32,975 results match your criteria Posttraumatic Stress Disorder


Elevated resting blood pressure augments autonomic imbalance in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2018 Dec 10;315(6):R1272-R1280. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine , Atlanta, Georgia.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, blunted parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity, and impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), which contribute to accelerated cardiovascular disease. Patients with PTSD also have chronic stress-related elevations in resting blood pressure (BP), often in the prehypertensive range; yet, it is unclear if elevated resting blood pressure (ERBP) augments these autonomic derangements in PTSD. We hypothesized that compared with normotensive PTSD (N-PTSD), those with ERBP (E-PTSD) have further increased SNS, decreased PNS activity, and impaired BRS at rest and exaggerated SNS reactivity, PNS withdrawal, and pressor responses during stress. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Genes known to escape X chromosome inactivation predict co-morbid chronic musculoskeletal pain and posttraumatic stress symptom development in women following trauma exposure.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute for Trauma Recovery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Co-morbid chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMSP) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are frequent sequelae of motor vehicle collision, are associated with greater disability than either outcome alone, and are more prevalent in women than men. In the current study we assessed for evidence that gene transcripts originating from the X chromosome contribute to sex differences in vulnerability to CMSP and PTSS after motor vehicle collision. Nested samples were drawn from a longitudinal study of African American individuals, and CMSP (0-10 numeric rating scale) and PTSS (impact of events scale, revised) outcomes were assessed 6 months following motor vehicle collision. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

The Nomological Network of a Behavioral Distress Tolerance Task in Veterans.

J Trauma Stress 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

There is a relative lack of research on distress tolerance (DT) in veteran samples. The aims of the study were to (a) evaluate convergent and discriminant validity of a behavioral measure of DT compared to theoretically similar (i.e. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Perspectives on a Stage-Based Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Dialectical Behavior Therapy Consumers in Public Mental Health Settings.

Community Ment Health J 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Box 351635, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Difficulties with consumer engagement are a common barrier to implementing trauma-focused evidence-based psychotherapies (TF-EBPs). Potential methods of increasing engagement include utilizing a stage-based treatment approach, and involving consumers in implementation efforts. This mixed method study explored consumers' perspectives on a stage-based TF-EBP, Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) with the DBT Prolonged Exposure (DBT PE) protocol. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The Elevated Plus Maze Test for Measuring Anxiety-Like Behavior in Rodents.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1916:69-74

Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroscience, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia.

The elevated plus maze test is used to measure anxiety-like behavior in rodents. It can be used to gain insight into conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other conditions marked by anxious behavior. It can also be used as a component in screening of novel compounds for anxiolytic properties. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Diagnostic Utility of Serum Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Polytraumatized Patients Suffering Acute Kidney Injury: A Prospective Study.

Biomed Res Int 2018 6;2018:2687584. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) considerably increases the mortality rate in polytrauma victims. Undoubtedly, early identification of patients at risk is crucial for timely implementation of preventive strategies in order to improve their prognosis. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (sNGAL) may serve as a diagnostic biomarker of early AKI in polytrauma victims, especially considering patients needing renal replacement theory (RRT). Read More

View Article
November 2018

Clinical Feasibility of a Just-in-Time Adaptive Intervention App (iREST) as a Behavioral Sleep Treatment in a Military Population: Feasibility Comparative Effectiveness Study.

J Med Internet Res 2018 Dec 7;20(12):e10124. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Sleep and Behavioral Neuroscience Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Background: Although evidence-based cognitive behavioral sleep treatments have been shown to be safe and effective, these treatments have limited scalability. Mobile health tools can address this scalability challenge. iREST, or interactive Resilience Enhancing Sleep Tactics, is a mobile health platform designed to provide a just-in-time adaptive intervention (JITAI) in the assessment, monitoring, and delivery of evidence-based sleep recommendations in a scalable and personalized manner. Read More

View Article
December 2018

EEG recording during an emotional face-matching task in children of mothers with interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Nov 29;283:34-44. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mines 9, 1202 Geneva, Switzerland; Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA.

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maternal interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic disorder (IPV-PTSD) on child appraisal of emotion, as measured by high-density electroencephalography (HD-EEG) during an Emotional Face-matching Task (EFMT). We recorded HD-EEG in 47 children of mothers with and without IPV-PTSD during an Emotional Face-matching Task (EFMT). Mothers and children each performed the EFMT. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Relationships between cerebrospinal fluid GABAergic neurosteroid levels and symptom severity in men with PTSD.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Nov 22;102:95-104. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

The Psychiatric Institute, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60612, United States.

Allopregnanolone and pregnanolone (together termed allo + pregnan) are neurosteroid metabolites of progesterone that equipotently facilitate the action of gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) at GABA receptors. The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) allosterically antagonizes GABA receptors and facilitates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function. In prior research, premenopausal women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) displayed low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of allo + pregnan [undifferentiated by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method used] that correlated strongly and negatively with PTSD reexperiencing and negative mood symptoms. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Concurrent treatment of substance use disorders and PTSD using prolonged exposure: A randomized clinical trial in military veterans.

Addict Behav 2018 Nov 27;90:369-377. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA.

Objective: A substantial amount of individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) also meet criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prolonged Exposure (PE) is an effective, evidence-based treatment for PTSD, but there is limited data on its use among individuals with current alcohol or drug use disorders. This study evaluated the efficacy of an integrated treatment that incorporates PE (Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorders Using Prolonged Exposure or COPE) among veterans. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Posttraumatic Bifid Ulna in a Pediatric Galeazzi-Equivalent Forearm Fracture.

J Hand Surg Am 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Orthopaedics, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, MI. Electronic address:

We report an unusual clinical presentation and surgical treatment of a Galeazzi-equivalent fracture in which initial closed treatment failed. This case was unique and challenging secondary to the formation of a neoulna volar to an unreduced periosteal sleeve injury, resulting in a bifid radiographic appearance. Read More

View Article
December 2018

AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Peripheral Neuropathic Pain: Focal and Segmental Disorders.

J Pain 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Anesthesiology and Washington University Pain Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO.

Peripheral neuropathic pain is among the most prevalent types of neuropathic pain. No comprehensive peripheral neuropathic pain classification system that incorporates contemporary clinical, diagnostic, biological, and psychological information exists. To address this need, this article covers the taxonomy for 4 focal or segmental peripheral neuropathic pain disorders, as part of the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership and the American Pain Society (APS) collaborative to develop a standardized, evidence-based taxonomy initiative: the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy (AAPT). Read More

View Article
December 2018

The moderating role of depression on the association between posttraumatic growth and health-related quality of life in low-grade glioma patients in China.

Psychol Health Med 2018 Dec 11:1-11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

c School of Psychology , Xinxiang Medical University , Xinxiang , China.

The present study attempted to explore the moderating effect of depression on the association between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and quality of life (QoL) in low-grade glioma patients in China. A prospective study design was conducted. Patients completed the survey approximately 1 month and 1 year after surgery. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A challenge for psychocardiology: Addressing the causes and consequences of patients' perceptions of enduring somatic threat.

Am Psychol 2018 Dec;73(9):1160-1171

Department of Medicine, Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Columbia University Medical Center.

The enduring somatic threat (EST) model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to life-threatening medical events suggests that PTSD-like symptoms represent patients' sensitization to cues of ongoing threat in the body. In this article, we review research on the prevalence and consequences of such reactions in cardiovascular disease patients, discuss early tests of the EST model, and then report a new test of the EST model in 143 patients enrolled during their first acute coronary syndrome (ACS; i.e. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Donald Edmondson.

Authors:

Am Psychol 2018 Dec;73(9):1157-1159

The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers and have held a doctoral degree for no more than 9 years. One of the 2018 award winners is Donald Edmondson, "for his theoretical work describing how life-threatening medical events sensitize patients to threats from the body, and for providing compelling evidence that psychological responses to such events may hasten mortality." He has has elegantly synthesized cognitive models of posttraumatic stress with existential psychological theory to develop his enduring somatic threat model, which yields counterintuitive insights. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Experiential avoidance as a mediator of the association between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and social support: A longitudinal analysis.

Psychol Trauma 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at San Antonio.

Objective: Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often experience difficulties with social reintegration after deployment. Experiential avoidance, the tendency to avoid unwanted thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations (including in response to interactions with others) may be a key factor that explains the association between PTSD symptoms and postdeployment social support. The present study evaluated whether experiential avoidance mediates the association between PTSD symptoms and perceptions of postdeployment social support. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Posttraumatic Headache.

Authors:
Brigid Dwyer

Semin Neurol 2018 Dec 6;38(6):619-626. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Posttraumatic headaches are among the most challenging complaints after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). They are a debilitating problem experienced by patients after TBI of all severities. Up to 90% of mild TBI patients experience headache, particularly if female and with a premorbid history of primary headache. Read More

View Article
December 2018
3 Reads

Sex differences in intrusive memories following trauma.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208575. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Background: A key mechanism thought to underlie Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is enhanced emotional memory consolidation. Recent evidence in healthy controls revealed that women have greater negative memory consolidation following stress relative to men. This study examined emotional memory consolidation in women and men with PTSD, and in trauma-exposed and non-trauma controls to test the hypothesis that emotionally negative memory consolidation would be greater in women with PTSD. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Does perceived ostracism contribute to mental health concerns among veterans who have been deployed?

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208438. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois, United States of America.

Posttraumatic stress-negative psychological experiences as a result of traumatic stressors-can hinder military veterans' reintegration into society and cause various mental health problems. Veterans need quality social relationships to facilitate reintegration and to cope with posttraumatic stress and related mental health problems; discrimination or other forms of interpersonal rejection can exacerbate these veterans' problems. Ostracism (i. Read More

View Article
December 2018

APOE-ε4 Genotype is Associated with Elevated Post-Concussion Symptoms in Military Veterans with a Remote History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

VA San Diego Healthcare System (VASDHS); San Diego, CA, USA.

Objective: We evaluated the influence of the APOE-ε4 allele on post-concussive symptoms in military Veterans with a remote history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).

Method: Participants (N = 77) were administered neuropsychiatric measures, on average, approximately 5 years following their most recent mTBI and provided a DNA sample for APOE genotyping. Veterans were divided into two groups based on their ε4 status (n = 14 ε4+, n = 63 ε4-). Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Cancer Risk: A Nested Case-Control Study.

J Trauma Stress 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Data regarding cancer risk for individuals who were exposed to traumatic and stressful life events are conflicting. We sought to evaluate the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the risk of the four most common solid tumors: lung, breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. We conducted four nested case-control studies using a large UK population-based database. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Predicting posttraumatic stress and depression symptoms among adolescents in the extended postpartum period.

Heliyon 2018 Nov 27;4(11):e00965. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Office of Information Technology, University of Texas at Arlington, P.O.B 19407, Arlington, Texas, 76019, USA.

Background: Adolescent childbirth continues as a public health concern, and investigation of postpartum posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depression is important to inform future research and practice. Longitudinal studies exploring PTSS alone or in combination with depression are non-existent for postpartum adolescent populations. This study aimed to identify stress/PTSS and depression symptoms at 72 hours and three, six, and nine months postpartum, and determine if symptoms at each time point predicted later symptoms. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Local Tensile Stress in the Development of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis.

Biomed Res Int 2018 4;2018:4210353. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Orthopedic Institute, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, China.

The pathogenesis of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) remains unrevealed. We speculate that cartilage crack caused by joint trauma will induce local abnormal tensile stress, leading to change in extracellular matrix (ECM) expression of chondrocytes, cartilage degeneration, and initiation of osteoarthritis. Finite element model was used to examine whether the local tensile stress could be produced around the crack. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Network Analysis in U.S. Military Veterans: Examining the Impact of Combat Exposure.

Front Psychiatry 2018 20;9:608. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Duke-UNC Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States.

Recent work inspired by graph theory has begun to conceptualize mental disorders as networks of interacting symptoms. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom networks have been investigated in clinical samples meeting full diagnostic criteria, including military veterans, natural disaster survivors, civilian survivors of war, and child sexual abuse survivors. Despite reliable associations across reported networks, more work is needed to compare central symptoms across trauma types. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Compassion Satisfaction, Compassion Fatigue, and Burnout in Iranian Psychiatric Nurses.

J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2018 Dec 3:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Research is limited regarding post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and professional quality of life (ProQOL) in Iranian nurses, especially nurses working in psychiatric units. The current study was conducted to determine the relationship between PTSD and ProQOL among psychiatric nurses in Kerman, Iran. This cross-sectional correlational study comprised 160 nurses working in three clinical settings supervised by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Reducing intrusive memories of trauma using a visuospatial interference intervention with inpatients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

J Consult Clin Psychol 2018 Dec;86(12):1076-1090

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy.

Objective: The core clinical feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is recurrent intrusive memories of trauma. This study aimed to test a novel and simple intervention, inspired by the concepts of concurrent task interference and memory reconsolidation, to reduce the occurrence of intrusive memories among inpatients with complex PTSD.

Method: In this open-label single case series 20 patients with longstanding complex PTSD in inpatient treatment monitored the occurrence of intrusive trauma memories (intrusions) over the course of their admission (5 to 10 weeks). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Public exposure and attitudes about homelessness.

J Community Psychol 2019 Jan 19;47(1):76-92. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Yale University School of Medicine.

In this study, we conducted a survey among a large sample of U.S. adults to assess attitudes and beliefs about the causes of homelessness, policies to address homelessness, and programs for homeless individuals. Read More

View Article
January 2019

Biased emotional attention in patients with dental phobia.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Institute for Biomagnetism and Biosignal Analysis, University of Muenster, D-48149, Muenster, Germany.

Biased motivated attention towards phobia-relevant pictures is a typical finding in specific phobia. In the visual system, the allocation of motivated attention is indexed by two event-related potential components - the Early Posterior Negativity and the Late Positive Potential. Enhanced Early Posterior Negativity and Late Positive Potential amplitudes are reliably observed in specific phobia such as, for instance, snake, spider or blood-injection-injury phobia and to some extent also in dental phobia. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Behavioral Therapies and Mind-Body Interventions for Posttraumatic Headache and Post-Concussive Symptoms: A Systematic Review.

Headache 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

NYU College of Nursing, New York, NY, USA.

Background: There are no clear guidelines on how to treat posttraumatic headache (PTH) or post-concussive symptoms (PCS). However, behavioral interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy, biofeedback, and relaxation are Level-A evidence-based treatments for headache prevention. To understand how to develop and study further mind-body interventions (MBIs) and behavioral therapies for PTH and PCS, we developed the following question using the PICO framework: Are behavioral therapies and MBIs effective for treating PTH and PCS?

Methods: We conducted a systematic search of 3 databases (Medline, PsycINFO, and EMBASE) for behavioral interventions and MBIs with the subject headings and keywords for PTH, concussion, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Conceptualizing and Measuring Mental Illness Stigma: The Mental Illness Stigma Framework and Critical Review of Measures.

Stigma Health 2018 Nov 21;3(4):348-376. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Women's Health Sciences Division, National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, VA Boston Healthcare System.

Although the last decade has seen a proliferation of research on mental illness stigma, lack of consistency and clarity in both the conceptualization and measurement of mental illness stigma has limited the accumulation of scientific knowledge about mental illness stigma and its consequences. In the present article, we bring together the different foci of mental illness stigma research with the . The MISF provides a common framework and set of terminology for understanding mechanisms of mental illness stigma that are relevant to the study of both the stigmatized and the stigmatizer. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Poor Performance on Single-Legged Hop Tests Associated With Development of Posttraumatic Knee Osteoarthritis After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

Orthop J Sports Med 2018 Nov 26;6(11):2325967118810775. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Biomechanics and Movement Science Program, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.

Background: The risk for knee osteoarthritis (OA) is substantially increased after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Tools are needed to identify characteristics of patients after ACL injury who are most at risk for posttraumatic OA.

Purpose: To determine whether clinical measures of knee function after ACL injury are associated with the development of radiographic knee OA 5 years after injury. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Large adipose tissue generation in a mussel-inspired bioreactor of elastic-mimetic cryogel and platelets.

J Tissue Eng 2018 Jan-Dec;9:2041731418808633. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Plastic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Soft tissue generation, especially in large tissue, is a major challenge in reconstructive surgery to treat congenital deformities, posttraumatic repair, and cancer rehabilitation. The concern is along with the donor site morbidity, donor tissue shortage, and flap necrosis. Here, we report a dissection-free adipose tissue chamber-based novel guided adipose tissue regeneration strategy in a bioreactor of elastic gelatin cryogel and polydopamine-assisted platelet immobilization intended to improve angiogenesis and generate large adipose tissue in situ. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Examination of Racial Differences in a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Group Therapy Program for Veterans.

Group Dyn 2018 Sep 19;22(3):129-142. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most prevalent mental health diagnoses for veterans. Group therapy can be an effective and efficient means of treating PTSD, yet the literature exploring treatment outcomes for racial minorities is mixed and limited. The present study was an evaluation across racial groups of the PTSD Recovery Program, a manualized group therapy implemented at a Veterans Affairs hospital. Read More

View Article
September 2018

Nd-YAG laser membranotomy in posttraumatic subinternal limiting membrane hemorrhage.

Oman J Ophthalmol 2018 Sep-Dec;11(3):270-271

Sri Bhagwan Mahavir Vitreoretina Services, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

DNA methylation correlates of PTSD: Recent findings and technical challenges.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

National Center for PTSD, VA Boston Healthcare System, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, USA.

There is increasing evidence that epigenetic factors play a critical role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), by mediating the impact of environmental exposures to trauma on the regulation of gene expression. DNA methylation is one epigenetic mark that has been highly studied in PTSD. This review will begin by providing an overview of DNA methylation (DNAm) methods, and will then highlight two major biological systems that have been identified in the epigenetic regulation in PTSD: (a) the immune system and (b) the stress response system. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Quality of life in family caregivers of patients in the intensive care unit: A longitudinal study.

Aust Crit Care 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Research and Development, Division of Emergencies and Critical Care, Oslo University Hospital Norway, P. O. Box 4950 Nydalen N-0424 Oslo, Norway; Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, P.O.Box 1078 Blindern NO-0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: Family caregivers of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) experience impairments in the quality of life. Previous studies report that psychological quality of life improves over time, but there has been limited longitudinal research, and measurement points have differed. Factors such as age, gender, and posttraumatic stress symptoms have been found to be associated with the quality of life, but level of hope and its associations with the quality of life have not been investigated. Read More

View Article
November 2018

When translational neuroscience fails in the clinic: Dexamethasone prior to virtual reality exposure therapy increases drop-out rates.

J Anxiety Disord 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, United States.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by exaggerated expression of fear responses to danger and safety cues. Translational research suggests that dexamethasone facilitates fear extinction in animal and human fear conditioning models. For this randomized, placebo-controlled trial (N = 27), we aimed to translate these findings to the clinic by using virtual reality exposure (VRE) therapy for OEF/OIF/OND veterans with PTSD to determine whether dexamethasone will increase the efficacy of exposure therapy for VRE relative to placebo. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Neuroendocrinological treatment targets for posttraumatic stress disorder.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent, disabling, and frequently becomes chronic. Despite this, only two selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors have been approved to date for its treatment by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and treatment results are often disappointing, with a remission rate of <30%. Certain neuroendocrinological systems are currently gaining attention with respect to their use for PTSD prevention and treatment as standalone options or medication-enhanced psychotherapy due to their involvement in physiological stress reactions, memory consolidation and extinction, cognitive appraisal to stress, and attachment and resilient coping strategies, which are important in the pathogenesis of PTSD. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Differential fear conditioning generates prefrontal neural ensembles of safety signals.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, United States; Department of Psychology & Program in Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, United States. Electronic address:

Fear discrimination is critical for survival, while fear generalization is effective for avoiding dangerous situations. Overgeneralized fear is a typical symptom of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous research demonstrated that fear discrimination learning is mediated by prefrontal mechanisms. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Efficacy of Prolonged Exposure Therapy, Sertraline Hydrochloride, and Their Combination Among Combat Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Importance: Meta-analyses of treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that trauma-focused psychotherapies produce greater benefits than antidepressant medications alone.

Objective: To determine the relative efficacy of prolonged exposure therapy plus placebo, prolonged exposure therapy plus sertraline hydrochloride, and sertraline plus enhanced medication management in the treatment of PTSD.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Prolonged Exposure and Sertraline Trial was a randomized, multisite, 24-week clinical trial conducted at the Veterans Affairs Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Ralph H. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Use of Prolonged Exposure and Sertraline in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for Veterans.

JAMA Psychiatry 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle.

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Posteromedial Elbow Dislocations without Relevant Osseous Lesions: Clinical Characteristics, Soft-Tissue Injury Patterns, Treatments, and Outcomes.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2018 Dec;100(23):2066-2072

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Gumi CHA University Hospital, Gumi, South Korea.

Background: Although simple posterolateral or posterior elbow dislocations are relatively common and usually stable after closed reduction, simple posteromedial dislocations are extremely rare and poorly characterized. We investigated the clinical characteristics, soft-tissue injury patterns, treatments, and outcomes of a series of posteromedial elbow dislocations without relevant osseous lesions.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 cases of simple posteromedial elbow dislocations without relevant osseous lesions that were treated at 7 fellowship training hospitals during a 10-year period. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

The distribution and time-dependent expression of HIPK2 during the repair of contused skeletal muscle in mice.

Histol Histopathol 2018 Dec 5:18072. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Forensic Pathology, China Medical University School of Forensic Medicine, Liaoning Province, PR China.

HIPK2 is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase and is considered a co-regulator of an increasing number of transcription factors modulating a variety of cellular processes, including inflammation, proliferation and fibrosis. Skeletal muscle injuries repair is an overlapping event between inflammation and tissue repair. There are no reports about HIPK2 expression in skeletal muscles after trauma. Read More

View Article
December 2018