41,215 results match your criteria Posttraumatic Stress Disorder


The impact of BDNF Val66Met on cognitive skills in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Neurosci Lett 2020 Jul 3:135235. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address:

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma-induced disorder characterized with impaired cognitive function. BDNF modulates cognition and is involved in neuroprotection and neurocognitive processing. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was found to influence cognitive functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135235DOI Listing

Psychological interventions to foster resilience in healthcare professionals.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jul 5;7:CD012527. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research (LIR), Mainz, Germany.

Background: Resilience can be defined as the maintenance or quick recovery of mental health during or after periods of stressor exposure, which may result from a potentially traumatising event, challenging life circumstances, a critical life transition phase, or physical illness. Healthcare professionals, such as nurses, physicians, psychologists and social workers, are exposed to various work-related stressors (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012527.pub2DOI Listing

"Brothers in Arms": Secondary Traumatization and Sibling Relationship Quality Among Siblings of Combat Veterans.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Jul 4:886260520936364. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Ariel University, Israel.

The aversive impact of exposure to combat and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on family members has been examined mainly among veterans' partners and offspring. No study has examined secondary traumatization in veterans' siblings and the role of relationship quality in these links. The present study aimed to assess secondary PTSD symptoms (PTSS) and general distress among siblings of combat veterans, and the role of sibling relationship quality in the association between veterans' exposure to combat and PTSS and sibling secondary PTSS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520936364DOI Listing

Traumatic Events and Substance Use Disorders in Adolescents.

Front Psychiatry 2020 18;11:559. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Objectives: Adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD) frequently report traumatic events (TEs) and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study aimed to assess whether lifetime prevalence rates of TEs and PTSD are related to SUD severity in adolescent psychiatric patients.

Methods: We analyzed = 114 self-reports of treatment-seeking German adolescents aged 12 to 18 years, who visited a specialized SUD outpatient unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314975PMC

Cognitive functioning in posttraumatic stress disorder before and after cognitive-behavioral therapy.

J Anxiety Disord 2020 Jun 17;74:102265. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Faculty of Psychology, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Department of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Although substantial evidence suggests altered executive functioning and autobiographical memory in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the clinical significance of these findings remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on different aspects of cognitive functioning (working memory, interference susceptibility, conflict adaptation, autobiographical memory) in PTSD patients in a pre-post control group design with a nested cross-sectional element. Cross-sectional analyses at baseline were conducted on 58 PTSD patients, 39 traumatized (TC), and 45 non-traumatized controls (NTC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102265DOI Listing

Applying cognitive behavioral therapy and thought field therapy in Kurdistan region of Iraq: A retrospective case series study of mental-health interventions in a setting of political instability and armed conflicts.

Explore (NY) 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Research Institute, Modum Bad Psychiatric Center, Vikersund, Norway; Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: Mass violence, atrocities, and political upheavals have affected the prosperity and psychological health of the people of Iraq. Those living in the Garmian region of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq are among those most affected. While there is an urgent need for mental health interventions in this region, mental health resources are scarce, and only a small percentage of the population in need receive mental health care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2020.06.003DOI Listing

Altered large-scale functional brain organization in posttraumatic stress disorder: A comprehensive review of univariate and network-level neurocircuitry models of PTSD.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 Jun 23;27:102319. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Neuroscience and Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States; Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, United States.

Classical neural circuitry models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are largely derived from univariate activation studies and implicate the fronto-limbic circuit as a main neural correlate of PTSD symptoms. Though well-supported by human neuroimaging literature, these models are limited in their ability to explain the widely distributed neural and behavioral deficits in PTSD. Emerging interest in the application of large-scale network methods to functional neuroimaging provides a new opportunity to overcome such limitations and conceptualize the neural circuitry of PTSD in the context of network patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102319DOI Listing

Adolescent psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown.

Psychiatry Res 2020 Jun 29;291:113264. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Greater Paris University Hospital, University Hospital Cochin, Maison des Adolescents - Youth Department, F-75014 Paris, France; University of Paris, PCPP, F-92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France; University Paris-Saclay, UVSQ, Inserm, CESP, Team DevPsy, F-94807, Villejuif, France.

