenstaden 67405, France.

Vaccinia virus, a member of the family, has been extensively used as an oncolytic agent and has entered late stage clinical development. In this study, we evaluated the potential oncolytic properties of other members of the family. Numerous tumor cell lines were infected with ten non-vaccinia poxviruses to identify which virus displayed the most potential as an oncolytic agent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267605PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Dynamic transcriptome profiling dataset of vaccinia virus obtained from long-read sequencing techniques.

Gigascience 2018 12 1;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Somogyi B. u. 4., 6720 Szeged, Hungary.

Background: Poxviruses are large DNA viruses that infect humans and animals. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been applied as a live vaccine for immunization against smallpox, which was eradicated by 1980 as a result of worldwide vaccination. VACV is the prototype of poxviruses in the investigation of the molecular pathogenesis of the virus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giy139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290886PMC
December 2018
5 Reads

Seroprevalence and participatory epidemiology of camelpox in Afar region of Ethiopia.

Prev Vet Med 2018 Dec 12;161:25-32. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Long Island University, Greenvale, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Camelpox is endemic in most camel rearing regions of the world, causing significant economic losses. However, its epidemiology is not extensively investigated. We conducted a cross sectional seroprevalence study of camelpox in Amibara and Awash Fentale districts in Afar region of Ethiopia from November 2014 to May 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.10.003DOI Listing
December 2018
21 Reads

Label-Free Digital Holo-tomographic Microscopy Reveals Virus-Induced Cytopathic Effects in Live Cells.

mSphere 2018 11 21;3(6). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Cytopathic effects (CPEs) are a hallmark of infections. CPEs are difficult to observe due to phototoxicity from classical light microscopy. We report distinct patterns of virus infections in live cells using digital holo-tomographic microscopy (DHTM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphereDirect.00599-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249643PMC
November 2018
13 Reads

Synthesis and antiviral activity of camphor-based 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one and thiazole derivatives as -reproduction inhibitors.

Medchemcomm 2018 Oct 19;9(10):1746-1753. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry , Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Lavrentjev Avenue 9 , 630090 Novosibirsk , Russia . Email:

The genus belongs to the Poxviridae family and includes variola virus (smallpox), cowpox virus, monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (VV). Smallpox is considered one of the great epidemic disease scourges in human history. It has currently been eradicated; however, it remains a considerable threat as a biowarfare or bioterrorist weapon. Read More

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http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C8MD00347E
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8md00347eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6194496PMC
October 2018
10 Reads

The 2.1 Å structure of protein F9 and its comparison to L1, two components of the conserved poxvirus entry-fusion complex.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 14;8(1):16807. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The poxvirus F9 protein is a component of the vaccinia virus entry fusion complex (EFC) which consists of 11 proteins. The EFC forms a unique apparatus among viral fusion proteins and complexes. We solved the atomic structure of the F9 ectodomain at 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34244-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235832PMC
November 2018
1 Read

First report of camel contagious ecthyma in Nigeria.

Open Vet J 2018 19;8(2):208-211. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria.

Camel contagious ecthyma (CCE) is a viral disease of camelids that is caused by a Parapoxvirus (PPV) which is a DNA virus of the viral family: . Diseases affecting camels in Nigeria are scarcely reported. CCE or the laboratory detection of camel PPV (CPPV) has not been reported in Nigeria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ovj.v8i2.16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202667PMC
June 2018
1 Read

Vaccinia virus hijacks EGFR signalling to enhance virus spread through rapid and directed infected cell motility.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Feb 12;4(2):216-225. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, UK.

Cell motility is essential for viral dissemination. Vaccinia virus (VACV), a close relative of smallpox virus, is thought to exploit cell motility as a means to enhance the spread of infection. A single viral protein, F11L, contributes to this by blocking RhoA signalling to facilitate cell retraction. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-018-0288-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0288-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354922PMC
February 2019
8 Reads

Translational control during poxvirus infection.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 2019 Mar 31;10(2):e1515. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

Poxviruses are an unusual family of large double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses that exhibit an incredible degree of self-sufficiency and complexity in their replication and immune evasion strategies. Indeed, amongst their approximately 200 open reading frames (ORFs), poxviruses encode approximately 100 immunomodulatory proteins to counter host responses along with complete DNA synthesis, transcription, mRNA processing and cytoplasmic redox systems that enable them to replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. However, like all other viruses poxviruses do not encode ribosomes and therefore remain completely dependent on gaining access to the host translational machinery in order to synthesize viral proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wrna.1515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375802PMC

New Insights into the Evolutionary and Genomic Landscape of Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV) based on Nine MCV1 and Six MCV2 Complete Genome Sequences.

