17,639 results match your criteria Poxviruses


Dynamic transcriptome profiling dataset of vaccinia virus obtained from long-read sequencing techniques.

Gigascience 2018 Dec 1;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Somogyi B. u. 4., 6720 Szeged, Hungary.

Background: Poxviruses are large DNA viruses that infect humans and animals. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been applied as a live vaccine for immunization against smallpox, which was eradicated by 1980 as a result of worldwide vaccination. VACV is the prototype of poxviruses in the investigation of the molecular pathogenesis of the virus. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Synthesis and antiviral activity of camphor-based 1,3-thiazolidin-4-one and thiazole derivatives as -reproduction inhibitors.

Medchemcomm 2018 Oct 19;9(10):1746-1753. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry , Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences , Lavrentjev Avenue 9 , 630090 Novosibirsk , Russia . Email:

The genus belongs to the Poxviridae family and includes variola virus (smallpox), cowpox virus, monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (VV). Smallpox is considered one of the great epidemic disease scourges in human history. It has currently been eradicated; however, it remains a considerable threat as a biowarfare or bioterrorist weapon. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

The 2.1 Å structure of protein F9 and its comparison to L1, two components of the conserved poxvirus entry-fusion complex.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 14;8(1):16807. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The poxvirus F9 protein is a component of the vaccinia virus entry fusion complex (EFC) which consists of 11 proteins. The EFC forms a unique apparatus among viral fusion proteins and complexes. We solved the atomic structure of the F9 ectodomain at 2. Read More

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November 2018

First report of camel contagious ecthyma in Nigeria.

Open Vet J 2018 19;8(2):208-211. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria.

Camel contagious ecthyma (CCE) is a viral disease of camelids that is caused by a Parapoxvirus (PPV) which is a DNA virus of the viral family: . Diseases affecting camels in Nigeria are scarcely reported. CCE or the laboratory detection of camel PPV (CPPV) has not been reported in Nigeria. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Vaccinia virus hijacks EGFR signalling to enhance virus spread through rapid and directed infected cell motility.

Nat Microbiol 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London, UK.

Cell motility is essential for viral dissemination. Vaccinia virus (VACV), a close relative of smallpox virus, is thought to exploit cell motility as a means to enhance the spread of infection. A single viral protein, F11L, contributes to this by blocking RhoA signalling to facilitate cell retraction. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Translational control during poxvirus infection.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 2018 Oct 31:e1515. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

Poxviruses are an unusual family of large double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses that exhibit an incredible degree of self-sufficiency and complexity in their replication and immune evasion strategies. Indeed, amongst their approximately 200 open reading frames (ORFs), poxviruses encode approximately 100 immunomodulatory proteins to counter host responses along with complete DNA synthesis, transcription, mRNA processing and cytoplasmic redox systems that enable them to replicate exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. However, like all other viruses poxviruses do not encode ribosomes and therefore remain completely dependent on gaining access to the host translational machinery in order to synthesize viral proteins. Read More

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October 2018

Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of Variola Virus Tnf Decoy Receptor In Experimental Model Of Contact Dermatitis.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Research Institute of Clinical Immunology RAS SB, Novosibirsk. Russian Federation.

Large DNA poxviruses encode a diverse family of secreted proteins that modulate host inflammatory and antiviral responses, in particular by inhibiting one of the key players of the mammalian immune system, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We investigated the effects of a recombinant variola (smallpox) virus TNF-decoy receptor (VARV-CrmB) in a murine model of contact dermatitis. Our results demonstrate that the VARV-CrmB protein significantly reduces the 2,4-dinitrochlorbenzene (DNCB)-induced migration of skin leukocytes during the sensitization phase and suppresses ear oedema during the elicitation phase of the contact reaction. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads
2.511 Impact Factor

Detection of Fowlpox virus carrying distinct genome segments of Reticuloendotheliosis virus.

Virus Res 2018 Oct 22;260:53-59. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory (ADRDL), Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Electronic address:

Fowlpox virus (FWPV), the type species of the genus Avipoxvirus family Poxviridae, is a large double-stranded DNA virus that causes fowlpox in chickens and turkeys. Notably, sequences of the avian retrovirus reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) are frequently found integrated into the genome of FWPV. While some FWPV strains carry remnants of the REV long terminal repeats (LTRs), other strains have been shown to contain insertions of nearly the full-length REV provirus in their genome. Read More

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October 2018
10 Reads
2.324 Impact Factor

A review of the monkeypox virus and a recent outbreak of skin rash disease in Nigeria.

J Med Virol 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Virology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Research Group, School of Health Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Since the eradication of smallpox approximately 39 years ago, monkeypox virus remains the most pathogenic poxvirus, being mainly restricted to Central and West Africa. Before 1970, there were no reports of human monkeypox in Nigeria, while between 1971 and 1978 there were three cases, with none having been reported thereafter. However, in September 2017, a case of contagious skin rash disease, typical of monkeypox, was observed in an 11-year-old boy from the southern part of the country and confirmed to be associated with the monkeypox virus. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Progress in gene therapy using oncolytic vaccinia virus as vectors.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 6;144(12):2433-2440. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi Children's Hospital, Wuxi, 214023, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Vaccinia virus was widely used in the World Health Organization's smallpox eradication campaign and is currently a promising vector for gene therapy owing to its unique characteristics. Vaccinia virus can selectively replicate and propagate productively in tumor cells, resulting in oncolysis. In addition, rapid viral particle production, wide host range, large genome size (approximately 200 kb), and safe handling render vaccinia virus a suitable vector for gene therapy. Read More

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December 2018
8 Reads

Evidence of avian poxvirus and papillomavirus infection in Gyps fulvus in Italy.

Arch Virol 2018 Oct 5. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Teramo, Loc. Piano D'Accio, 64100, Teramo, Italy.

The identification of avian poxvirus and avian papillomavirus associated with cutaneous lesions in griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) by histopathology, electron microscopy and PCR analysis is reported. Sequence analysis of the fpv140 gene revealed 99% identity to two poxviruses obtained from a white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and a common buzzard (Buteo buteo). Partial sequence of the papillomavirus L1 gene showed sequence similarity to papillomavirus LI genes from African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) (69% identity), duck (Anas platyrhynchos) (68% identity), and yellow-necked francolin (Francolinus leucoscepus) (66% identity). Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Synthetic horsepox viruses and the continuing debate about dual use research.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Oct 4;14(10):e1007025. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

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October 2018
8 Reads

Molecular identification and microscopic characterization of poxvirus in a Guiana dolphin and a common bottlenose dolphin, Brazil.

Dis Aquat Organ 2018 Sep;130(3):177-185

Laboratório de Patologia Comparada de Animais Selvagens, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brazil.

The poxviruses identified in cetaceans are associated with characteristic tattoo or ring skin lesions. However, little is known regarding the prevalence and progression of these lesions and the molecular characterization of cetacean poxviruses in the Southern Hemisphere. This manuscript describes the progression of poxvirus-like skin lesions in 5 free-ranging Guiana dolphins Sotalia guianensis. Read More

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September 2018
8 Reads

A novel class of viral Ankyrin proteins targeting the host E3 ubiquitin ligase Cullin-2.

J Virol 2018 Sep 26. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Microbial Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom

Ankyrin repeat (ANK) domains are one of the most abundant motifs in eukaryotic proteins. ANK proteins are rare amongst viruses with the exception of poxviruses, which presumably acquired them from the host via horizontal gene transfer. The architecture of poxvirus ANK proteins is however different from their cellular counterparts and this precludes a direct acquisition event. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

Mechanism of action of the viral chemokine-binding protein E163 from ectromelia virus.

J Biol Chem 2018 Nov 26;293(45):17418-17429. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

From the Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049, Spain

Chemokines interact with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) at the cellular surface and to specific cell-surface receptors to activate signaling pathways. The GAG interaction allows the formation of a chemotactic gradient of chemokine required for cell haptotaxis and chemokine oligomerization. Poxviruses encode secreted chemokine-binding proteins with no sequence similarity to their cellular counterparts to modulate the host immune system. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

The Journey of Virus Engineered Dendritic Cells From Bench to Bedside: A Bumpy Road.

Front Immunol 2018 11;9:2052. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Jette, Belgium.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are recognized as highly potent antigen-presenting cells that are able to stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses with antitumor activity. Consequently, DCs have been explored as cellular vaccines in cancer immunotherapy. To that end, DCs are modified with tumor antigens to enable presentation of antigen-derived peptides to CTLs. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

Validation of a diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of lumpy skin disease.

Vet Dermatol 2018 Dec 24;29(6):532-e178. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

International Livestock Research Institute (BecA-ILRI hub), PO Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100, Kenya.

Background: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is caused by LSD virus which is a member of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus. Although PCR provides for a rapid and sensitive diagnosis, it has limited use due to its complexity in terms of cost, time and equipment. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple, specific and cost-effective method with a diagnostic accuracy similar to PCR. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Sporadic cases of lumpy skin disease among cattle in Sharkia province, Egypt: Genetic characterization of lumpy skin disease virus isolates and pathological findings.

Vet World 2018 Aug 23;11(8):1150-1158. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44511-Zagazig, Sharkia Province, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious viral disease upsetting cattle, caused by LSD virus (LSDV) within the family . Sporadic cases of LSD have been observed in cattle previously vaccinated with the Romanian sheep poxvirus (SPPV) vaccine during the summer of 2016 in Sharkia province, Egypt. The present study was undertaken to perform molecular characterization of LSDV strains which circulated in this period as well as investigate their phylogenetic relatedness with published reference capripoxvirus genome sequences

Materials And Methods: A total of 82 skin nodules, as well as 5 lymph nodes, were collected from suspect LSD cases, and the virus was isolated in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs). Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Characterization of mule deerpox virus in Florida white-tailed deer fawns expands the known host and geographic range of this emerging pathogen.

Arch Virol 2018 Sep 21. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Bldg 1379, Mowry Road, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA.

Infections caused by mule deerpox virus (MDPV) have been sporadically reported in North American cervids. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns from a farm located in South Central Florida presented with ulcerative and crusting lesions on the coronary band as well as the mucocutaneous tissues of the head. Evaluation of the crusted skin lesions was undertaken using microscopic pathology and molecular techniques. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads
2.282 Impact Factor

Complete genome sequence of a novel sea otterpox virus.

Virus Genes 2018 Dec 17;54(6):756-767. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.

Members of the Poxviridae family are large, double-stranded DNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of their host cells. The subfamily Chordopoxvirinae contains viruses that infect a wide range of vertebrates including marine mammals within the Balaenidae, Delphinidae, Mustelidae, Odobenidae, Otariidae, Phocidae, and Phocoenidae families. Recently, a novel poxvirus was found in a northern sea otter pup (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) that stranded in Alaska in 2009. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads
1.840 Impact Factor

A metagenomic study of the rumen virome in domestic caprids.

Arch Virol 2018 Dec 15;163(12):3415-3419. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

BecA-ILRI Hub, Nairobi, Kenya.

This project sought to investigate the domestic caprid rumen virome by developing a robust viral DNA isolation and enrichment protocol (utilizing membrane filtration, ultra-centrifugation, overnight PEG treatment and nuclease treatment) and using RSD-PCR and high throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques. 3.53% of the reads obtained were analogous to those of viruses denoting Siphoviridae, Myoviridae, Podoviridae, Mimiviridae, Microviridae, Poxviridae, Tectiviridae and Marseillevirus. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Construction of an attenuated Tian Tan vaccinia virus strain by deletion of TA35R and TJ2R genes.

Virus Res 2018 09 2;256:192-200. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Medical College, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002, PR China; Institute of Military Veterinary Medicine, Academy of Military Medical Science, Changchun, 130122, PR China; Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, 130021, PR China; Institute of Virology, Wenzhou University Town, Wenzhou, 325035, PR China; Jiang su Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, 225009, PR China. Electronic address:

rVTT-TA35-TJ, an attenuated vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (VTT), was constructed by knocking out two non-essential gene fragments (TA35R and TJ2R) related to virulence, immunomodulation, and host range; and by combining double marker screening with exogenous and endogenous selectable marker knock-out techniques. Here, the shuttle plasmids pSK-TA35 and pSK-TJ were constructed, containing two pairs of recombinant arms: early and late strong promoter pE/L and EGFP as an exogenous selectable marker. The recombinant vaccinia virus rVTT-TA35-TJ without exogenous selection markers was then obtained through homologous recombination technology and the Cre/loxP system. Read More

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September 2018
9 Reads

The Virology of Taterapox Virus In Vitro.

Viruses 2018 08 29;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 South Grand Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA.

Taterapox virus (TATV) is phylogenetically the closest related virus to variola-the etiological agent of smallpox. Despite the similarity, few studies have evaluated the virus. In vivo, TATV can infect several animals but produces an inapparent infection in wild-type mice; however, TATV does cause morbidity and mortality in some immunocompromised strains. Read More

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August 2018
6 Reads

Modulation of the Tumor Microenvironment by CXCR4 Antagonist-Armed Viral Oncotherapy Enhances the Antitumor Efficacy of Dendritic Cell Vaccines against Neuroblastoma in Syngeneic Mice.

Viruses 2018 08 26;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 26.

Department of Immunology, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.

The induction of antitumor immune responses in tumor-bearing hosts depends on efficient uptake and processing of native or modified tumors/self-antigens by dendritic cells (DCs) to activate immune effector cells, as well as the extent of the immunosuppressive network in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Because the C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) for the C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) is involved in signaling interactions between tumor cells and their TME, we used oncolytic virotherapy with a CXCR4 antagonist to investigate whether targeting of the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis in murine neuroblastoma cells (NXS2)-bearing syngeneic mice affects the efficacy of bone marrow (BM)-derived DCs loaded with autologous tumor cells treated with doxorubicin for induction of immunogenic cell death. Here, we show that CXCR4 antagonist expression from an oncolytic vaccinia virus delivered intravenously to mice with neuroblastoma tumors augmented efficacy of the DC vaccines compared to treatments mediated by a soluble CXCR4 antagonist or oncolysis alone. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

Tracking Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara in the Chicken Embryo: In Vivo Tropism and Pathogenesis of Egg Infections.

Viruses 2018 08 24;10(9). Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Institute for Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, LMU Munich, 80539 Munich, Germany.

The Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a highly attenuated vaccinia virus serving as a promising vector vaccine platform to develop vaccines against infectious diseases. In contrast to the well-established replication deficiency and safety of MVA in mammals, much less is known about MVA infection in avian hosts. Here, we used a recombinant MVA expressing fluorescent reporter proteins under transcriptional control of specific viral early and late promoters to study in vivo tropism, distribution, and pathogenesis of MVA infections in embryonated chicken eggs. Read More

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Evaluation of a recombinant major envelope protein (F1L) based indirect- ELISA for sero-diagnosis of orf in sheep and goats.

J Virol Methods 2018 11 24;261:112-120. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

ICAR- National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Bengaluru, 560064, Karnataka, India.

Orf or contagious ecthyma, is a highly contagious transboundary disease of sheep and goats. For sero-diagnosis of orf, recombinant antigen based assays are considered as alternatives to conventional approaches such as serum neutralization test (SNT) and counter-immuno-electrophoresis (CIE). A major envelope protein of orf virus (ORFV), F1L, is highly immunogenic and is a candidate for use in these assays. Read More

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November 2018
13 Reads

Preclinical safety evaluation of hepatic arterial infusion of oncolytic poxvirus.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2018 8;12:2467-2474. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Department of Pharmacology and Medical Research Center (MRC), Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea,

Purpose: Oncolytic poxvirus has shown promise in treating various solid tumors, such as liver cancer, and administration of oncolytic poxvirus via the hepatic artery may provide more survival benefits than other routes of administration. However, there is a lack of safety information to guide the application of hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of oncolytic poxvirus in human studies. To investigate the acute and chronic toxicity of HAI administration of oncolytic poxvirus in animals and provide safety information for future human studies. Read More

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November 2018

Sequence analysis of haemagglutinin gene of camelpox viruses shows deletion leading to frameshift: Circulation of diverse clusters among camelpox viruses.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 13;65(6):1920-1934. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Division of Virology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Uttarakhand, India.

Orthopoxviruses (OPVs) have broad host range infecting a variety of species along with gene-specific determinants. Several genes including haemagglutinin (HA) are used for differentiation of OPVs. Among poxviruses, OPVs are sole members encoding HA protein as part of extracellular enveloped virion membrane. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Synthesis of a 3'-C-ethynyl-β-d-ribofuranose purine nucleoside library: Discovery of C7-deazapurine analogs as potent antiproliferative nucleosides.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Sep 29;157:248-267. Epub 2018 Jul 29.

Laboratory for Medicinal Chemistry (Campus Heymans), Ghent University, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, B-9000, Gent, Belgium. Electronic address:

A focused nucleoside library was constructed around a 3'-C-ethynyl-d-ribofuranose sugar scaffold, which was coupled to variously modified purine nucleobases. The resulting nucleosides were probed for their ability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation, as well as for their activity against a panel of relevant human viruses. While C6-aryl substituted purine nucleosides were found to be weakly active, several C7-substituted 7-deazapurine nucleosides elicited potent antiproliferative activity. Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

Rapid whole-genome based typing and surveillance of avipoxviruses using nanopore sequencing.

J Virol Methods 2018 11 4;261:34-39. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

Université de Toulouse, ENVT, INRA, UMR 1225, 31076 Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Avian pox is an infectious disease caused by avipoxviruses (APV), resulting in cutaneous and/or tracheal lesions. Poxviruses share large genome sizes (from 130 to 360 kb), featuring repetitions, deletions or insertions as a result of a long-term recombination history. The increasing performances of next-generation sequencing (NGS) opened new opportunities for surveillance of poxviruses, based on timely and affordable workflows. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Development of recombinant goatpox virus expressing Echinococcus granulosus EG95 vaccine antigen.

J Virol Methods 2018 11 4;261:28-33. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

OIE Reference Laboratory for Peste des Petits Ruminants, National Research Center for Exotic Animal Diseases, China Animal Health and Epidemiology Center, No.369 Nanjing Road, Qingdao, Shandong 266032, China. Electronic address:

Goatpox disease and cystic hydatidosis may be simultaneously endemic in a given area. Their pathogens are goatpox virus (GPV) and Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus), respectively. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Poxviruses Evade Cytosolic Sensing through Disruption of an mTORC1-mTORC2 Regulatory Circuit.

Cell 2018 Aug 2;174(5):1143-1157.e17. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

Viruses employ elaborate strategies to coopt the cellular processes they require to replicate while simultaneously thwarting host antiviral responses. In many instances, how this is accomplished remains poorly understood. Here, we identify a protein, F17 encoded by cytoplasmically replicating poxviruses, that binds and sequesters Raptor and Rictor, regulators of mammalian target of rapamycin complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2, respectively. Read More

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August 2018
5 Reads

Structural basis for the inhibition of poxvirus assembly by the antibiotic rifampicin.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 08 1;115(33):8424-8429. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Infection and Immunity Program, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800, Australia;

Poxviruses are large DNA viruses that cause disease in animals and humans. They differ from classical enveloped viruses, because their membrane is acquired from cytoplasmic membrane precursors assembled onto a viral protein scaffold formed by the D13 protein rather than budding through cellular compartments. It was found three decades ago that the antibiotic rifampicin blocks this process and prevents scaffold formation. Read More

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August 2018
4 Reads

Flavobacteria as secondary pathogens in carp suffering from koi sleepy disease.

J Fish Dis 2018 Nov 1;41(11):1631-1642. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Koi sleepy disease (KSD) is a disease with increasing importance in global common carp aquaculture. Despite the fact that carp edema virus (CEV) is most likely the causative agent of KSD, the disease often presents itself as multifactorial with several parasites and bacteria species present on gills, skin or in internal organs. Therefore, in this study, we analysed and presented initial results on an interaction of flavobacteria and CEV in the development of clinical KSD in carp suffering from proliferative gill disease. Read More

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November 2018

Beyond the myths: Novel findings for old paradigms in the history of the smallpox vaccine.

PLoS Pathog 2018 07 26;14(7):e1007082. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Virus, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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July 2018
1 Read

RNA Polymerase Mutations Selected during Experimental Evolution Enhance Replication of a Hybrid Vaccinia Virus with an Intermediate Transcription Factor Subunit Replaced by the Myxoma Virus Ortholog.

J Virol 2018 Oct 26;92(20). Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

High-throughput DNA sequencing enables the study of experimental evolution in near real time. Until now, mutants with deletions of nonessential host range genes were used in experimental evolution of vaccinia virus (VACV). Here, we guided the selection of adaptive mutations that enhanced the fitness of a hybrid virus in which an essential gene had been replaced with an ortholog from another poxvirus genus. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Multiantigenic Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vaccine Vectors To Elicit Potent Humoral and Cellular Immune Reponses against Human Cytomegalovirus in Mice.

J Virol 2018 10 12;92(19). Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Immuno-Oncology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, California, USA

As human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common cause of disease in newborns and transplant recipients, developing an HCMV vaccine is considered a major public health priority. Yet an HCMV vaccine candidate remains elusive. Although the precise HCMV immune correlates of protection are unclear, both humoral and cellular immune responses have been implicated in protection against HCMV infection and disease. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Expression of the Vaccinia Virus Antiapoptotic F1 Protein Is Blocked by Protein Kinase R in the Absence of the Viral E3 Protein.

J Virol 2018 10 12;92(19). Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Poxviruses encode many proteins with the ability to regulate cellular signaling pathways. One such protein is the vaccinia virus innate immunity modulator E3. Multiple functions have been ascribed to E3, including modulating the cellular response to double-stranded RNA, inhibiting the NF-κB and IRF3 pathways, and dampening apoptosis. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Vaccinia Virus Shuffling: deVV5, a Novel Chimeric Poxvirus with Improved Oncolytic Potency.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jul 10;10(7). Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Transgene SA, 400 Bld Gonthier d'Andernach, 67400 Illkirch-Graffenstaden, France.

Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy has emerged as a promising approach for cancer treatment with the potential to be less toxic and more efficient than classic cancer therapies. Various types of OVs in clinical development, including Vaccinia virus (VACV)-derived OVs, have shown good safety profiles, but limited therapeutic efficacy as monotherapy in some cancer models. Many different methods have been employed to improve the oncolytic potency of OVs. Read More

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July 2018
7 Reads

Suitability of group-level oral fluid sampling in ruminant populations for lumpy skin disease virus detection.

Vet Microbiol 2018 Jul 31;221:44-48. Epub 2018 May 31.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany.

The geographic expansion of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) from the near East into the European Union highlighted again the need for appropriate disease detection tools applicable to animal host populations where access to individual animals is difficult. This is of particular importance considering that the clinical manifestation of LSD is often mild making early disease detection challenging under the above-mentioned conditions. Building on positive experiences of group-level oral fluid sampling for pathogen detection as it is known to work for swine herds and wild boar, the concept was transferred to ruminants. Read More

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July 2018
4 Reads

Never Mind the Science, Here's the Convention on Biological Diversity: Viral Sovereignty in the Smallpox Destruction Debate.

J Law Med 2018 Feb;25(2):429-447

Griffith Law School, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland.

Since the eradication of smallpox was declared in 1980, debate has ensued over what to do with the remaining stocks of the causative agent, variola virus. For more than three decades the World Health Organization has resolved to destroy the virus isolates, now maintained in high-security laboratories in the Russian Federation and the United States, and each time the deadline has been deferred. The legal facets of this debate have been largely overlooked. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

Oral Tecovirimat for the Treatment of Smallpox.

N Engl J Med 2018 07;379(1):44-53

From SIGA Technologies, Corvallis, OR.

Background: Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980, but variola virus (VARV), which causes smallpox, still exists. There is no known effective treatment for smallpox; therefore, tecovirimat is being developed as an oral smallpox therapy. Because clinical trials in a context of natural disease are not possible, an alternative developmental path to evaluate efficacy and safety was needed. Read More

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July 2018
3 Reads

DNA prime/MVTT boost regimen with HIV-1 mosaic Gag enhances the potency of antigen-specific immune responses.

Vaccine 2018 07 28;36(31):4621-4632. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

AIDS Institute and Department of Microbiology, State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, PR China; HKU-AIDS Institute Shenzhen Research Laboratory, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, PR China. Electronic address:

HIV-1 diversity and latent reservoir are the major challenges for the development of an effective AIDS vaccine. It is well indicated that Gag-specific CD8 T cells serve as the dominant host immune surveillance for HIV-1 control, but it still remains a challenge for vaccine design to induce broader and stronger cytotoxic T cell immunity against the virus. Genetic variation of the HIV-1 gag gene across different clades is one of the reasons for the reduction of antigenic epitope coverage. Read More

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July 2018
7 Reads

Discovery of a New Class of Inhibitors of Vaccinia Virus Based on (-)-Borneol from Abies sibirica and (+)-Camphor.

Chem Biodivers 2018 Sep 9;15(9):e1800153. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, 9, Lavrent'ev ave, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russian Federation.

A series of the bornyl ester/amide derivatives with N-containing heterocycles were designed and synthesized as vaccinia virus (VV) inhibitors. Bioassay results showed that among the designed compounds, derivatives 6, 13, 14, 34, 36 and 37 showed the best inhibitory activity against VV with the IC values of 12.9, 17. Read More

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September 2018
8 Reads

The Gene of Goatpox Virus Encodes an Inhibitor of NF-κB and Apoptosis and May Serve as an Improved Insertion Site To Generate Vectored Live Vaccine.

J Virol 2018 09 29;92(18). Epub 2018 Aug 29.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Mission of Zoonosis and Exotic Diseases, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, People's Republic of China

Goatpox virus (GTPV) is an important member of the genus of the Capripoxviruses have large and complex DNA genomes encoding many unknown proteins that may contribute to virulence. We identified that the open reading frame of GTPV is an early gene that encodes an ∼18-kDa protein that is nonessential for viral replication in cells. This protein functioned as an inhibitor of NF-κB activation and apoptosis and is similar to the N1L protein of vaccinia virus. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

New insights into the immunomodulatory properties of poxvirus cytokine decoy receptors at the cell surface.

F1000Res 2018 11;7. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid), Nicolás Cabrera 1, Cantoblanco, 28049 , Madrid, Spain.

Poxviruses encode a set of secreted proteins that bind cytokines and chemokines as a strategy to modulate host defense mechanisms. These viral proteins mimic the activity of host cytokine decoy receptors but have unique properties that may enhance their activity. Here, we describe the ability of poxvirus cytokine receptors to attach to the cell surface after secretion from infected cells, and we discuss the advantages that this property may confer to these viral immunomodulatory proteins. Read More

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Characterisation of putative immunomodulatory gene knockouts of lumpy skin disease virus in cattle towards an improved vaccine.

Vaccine 2018 07 22;36(31):4708-4715. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Agricultural Research Council - Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Private Bag X5, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Department Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is responsible for causing severe economic losses to cattle farmers throughout Africa, the Middle East, and more recently, South-Eastern Europe and Russia. It belongs to the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family, with closely related sheeppox and goatpox viruses. Like other poxviruses, the viral genome codes for a number of genes with putative immunomodulatory capabilities. Read More

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July 2018
23 Reads
3.624 Impact Factor

A many probes-one spot hybridization oligonucleotide microarray.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2018 Sep 22;410(23):5817-5823. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lavrentieva 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia.

A variant of the hybridization oligonucleotide microarray, utilizing the principle of many probes-one spot (MPOS-microarrays), is proposed. A case study based on Orthopoxviruses (Variola, Monkeypox, and Ectromelia viruses) demonstrates a considerable increase in the fluorescence signal (up to 100-fold) when several oligonucleotide probes are printed to one spot. Moreover, the specificity of detection also increases (almost 1000-fold), allowing the use of probes that individually lack such high specificity. Read More

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September 2018
9 Reads

Detection of vaccine-like lumpy skin disease virus in cattle and Musca domestica L. flies in an outbreak of lumpy skin disease in Russia in 2017.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Oct 22;65(5):1137-1144. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Federal Center for Animal Health, Vladimir, Russia.

Since 2012, lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) has been spreading from the Middle East to south-east Europe and Russia. Although vaccination campaigns have managed to contain LSDV outbreaks, the risk of further spread is still high. The most likely route of LSDV transmission in short distance spread is vector-borne. Read More

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October 2018
13 Reads

Intranasal monkeypox marmoset model: Prophylactic antibody treatment provides benefit against severe monkeypox virus disease.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 06 21;12(6):e0006581. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Virology Division, Fort Detrick Maryland, United States of America.

Concerns regarding outbreaks of human monkeypox or the potential reintroduction of smallpox into an immunological naïve population have prompted the development of animal models and countermeasures. Here we present a marmoset model of monkeypox and smallpox disease utilizing a relevant poxvirus via a natural exposure route. We found that 1000 plaque forming units (PFU) of Monkeypox virus was sufficient to recapitulate smallpox disease, to include an incubation period of approximately 13 days, followed by the onset of rash, and death between 15 and 17 days. Read More

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June 2018
2 Reads