The aim of this paper was to review the literature on adolescent psychiatric disorders related to the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Stressful life events, extended home confinement, brutal grief, intrafamilial violence, overuse of the Internet and social media are factors that could influence the mental health of adolescents during this period. The COVID-19 pandemic could result in increased psychiatric disorders such as Post-Traumatic Stress, Depressive, and Anxiety Disorders, as well as grief-related symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323662PMC

Resting High Frequency Heart Rate Variability and PTSD Symptomatology in Veterans: Effects of Respiration, Role in Elevated Heart Rate, and Extension to Spouses.

Biol Psychol 2020 Jul 1:107928. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

University of Utah, United States.

Heart rate variability (HRV) associated with parasympathetic activity (i.e., cardiac vagal tone) is reduced in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but possible confounding effects of respiration have not been studied sufficiently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2020.107928DOI Listing

The Psychosocial Impact of COVID-19 on health care workers.

Int Braz J Urol 2020 Jun 17;46. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Private Consulting, Madrid, Spain.

At the end of 2019, a disease was identified, COVID-19, caused by a new type of easy and fast spreading virus, which led to the beginning of a worldwide pandemic. One of the most exposed groups to the virus and its psychosocial consequences is the healthcare workers, due to their implication in caring for affected people. Health workers are exposed to a fast and unpredictable situation that requires more human resources and materials than usual, however, the lack of means on account to this situation entails an increased probability of suffering different consequences, including the burnout syndrome, to which, generally, this professionals are already vulnerable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2020.S124DOI Listing

Korean Red Ginseng prevents posttraumatic stress disorder-triggered depression-like behaviors in rats via activation of the serotonergic system.

J Ginseng Res 2020 Jul 1;44(4):644-654. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Molecular medicine and TIDRC, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental disorder induced by traumatic stress and often accompanied by depression and/or anxiety, may involve an imbalance in the neurotransmitters associated with the fear response. Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has long been used as a traditional medicine and is known to be involved in a variety of pharmacological activities. We used the open field test and forced swimming test to examine the effects of KRG on the depression-like response of rats after exposure to single prolonged stress (SPS), leading to activation of the serotonergic system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2019.09.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322749PMC

: Competency and practice considerations in language, cultural, and social issues when delivering group CPT to Hispanic immigrants.

Int J Group Psychother 2020 13;70(2):212-243. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Medical University of South Carolina - Charleston.

High rates of under-assessed trauma and psychiatric disorders, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been reported among Hispanic immigrants, especially as related to immigration trauma. Multiple studies have shown group cognitive processing therapy (CPT) to be an effective evidence-based practice (EBP) for treatment of PTSD across a number of clinical populations. To date, however, no studies have examined important competency and practice issues in linguistic, cultural, and ethical areas that group CPT providers should consider when delivering group CPT to Hispanic immigrants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207284.2019.1677469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332161PMC
November 2019

The emergence of ketamine as a novel treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder.

Adv Pharmacol 2020 19;89:261-286. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States; Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States; Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.

A serious lack of effective pharmacotherapeutic interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) raises the urgent need for the development of novel treatments. Ketamine-a noncompetitive glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist in use for decades as an anesthetic and analgesic agent-has more recently been demonstrated to have rapid-onset antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). In the present review of ketamine as an emerging novel pharmacotherapeutic intervention for chronic PTSD, we discuss findings from the first proof-of-concept, randomized clinical trial (RCT) of single-dose intravenous ketamine in patients with chronic PTSD, as well as open-label studies and current practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2020.05.004DOI Listing

Neurobiological biomarkers of response to ketamine.

Adv Pharmacol 2020 18;89:195-235. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Section on the Neurobiology and Treatment of Mood Disorders, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

As a field, psychiatry is undergoing an exciting paradigm shift toward early identification and intervention that will likely minimize both the burden associated with severe mental illnesses as well as their duration. In this context, the rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine has revolutionized our understanding of antidepressant response and greatly expanded the pharmacologic armamentarium for treatment-resistant depression. Efforts to characterize biomarkers of ketamine response support a growing emphasis on early identification, which would allow clinicians to identify biologically enriched subgroups with treatment-resistant depression who are more likely to benefit from ketamine therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.apha.2020.05.003DOI Listing

Dealing with Community Mental Health post the Fukushima disaster: lessons learnt for the COVID-19 pandemic.

QJM 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikarigaoka, Fukushima City, Fukushima, Japan.

Under the COVID-19 pandemic, mitigation of psychological distress is required. At present, the demand for remote intervention for the numerous affected people is increasing, and telephonic support can be useful. Since the Fukushima nuclear disaster in 2011, we have been developing a large-scale telephonic support system and implementing brief interventions for the Fukushima people identified at risk of psychological problems such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa213DOI Listing

Proactive tobacco treatment for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

Psychol Trauma 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

VA HSR&D Center for Care Delivery and Outcomes Research.

Objective: Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) smoke at higher rates compared to the general population and experience significant barriers to initiating cessation treatment. Proactive outreach addresses these barriers by directly engaging with smokers and facilitating access to treatment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate a proactive outreach intervention for increasing rates of treatment utilization and abstinence among veteran smokers with and without PTSD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000613DOI Listing

Examining posttraumatic stress disorder as a key postinjury risk factor in OIF/OEF veterans with blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury.

Neuropsychology 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System.

Objective: To explore the neuropsychological sequelae of blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), several neuropsychological tests and self-reported measures of cognitive and emotional functioning were administered to 138 Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)/Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) veterans. We hypothesized that veterans affected by mTBI and PTSD would manifest differences in neuropsychological testing and self-report measures compared to a group of healthy veteran controls and to veterans with only PTSD.

Method: Participants included 3 groups of veterans: (a) healthy controls ( = 43); (b) PTSD only ( = 48); and (c) comorbid blast-induced mTBI and PTSD ( = 47). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000678DOI Listing

Relationship Between Illness Representations, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Treatment Outcomes in Mental Disorders: A Mini Review.

Front Psychol 2020 12;11:1167. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Aix Marseille Univ, LPS, Aix-en-Provence, France.

Understanding and improving the psychosocial adjustments (e.g., quality of life, depression) and treatment outcomes (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309516PMC

The Use of Virtual Reality in Psychiatry: A Review.

Authors:
Suji Kim Eunjoo Kim

Soa Chongsonyon Chongsin Uihak 2020 Jan;31(1):26-32

Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

With the advancement in modern information technology, virtual reality (VR) is being increasingly used for the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of mental disorders. Recently, a VR-based cognitive behavioral therapy for social phobia has been recognized as a new medical technology in South Korea. This might lead to an increase in the use of VR in the field of psychiatry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5765/jkacap.190037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324842PMC
January 2020

Trauma and violent offending among adolescents: a birth cohort study.

J Epidemiol Community Health 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Population Research Unit, Faculty of Social Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Earlier studies, based on data collected among juvenile court clients or prisoners, suggest that there is an association between trauma and adolescent-onset offending. However, there is a lack of large-scale data on juvenile violence and clinical mental health observations with unselected participants, and a risk-factor-oriented research combining multiple variables affecting violent behaviour.

Methods: We analyse the effect of trauma on violent offending using longitudinal register-linkage population data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech-2020-214188DOI Listing

Anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees resettling in high-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

BJPsych Open 2020 Jul 2;6(4):e68. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Clinical Psychology Department, Leiden University; and Leiden Institute of Brain and Cognition, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands.

Background: The number of refugees is at its highest since the Second World War and on the rise. Many refugees suffer from anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but exact and up-to-date prevalence estimates are not available.

Aims: To report the pooled prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders and PTSD in general refugee populations residing in high-income countries and to detect sources of heterogeneity therein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.54DOI Listing

Psychotropic medication use in former ICU patients with mental health problems: A prospective observational follow-up study.

J Crit Care 2020 Jun 9;59:112-117. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine and UMC Utrecht Brain Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To describe the extent to which patients with mental health problems after admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) initiate and use psychotropic medication.

Methods: All adult patients who stayed in the ICU of the University Medical Center Utrecht for 48 h or more between 2013 and 2017, alive after 1 year and not admitted to the ICU with brain injury, were eligible. Questionnaires were used to identify mental health problems, depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotropic medication use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2020.06.002DOI Listing

Does Nitrous Oxide Help Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder? A Case Series.

J Clin Psychiatry 2020 Jun 30;81(4). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 401 Quarry Rd, Stanford, CA 94305.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.20l13393DOI Listing

Questions on a Randomized Clinical Trial of Stellate Ganglion Block for Patients With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Authors:
Murray B Stein

JAMA Psychiatry 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1815DOI Listing

Psychological therapies for women who experience intimate partner violence.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jul 1;7:CD013017. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of General Practice, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is prevalent and strongly associated with mental health problems. Women experiencing IPV attend health services frequently for mental health problems. The World Health Organization recommends that women who have experienced IPV and have a mental health diagnosis should receive evidence-based mental health treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013017.pub2DOI Listing

Implementing music therapy through telehealth: considerations for military populations.

Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2020 Jul 1:1-10. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Malcom Randall VA Hospital, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Telehealth provides psychotherapeutic interventions and psychoeducation for remote populations with limited access to in-person behavioural health and/or rehabilitation treatment. The United States Department of Défense and the Veterans Health Administration use telehealth to deliver primary care, medication management, and services including physical, occupational, and speech-language therapies for service members, veterans, and eligible dependents. While creative arts therapies are included in telehealth programming, the existing evidence base focuses on art therapy and dance/movement therapy, with a paucity of information on music therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17483107.2020.1775312DOI Listing

Countertransference, Defense Mechanisms, and Vicarious Trauma in Work with Sexual Offenders.

J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Dr. Bradford is Emeritus Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada and Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Dr. Levin is a forensic psychiatrist in private practice in London Ontario, Canada.

In their article about countertransference and vicarious trauma in work with sexual offenders, Barros and colleagues highlight the importance of awareness of risk for vicarious trauma in forensic psychiatrists and psychologists. This commentary supports the need for more research related to the risk of vicarious trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in forensic experts. Also, forensic mental health professionals need to be aware of the level of risk to which they are exposed in their work evaluating and treating sexual offenders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.29158/JAAPL.200025-20DOI Listing

Examining unique and prospective relationships among self-injurious thoughts and behaviors and posttraumatic stress disorder: a network analysis in two trauma-exposed samples.

Psychol Med 2020 Jul 1:1-11. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Psychology, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA.

Background: As self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) remain a pressing public health concern, research continues to focus on risk factors, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Network analysis provides a novel approach to examining the PTSD-SITB relationship. This study utilized the network approach to elucidate how individual PTSD symptoms may drive and maintain SITB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720002263DOI Listing

A systematic review of validated screening tools for anxiety disorders and PTSD in low to middle income countries.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 Jun 30;20(1):338. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 101 Manning Dr, Chapel Hill, NC, 27514, USA.

Background: Anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) contribute significantly to disability adjusted life years in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). Screening has been proposed to improve identification and management of these disorders, but little is known about the validity of screening tools for these disorders. We conducted a systematic review of validated screening tools for detecting anxiety and PTSD in LMICs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02753-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325104PMC

Personality Traits and Traumatic Outcome Symptoms in Registered Nurses in the Aftermath of a Patient Safety Incident.

J Patient Saf 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

From the Oregon Health & Science University, School of Nursing, Portland, Oregon.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality traits (perfectionism and neuroticism) and the traumatic outcomes of reexperiencing, avoidance, and alcohol abuse severity of registered nurses (RNs) who have been involved with a patient safety incident (PSI). We hypothesized that higher scores for perfectionism and neuroticism would predict higher reexperiencing and avoidance symptoms in RNs in the aftermath of a PSI. Also, RNs with higher perfectionism and neuroticism sum scores would be more likely to abuse alcohol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PTS.0000000000000740DOI Listing

Examining the DSM-5 latent structures of posttraumatic stress disorder in a national sample of student veterans.

J Anxiety Disord 2020 Jun 18;74:102262. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

National Center for Veteran Studies, 260 South Campus Dr. Suite 3525, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, United States; Department of Psychology at the University of Utah, 380 South 1530 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, United States.

To date, no studies have examined the latent structures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within a sample of student veterans. To examine these constructs in a student veteran sample (n = 297), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted on six different models of PTSD, including a one-factor model, based on the 20 symptoms found in the DSM-5; PTSD was assessed using the PCL-5. Global fit statistics suggest that fit across all models, including the 1-factor model, were good [RMSEAs(0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102262DOI Listing

Cannabinoid therapies in the management of sleep disorders: A systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies.

Sleep Med Rev 2020 May 16;53:101339. Epub 2020 May 16.

The University of Sydney, Faculty of Science, School of Psychology, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Centre for Sleep and Chronobiology, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia; The University of Sydney, Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

Cannabinoids, including the two main phytocannabinoids Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), are being increasingly utilised as pharmacological interventions for sleep disorders. THC and CBD are known to interact with the endocannabinoid and other neurochemical systems to influence anxiety, mood, autonomic function, and circadian sleep/wake cycle. However, their therapeutic efficacy and safety as treatments for sleep disorders are unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2020.101339DOI Listing

Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy for depression and anxiety among Arabic-speaking individuals in Sweden: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Cogn Behav Ther 2020 Jun 30:1-20. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University , Linköping, Sweden.

Arabic-speaking immigrants and refugees constitute one of the largest immigrant groups in Sweden. Previous research on Arabic-speaking immigrants indicates elevated levels of psychological disorders, including depression and anxiety. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the efficacy of an internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment (ICBT) in an Arabic-speaking immigrant population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16506073.2020.1771414DOI Listing

Impact of Concurrent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder on Outcomes of Antipsychotic Augmentation for Major Depressive Disorder With a Prior Failed Treatment: VAST-D Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Clin Psychiatry 2020 Jun 23;81(4). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

The names of all participants in the VAST-D Study are listed in Supplementary Appendix 1.

Objective: To determine whether concurrent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should affect whether to augment or switch medications when major depressive disorder (MDD) has not responded to a prior antidepressant trial.

Methods: Patients at 35 Veterans Health Administration medical centers from December 2012 to May 2015 with nonpsychotic MDD (N = 1,522) and a suboptimal response to adequate antidepressant treatment were randomly assigned to 3 "next step" treatments: switching to bupropion, augmenting the current antidepressant with bupropion, and augmenting with the antipsychotic aripiprazole. Blinded ratings with the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician Rated (QIDS-C₁₆) determined remission and response by 12 weeks and relapse after remission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.19m13038DOI Listing

Relationship between disability and pain to post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety in patient with postoperative brachial plexus injury (BPI).

Br J Neurosurg 2020 Jun 30:1-5. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Departement of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Orthopedic trauma patients have the risk to experience mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and other mental disorders. However, studies that analyze the relationship between mental disorders in orthopedic trauma patients, especially post-operative brachial plexus injury (BPI), are still difficult to find. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between disability and pain to post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety in patient with postoperative BPI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2020.1784846DOI Listing

Retrospective Analysis of Studies Examining Sensory Processing Preferences in People With a Psychiatric Condition.

Am J Occup Ther 2020 Jul/Aug;74(4):7404205130p1-7404205130p11

Megan Steuter, MA, OTR/L, is Occupational Therapist, HonorHealth, Scottsdale, AZ.

Importance: When occupational therapists understand sensory processing preferences, they can create environments that promote participation.

Objective: To determine the sensory processing preferences of people with a psychiatric condition as measured by the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (A/ASP).

Data Sources: PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, and OTseeker were searched from 2002 through January 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.038463DOI Listing

Exploring Theta Burst Stimulation for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Australian Veterans-A Pilot Study.

Mil Med 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Epworth Centre for Innovation in Mental Health (ECIMH), 888 Toorak Rd, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia.

Introduction: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe and debilitating condition affecting a significant proportion of the veteran community. A substantial number of veterans with PTSD fail to benefit from trauma-focused psychological therapies or pharmacotherapy or are left with residual symptoms, and therefore, investigation of new and innovative treatment is required. Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS) is a novel form of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, which has been shown to improve depression symptoms and associated cognitive deficits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/milmed/usaa149DOI Listing

Effect of intranasal administration of neuropeptide Y and single prolonged stress on food consumption and body weight in male rats.

Neuropeptides 2020 Jun 19:102060. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA. Electronic address:

Emerging evidence indicates that intranasal delivery of neuropeptide Y (NPY) to the brain has therapeutic potential for management of stress-triggered neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we aimed to determine how intranasal administration of NPY, either before or immediately after, traumatic stress in single prolonged stress (SPS) rodent model of Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) impacts food consumption and body weight. SPS stressors suppressed food consumption for at least two days in the vehicle-treated animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.npep.2020.102060DOI Listing

Genetic and Neuroimaging Approaches to Understanding Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 24;21(12). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Functional and Molecular Imaging Department, Research Branch, Sidra Medicine, Doha 26999, Qatar.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly disabling condition, increasingly recognized as both a disorder of mental health and social burden, but also as an anxiety disorder characterized by fear, stress, and negative alterations in mood. PTSD is associated with structural, metabolic, and molecular changes in several brain regions and the neural circuitry. Brain areas implicated in the traumatic stress response include the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex, which play an essential role in memory function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124503DOI Listing

Circadian disruption impairs fear extinction and memory of conditioned safety in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2020 Jun 26;393:112788. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, The University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia; The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Animal models of fear conditioning and fear inhibition are frequently employed in the study of associative learning and commonly derive important human implications. Animal and human studies have demonstrated fear processing abilities are moderated by circadian rhythms, however, the influence of circadian disruption on fear inhibition is not well understood. Here, we examined the effects of circadian disruption on fear inhibition processes (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112788DOI Listing

Incidence Rates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Over a 17-Year Period in Active Duty Military Service Members.

J Trauma Stress 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects approximately 8% of the general population. The prevalence of PTSD is twice as high in active duty service members and military veterans. Few studies have investigated the incidence rates of PTSD in active duty military personnel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.22558DOI Listing

The Effects of Prolonged Exposure on Substance Use in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders.

J Trauma Stress 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Despite research demonstrating the benefit of exposure-based therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with co-occurring substance use disorders, there remains a strong clinical expectation that this treatment will exacerbate substance use or other psychiatric symptoms. The present study evaluated within-session and session-to-session changes in (a) craving and use of substances for a range of drug classes and (b) symptoms of PTSD and other psychiatric distress in a sample of 44 SUD patients who received prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for PTSD. Visual analog scales showed no within-session increases in craving, except for cocaine, within Session 8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.22546DOI Listing

The Potential Unique Impacts of Hope and Resilience on Mental Health and Well-Being in the Wake of Hurricane Harvey.

J Trauma Stress 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

Natural disasters can lead to mental health problems, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Higher levels of loss and/or disruption and prior trauma exposure constitute risk factors for mental illness, whereas protective factors, including hope and resilience, support positive functioning. The present cross-sectional study used structural equation modeling to examine the relative influence of resilience and hope on mental health and well-being 1-3 months after Hurricane Harvey made landfall in August 2017, among a sample of 829 adults in the Greater Houston, Texas area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.22555DOI Listing

A Systematic Review of Intensive Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

J Trauma Stress 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Various clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have consistently identified two frontline evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs)-prolonged exposure (PE) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT)-as well as other empirically supported treatments (EST), such as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive therapy for PTSD (CT for PTSD). However, researchers and clinicians continue to be concerned with rates of symptom improvement and patient dropout within these treatments. Recent attempts to address these issues have resulted in intensive, or "massed," treatments for PTSD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.22556DOI Listing