36,821 results match your criteria Posttraumatic Hydrocephalus


Preventing birth defects, saving lives, and promoting health equity: an urgent call to action for universal mandatory food fortification with folic acid.

Lancet Glob Health 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Epidemiology, Center for Spina Bifida Prevention, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

July 20, 2021 marked the 30th anniversary of the publication of the landmark trial by the British Medical Research Council showing unequivocally that maternal intake of folic acid (vitamin B) starting before pregnancy prevents most cases of infant spina bifida and anencephaly-two major neural tube defects that are severe, disabling, and often fatal. Mandatory food fortification with folic acid is a safe, cost-effective, and sustainable intervention to prevent spina bifida and anencephaly. Yet few countries implement fortification with folic acid; only a quarter of all preventable spina bifida and anencephaly cases worldwide are currently avoided by food fortification. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Identification and Validation of Aging-Related Genes in Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Neurosci 2022 9;16:905722. Epub 2022 May 9.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Aging is recognized as the key risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to identify and verify potential aging-related genes associated with AD using bioinformatics analysis. Aging-related differential expression genes (ARDEGs) were determined by the intersection of limma test, weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), and 1153 aging and senescence-associated genes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Epileptic encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep: evaluation of treatment response from a tertiary center.

Turk J Pediatr 2022 ;64(2):302-311

Department of Pediatric Neurology, İstanbul Medipol University Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical, electrophysiological, etiological features, and treatment response in children with epileptic encephalopathy with electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep (ESES).

Methods: Clinical data, records of electroencephalograms (EEG), and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 33 patients with ESES who were treated, and followed up for at least one year were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Of all patients, 57. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Shunt fractures associated with intermittent hydrocephalus: Case reviews and new solutions.

World Neurosurg 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, NİĞDE/TURKEY. Electronic address:

View Article and Full-Text PDF

ED BP Management for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Curr Hypertens Rep 2022 May 24. Epub 2022 May 24.

Departments of Emergency Medicine and Neurology, Program in Trauma, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 22 S. Greene St, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review most recent literature on management of blood pressure in acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and provide practice recommendations for the emergency clinician.

Recent Findings: There is increased risk of aneurysmal rebleeding with systolic blood pressure (SBP) greater than 160 mmHg in the acute setting. Avoiding large degrees of blood pressure variability improves clinical outcomes in aneurysmal SAH. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Post-traumatic hydrocephalus may be associated with autologous cranioplasty failure, independent of ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement: a retrospective analysis.

Br J Neurosurg 2022 May 19:1-6. Epub 2022 May 19.

Division of Plastic Surgery, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Purpose: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a common procedure used for the treatment of intracranial hypertension. Once brain swelling has subsided, a cranioplasty is performed to restore cosmesis and protection to the brain. While using the patient's autologous bone flap is often the first choice in cranioplasty, this procedure is frequently complicated by bone flap resorption and infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

First reported case of hydrocephalus in jointly diagnosed bacterial meningitis and a colloid cyst: how Ockham's razor became Hickam's dictum.

Br J Neurosurg 2022 May 24:1-4. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow, UK.

We report the first case in the literature of acute hydrocephalus due to a simultaneous diagnosis of bacterial (not asceptic) meningitis and a colloid cyst. Diagnosing disease is the cornerstone skill of a medical practitioner. Both education and experience allow for sharpening of this skill throughout years of medical practice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Case of Cryptococcal Meningitis and Fungemia With Relapse in an HIV-Negative, Non-transplant Patient on Azathioprine Therapy for Mixed Connective Tissue Disorder.

Cureus 2022 Apr 21;14(4):e24356. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Infectious Disease, Yale New Haven Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, USA.

Cryptococcal meningitis typically occurs in immunocompromised patients. Approximately 80% of cryptococcal infections occur in HIV patients. Non-HIV, non-transplant recipient patients are the least numerous population groups affected by cryptococcal infections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intracranial pressure and optic disc changes in a rat model of obstructive hydrocephalus.

BMC Neurosci 2022 May 23;23(1):29. Epub 2022 May 23.

Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, Glostrup Research Institute, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Nordstjernevej 42, 2600, Glostrup, Denmark.

Background: The kaolin induced obstructive hydrocephalus (OHC) model is well known for its ability to increase intracranial pressure (ICP) in experimental animals. Papilledema (PE) which is a predominant hallmark of elevated ICP in the clinic has not yet been studied in this model using high-resolution digital fundus microscopy. Further, the long-term effect on ICP and optic nerve head changes have not been fully demonstrated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

g.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 May 20;15(5). Epub 2022 May 20.

Radiodiagnosis, Mayo Institute of Medical Sciences, Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, India.

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Laparoscopic management of ventriculoperitoneal shunt extrusion through urethra in an infant: Case report and review of literature.

Urol Case Rep 2022 Jul 2;43:102099. Epub 2022 May 2.

Division of Pediatric Urology, Department of Pediatric Surgery, King Abdullah Specialized Children's Hospital, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting is a well-established procedure for the management of hydrocephalus. Its complications might include distal migration of the shunt and organ perforation. However, bladder perforation and subsequent extrusion of the shunt per the urethra is a rare complication. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

White matter changes should not exclude patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus from shunt surgery.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2022 May 23;19(1):35. Epub 2022 May 23.

Department of Medical Sciences, Neurology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Introduction: White matter changes (WMC) on brain imaging can be classified as deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMH) or periventricular hyperintensities (PVH) and are frequently seen in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Contradictory results have been reported on whether preoperative WMC are associated with outcome after shunt surgery in iNPH patients. The aim of this study was to investigate any association between DWMH and PVH and shunt outcome in patients with iNPH, using magnetic resonance volumetry. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CSF tap test in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: still a necessary prognostic test?

J Neurol 2022 May 22. Epub 2022 May 22.

Leenaards Memory Center, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objective: To assess whether gait, neuropsychological, and multimodal MRI parameters predict short-term symptom reversal after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).

Methods: Thirty patients (79.3 ± 5. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Prediction of shunt failure facilitated by rapid and accurate volumetric analysis: a single institution's preliminary experience.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Division of Neurosurgery, Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: Shunt malfunction is a common complication and often presents with hydrocephalus. While the diagnosis is often supported by radiographic studies, subtle changes in CSF volume may not be detectable on routine evaluation. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel automated volumetric software for evaluation of shunt failure in pediatric patients, especially in patients who may not manifest a significant change in their ventricular size. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Quantitative Evans index estimation using ultrasonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter in supine and upright position.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2022 May 21. Epub 2022 May 21.

Neuroscience Institute of the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Objectives: We aimed to quantitatively assess Evans index (EI) using ultrasonographic optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurements in supine and upright position in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) patients.

Methods: Ultrasonographically ONSD was measured in a supine and upright position before and 4-5 days after the ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. The changes of the ONSD between supine and upright positions were calculated as ∆ONSD = sONSD-uONSD and as the variation ONSD_V = 100% × [(sONSD - uONSD)/sONSD]. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Novel prenatally diagnosed compound heterozygous POMT2 variants in fetal congenital primary aqueduct stenosis.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2022 May;61(3):517-520

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taipei City Hospital, Women and Children Campus, Taiwan; Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University - Yang Ming Campus, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Objective: To study the etiology of congenital hydrocephalus in genetic aqueduct stenosis.

Case Report: We report the case of a 31-year-old pregnant female, G2P0A1, with a history of hyperthyroidism under medical control. The patient received regular prenatal care, with no specific findings in the Level II ultrasound at 21 weeks of gestation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Squamosal Suture Synostosis: An Under-Recognized Phenomenon.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2022 May 20:10556656221100675. Epub 2022 May 20.

6595University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Introduction: The squamosal suture (SQS) joins the temporal to the parietal bones bilaterally and is a poorly described site of craniosynostosis. SQS fusion is thought to occur as late as the fourth decade of life and beyond; however, we have incidentally noted its presence among our pediatric patients and hypothesize that it may occur earlier in life and more frequently than previously believed.

Methods: A retrospective review of imaging performed on pediatric patients was completed to identify patients with SQS synostosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Congenital Hydrocephalus and Associated Risk Factors: An Institution-Based Case-Control Study, Dessie Town, North East Ethiopia.

Pediatric Health Med Ther 2022 11;13:175-182. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Radiography, Dessie Health Science College, Dessie, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Congenital hydrocephalus is one of the commonest congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. It is characterized by extensive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the brain due to an imbalance between synthesis and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid. This study was planned to investigate the incidence and associated risk factors of congenital hydrocephalus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Angiographic Pulse Wave Coherence in the Human Brain.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 3;10:873530. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

A stroke volume of arterial blood that arrives to the brain housed in the rigid cranium must be matched over the cardiac cycle by an equivalent volume of ejected venous blood. We hypothesize that the brain maintains this equilibrium by organizing coherent arterial and venous pulse waves. To test this hypothesis, we applied wavelet computational methods to diagnostic cerebral angiograms in four human patients, permitting the capture and analysis of cardiac frequency phenomena from fluoroscopic images acquired at faster than cardiac rate. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical Characteristics of Hydrocephalus Following the Treatment of Pyogenic Ventriculitis Caused by Multi/Extensive Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative , and .

Front Surg 2022 3;9:854627. Epub 2022 May 3.

Medical Department, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Objective: Hydrocephalus is common after ventriculitis. This study explores hydrocephalus's clinical characteristics following pyogenic ventriculitis due to multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant and .

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with post-neurosurgical pyogenic ventriculitis due to multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant and in our department between January 2014 and June 2020. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Steroid-Resistant Central Nervous System Sarcoidosis: The Selections of Multi-Agent Combination as the Initial Treatment].

Brain Nerve 2022 May;74(5):455-461

Department of Neurology, Yamaguchi Prefectural Grand Medical Center.

Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous multiorgan disease of unknown etiology that commonly affects the respiratory system, eyes, and skin, and less commonly affects the nervous system. Because of its rarity, a standard treatment for central nervous system (CNS) sarcoidosis has not yet been established. Corticosteroids remain the cornerstone of CNS sarcoidosis treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Emerging therapies for brain recovery after IVH in neonates: Cord blood derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) and Unrestricted Somatic Stem Cells (USSC).

Semin Perinatol 2022 Mar 12:151598. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY. Electronic address:

In this report, we summarize evidence on mechanisms of injury after intraventricular hemorrhage resulting in post-hemorrhagic white matter injury and hydrocephalus and correlate that with the possibility of cellular therapy. We describe how two stem cell lines (MSC & USSC) acting in a paracrine fashion offer promise for attenuating the magnitude of injury in animal models and for improved functional recovery by: lowering the magnitude of apoptosis and neuronal cell death, reducing inflammation, and thus, mitigating white matter injury that culminates in improved motor and neurocognitive outcomes. Animal models of IVH are analyzed for their similarity to the human condition and we discuss merits of each approach. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Clinical Aspects of the Differential Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease and Parkinsonism.

J Clin Neurol 2022 May;18(3):259-270

Department of Neurology, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Parkinsonism is a clinical syndrome presenting with bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. Nonmotor symptoms have recently been included in the parkinsonian syndrome, which was traditionally associated with motor symptoms only. Various pathologically distinct and unrelated diseases have the same clinical manifestations as parkinsonism or parkinsonian syndrome. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Occipital encephalocele associated with Dandy-Walker malformation: a case-based review.

Childs Nerv Syst 2022 May 19. Epub 2022 May 19.

School of Medicine, Metropolitan University of Colombia, Barranquilla, Colombia.

Introduction: Occipital encephalocele is a brain malformation that has been remotely associated with Dandy-Walker; only case reports and very small series have been published so far; therefore, their behavior and management are still under investigation. The goal of the present case-based review is to provide a summary of the state of the art in this association.

Methods And Results: The pertinent literature has been reviewed, and an exemplary case has been reported (an 11-month-old female with Dandy-Walker malformation and occipital encephalocele). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CystiHuman: A model of human neurocysticercosis.

PLoS Comput Biol 2022 May 19;18(5):e1010118. Epub 2022 May 19.

Center for Global Health Tumbes, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Introduction: The Taenia solium tapeworm is responsible for cysticercosis, a neglected tropical disease presenting as larvae in the body of a host following taenia egg ingestion. Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the name of the disease when it affects the human central nervous system, is a major cause of epilepsy in developing countries, and can also cause intracranial hypertension, hydrocephalus and death. Simulation models can help identify the most cost-effective interventions before their implementation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Radiological correlation of mechanism of intravascular migration of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt and technical considerations for endovascular retrieval.

J Radiol Case Rep 2022 Jan 1;16(1):22-29. Epub 2022 Jan 1.

Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Migration of ventriculoperitoneal shunt into the pulmonary artery is a rare complication that can lead to shunt malfunction and cardiopulmonary complications. This case illustrates the significance of accidental transvenous placement of the shunt. Identification of the transvenous course of the catheter on cross sectional imaging can predict future catheter migration and also aid at surgical extraction. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

The joint detection of CEA and ctDNA in cerebrospinal fluid: an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastases in cancer.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Shandong Cancer Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Leptomeningeal metastases (LMs) are highly invasive which leads to poor prognosis, but the accurate diagnosis of LM is challenging. It is necessary to investigate more advanced diagnostic methods to realize precision medicine. The main purpose of this study was to select a more effective method for the auxiliary diagnosis of LM by comparing various detection methods. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pathologically Verified Corticobasal Degeneration Mimicking Richardson's Syndrome Coexisting with Clinically and Radiologically Shunt-Responsive Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

Mov Disord Clin Pract 2022 May 12;9(4):508-515. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Neurology National Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry Tokyo Japan.

Background: Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) manifests as gait instability, cognitive impairment, and urinary incontinence. This clinical triad of NPH sometimes occurs with ventriculomegaly in patients with neurodegenerative disease. Patients with pathologically verified neurodegenerative diseases, such as progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), have received antemortem diagnoses of NPH. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neurocysticercosis: An Uncommon Cause of Acute Supratentorial Hydrocephalus.

J Belg Soc Radiol 2022 29;106(1):31. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Radiology, University Hospital KU Leuven, BE.

We report a 29-year-old woman with acute supratentorial hydrocephalus due to intraventricular neurocysticercosis (NC). Aqueductal stenosis due to web formation and a free floating intraventricular cyst with scolex were pathognomonic and led to the diagnosis of NC. Worldwide, NC is the most important parasitic infection of the central nervous system but is very uncommon in non-endemic regions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF