37,598 results match your criteria Posttraumatic Stress Disorder


Child sexual abuse, disclosure and PTSD: A systematic and critical review.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 Apr 15;92:196-208. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a prevalent exposure with potentially serious, negative health consequences, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its symptomatology.

Objective: To conduct a systematic and critical review in order to investigate the relationship between CSA disclosure patterns and PTSD.

Participants And Setting: Studies included clinical, college and community-based samples of adults' and children's experiences of CSA. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01452134193013
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.04.006DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Traumatic Separation.

Child Abuse Negl 2019 Apr 15;92:179-195. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Allegheny General Hospital, Allegheny Health Network, Drexel University College of Medicine, 4 Allegheny Center, 8th Floor, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: In light of the current U.S. family separation crisis, there is growing attention to Childhood Traumatic Separation, defined here as a significant traumatic stress reaction to a familial separation that the child experiences as traumatic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Post-traumatic stress following military deployment: Genetic associations and cross-disorder genetic correlations.

J Affect Disord 2019 Apr 9;252:350-357. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Research and Knowledge Center, The Danish Veteran Center, Garnisonen 1, 4100 Ringsted, Denmark.

Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric disorder that occurs with relatively high frequency after deployment to warzones (∼10%). While twin studies have estimated the heritability to be up to 40%, thus indicating a considerable genetic component in the etiology, the biological mechanisms underlying risk and development of PTSD remain unknown.

Methods: Here, we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS; N = 2,481) to identify genome regions that associate with PTSD in a highly homogenous, trauma-exposed sample of Danish soldiers deployed to war and conflict zones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.04.070DOI Listing

Repeated ketamine infusions for antidepressant-resistant PTSD: Methods of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

National Center for PTSD, Clinical Neurosciences Division, US Department of Veterans Affairs, West Haven, CT, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder with limited medication treatment options. Recent reports have described the dearth of research on new drug development as a crisis in the pharmacotherapy of PTSD. There are only two PTSD medications approved by the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2019.04.009DOI Listing

Correlates and predictors of mental health care utilization for veterans with PTSD: A systematic review.

Psychol Trauma 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

VA Center for Integrated Healthcare.

Objective: Treatment utilization among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is low. Understanding correlates and predictors of mental health care for veterans with PTSD is critical to facilitating treatment utilization. However, given the size of the literature base and disparate findings, it is difficult to interpret available research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000461DOI Listing

Changes in sleep architecture in German Armed Forces personnel with posttraumatic stress disorder compared with depressed and healthy control subjects.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0215355. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

German Armed Forces Hospital Hamburg, Centre for Mental Health, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: This study compares the sleep architecture of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with that of both patients with depression and subjects with no mental disorder.

Method: 45 German armed forces personnel with PTSD, 72 German armed forces personnel with depression and 24 healthy control subjects underwent 24-hour polysomnography. The effects of group membership, medication and the statistical interaction of group and medication were analysed for the following variables: sleep onset latency, REM sleep latency, slow-wave sleep and REM sleep percentages. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215355PLOS

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Trauma and Self-Care (CBT-TSC) in Men Who have Sex with Men with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

AIDS Behav 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA.

To address childhood sexual abuse (CSA) related distress and HIV risk in men who have sex with men (MSM) using cognitive-behavioral therapy for trauma and self-care (CBT-TSC), which is a novel intervention integrating HIV risk reduction with modified cognitive and behavioral therapy strategies for post-traumatic stress. We compared CBT-TSC to HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT)-only in an initial 2-arm RCT in 43 HIV-negative MSM at with a history of CSA and HIV risk. Serodiscordant condomless anal/vaginal sex (CAS; CAS with HIV-postive or HIV unknown status partners) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (Davidson Trauma Scale: total score and avoidance, intrusions, hyperarousal subscales) were outcomes immediately post-treatment, and at 6- and 9-month follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-019-02482-zDOI Listing

Post-traumatic stress disorder and asthma risk: A nationwide longitudinal study.