Viruses 2018 10 26;10(11). Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is the sole member of the genus and the causative agent of molluscum contagiosum (MC), a common skin disease. Although it is an important and frequent human pathogen, its genetic landscape and evolutionary history remain largely unknown. In this study, ten novel complete MCV genome sequences of the two most common MCV genotypes were determined (five MCV1 and five MCV2 sequences) and analyzed together with all MCV complete genomes previously deposited in freely accessible sequence repositories (four MCV1 and a single MCV2). Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/10/11/586
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10110586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266040PMC
October 2018
8 Reads

Molluscum contagiosum virus infection can trigger atopic dermatitis disease onset or flare.

Cutis 2018 Sep;102(3):191-194

Departments of Dermatology and Pediatrics, Mt Sinai St. Luke's of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Predisposition to cutaneous viral infections is known to be a minor criterion of Hanifin and Rajka's diagnostic standard of atopic dermatitis (AD); however, the causal relationship between molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) infection and AD onset or aggravation has not been widely explored. The objective of this study was to identify pediatric patients with AD onset or flare triggered by MCV infection as well as to characterize the setting under which MCV may trigger AD onset or flares in children. Fifty children with prior or current MCV infection presenting sequentially to an outpatient pediatric dermatology practice over a 1-month period were evaluated. Read More

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September 2018

Anti-inflammatory Effects of Variola Virus TNF Decoy Receptor in an Experimental Model of Contact Dermatitis.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2018 ;19(11):910-916

Federal State Budgetary Institution "Research Institute of Basic and Clinical Immunology", Novosibirsk, Russian Federation.

Background: Large DNA poxviruses encode a diverse family of secreted proteins that modulate host inflammatory and antiviral responses, in particular by inhibiting one of the key players of the mammalian immune system, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF).

Methods: We investigated the effects of a recombinant variola (smallpox) virus TNF-decoy receptor (VARV-CrmB) in a murine model of contact dermatitis. Our results demonstrate that the VARV-CrmB protein significantly reduces the 2,4-dinitrochlorbenzene (DNCB)-induced migration of skin leukocytes during the sensitization phase and suppresses ear oedema during the elicitation phase of the contact reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201019666181029111011DOI Listing
January 2018
28 Reads
2.511 Impact Factor

Gemcitabine combined with an engineered oncolytic vaccinia virus exhibits a synergistic suppressive effect on the tumor growth of pancreatic cancer.

Oncol Rep 2019 Jan 24;41(1):67-76. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Clinical Research Institute, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310014, P.R. China.

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a lethal solid malignancy with resistance to traditional chemotherapy. Recently, considerable studies have demonstrated the ubiquitous antitumor properties of gene therapy mediated by the oncolytic vaccinia virus. The second mitochondrial‑derived activator of caspase (Smac) has been identified as an innovative tumor suppressor that augments the chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Read More

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http://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/or.2018.6817
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2018.6817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278373PMC
January 2019
4 Reads

Oncolytic cancer therapy with a vaccinia virus strain.

Oncol Rep 2019 Jan 16;41(1):686-692. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Clinical Laboratory, Wuxi People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214023, P.R China.

Oncolytic vaccinia virus is currently undergoing evaluation as a biological anticancer agent in clinical trials. This treatment exploits the lytic nature of a viral infection to eradicate the tumor mass in a cancer cell‑specific manner. So far, various vaccinia strains have been used as backbones in the design of oncolytic agents. Read More

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http://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/or.2018.6801
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2018.6801DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads
2.190 Impact Factor

Detection of Fowlpox virus carrying distinct genome segments of Reticuloendotheliosis virus.

Virus Res 2019 01 22;260:53-59. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL), Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Electronic address:

Fowlpox virus (FWPV), the type species of the genus Avipoxvirus family Poxviridae, is a large double-stranded DNA virus that causes fowlpox in chickens and turkeys. Notably, sequences of the avian retrovirus reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) are frequently found integrated into the genome of FWPV. While some FWPV strains carry remnants of the REV long terminal repeats (LTRs), other strains have been shown to contain insertions of nearly the full-length REV provirus in their genome. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01681702183055
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2018.10.017DOI Listing
January 2019
13 Reads
2.324 Impact Factor

A review of the monkeypox virus and a recent outbreak of skin rash disease in Nigeria.

