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    Mutagenic repair of double-stranded DNA breaks in vaccinia virus genomes requires cellular DNA ligase IV activity in the cytosol.
    J Gen Virol 2018 Apr 20. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    1​Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Poxviruses comprise a group of large dsDNA viruses that include members relevant to human and animal health, such as variola virus, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus and vaccinia virus (VACV). Poxviruses are remarkable for their unique replication cycle, which is restricted to the cytoplasm of infected cells. The independence from the host nucleus requires poxviruses to encode most of the enzymes involved in DNA replication, transcription and processing. Read More

    Comparative sequence and structural analysis of Indian orf viruses based on major envelope immune-dominant protein (F1L), an homologue of pox viral p35/H3 protein.
    Gene 2018 Apr 12. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Pox Virus Laboratory, Division of Virology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, 263138, Nainital (District), Uttarakhand, India.
    Orf virus (ORFV), a member of the genus Parapoxvirus in the family Poxviridae, is the cause of orf, a highly contagious zoonotic viral disease that affects mainly sheep and goats. In the present study, the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of Indian ORFV isolates (n = 15) from natural outbreaks in sheep and goats belonging to different geographical regions were analysed on the basis of F1L gene along with homology modelling of F1L protein. Multiple sequence alignments revealed highly conserved C-terminus and heterogeneity of N-terminus region of F1L among all orf viruses studied. Read More

    Proteotype profiling unmasks a viral signalling network essential for poxvirus assembly and transcriptional competence.
    Nat Microbiol 2018 May 9;3(5):588-599. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    To orchestrate context-dependent signalling programmes, poxviruses encode two dual-specificity enzymes, the F10 kinase and the H1 phosphatase. These signalling mediators are essential for poxvirus production, yet their substrate profiles and systems-level functions remain enigmatic. Using a phosphoproteomic screen of cells infected with wild-type, F10 and H1 mutant vaccinia viruses, we systematically defined the viral signalling network controlled by these enzymes. Read More

    Classic paper: Are the chickenpox virus and the zoster virus identical?: HELMUT RUSKA.
    Rev Med Virol 2018 Apr 6:e1975. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
    Institute of Virology, University of Ulm Medical School, Ulm, Germany.
    As early as 1943, the German physician Helmut Ruska visualized the virus of varicella and zoster (at that time, he was not completely certain whether the virus was the same) by the newly developed electron microscope; he is regarded as the discoverer of this virus. Here, we present a translation of his classical paper into the English language. In our introduction and commentary to his paper, we discuss the significance of Helmut Ruska's work for the development of virology, his distinction between the varicella, zoster, and herpes virus group on one hand and poxviruses on the other, as well as the development of imaging techniques which have refined or substituted for electron microscopy of viruses and virus-infected cells. Read More

    Inhibition of vaccinia virus replication by nitazoxanide.
    Virology 2018 May 3;518:398-405. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Divisions of Human Biology and Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, United States; Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98115, United States; Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98115, United States. Electronic address:
    Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is an FDA-approved anti-protozoal drug that inhibits several bacteria and viruses as well. However, its effect on poxviruses is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the impact of NTZ on vaccinia virus (VACV). Read More

    A gel-based PCR method to differentiate sheeppox virus field isolates from vaccine strains.
    Virol J 2018 04 2;15(1):59. Epub 2018 Apr 2.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Agricultural and Biotechnology laboratory, Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A1400, Vienna, Austria.
    Background: Sheeppox (SPP) and goatpox (GTP) caused by sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), respectively of the genus Capripoxvirus in the family Poxviridae, are severely afflicting small ruminants' production systems in Africa and Asia. In endemic areas, SPP and GTP are controlled using vaccination with live attenuated vaccines derived from SPPV, GTPV or Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Sometimes outbreaks occur following vaccination. Read More

    New insights into the structure of the MHC class I peptide-loading complex and mechanisms of TAP inhibition by viral immune evasion proteins.
    Mol Immunol 2018 Mar 29. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584CX Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Several hundred million years of co-evolution of vertebrates and invading pathogens have shaped the adaptive immune system to fight back the unwanted invaders through highly sophisticated defense mechanisms. Herpesviruses manage to dodge this immune response by hampering one of the central hinges of human adaptive immunity, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway. One of the bottlenecks of this pathway is the loading of pathogen-derived peptides onto MHC-I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Read More

    Investigation of an outbreak of monkeypox in an area occupied by armed groups, Central African Republic.
    Med Mal Infect 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Central African Republic.
    Background: Monkeypox is a zoonosis caused by an Orthopoxvirus of the Poxviridae family. Human infections are often severe and are a public health problem.

    Patients And Method: We conducted a monkeypox outbreak investigation of suspected case patients in five villages of the Alindao-Mingala Health District following blood sample confirmation of the virus by the Institut Pasteur in Bangui. Read More

    Rapid Viral Diagnosis of Orthopoxviruses by Electron Microscopy: Optional or a Must?
    Viruses 2018 03 22;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 22.
    (ret) University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Burnfoot, Stocksfield, Northumberland, NE43 7TN, UK.
    Diagnostic electron microscopy (DEM) was an essential component of viral diagnosis until the development of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT). The simple negative staining technique of DEM was applied widely to smallpox diagnosis until the world-wide eradication of the human-specific pathogen in 1980. Since then, the threat of smallpox re-emerging through laboratory escape, molecular manipulation, synthetic biology or bioterrorism has not totally disappeared and would be a major problem in an unvaccinated population. Read More

    Influence of Population Immunosuppression and Past Vaccination on Smallpox Reemergence.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Apr;24(4):646-653
    We built a SEIR (susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered) model of smallpox transmission for New York, New York, USA, and Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, that accounted for age-specific population immunosuppression and residual vaccine immunity and conducted sensitivity analyses to estimate the effect these parameters might have on smallpox reemergence. At least 19% of New York's and 17% of Sydney's population are immunosuppressed. The highest smallpox infection rates were in persons 0-19 years of age, but the highest death rates were in those >45 years of age. Read More

    How Does Vaccinia Virus Interfere With Interferon?
    Adv Virus Res 2018 16;100:355-378. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Interferons (IFNs) are secreted glycoproteins that are produced by cells in response to virus infection and other stimuli and induce an antiviral state in cells bearing IFN receptors. In this way, IFNs restrict virus replication and spread before an adaptive immune response is developed. Viruses are very sensitive to the effects of IFNs and consequently have evolved many strategies to interfere with interferon. Read More

    Full Genome Sequence of the Western Reserve Strain of Vaccinia Virus Determined by Third-Generation Sequencing.
    Genome Announc 2018 Mar 15;6(11). Epub 2018 Mar 15.
    Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
    The vaccinia virus is a large, complex virus belonging to the family. Here, we report the complete, annotated genome sequence of the neurovirulent Western Reserve laboratory strain of this virus, which was sequenced on the Pacific Biosciences RS II and Oxford Nanopore MinION platforms. Read More

    Characterization of the immune response elicited by the vaccinia virus L3 protein delivered as naked DNA.
    Vaccine 2018 04 7;36(15):2049-2055. Epub 2018 Mar 7.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA. Electronic address:
    Poxviruses are complex dsDNA viruses with over 200 genes, many of them with unknown role in the stimulation of immune responses. Among these, the vaccinia virus (VACV) L3L ORF encodes an essential protein for the transcription of the VACV early genes. To the best of our knowledge, the immune response elicited by L3 has not been characterized. Read More

    Loss of Actin-Based Motility Impairs Ectromelia Virus Release In Vitro but Is Not Critical to Spread In Vivo.
    Viruses 2018 03 5;10(3). Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus and the causative agent of mousepox. Like other poxviruses such as variola virus (agent of smallpox), monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (the live vaccine for smallpox), ECTV promotes actin-nucleation at the surface of infected cells during virus release. Homologs of the viral protein A36 mediate this function through phosphorylation of one or two tyrosine residues that ultimately recruit the cellular Arp2/3 actin-nucleating complex. Read More

    Virulent poxviruses inhibit DNA sensing by preventing STING activation.
    J Virol 2018 Feb 28. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Department of Microbial Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom
    Cytosolic recognition of DNA has emerged as a critical cellular mechanism of host immune activation upon pathogen invasion. The central cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS activates STING, which is phosphorylated, dimerises and translocates from the ER to a perinuclear region to mediate IRF-3 activation. Poxviruses are dsDNA viruses replicating in the cytosol and hence likely to trigger cytosolic DNA sensing. Read More

    Recent advances in viral vectors in veterinary vaccinology.
    Curr Opin Virol 2018 Feb 21;29:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Guildford, Surrey GU24 0NF, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Viral vectored vaccines, particularly using vectors such as adenovirus, herpesvirus and poxviruses, are used widely in veterinary medicine, where this technology has been adopted much more quickly than in human medicine. There are now a large number of programmes to develop viral vector vaccine platforms for humans and very similar or identical vectors are being developed for veterinary medicine. The shared experiences of developing these new vaccine platforms across the two disciplines is accelerating progress, a striking example of the value of a 'One Health' approach. Read More

    Construction and characterization of bacterial artificial chromosomes harboring the full-length genome of a highly attenuated vaccinia virus LC16m8.
    PLoS One 2018 23;13(2):e0192725. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
    Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    LC16m8 (m8), a highly attenuated vaccinia virus (VAC) strain, was developed as a smallpox vaccine, and its safety and immunogenicity have been confirmed. Here, we aimed to develop a system that recovers infectious m8 from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) that retains the full-length viral genomic DNA (m8-BAC system). The infectious virus was successfully recovered from a VAC-BAC plasmid, named pLC16m8-BAC. Read More

    The protein-protein interactions between Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (AMEV) protein kinases (PKs) and all viral proteins.
    Virus Res 2018 03 19;248:31-38. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Trabzon, Turkey.
    Entomopoxviruses are an important group of viruses infecting only insects. They belong to Poxviridae which infect both invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. Protein kinases are known to have roles at virus morphogenesis, host selectivity, the regulation of cell division and apoptosis in some vertebrate poxviruses. Read More

    Orf virus infection in Alaskan mountain goats, Dall's sheep, muskoxen, caribou and Sitka black-tailed deer.
    Acta Vet Scand 2018 Feb 21;60(1):12. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Nursing and Health Sciences-Vestfold, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, 3603, Kongsberg, Norway.
    Background: The zoonotic Orf virus (ORFV; genus Parapoxvirus, Poxviridae family) occurs worldwide and is transmitted between sheep and goats, wildlife and man. Archived tissue samples from 16 Alaskan wildlife cases, representing mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus, n = 8), Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli, n = 3), muskox (Ovibos moschatus, n = 3), Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis, n = 1) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti, n = 1), were analyzed.

    Results: Clinical signs and pathology were most severe in mountain goats, affecting most mucocutaneous regions, including palpebrae, nares, lips, anus, prepuce or vulva, as well as coronary bands. Read More

    A paralogous pair of mammalian host restriction factors form a critical host barrier against poxvirus infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2018 Feb 15;14(2):e1006884. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America.
    Host restriction factors constitute a formidable barrier for viral replication to which many viruses have evolved counter-measures. Human SAMD9, a tumor suppressor and a restriction factor for poxviruses in cell lines, is antagonized by two classes of poxvirus proteins, represented by vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 and C7. A paralog of SAMD9, SAMD9L, is also encoded by some mammals, while only one of two paralogs is retained by others. Read More

    Vaccinia Virus C9 Ankyrin Repeat/F-Box Protein Is a Newly Identified Antagonist of the Type I Interferon-Induced Antiviral State.
    J Virol 2018 May 13;92(9). Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Type I interferons (IFNs) induce expression of more than 300 cellular genes that provide protection against viruses and other pathogens. For survival, viruses evolved defenses to prevent the IFN response or counteract the IFN-induced antiviral state. However, because viruses and cells coevolved, the dynamic relationship between virus and host is difficult to discern. Read More

    Cross-priming induces immunodomination in the presence of viral MHC class I inhibition.
    PLoS Pathog 2018 Feb 14;14(2):e1006883. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Division of Rheumatology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.
    Viruses have evolved mechanisms of MHCI inhibition in order to evade recognition by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs), which is well-illustrated by our prior studies on cowpox virus (CPXV) that encodes potent MHCI inhibitors. Deletion of CPXV viral MHCI inhibitors markedly attenuated in vivo infection due to effects on CTL effector function, not priming. However, the CTL response to CPXV in C57BL/6 mice is dominated by a single peptide antigen presented by H-2Kb. Read More

    In vitro susceptibility to ST-246 and Cidofovir corroborates the phylogenetic separation of Brazilian Vaccinia virus into two clades.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 7;152:36-44. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Antônio Carlos, 6627, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The Orthopoxvirus (OPV) genus of the Poxviridae family contains several human pathogens, including Vaccinia virus (VACV), which have been implicating in outbreaks of a zoonotic disease called Bovine Vaccinia in Brazil. So far, no approved treatment exists for OPV infections, but ST-246 and Cidofovir (CDV) are now in clinical development. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of five strains of Brazilian VACV (Br-VACV) to ST-246 and Cidofovir. Read More

    Ultrasound-mediated cavitation does not decrease the activity of small molecule, antibody or viral-based medicines.
    Int J Nanomedicine 2018 10;13:337-349. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    BUBBL, IBME, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    The treatment of cancer using nanomedicines is limited by the poor penetration of these potentially powerful agents into and throughout solid tumors. Externally controlled mechanical stimuli, such as the generation of cavitation-induced microstreaming using ultrasound (US), can provide a means of improving nanomedicine delivery. Notably, it has been demonstrated that by focusing, monitoring and controlling the US exposure, delivery can be achieved without damage to surrounding tissue or vasculature. Read More

    Immunization of Pigs by DNA Prime and Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Boost To Identify and Rank African Swine Fever Virus Immunogenic and Protective Proteins.
    J Virol 2018 04 28;92(8). Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey, United Kingdom
    African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs, with high socioeconomic impact. No vaccine is available, limiting options for control. Although live attenuated ASFV can induce up to 100% protection against lethal challenge, little is known of the antigens which induce this protective response. Read More

    Fowlpoxvirus recombinants coding for the CIITA gene increase the expression of endogenous MHC-II and Fowlpox Gag/Pro and Env SIV transgenes.
    PLoS One 2018 31;13(1):e0190869. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, via Balzaretti 9, Milan, Italy.
    A complete eradication of an HIV infection has never been achieved by vaccination and the search for new immunogens that can induce long-lasting protective responses is ongoing. Avipoxvirus recombinants are host-restricted for replication to avian species and they do not have the undesired side effects induced by vaccinia recombinants. In particular, Fowlpox (FP) recombinants can express transgenes over long periods and can induce protective immunity in mammals, mainly due to CD4-dependent CD8+ T cells. Read More

    Genetic diversity of Orf virus isolated from sheep in Uruguay.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 24;163(5):1285-1291. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Sección Virología, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, Iguá 4225, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the etiological agent of contagious ecthyma, a disease widely spread in the world that occasionally causes zoonotic infections. This work is the first molecular characterization of ORFV in Uruguay, where we analyzed twenty-one sheep samples, eighteen of which were recovered from thirteen ORFV outbreaks that occurred during 2004 to 2011 as well as three strains from a national vaccine. Phylogenetic analysis and the derived amino acid sequences from the B2L gene suggest that the Uruguayan virus do not form a unique cluster, with most of them displaying similarities with worldwide ORFV isolates as well as our vaccine strains. Read More

    Development of a Safe and Effective Vaccinia Virus Oncolytic Vector WR-Δ4 with a Set of Gene Deletions on Several Viral Pathways.
    Mol Ther Oncolytics 2018 Mar 5;8:27-40. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CNB-CSIC), Darwin 3, Madrid, 28049, Spain.
    Despite the effectiveness of classic treatments and available diagnostic tools, cancer continues to be a leading world health problem, with devastating cancer-related death rates. Advances in oncolytic virotherapy have shown promise as potentially effective treatment options in the fight against cancer. The poxviruses have many features that make them an attractive platform for the development of oncolytic vectors, with some candidates currently in clinical trials. Read More

    Milker's nodules: classic histological findings.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;92(6):838-840
    Department of Dermatology and Radiotherapy of the Botucatu School of Medicine, São Paulo State University "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (FMB-Unesp) - Botucatu, (SP), Brazil.
    Milker's nodule is an occupational dermatovirose caused by Parapoxvirus, which is self-limited and, due to the lack of information of health professionals, may lead to underdiagnosis. We present two cases with exuberant manifestations and classic histopathologic findings. Case 1: Male, 19 years of age, milker, presented nodules and blisters on his palm for 15 days. Read More

    Extension of the viral ecology in humans using viral profile hidden Markov models.
    PLoS One 2018 19;13(1):e0190938. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    When human samples are sequenced, many assembled contigs are "unknown", as conventional alignments find no similarity to known sequences. Hidden Markov models (HMM) exploit the positions of specific nucleotides in protein-encoding codons in various microbes. The algorithm HMMER3 implements HMM using a reference set of sequences encoding viral proteins, "vFam". Read More

    Construction of an infectious horsepox virus vaccine from chemically synthesized DNA fragments.
    PLoS One 2018 19;13(1):e0188453. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology and Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
    Edward Jenner and his contemporaries believed that his variolae vaccinae originated in horses and molecular analyses show that modern vaccinia virus (VACV) strains share common ancestry with horsepox virus (HPXV). Given concerns relating to the toxicity of modern VACV vaccines, we asked whether an HPXV-based vaccine might provide a superior alternative. Since HPXV may be extinct and the only specimen of HPXV that has been identified is unavailable for investigation, we explored whether HPXV could be obtained by large-scale gene synthesis. Read More

    Identification of Poxvirus Genome Uncoating and DNA Replication Factors with Mutually Redundant Roles.
    J Virol 2018 04 14;92(7). Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Genome uncoating is essential for replication of most viruses. For poxviruses, the process is divided into two stages: removal of the envelope, allowing early gene expression, and breaching of the core wall, allowing DNA release, replication, and late gene expression. Subsequent studies showed that the host proteasome and the viral D5 protein, which has an essential role in DNA replication, are required for vaccinia virus (VACV) genome uncoating. Read More

    Myxoma Virus M083 Is a Virulence Factor Which Mediates Systemic Dissemination.
    J Virol 2018 04 14;92(7). Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
    Poxviruses are large, DNA viruses whose protein capsid is surrounded by one or more lipid envelopes. Embedded into these lipid envelopes are three conserved viral proteins which are thought to mediate binding of virions to target cells. While the function of these proteins has been studied , their specific roles during the pathogenesis of poxviral disease remain largely unclear. Read More

    The Inhibitory Effect of Ectromelia Virus Infection on Innate and Adaptive Immune Properties of GM-CSF-Derived Bone Marrow Cells Is Mouse Strain-Independent.
    Front Microbiol 2017 19;8:2539. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Ectromelia virus (ECTV) belongs to the genus of the family and is a natural pathogen of mice. Certain strains of mice are highly susceptible to ECTV infection and develop mousepox, a lethal disease similar to smallpox of humans caused by variola virus. Currently, the mousepox model is one of the available small animal models for investigating pathogenesis of generalized viral infections. Read More

    Genetic analysis of L1R myristoylated protein of Capripoxviruses reveals structural homogeneity among poxviruses.
    Infect Genet Evol 2018 Mar 4;58:224-231. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Division of Virology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar 263 138, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.
    Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV) are members of the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) of the family Poxviridae. CaPVs are responsible for important contagious diseases of small ruminants that are enzootic to the Indian sub-continent, Central and Northern Africa and the Middle East. In the present study, the sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the L1R gene of sixteen CaPV isolates (seven SPPV and nine GTPV) from India were performed along with 3D homology modeling of the L1R protein. Read More

    A parapoxviral virion protein targets the retinoblastoma protein to inhibit NF-κB signaling.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Dec 15;13(12):e1006779. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States of America.
    Poxviruses have evolved multiple strategies to subvert signaling by Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB), a crucial regulator of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe an orf virus (ORFV) virion-associated protein, ORFV119, which inhibits NF-κB signaling very early in infection (≤ 30 min post infection). ORFV119 NF-κB inhibitory activity was found unimpaired upon translation inhibition, suggesting that virion ORFV119 alone is responsible for early interference in signaling. Read More

    Recombinant Vaccinia virus-coded interferon inhibitor B18R: Expression, refolding and a use in a mammalian expression system with a RNA-vector.
    PLoS One 2017 7;12(12):e0189308. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    National Center for Biotechnology, Astana, Kazakhstan.
    B18R protein of Vaccinia virus binds to type I interferons and inhibits activation of interferon-mediated signal transduction. Cells which have unimpaired interferon signaling such as primary cell cultures or some industrially important cell lines are capable of development of an antiviral state. An establishment of the antiviral state limits replication of RNA-viruses and can suppress replication of RNA vectors. Read More

    Comparative analysis of avian poxvirus genomes, including a novel poxvirus from lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus minor), highlights the lack of conservation of the central region.
    BMC Genomics 2017 Dec 6;18(1):947. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Background: Avian poxviruses are important pathogens of both wild and domestic birds. To date, seven isolates from subclades A and B and one from proposed subclade E, have had their genomes completely sequenced. The genomes of these isolates have been shown to exhibit typical poxvirus genome characteristics with conserved central regions and more variable terminal regions. Read More

    Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol.
    Front Microbiol 2017 17;8:2196. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States.
    Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. Read More

    Reply to "Bioinformatics Analysis of Differential Innate Immune Signaling in Macrophages by Wild-Type Vaccinia Mature Virus and a Mutant Virus with a Deletion of the A26 Protein".
    J Virol 2017 12 30;91(24). Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Molecular Cell Biology, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

    Molecular and microscopic characterization of a novel Eastern grey kangaroopox virus genome directly from a clinical sample.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 28;7(1):16472. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.
    Poxviruses are large DNA viruses with varying zoonotic potential, and are recognised in a broad range of wildlife. Although poxviruses have been detected in kangaroos, their genetic relationships to poxviruses in other animals and humans is not well understood. Here, we present a novel genome sequence of a marsupial poxvirus, the Eastern grey kangaroopox virus (EKPV-NSW), isolated from a wild eastern grey kangaroo. Read More

    Coral-associated viral communities show high levels of diversity and host auxiliary functions.
    PeerJ 2017 17;5:e4054. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.
    Stony corals (Scleractinia) are marine invertebrates that form the foundation and framework upon which tropical reefs are built. The coral animal associates with a diverse microbiome comprised of dinoflagellate algae and other protists, bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. Using a metagenomics approach, we analysed the DNA and RNA viral assemblages of seven coral species from the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), demonstrating that tailed bacteriophages of the dominate across all species examined, and ssDNA viruses, notably the , are also prevalent. Read More

    An unusual presentation of pseudocowpox associated with an outbreak of pustular ulcerative vulvovaginitis in a Swedish dairy herd.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Mar 20;30(2):256-259. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Departments of Microbiology (Blomqvist, Ullman, Renström, Leijon), National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Species Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV; family Poxviridae) is known to cause pustular cutaneous disease in cattle. We describe an outbreak of pseudocowpox with an unusual clinical picture in a free-stall dairy herd of ~80 cows. Approximately 90% of the cows had vesicles, erosions, papules, and scabs on the vulva and vaginal mucosa. Read More

    Outbreak investigation and molecular diagnosis of Lumpy skin disease among livestock in Saudi Arabia 2016.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Apr 17;65(2):e494-e500. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Department of Animal Resources, Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious disease of cattle caused by a virus of the Capripoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae. The disease is a major concern for the dairy industry in Saudi Arabia. In this study, an outbreak of LSD in cattle herds was detected in Saudi Arabia in 2016. Read More

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