Psychiatry Res 2019 Apr 10;276:25-30. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Increasing evidence suggests that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) interferes with the immunological system and is correlated with cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and chronic pain conditions. However, the association between PTSD and asthma remains unknown.

Methods: A total of 5518 patients with PTSD and 22,072 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were enrolled between 2001 and 2009 and followed until the end of 2011. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.04.014DOI Listing
April 2019
2.467 Impact Factor

Acceptability of a Plasticity-Focused Serious Game Intervention for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: User Requirements Analysis.

JMIR Serious Games 2019 Apr 16;7(2):e11909. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Computer Science, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.

Background: Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is a first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite a solid evidence base, TF-CBT response and attrition rates vary considerably. Plasticity-focused interventions, including the use of serious games, have the potential to improve TF-CBT response and treatment retention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/11909DOI Listing

Acute stress - but not aversive scene content - impairs spatial configuration learning.

Cogn Emot 2019 Apr 16:1-16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

a Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience , Maastricht University , Maastricht , The Netherlands.

Contextual learning pervades our perception and cognition and plays a critical role in adjusting to aversive and stressful events. Our ability to memorise spatial context has been studied extensively with the contextual cueing paradigm, in which participants search for targets among simple distractor cues and show search advantages for distractor configurations that repeat across trials. Mixed evidence suggests that confrontation with adversity can enhance as well as impair the contextual cueing effect. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02699931.2019.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2019.1604320DOI Listing
April 2019
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Prolonged grief disorder among asylum seekers in Germany: the influence of losses and residence status.

Eur J Psychotraumatol 2019 29;10(1):1591330. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Psychology, Catholic University Eichstaett-Ingolstadt, D-Eichstaett, Germany.

: Besides the high exposure to traumatic events, many refugees to Europe experienced tremendous interpersonal losses. : The aim of this study was to investigate the rate and potential risk factors of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in recently fled asylum seekers who lived in collective accommodations in Germany. : Three groups of asylum seekers from different countries ( = 99) completed the Traumatic Grief Inventory Self-Report Version (TGI-SR), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-5 (PCL-5), and Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2019.1591330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450486PMC

Influence of childhood trauma and brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism on posttraumatic stress symptoms and cortical thickness.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 15;9(1):6028. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Inje University, Goyang, Republic of Korea.

Interaction between childhood trauma and genetic factors influences the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examined the interaction effect of childhood trauma and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism on PTSD symptoms and brain cortical thickness. A total of 216 participants (133 healthy volunteers and 83 PTSD patients) were recruited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42563-6DOI Listing

Longitudinal Change of PTSD Symptoms in Community Members after the World Trade Center Destruction.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 4;16(7). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Health and Hospitals World Trade Center Environmental Health Center, Bellevue Hospital Center, H7E, 462 First Ave, New York, NY 10016, USA.

The World Trade Center (WTC) Environmental Health Center (EHC) is a treatment program for community members with exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attack and its physical and emotional aftermath. Compared to the general responders program, the WTC EHC is diverse with equal gender distribution, representation of many races and ethnicities, and a wide range of social economic status. Patients in the WTC EHC were initially enrolled for physical symptoms, most of which were respiratory, however a large portion of the enrollees scored positive for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071215DOI Listing

Impact of Health on Early Retirement and Post-Retirement Income Loss among Survivors of the 11 September 2001 World Trade Center Disaster.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Apr 2;16(7). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

World Trade Center Health Registry, Division of Epidemiology, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, NY 10013, USA.

The health consequences of the 9/11 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks are well documented, but few studies have assessed the disaster's impact on employment among individuals exposed to the disaster. We examined the association between 9/11-related health conditions and early retirement among residents and workers who resided and/or worked near the WTC site on 9/11, and the association between such conditions and post-retirement income loss. The study included 6377 residents and/or area workers who completed the WTC Health Registry longitudinal health surveys in 2003-2004 and 2006-2007, and the 2017-2018 Health and Employment Survey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071177DOI Listing

Addressing Interpersonal Violence as a Health Policy Question Using Interprofessional Community Educators.