J Med Virol 2019 Apr 19;91(4):533-540. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Virology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Group, School of Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Since the eradication of smallpox approximately 39 years ago, monkeypox virus remains the most pathogenic poxvirus, being mainly restricted to Central and West Africa. Before 1970, there were no reports of human monkeypox in Nigeria, while between 1971 and 1978 there were three cases, with none having been reported thereafter. However, in September 2017, a case of contagious skin rash disease, typical of monkeypox, was observed in an 11-year-old boy from the southern part of the country and confirmed to be associated with the monkeypox virus. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jmv.25348
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25348DOI Listing
April 2019
11 Reads

Contaminants in Atlantic walruses in Svalbard part 1: Relationships between exposure, diet and pathogen prevalence.

Environ Pollut 2019 Jan 3;244:9-18. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Norwegian Polar Institute, FRAM Centre, N-9296, Tromsø, Norway. Electronic address:

This study investigated relationships between organohalogen compound (OHC) exposure, feeding habits, and pathogen exposure in a recovering population of Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) from the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Various samples were collected from 39 free-living, apparently healthy, adult male walruses immobilised at three sampling locations during the summers of 2014 and 2015. Concentrations of lipophilic compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers) were analysed in blubber samples, and concentrations of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) were determined in plasma samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.10.001DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

A single dose of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) VP2 based vaccines provides complete clinical protection in a mouse model.

Vaccine 2018 11 8;36(46):7003-7010. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Department of Biological & Medical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK; The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NB, UK; Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, CB3 0ES Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

African horse sickness is a severe, often fatal, arboviral disease of equids. The control of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) in endemic countries is based currently on the use of live attenuated vaccines despite some biosafety concerns derived from its biological properties. Thus, experimental vaccination platforms have been developed over the years in order to avoid the biosafety concerns associated with the use of attenuated vaccines. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264410X183134
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.09.065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6219453PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

Local delivery of a cancer-favoring oncolytic vaccinia virus via poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanofiber for theranostic purposes.

Int J Pharm 2018 Dec 9;552(1-2):437-442. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan 50612, Gyeongnam, Republic of Korea; BIO-IT Foundry Technology Institute, Pusan National University, Gumjeong-gu, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Local delivery of viruses via nanomaterials has been demonstrated in the treatment of colon cancer. A cancer-favoring oncolytic vaccinia virus (CVV), which is an evolutionary cancer-favoring engineered vaccinia virus carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, has antitumor efficacy in drug-resistant colon cancer and metastatic liver cells. Here, we present the antitumor efficacy of a CVV coated a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanofiber for local drug delivery in theranostic approaches. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03785173183075
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2018.10.020DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Poxvirus-based vector systems and the potential for multi-valent and multi-pathogen vaccines.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2018 10 9;17(10):925-934. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

a Inflammation Biology , QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute , Brisbane , Australia.

Introduction: With the increasing number of vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases, the pressure to generate multi-valent and multi-pathogen vaccines grows. Combining individual established vaccines to generate single-shot formulations represents an established path, with significant ensuing public health and cost benefits. Poxvirus-based vector systems have the capacity for large recombinant payloads and have been widely used as platforms for the development of recombinant vaccines encoding multiple antigens, with considerable clinical trials activity and a number of registered and licensed products. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14760584.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2018.1522255DOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

Epithelial boost enhances antigen expression by vaccinia virus for the generation of potent CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity following DNA priming vaccination.

Virology 2018 12 5;525:205-215. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Pathology and Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address:

While both pNGVL4a-Sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 DNA vaccine and TA-HPV recombinant vaccinia viral vector-based vaccines have elicited HPV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in HPV16/E7-expressing tumor models, and been used as prime-boost regimen to enhance HPV-specific immune responses in humans (NCT00788164), the optimal route of administration for TA-HPV remains unclear. In a preclinical model, we examined the immunogenicity of priming with intramuscular pNGVL4a-Sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 followed by TA-HPV boost through different administration routes. We observed that priming twice with a pNGVL4a-Sig/E7(detox)/HSP70 followed by a single TA-HPV immunization boost through skin scarification generated the strongest antigen-specific CD8+ T cell response in C57BL/6 mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2018.09.019DOI Listing
December 2018
7 Reads

Progress in gene therapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus as vectors.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 6;144(12):2433-2440. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi Children's Hospital, Wuxi, 214023, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Vaccinia virus was widely used in the World Health Organization's smallpox eradication campaign and is currently a promising vector for gene therapy owing to its unique characteristics. Vaccinia virus can selectively replicate and propagate productively in tumor cells, resulting in oncolysis. In addition, rapid viral particle production, wide host range, large genome size (approximately 200 kb), and safe handling render vaccinia virus a suitable vector for gene therapy. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00432-018-2762-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-018-2762-xDOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

Evidence of avian poxvirus and papillomavirus infection in Gyps fulvus in Italy.

Arch Virol 2019 Jan 5;164(1):291-295. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Loc. Piano D'Accio, 64100, Teramo, Italy.

The identification of avian poxvirus and avian papillomavirus associated with cutaneous lesions in griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) by histopathology, electron microscopy and PCR analysis is reported. Sequence analysis of the fpv140 gene revealed 99% identity to two poxviruses obtained from a white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and a common buzzard (Buteo buteo). Partial sequence of the papillomavirus L1 gene showed sequence similarity to papillomavirus LI genes from African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) (69% identity), duck (Anas platyrhynchos) (68% identity), and yellow-necked francolin (Francolinus leucoscepus) (66% identity). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00705-018-4055-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-018-4055-8DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Synthetic horsepox viruses and the continuing debate about dual use research.

PLoS Pathog 2018 10 4;14(10):e1007025. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007025
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171955PMC
October 2018
14 Reads

Inoculating science against potential pandemics and information hazards.

Authors:
Kevin M Esvelt

PLoS Pathog 2018 10 4;14(10):e1007286. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

MIT Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

The recent de novo assembly of horsepox is an instructive example of an information hazard: published methods enabling poxvirus synthesis led to media coverage spelling out the implications, efficiently disseminating true information that might be used to cause harm. Whether or not the benefits justified the risks, the horsepox saga provides ample reason to upgrade the current system for screening synthesized DNA for hazardous sequences, which does not cover the majority of firms and cannot reliably prevent the assembly of potentially pandemic pathogens. An upgraded system might leverage one-way encryption to confidentially scrutinize virtually all commercial production by a cooperative international network of servers whose integrity can be verified by third parties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171951PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

Horsepox and the need for a new norm, more transparency, and stronger oversight for experiments that pose pandemic risks.

Authors:
Tom Inglesby

PLoS Pathog 2018 10 4;14(10):e1007129. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171949PMC
October 2018

Molecular identification and microscopic characterization of poxvirus in a Guiana dolphin and a common bottlenose dolphin, Brazil.

Dis Aquat Organ 2018 09;130(3):177-185

Laboratório de Patologia Comparada de Animais Selvagens, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brazil.

The poxviruses identified in cetaceans are associated with characteristic tattoo or ring skin lesions. However, little is known regarding the prevalence and progression of these lesions and the molecular characterization of cetacean poxviruses in the Southern Hemisphere. This manuscript describes the progression of poxvirus-like skin lesions in 5 free-ranging Guiana dolphins Sotalia guianensis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao03271DOI Listing
September 2018
10 Reads

A novel class of viral Ankyrin proteins targeting the host E3 ubiquitin ligase Cullin-2.

J Virol 2018 Sep 26. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Microbial Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom

Ankyrin repeat (ANK) domains are one of the most abundant motifs in eukaryotic proteins. ANK proteins are rare amongst viruses with the exception of poxviruses, which presumably acquired them from the host via horizontal gene transfer. The architecture of poxvirus ANK proteins is however different from their cellular counterparts and this precludes a direct acquisition event. Read More

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http://jvi.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JVI.01374-18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01374-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232478PMC
September 2018
8 Reads

Mechanism of action of the viral chemokine-binding protein E163 from ectromelia virus.

J Biol Chem 2018 Nov 26;293(45):17418-17429. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

From the Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049, Spain

Chemokines interact with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) at the cellular surface and to specific cell-surface receptors to activate signaling pathways. The GAG interaction allows the formation of a chemotactic gradient of chemokine required for cell haptotaxis and chemokine oligomerization. Poxviruses encode secreted chemokine-binding proteins with no sequence similarity to their cellular counterparts to modulate the host immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.004432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6231125PMC
November 2018
10 Reads

The Journey of Virus Engineered Dendritic Cells From Bench to Bedside: A Bumpy Road.

Front Immunol 2018 11;9:2052. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Jette, Belgium.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are recognized as highly potent antigen-presenting cells that are able to stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses with antitumor activity. Consequently, DCs have been explored as cellular vaccines in cancer immunotherapy. To that end, DCs are modified with tumor antigens to enable presentation of antigen-derived peptides to CTLs. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02052
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141723PMC
September 2018
7 Reads

Validation of a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of lumpy skin disease.

Vet Dermatol 2018 Dec 24;29(6):532-e178. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI hub), PO Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100, Kenya.

Background: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is caused by LSD virus which is a member of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus. Although PCR provides for a rapid and sensitive diagnosis, it has limited use due to its complexity in terms of cost, time and equipment. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple, specific and cost-effective method with a diagnostic accuracy similar to PCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vde.12690DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads