18,456 results match your criteria Poxviruses

Adamantane derivatives as potential inhibitors of p37 major envelope protein and poxvirus reproduction. Design, synthesis and antiviral activity.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Apr 29;221:113485. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Samara State Technical University, 244 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, Samara Region, 443100, Russia.

Currently, smallpox, caused by the variola virus belonging to the poxvirus family, has been completely eradicated according to the WHO. However, other representatives of poxviruses, such as vaccinia virus, cowpox virus, ectromelia virus, monkeypox virus, mousepox virus and others, remain in the natural environment and can infect both animals and humans. The pathogens of animal diseases, belonging to the category with a high epidemic risk, have already caused several outbreaks among humans, and can, in an unfavorable combination of circumstances, cause not only an epidemic, but also a pandemic. Read More

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RNA helicase A/DHX9 forms unique cytoplasmic anti-viral granules that restrict oncolytic myxoma virus replication in human cancer cells.

J Virol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines, and Virotherapy Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Arizona.

RNA helicase A/DHX9 is required for diverse RNA-related essential cellular functions, anti-viral responses and also hijacked by RNA viruses to support their replication. Here, we show that during the late replication stage in human cancer cells of myxoma virus (MYXV), a member of the dsDNA poxvirus family that is being developed as an oncolytic virus, DHX9 forms unique granular cytoplasmic structures, which we named "DHX9 anti-viral granules". These DHX9 anti-viral granules are not formed if MYXV DNA replication and/or late protein synthesis is blocked. Read More

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Oncolytic Virotherapy for Cancer: Clinical Experience.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 13;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Oncolytic viruses are a new class of therapeutics which are largely in the experimental stage, with just one virus approved by the FDA thus far. While the concept of oncolytic virotherapy is not new, advancements in the fields of molecular biology and virology have renewed the interest in using viruses as oncolytic agents. Backed by robust preclinical data, many oncolytic viruses have entered clinical trials. Read More

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Differentiation of Capripox Viruses by Nanopore Sequencing.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 6;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Microbiology and Animal Hygiene, University of Goettingen, D-37077 Goettingen, Germany.

The genus capripoxvirus (CaPV), family , includes three virus species: goatpox virus (GPV), sheeppox virus (SPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). CaPV causes disease outbreaks with consequent economic losses in Africa and the Middle East. LSDV has recently spread to Southeast Europe. Read More

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Vaccinia virus gene acquisition through non-homologous recombination.

J Virol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Many of the genes encoded by poxviruses are orthologs of cellular genes. These virus genes serve different purposes, but perhaps of most interest is the way some have been repurposed to inhibit the antiviral pathways that their cellular homologs still regulate. What is unclear is how these virus genes were acquired although it is presumed to have been catalyzed by some form(s) of non-homologous recombination (NHR). Read More

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Solution structure of the C-terminal domain of A20, the missing brick for the characterization of the interface between vaccinia virus DNA polymerase and its processivity factor.

J Mol Biol 2021 Apr 23:167009. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Unité de Virologie, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, BP73, F-91223 Brétigny-sur-Orge Cedex, France.

Poxviruses are enveloped viruses with a linear, double-stranded DNA genome. Viral DNA synthesis is achieved by a functional DNA polymerase holoenzyme composed of three essential proteins. For vaccinia virus (VACV) these are E9, the catalytic subunit, a family B DNA polymerase, and the heterodimeric processivity factor formed by D4 and A20. Read More

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Lumpy skin disease in cattle in Sharkia, Egypt: epidemiological and genetic characterization of the virus.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Apr 26;53(2):287. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) continues to threaten the cattle industry in Egypt. This survey investigated the epidemiological risk factors and the genetic characterization of circulating strains by partial sequencing of the P32 gene on cattle farms in the Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Out of 600 cattle examined, morbidity, mortality, and case fatality were 31. Read More

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N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 17;384(16):1552. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

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Dermoscopic Features of Giant Molluscum Contagiosum in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2020 Dec;28(7):233-235

Martyna Sławińska MD, PhD, Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology Medical University of Gdańsk, Smoluchowskiego 17 Street, 80-214 Gdańsk;

Giant molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a peculiar variant of the disease with the presence of multiple or single lesions larger than 5 mm. In contrast to typical molluscum contagiosum, dermoscopic features of giant lesions have been poorly described, and none of the reports included multiple giant lesions in an immunocompromised patient. We present a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosed with multiple giant molluscum contagiosum along with the dermoscopic features of this entity. Read More

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December 2020

Role of Electrostatic Hotspots in the Selectivity of Complement Control Proteins Toward Human and Bovine Complement Inhibition.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 16;8:618068. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Riverside, CA.

Poxviruses are dangerous pathogens, which can cause fatal infection in unvaccinated individuals. The causative agent of smallpox in humans, , is closely related to the bovine , yet the molecular basis of their selectivity is currently incompletely understood. Here, we examine the role of the electrostatics in the selectivity of the smallpox protein SPICE and vaccinia protein VCP toward the human and bovine complement protein C3b, a key component of the complement immune response. Read More

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Enhancing the Protective Immune Response to Administration of a LIVP-GFP Live Attenuated Vaccinia Virus to Mice.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 21;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR, Rospotrebnadzor, Koltsovo, Novosibirsk 630559, Russia.

Following the WHO announcement of smallpox eradication, discontinuation of smallpox vaccination with vaccinia virus (VACV) was recommended. However, interest in VACV was soon renewed due to the opportunity of genetic engineering of the viral genome by directed insertion of foreign genes or introduction of mutations or deletions into selected viral genes. This genomic technology enabled production of stable attenuated VACV strains producing antigens of various infectious agents. Read More

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Generalized cowpox virus infection in an immunosuppressed patient.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Mar 29;106:276-278. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Robert Koch Institute, Federal Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens: Highly Pathogenic Viruses (ZBS 1) & German Consultant Laboratory for Poxviruses, Berlin, Germany.

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Analysis of human total antibody repertoires in TIF1γ autoantibody positive dermatomyositis.

Commun Biol 2021 Mar 26;4(1):419. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Population Health, Health Services Research & Primary Care, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

We investigate the accumulated microbial and autoantigen antibody repertoire in adult-onset dermatomyositis patients sero-positive for TIF1γ (TRIM33) autoantibodies. We use an untargeted high-throughput approach which combines immunoglobulin disease-specific epitope-enrichment and identification of microbial and human antigens. We observe antibodies recognizing a wider repertoire of microbial antigens in dermatomyositis. Read More

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Functional regulation of the structure-specific endonuclease FEN1 by the human cytomegalovirus protein IE1 suggests a role for the re-initiation of stalled viral replication forks.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Mar 26;17(3):e1009460. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, Ulm, Germany.

Flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is a member of the family of structure-specific endonucleases implicated in regulation of DNA damage response and DNA replication. So far, knowledge on the role of FEN1 during viral infections is limited. Previous publications indicated that poxviruses encode a conserved protein that acts in a manner similar to FEN1 to stimulate homologous recombination, double-strand break (DSB) repair and full-size genome formation. Read More

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Multiplex Real-Time PCR Method for Simultaneous Detection and Differentiation of Goat Pox Virus, Sheeppox Virus, and Lumpy Skin Disease Virus.

J AOAC Int 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, The Institute of Animal Quarantine, No. 11, Ronghuananlu Street, Yizhuang Economic and Technological Development Zone, Daxing District, Beijing, China, 100176, People's Republic of China.

Background: The diseases caused by the Capripoxvirus species have very similar symptoms and are difficult to distinguish clinically. According to a recent report, Capripoxvirus are not strictly host specific.

Objective: This study aimed to identify the viruses from ovine (include sheep and goat) or bovine, which will benefit to select the appropriate vaccine and take correct measures to control diseases. Read More

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Vaccine Efficacy of ALVAC-HIV and Bivalent Subtype C gp120-MF59 in Adults.

N Engl J Med 2021 03;384(12):1089-1100

From the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (G.E.G., Z.M., N. Grunenberg, Y.H., D.G., B.P., J.J.K., J.H., C.B., S.R., S.T., M.J., M. Sikhosana, M. Andrasik, J.G.K., M.J.M., P.B.G., H.J., L.C.), Seattle; the Perinatal HIV Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand (G.E.G., F.L., E.L., B.M., T.P., S.T.), the National Institute for Communicable Diseases, National Health Laboratory Service (A.P.), and Aurum Institute (C.I., M. Sebe, W.B., P.S., T.A., G. Kobane), Johannesburg, Desmond Tutu HIV Centre (L.-G.B., S.K., C.N.N., M. Atujuna), the Department of Medicine, Wellcome Centre for Infectious Diseases Research in Africa, and Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine (G.M., A.M.W.), and the Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine (L.W.), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Setshaba Research Centre, Soshanguve (M.M., K.S.M.), Mecru Clinical Research Unit, Sefako Mkgatho Health Sciences University, Ga-Rankuwa (M.N., M.P.M.), Nelson Mandela Academic Clinical Research Unit and Department of Internal Medicine and Pharmacology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha (T.D., P.M.), the School of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria (S.T.), the South African Medical Research Council (G.E.G., D.K., N.S., V.N., G. Kistnasami, Z.G.) and the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, University of KwaZulu-Natal (N.N., N. Garrett), Durban, and Qhakaza Mbokodo Research Clinic, Ladysmith (P.K., P.B.M.) - all in South Africa; the Vaccine Research Program, Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda (M. Allen), and GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Rockville (N.K.-T.) - both in Maryland; the Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta (D.B.); GSK Vaccines, Cambridge, MA (S.W.B.); Sanofi Pasteur, Swiftwater, PA (S.P., C.D.G.); GlaxoSmithKline, Siena, Italy (S.P.); GlaxoSmithKline, Wavre (M.K.), and GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart (O.V.D.M.) - both in Belgium; and the Graduate Group in Biostatistics and the Center for Computational Biology, University of California, Berkeley (N.S.H.).

Background: A safe, effective vaccine is essential to eradicating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A canarypox-protein HIV vaccine regimen (ALVAC-HIV plus AIDSVAX B/E) showed modest efficacy in reducing infection in Thailand. An analogous regimen using HIV-1 subtype C virus showed potent humoral and cellular responses in a phase 1-2a trial in South Africa. Read More

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Genomic Analysis of Novel Poxvirus Brazilian Porcupinepox Virus, Brazil, 2019.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Apr;27(4):1177-1180

We obtained the complete sequence of a novel poxvirus, tentatively named Brazilian porcupinepox virus, from a wild porcupine (Coendou prehensilis) in Brazil that had skin and internal lesions characteristic of poxvirus infection. The impact of this lethal poxvirus on the survival of this species and its potential zoonotic importance remain to be investigated. Read More

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Geographic distribution and genetic characterization of poxviruses from human infections in Georgia, 2009-2014.

Arch Virol 2021 Mar 21. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA.

Anthrax is endemic in Georgia, as are multiple zoonotic poxviruses. Poxvirus-associated infections share some clinical manifestations and exposure risks with anthrax, and so it is important to distinguish between the two. With this in mind, an archived collection of anthrax-negative DNA samples was retrospectively screened for poxviruses, and of the 148 human samples tested, 64 were positive. Read More

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Analysis of Different Size Fractions Provides a More Complete Perspective of Viral Diversity in a Freshwater Embayment.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 May 11;87(11). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

Inspired by recent discoveries of the prevalence of large viruses in the environment, we reassessed the longstanding approach of filtering water through small-pore-size filters to separate viruses from cells before metagenomic analysis. We collected samples from three sites in Hamilton Harbour, an embayment of Lake Ontario, and studied 6 data sets derived from <0.45-μm- and >0. Read More

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Treatment of equine sarcoids using recombinant poxviruses expressing feline interleukin-2.

Vet Dermatol 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Clinic for Horses, Free University of Berlin, Oertzenweg 19b, Berlin, 14163, Germany.

Background: Interleukin (IL)-2 stimulates antitumour immunity and is successfully used for the treatment of different neoplasias.

Hypothesis/objectives: Canarypox virus locally expressing feline IL-2 is safe and can be used to treat equine sarcoids.

Animals: Twenty horses of different breeds with a median age of eight years (interquartile range 6. Read More

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Direct Priming of CD8 T Cells Persists in the Face of Cowpox Virus Inhibitors of Antigen Presentation.

J Virol 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Vaccinia virus (VACV) was the vaccine used to eradicate smallpox and is being repurposed as a vaccine vector. CD8 T cells are key anti-viral mediators, but require priming to become effector or memory cells. Priming requires an interaction with dendritic cells that are either infected (direct priming), or that have acquired virus proteins but remain uninfected (cross priming). Read More

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One or two injections of MVA-vectored vaccine shields hACE2 transgenic mice from SARS-CoV-2 upper and lower respiratory tract infection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 03;118(12)

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892

Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a replication-restricted smallpox vaccine, and numerous clinical studies of recombinant MVAs (rMVAs) as vectors for prevention of other infectious diseases, including COVID-19, are in progress. Here, we characterize rMVAs expressing the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Modifications of full-length S individually or in combination included two proline substitutions, mutations of the furin recognition site, and deletion of the endoplasmic retrieval signal. Read More

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[Biological characteristics and permissiveness to viruses of diploid kidney cells strain from the bat Nathusius' pipistrelle ( Keyserling & Blasius, 1839; )].

Vopr Virusol 2021 03 7;66(1):29-39. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

FSBRI Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Russia.

Introduction: Bats are an epidemiologically important natural reservoir of viruses of various taxonomic groups, including causative agents of especially dangerous infections of humans and animals. Considering the relevance of arbovirus infections, it seems advisable to study the spectrum of the sensitivity of cells derived from bats inhabiting and migrating on the territory of the Russian Federation to causative agents of vector-borne diseases of animals.The study aimed to obtain a diploid strain of cells from renal tissue of bats Pipistrellus nathusii and to investigate its biological characteristics, as well as to assess its permissiveness for bluetongue (BTV); Rift Valley fever (RVFV); lumpy skin disease (LSDV); rabbit myxoma (Myxomatosis cuniculi); rabbit, or Shope fibroma (RFV); African horse sickness (AHSV) and African swine fever (ASFV) viruses. Read More

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Experimental infection of indigenous North African goats with goatpox virus.

Acta Vet Scand 2021 Mar 4;63(1). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Research and Development, Multi-Chemical Industry Santé Animale, Lot. 157, Z I, Sud-Ouest (ERAC) B.P.: 278, 28810, Mohammedia, Morocco.

Background: Goatpox is a viral disease caused by infection with goatpox virus (GTPV) of the genus Capripoxvirus, Poxviridae family. Capripoxviruses cause serious disease to livestock and contribute to huge economic losses. Goatpox and sheeppox are endemic to Africa, particularly north of the Equator, the Middle East and many parts of Asia. Read More

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Research Note: Simultaneous detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, fowlpox virus, and reticuloendotheliosis virus in chicken specimens.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 16;100(4):100986. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Avian Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, GimCheon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), fowlpox (FP), and reticuloendotheliosis are important poultry diseases caused by gallid herpesvirus 1 (ILTV), fowlpox virus (FWPV), and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), respectively. Coinfections with ILTV and FWPV occur naturally in chickens, and FP in its more virulent wet form is characterized by diphtheritic lesions and easily confused with ILT. Moreover, the insertion of only partial REV-LTR or a nearly full-length REV into the FWPV genome, located between the ORF 201 and ORF 203, has increased recently in wild-type field FWPV isolates. Read More

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A modified vaccinia Ankara vector-based vaccine protects macaques from SARS-CoV-2 infection, immune pathology, and dysfunction in the lungs.

Immunity 2021 03 4;54(3):542-556.e9. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Emory Vaccine Center, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA; Department of Pathology, Emory School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

A combination of vaccination approaches will likely be necessary to fully control the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Here, we show that modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vectors expressing membrane-anchored pre-fusion stabilized spike (MVA/S) but not secreted S1 induced strong neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in mice. In macaques, the MVA/S vaccination induced strong neutralizing antibodies and CD8 T cell responses, and conferred protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection and virus replication in the lungs as early as day 2 following intranasal and intratracheal challenge. Read More

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Characterisation of an Australian fowlpox virus carrying a near-full-length provirus of reticuloendotheliosis virus.

Arch Virol 2021 May 23;166(5):1485-1488. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Australian Animal Health Laboratory, CSIRO Livestock Industries, Geelong, VIC, 3220, Australia.

Fowlpox virus (FWPV), which is the type member of the genus Avipoxvirus, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae, family Poxviridae, can lead to significant losses to the poultry industry. Although a large number of fowlpox virus genomes have been sequenced and characterised globally, there are no sequences available at the genomic level from Australian isolates. Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of a fowlpox virus vaccine strain (FWPV-S) containing an integrated near-full-length reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) provirus. Read More

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(+)-Camphor and (-)-borneol derivatives as potential anti-orthopoxvirus agents.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2021 Feb 19:e2100038. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

N. N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation.

Although the World Health Organisation had announced that smallpox was eradicated over 40 years ago, the disease and other related pathogenic poxviruses such as monkeypox remain potential bioterrorist weapons and could also re-emerge as natural infections. We have previously reported (+)-camphor and (-)-borneol derivatives with an antiviral activity against the vaccinia virus. This virus is similar to the variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, but can be studied at BSL-2 facilities. Read More

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February 2021

Vibrational Spectroscopic Detection of a Single Virus by Mid-Infrared Photothermal Microscopy.

Anal Chem 2021 03 17;93(8):4100-4107. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, United States.

We report a confocal interferometric mid-infrared photothermal (MIP) microscope for ultra-sensitive and spatially resolved chemical imaging of individual viruses. The interferometric scattering principle is applied to detect the very weak photothermal signal induced by infrared absorption of chemical bonds. Spectroscopic MIP detection of single vesicular stomatitis viruses (VSVs) and poxviruses is demonstrated. Read More

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