MedEdPORTAL 2016 Dec 9;12:10516. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of New Mexico School of Medicine.

Introduction: The health effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) not only include physical injury, but can also manifest as posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and others. US medical students report receiving inadequate training about IPV. This case-based tutorial for third-year medical students examines: (1) a clinical encounter with a patient experiencing several complex challenges including IPV and homelessness; (2) the implications of existing policy on the delivery of health care services; and (3) the impact of policies on patient choices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.10516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440420PMC
December 2016

Functional reorganization of neural networks involved in emotion regulation following trauma therapy for complex trauma disorders.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Apr 2;23:101807. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Clienia Littenheid AG, Hospital for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Littenheid, Switzerland; Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, University Hospitals and University of Halle (Saale), Halle, Germany.

Objectives: We investigated whether patients with complex interpersonal trauma engage neural networks that are commonly activated during cognitive reappraisal and responding naturally to affect-laden images. In this naturalistic study, we examined whether trauma treatment not only reduces symptoms but also changes neural networks involved in emotional control.

Methods: Before and after eight weeks of phase-oriented inpatient trauma treatment, patients (n = 28) with complex posttraumatic stress disorder (cPTSD) and complex dissociative disorders (CDD) performed a cognitive reappraisal task while electroencephalography (EEG) was registered. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22131582193015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101807DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Measuring treatment outcome in patients with anxiety disorders: A comparison of the responsiveness of generic and disorder-specific instruments.

J Anxiety Disord 2019 Apr 6;64:55-63. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Leiden University, Pieter De La Court Building, P.O. Box 9555, 2300 RB Leiden, the Netherlands; Stichting Benchmark GGZ, Rembrandtlaan 46, 3723 BK Bilthoven, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: For routine outcome monitoring, generic (i.e., broad-based) and disorder-specific instruments are used to monitor patient progress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2019.04.001DOI Listing

HOW ARE PAIN AND TRAUMATIC STRESS SYMPTOMS RELATED IN ACUTE WHIPLASH ASSOCIATED DISORDERS? AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ROLE OF PAIN-RELATED FEAR IN A DAILY DIARY STUDY.

Pain 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Recover Injury Research Centre, The University of Queensland.

Comorbidity of pain and posttraumatic stress disorder is well recognized but the reason for this association is unclear. This study investigated the direction of the relationship between pain and traumatic stress and the role that pain-related fear plays, for patients with acute whiplash associated disorder (WAD). Participants (n = 99) used an electronic diary to record hourly ratings of pain, traumatic stress and fear-of-pain symptoms over a day. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001581DOI Listing

Novel Risk Factors for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Family Members of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Survivors.

Crit Care Med 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, & Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Objectives: Family members of ICU survivors report long-term psychologic symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. We describe patient- and family-member risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among family members of survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Design: Prospective cohort study of family members of acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003774DOI Listing

Factors associated with high functioning despite distress in post-9/11 veterans.

Rehabil Psychol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Steven and Alexandra Cohen Veterans Center for the Study of Posttraumatic Stress and Traumatic Brain Injury.

Objective: This study aimed to identify modifiable factors associated with perceived functioning among veterans with high symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Method: Two hundred fifty-one post-9/11 veterans completed a survey of psychosocial symptoms and functioning; a subset participated in a follow-up survey (n = 109). Latent profile analysis (LPA) at baseline identified groups that differed by level of functioning (high/low). Read More

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http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/rep0000271
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rep0000271DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Effectiveness of a Cancer Bereavement Therapeutic Group.

J Loss Trauma 2019 Jan;23(7):574-587

The Loss Foundation, London, UK.

This study examined the effectiveness of a novel cancer bereavement group. Twenty-seven participants attended a sixsession cancer bereavement therapeutic group. Data were collected at baseline, intervention completion, and three-month follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15325024.2018.1518772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461201PMC
January 2019

Association of DRD2, 5-HTTLPR, and 5-HTTVNTR Gene Polymorphisms With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Tibetan Adolescents: A Case-Control Study.

Biol Res Nurs 2019 May;21(3):286-295

1 West China School of Nursing/West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Earthquake exposure is a source of stress, yet only a minority of survivors experience clinically meaningful disturbance in psychological function. Genetic epidemiological research has found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with genetic factors. Further research to reveal which genetic loci relate to the development of PTSD is warranted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1099800419838325DOI Listing

Use of machine learning in predicting clinical response to transcranial magnetic stimulation in comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression: A resting state electroencephalography study.

J Affect Disord 2019 Mar 30;252:47-54. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Butler Hospital, Providence, RI 02906, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02906, United States.

Background: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is clinically effective for major depressive disorder (MDD) and investigational for other conditions including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Understanding the mechanisms of TMS action and developing biomarkers predicting response remain important goals. We applied a combination of machine learning and electroencephalography (EEG), testing whether machine learning analysis of EEG coherence would (1) predict clinical outcomes in individuals with comorbid MDD and PTSD, and (2) determine whether an individual had received a TMS course. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.03.077DOI Listing
March 2019
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A randomized controlled trial of prolonged exposure therapy versus relaxation training for older veterans with military-related PTSD.

J Anxiety Disord 2019 Feb 21;64:45-54. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego; 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093, United States; VA San Diego Healthcare System; 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, San Diego, CA 92161, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Although prolonged exposure (PE) has strong support for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), there is little research on PE for older adults. Likewise, Relaxation Training (RT) has shown some benefit for PTSD, but has not been adequately tested in this population.

Method: This study represents the first randomized controlled trial of two active psychotherapies for PTSD among older adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019
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Affective profiling for anxiety-like behavior in a rodent model of mTBI.

Behav Brain Res 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Operational and Undersea Medicine Directorate, Department of Neurotrauma, 503 Robert Grant Ave, Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Mild traumatic brain injury is a common outcome of blast exposure, and current literature indicates high rates of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military personnel. Blast-exposed rats display PTSD-like behavior, suggesting relationships may exist between PTSD and blast exposure. Other studies demonstrate the roles of stathmin and corticosterone associated with fear- and anxiety-like behaviors in rodent models. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01664328183149
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.04.009DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Barriers to Education of Syrian Refugee Girls in Jordan: Gender-Based Threats and Challenges.

J Nurs Scholarsh 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Nursing, California State University Northridge, College of Health and Human Development, Department of Nursing, Northridge, CA,, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to uncover and describe the barriers to education as experienced by Syrian refugee girls in the Za'atri Syrian Refugee Camp in Jordan.

Design: A qualitative nonexperimental design utilizing focus group discussions (FGDs), individual interviews, and participant and nonparticipant observation was used for this study. Four FGDs were facilitated in three dropout education centers (nonformal school) in the Za'atri Syrian Refugee Camp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnu.12480DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effects of syndemic psychiatric diagnoses on health indicators in men who have sex with men.

Health Psychol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Psychiatry.

Objective: Syndemic theory posits that co-occurring problems (e.g., substance use, depression, and trauma) synergistically increase HIV risk in men who have sex with men (MSM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/hea0000724DOI Listing

Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Its Relationship With Perceived Social Support Among Family Caregivers of Individuals With Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder.

J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2019 Apr 11:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

A cross-sectional descriptive correlation study was performed to investigate the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among 300 family caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and examine the relationship between perceived social support and risk of PTSD. The Arabic version of the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (APCL-5) was used to investigate risk of PTSD; the Arabic version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used to measure perceived social support. Mean score of the APCL-5 was 46. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20190405-01DOI Listing
April 2019
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Electroconvulsive Therapy in Recurrent Oligodendroglioma After Resection.

J ECT 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College Hanover, NH National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder US Department of Veteran Affairs White River Junction, VT Department of Surgery Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center Lebanon, NH Department of Psychiatry Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center Lebanon, NH Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College Hanover, NH Department of Psychiatry Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center Lebanon, NH

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCT.0000000000000593DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Effects of Equine Assisted Therapy on Plasma Cortisol and Oxytocin Concentrations and Heart Rate Variability in Horses and Measures of Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans.

J Equine Vet Sci 2018 May 12;64:17-26. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Rutgers Equine Science Center and the Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ.

With the increase in the number of horses being used in Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies (EAAT) programs and with the increasing concern for animal welfare, it is important to understand the impact of such interventions on the stress level and quality of life for the horses involved. The purpose of the present pilot study was to test the hypothesis that participation in EAAT would acutely alter physiological markers of stress and well-being, including plasma cortisol, plasma oxytocin, and heart rate variability (HRV), in horses and that symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) would be reduced after five sessions of EAAT in veterans who had previously been diagnosed with PTSD. Nine healthy geldings, of various breeds, ages 10-23 years, conditioned and experienced as therapeutic riding horses, were selected to participate in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2018.01.011DOI Listing
May 2018
1 Read

'Tell Your Story': a randomized controlled trial of an online intervention to reduce mental health stigma and increase help-seeking in refugee men with posttraumatic stress.

Psychol Med 2019 Apr 11:1-12. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

School of Psychology,University of New South Wales,Sydney NSW 2052,Australia.

Background: Refugees report elevated rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but are relatively unlikely to seek help for their symptoms. Mental health stigma is a key barrier to help-seeking amongst refugees. We evaluated the efficacy of an online intervention in reducing self-stigma and increasing help-seeking in refugee men. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291719000606DOI Listing

Predictors of Treatment Access and Initiation Among Diverse, Low-Income Victims of Violence Offered a Trauma-Focused Evidence-Based Psychotherapy.

J Interpers Violence 2019 Apr 11:886260519842848. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

1 California State University, Long Beach, USA.

Many victims of violence may benefit from trauma-focused evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs), but fail to utilize treatment. The current study investigated factors associated with treatment access and treatment initiation in a low-income, racially and ethnically diverse, urban population of victims of violence who were screened for EBPs. The sample consisted of 941 adults, mean age = 35. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260519842848DOI Listing

Impairment of Quality of Life Associated With Lifetime Diagnosis of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Women - A National Survey in Italy.

Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2019 28;15:38-43. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

University of Pisa ,Pisa, Italy.

Introduction: The aim of the study was to measure the lifetime prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women of an Italian community sample, the comorbidity of PTSD with mood and anxiety disorders and the burden attributable to PTSD in worsening the Quality of Life (QoL).

Methods: Community survey on a sample of 1961 adult women randomly selected. Tools: psychiatric clinical interview ANTAS partially derived from the SCID-DSM-IV, administered by psychologists or medical doctors; Short Form Health Survey (SF-12); Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1745017901915010038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6416466PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

The Prevalence of Specific Phobia by Age in an Italian Nationwide Survey: How Much Does it Affect the Quality of Life?

Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2019 20;15:30-37. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

University of Cagliari,Cagliari,Italy.

Introduction: The study aimed to see if a community survey conducted by clinical interviewers with semi-structured psychiatric interviews shows lifetime prevalence rates of Specific Phobia (SP) similar to those found by surveys carried out by lay interviewers and if the high level of impairment found in SP may be confirmed.

Methods: This is a community survey on an Italian nationwide sample randomly selected from registers of municipalities. Tools: semi-structured ANTAS psychiatric interview derived from the SCID-DSM-IV, carried out by clinicians (psychologists or physicians); Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as a measure of Quality of Life (QoL). Read More

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https://clinical-practice-and-epidemiology-in-mental-health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1745017901915010030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407652PMC
February 2019
4 Reads

Immigrants Psychopathology: Emerging Phenomena and Adaptation of Mental Health Care Setting by Native Language.

Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2018 30;14:312-322. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Istituto per le Tecnologie Didattiche, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Palermo, Italy.

Mental health of immigrants is an important social and clinical issue. Immigrants may report higher rates of mental disorders and lower levels of use of mental health service with respect to natives. The aim of the present work is to review recent findings of the psychopathology of immigrants and analyze how to adapt the mental care settings through the use of mother tongues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1745017901814010312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407656PMC
October 2018

Current understanding of fear learning and memory in humans and animal models and the value of a linguistic approach for analyzing fear learning and memory in humans.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 Apr 7. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Department of Behavioral Neuroscience.

Fear is an emotion that serves as a driving factor in how organisms move through the world. In this review, we discuss the current understandings of the subjective experience of fear and the related biological processes involved in fear learning and memory. We first provide an overview of fear learning and memory in humans and animal models, encompassing the neurocircuitry and molecular mechanisms, the influence of genetic and environmental factors, and how fear learning paradigms have contributed to treatments for fear-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01497634183064
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.03.015DOI Listing
April 2019
11 Reads

Effect of Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy for Youth With Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Psychiatry 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Institute of Psychology, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

Importance: Despite the high prevalence, evidence-based treatments for abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescents have rarely been studied.

Objective: To examine whether developmentally adapted cognitive processing therapy (D-CPT) is more effective than a wait-list condition with treatment advice (WL/TA) among adolescents with PTSD related to childhood abuse.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This rater-blinded, multicenter, randomized clinical trial (stratified by center) enrolled treatment-seeking adolescents and young adults (aged 14-21 years) with childhood abuse-related PTSD at 3 university outpatient clinics in Germany from July 2013 to June 2015, with the last follow-up interview conducted by May 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.4349DOI Listing

Baseline resting heart rate variability predicts post-traumatic stress disorder treatment outcomes in adults with co-occurring substance use disorders and post-traumatic stress.

Psychophysiology 2019 Apr 10:e13377. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are highly prevalent among individuals with substance use disorders (SUD), presenting a difficult-to-treat, complex comorbidity. Prognostic factors for treatment outcomes may characterize heterogeneity of the treated population and/or implicate mechanisms of action that are salient for improving treatments. High frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) is a suggested biomarker for emotion regulation-the ability to generate appropriate emotional responses via the influence of the parasympathetic nervous system on the heart. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.13377DOI Listing

Inhibited Personality Temperaments Translated Through Enhanced Avoidance and Associative Learning Increase Vulnerability for PTSD.

Front Psychol 2019 22;10:496. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Rutgers Biomedical Health Sciences, Stress and Motivated Behavior Institute, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, United States.

Although many individuals who experience a trauma go on to develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the rate of PTSD following trauma is only about 15-24%. There must be some pre-existing conditions that impart increased vulnerability to some individuals and not others. Diathesis models of PTSD theorize that pre-existing vulnerabilities interact with traumatic experiences to produce psychopathology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6440249PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Modulation of fear generalization by the zona incerta.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Neuroscience Graduate Program, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30329;

Fear expressed toward threat-associated stimuli is an adaptive behavioral response. In contrast, the generalization of fear responses toward nonthreatening cues is a maladaptive and debilitating dimension of trauma- and anxiety-related disorders. Expressing fear to appropriate stimuli and suppressing fear generalization require integration of relevant sensory information and motor output. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1820541116DOI Listing
April 2019
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Adoption by VA Residential Programs of Two Evidence-Based Psychotherapies for PTSD: Effect on Patient Outcomes.

Psychiatr Serv 2019 Apr 10:appips201800338. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (Cook, Hoff, Harpaz-Rotem); National Center for PTSD, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven (Cook, Hoff, Harpaz-Rotem); National Center for PTSD, White River Junction VA Medical Center, White River Junction, Vermont (Schnurr); Department of Psychiatry, Geisel School of Medicine, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (Schnurr); Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente, Honolulu (Simiola).

Objective: This observational study examined the association between patient outcomes at 39 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs residential treatment programs for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the degree of adoption of two evidence-based psychotherapies, prolonged exposure and cognitive processing therapy. Read More

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https://psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ps.201800338
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201800338DOI Listing
April 2019
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Associations between disordered eating and intimate partner violence mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in a female veteran sample.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2019 Mar 28;58:77-82. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

National Center for PTSD, VA Boston Healthcare System, 150 S. Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02130, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 E. Concord St., Boston, MA 02118, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: This study established a link between intimate partner violence (IPV) and eating disorders (EDs) via mediators of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in female veterans.

Method: A nationally representative sample of female veterans (N = 190, Mean age = 48.41 years) completed online surveys assessing IPV and symptoms of depression, PTSD, and EDs, at three time points from 2014 to 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2019.03.007DOI Listing
March 2019
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Characterizing emotional Stroop interference in posttraumatic stress disorder, major depression and anxiety disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 9;14(4):e0214998. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Medical School, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder is a debilitating psychiatric disorder characterized by symptoms of intrusive re-experiencing of trauma, avoidance and hyper-arousal. Diagnosis and treatment of PTSD is further complicated by concurrently occurring disorders, the most frequent being major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. Previous research highlights that attentional processing in posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with substantial interference by emotional stimuli, a phenomenon also observed in these concurrently occurring psychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214998PLOS

Psychiatric symptoms and their association with sleep disturbances in intensive care unit survivors.

Int J Gen Med 2019 22;12:125-130. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Sandra Eskenazi Center for Brain Care Innovation, Eskenazi Hospital, Indianapolis, IN, USA,

Background: Sleep disturbances in critically ill patients are associated with poorer long-term clinical outcomes and quality of life. Studies are needed to better characterize associations and risk factors for persistent sleep disturbances after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with sleep disturbances, but the role of psychiatric symptoms in sleep disturbances in ICU survivors has not been well-studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S193084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434907PMC
March 2019
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Development and psychometric evaluation of the Treatment Adherence Questionnaire for Patients with Combat Post-traumatic Stress Disorder.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2019 22;13:419-430. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Iranian Research Center on Ageing, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran,

Purpose: Treatment adherence is one of the major strategies in treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in combat veterans. This study developed and psychometrically assessed the Treatment Adherence Questionnaire for Patients with Combat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Participants And Methods: This methodological study was conducted in Tehran, Iran, during 2016-2017 in two phases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S175353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6434911PMC
March 2019
1 Read
1.491 Impact Factor

Cortisol administration after extinction in a fear-conditioning paradigm with traumatic film clips prevents return of fear.

Transl Psychiatry 2019 Apr 8;9(1):128. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Division of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Department of Psychology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.

Cortisol is a stress hormone and potent modulator of learning and memory processes. If administered after learning, cortisol can enhance memory consolidation. Yet it is unknown whether cortisol administration after fear extinction learning strengthens extinction memory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-019-0455-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6453889PMC

Lower cortisol levels and attenuated cortisol reactivity to daily-life stressors in adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019 Mar 22;106:85-94. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Center for Contextual Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a genetic disorder associated with neurodevelopmental, anxiety and mood disorders, as well as an increased risk for developing psychosis. Cortisol levels and stress reactivity reflect hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity, and are believed to be altered in individuals that often experience daily-life stress, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.03.023DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads
4.944 Impact Factor

Synthesis of Mixed Research on Posttraumatic Stress Related to Traumatic Birth.

J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Objective: To synthesize mixed-research results (quantitative and qualitative) on posttraumatic stress in women who experienced traumatic births.

Data Sources: PubMed, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases.

Study Selection: Quantitative and qualitative studies were included if they were published in English from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2018, and focused on posttraumatic stress in the postpartum period related to traumatic childbirth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogn.2019.02.004DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads