10,502 results match your criteria Postmortem Radiology and Imaging

Intracerebral Plasmacytoma in a Patient with HIV-1 Infection and SARS-CoV-2 Superinfection.

Brain Sci 2022 May 30;12(6). Epub 2022 May 30.

Hematology and Chemotherapy Clinic, Riga East Clinical University Hospital, Hipokrāta Street 2, LV-1038 Rīga, Latvia.

We present a rare case of intracranial solitary plasmacytoma arising in brain parenchyma in the basal nuclei. Clinical management and autopsy results of the case are described. Background: Intracranial plasmacytomas arising from brain parenchyma are extremely rare, and data from the literature are limited. Read More

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Transplantation of Human Glial Progenitors to Immunodeficient Neonatal Mice with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (SOD1/rag2).

Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 May 26;11(6). Epub 2022 May 26.

Center for Advanced Imaging Research, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal disease with no effective therapy. The neurodegenerative character of ALS was an appealing target for stem cell-based regenerative approaches. Different types of stem cells have been transplanted in both preclinical and clinical settings, but no convincing outcomes have been noted. Read More

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Postmortem computed tomography plus forensic autopsy for determining the cause of death in child fatalities.

Pediatr Radiol 2022 Jun 23. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

University of Sheffield and Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK.

Background: Postmortem computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging have been gradually introduced to forensic pathology centres over the past two decades, with varying results in comparison to autopsy.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of postmortem CT in determining a cause of death in children who died of unnatural causes.

Materials And Methods: This was a prospective recruitment of 30 children (< 18 years) who underwent postmortem CT and a forensic autopsy. Read More

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Multimodal deep learning for Alzheimer's disease dementia assessment.

Nat Commun 2022 Jun 20;13(1):3404. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Neurology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Worldwide, there are nearly 10 million new cases of dementia annually, of which Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common. New measures are needed to improve the diagnosis of individuals with cognitive impairment due to various etiologies. Here, we report a deep learning framework that accomplishes multiple diagnostic steps in successive fashion to identify persons with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and non-AD dementias (nADD). Read More

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Virtual Autopsy Morphological Features of Drowning.

Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 Feb;38(1):53-58

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Key Laboratory of Forensic Science, Ministry of Justice, Shanghai Forensic Service Platform, Academy of Forensic Science, Shanghai 200063, China.

Objectives: To explore the application value of virtual autopsy to obtain key evidence information on drowned corpses and its application value of virtual autopsy in the diagnosis of drowning.

Methods: In this study, 7 corpses were selected as the research objects. The image data of corpses were collected by computed tomography (CT) before conventional autopsy. Read More

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February 2022

A new advanced MRI biomarker for remyelinated lesions in Multiple Sclerosis.

Ann Neurol 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Neurology Clinic and Policlinic, Departments of Medicine, Clinical Research and Biomedical Engineering, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Objectives: Neuropathological studies have shown that multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions are heterogeneous in terms of myelin/axon damage and repair as well as iron content. However, it remains a challenge to identify specific chronic lesion types, especially remyelinated lesions, in vivo in MS patients.

Methods: We performed three studies: (i) a cross-sectional study in a prospective cohort of 115 MS patients and 76 healthy controls, who underwent 3T MRI for Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), myelin water fraction (MWF), neurite density index (NDI) maps. Read More

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Early Pleistocene hominin teeth from Gongwangling of Lantian, Central China.

J Hum Evol 2022 Jul 7;168:103212. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Vertebrate Evolution and Human Origins, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100044, China; CAS Center for Excellence in Life and Paleoenvironment, Beijing, 100044, China.

The fossil hominin individual from Gongwangling of Lantian, Central China, represents one of the earliest members attributed to Homo erectus in East Asia. Recent paleomagnetic analyses have yielded an age of 1.63 Ma for the Gongwangling hominin. Read More

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Neuropathology of Pediatric SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Forensic Setting: Novel Application of Imaging in Analysis of Brain Microvasculature.

Front Neurol 2022 24;13:894565. Epub 2022 May 24.

Office of Chief Medical Examiner, New York, NY, United States.

Two years into the COVID-19 pandemic, there are few published accounts of postmortem SARS-CoV-2 pathology in children. We report 8 such cases (4 infants aged 7-36 weeks, 4 children aged 5-15 years). Four underwent magnetic resonance neuroimaging, to assist in identification of subtle lesions related to vascular compromise. Read More

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Vasculopathy and Increased Vascular Congestion in Fatal COVID-19 and ARDS.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Jun 7. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Massachusetts General Hospital, 2348, James Homer Wright Pathology Laboratories, Department of Pathology, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.

Rationale The leading cause of death in coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) is severe pneumonia, with many patients developing acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) and diffuse alveolar damage(DAD). Whether DAD in fatal COVID-19 is distinct from other causes of DAD remains unknown. Objective To compare lung parenchymal and vascular alterations between patients with fatal COVID-19 pneumonia and other DAD-causing etiologies using a multidimensional approach. Read More

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Default Mode Network quantitative diffusion and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging correlates in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

Hum Brain Mapp 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, Weill Institute for Neuroscience, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Grey matter involvement is a well-known feature in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), yet precise anatomy-based quantification of reduced diffusivity is still not fully understood. Default Mode Network (DMN) areas have been recently demonstrated as selectively involved in sCJD, and functional connectivity has never been investigated in prion diseases. We analyzed the grey matter involvement using a quantitatively multi-parametric MRI approach. Read More

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Use of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of fetal vertebral abnormalities in utero: a single-center retrospective cohort study.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2022 Jun;12(6):3391-3405

Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used increasingly as an adjunct examination to ultrasound (US) for the evaluation of fetal anomalies. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the accuracy and confidence of diagnosing fetal vertebral anomalies are improved with MRI. We also assessed whether fetal MRI provides additional information when diagnosing fetal vertebral anomalies. Read More

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Sex Differences in Culprit Plaque Characteristics Among Different Age Groups in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2022 Jun 2;15(6):e011612. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Cardiology Division (L.M.S., M.A., A.N., I.M., I.-K.J.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

Background: Despite the significant decline in cardiovascular mortality in women over the past several decades, sex differences in the underlying pathology of acute coronary syndromes remain poorly understood. Previous postmortem studies have demonstrated sex differences in coronary plaque morphology with a higher prevalence of plaque erosion in young women and more plaque rupture in older women after menopause, whereas men showed no increase in prevalence of plaque rupture with age. However, in vivo data are limited. Read More

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F-FDG PET Imaging in Neurodegenerative Dementing Disorders: Insights into Subtype Classification, Emerging Disease Categories, and Mixed Dementia with Copathologies.

J Nucl Med 2022 Jun;63(Suppl 1):2S-12S

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Since the invention of F-FDG as a neurochemical tracer in the 1970s, F-FDG PET has been used extensively for dementia research and clinical applications. FDG, a glucose analog, is transported into the brain via glucose transporters and metabolized in a concerted process involving astrocytes and neurons. Although the exact cellular mechanisms of glucose consumption are still under investigation, F-FDG PET can sensitively detect altered neuronal activity due to neurodegeneration. Read More

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Autopsy study of fatal invasive pulmonary aspergillosis: Often undiagnosed premortem.

Respir Med 2022 08 20;199:106882. Epub 2022 May 20.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, & Sleep Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a serious complication in immunocompromised and critically ill patients but is difficult to diagnose. We sought to examine how often cases go undiagnosed and to understand the presenting clinical and radiologic features associated with fatal IA. We reviewed cases of fatal IA confirmed at autopsy (N = 67) between 1999 and 2019 at a tertiary academic hospital. Read More

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Pericardial Metastasis From Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Hypopharynx in a Living Patient.

Cureus 2022 Apr 17;14(4):e24216. Epub 2022 Apr 17.

Oncology, AMITA Health Saint Francis Hospital, Evanston, USA.

Cardiac metastatic disease is a rare finding and is usually diagnosed incidentally postmortem; it has been commonly reported in patients with cancers of lung, esophagus, breast, and melanoma. We present a case of a 62-year-old male with a history of squamous cell carcinoma of the pyriform sinus who presented with shortness of breath for one day. He underwent tumor resection followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy seven months before this presentation. Read More

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Postmortem Retrograde Contrasted Infusion in Thoracic Duct Outflow: Imaging Effectiveness Analysis.

Cureus 2022 Apr 17;14(4):e24224. Epub 2022 Apr 17.

Department of Health Sciences, Brasil University, Fernandópolis, BRA.

Background Thoracic duct (TD) anomaly can be quite variable and dangerous in surgical interventions in the neck region as there are numerous variations in its formation and topography. This highlights the importance of full knowledge about the TD and its anatomical variations. Thus, it is important to emphasize that the lack of anatomical-clinical knowledge or surgical skill during an intervention can significantly hamper successful results. Read More

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Diffusion tractography of superior cerebellar peduncle and dentatorubrothalamic tracts in two autopsy confirmed progressive supranuclear palsy variants: Richardson syndrome and the speech-language variant.

Neuroimage Clin 2022 May 11;35:103030. Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a 4-repeat tauopathy with neurodegeneration typically observed in the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) and dentatorubrothalamic tracts (DRTT). However, it is unclear how these tracts are differentially affected in different clinical variants of PSP.

Objectives: To determine whether diffusion tractography of the SCP and DRTT can differentiate autopsy-confirmed PSP with Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS) and PSP with predominant speech/language disorder (PSP-SL). Read More

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Fetal phenotypes of Mendelian disorders: A descriptive study from India.

Prenat Diagn 2022 06 1;42(7):911-926. Epub 2022 Jun 1.

Department of Medical Genetics, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, India.

Objective: Exome sequencing (ES)-based diagnosis of Mendelian diseases in the fetus is limited by paucity of phenotypic information. This study reports the comprehensive phenotypes of some fetuses with Mendelian disorders.

Methods: Next generation technology-based sequencing of all coding regions of the genome (Exome sequencing) or targeted gene sequencing using Sanger or next generation platforms was performed in a cohort of deeply phenotyped, cytogenetically normal fetuses with morphological defects. Read More

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Family history is key to the interpretation of exome sequencing in the prenatal context: unexpected diagnosis of Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome.

Prenat Diagn 2022 06 27;42(7):927-933. Epub 2022 May 27.

Medical Genetics Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: To reach a molecular diagnosis for a family with two consecutive fetuses presenting with multiple congenital anomalies.

Methods: The two fetuses underwent prenatal ultrasound, autopsy, radiologic, and genetic investigation. Genetic analysis included karyotype and array-CGH for both fetuses and trio-based whole exome sequencing (WES) only for the second fetus. Read More

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Plasma P-tau181 and P-tau217 in Patients With Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome With and Without Evidence of Alzheimer Disease Pathology.

Neurology 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

University of California, San Francisco, Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, Weill Institute for Neurosciences, San Francisco, CA.

Background: Traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES) has overlapping clinical symptoms with Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD pathology commonly co-occurs with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) pathology. There are currently no validated CTE biomarkers. Read More

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Sex differences in the genetic architecture of cognitive resilience to Alzheimer's disease.

Brain 2022 May 13. Epub 2022 May 13.

Vanderbilt Memory and Alzheimer's Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Approximately 30% of elderly adults are cognitively unimpaired at time of death despite presence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology at autopsy. Studying individuals who are resilient to the cognitive consequences of AD neuropathology may uncover novel therapeutic targets to treat AD. It is well-established that there are sex differences in response to AD pathology, and growing evidence suggests that genetic factors may contribute to these differences. Read More

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Primary cardiac diffuse large B-cell lymphoma presenting with cardiac tamponade: a case report.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2022 May 9;6(5):ytac151. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Department of Cardiology, Sint-Trudo Hospital, 3800 Sint-Truiden, Belgium.

Background: Primary cardiac tumours are extremely rare with an autopsy incidence of 0.05%. They can present with a variety of symptoms, including life-threatening arrhythmia and cardiac tamponade. Read More

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Development of an automatic multiplanar reconstruction processing method for head computed tomography.

J Xray Sci Technol 2022 May 4. Epub 2022 May 4.

Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, Asahimachi-dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, Niigata, Japan.

Background: Head computed tomography (CT) is a commonly used imaging modality in radiology facilities. Since multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) processing can produce different results depending on the medical staff in charge, there is a possibility that the antemortem and postmortem images of the same person could be assessed and identified differently.

Objective: To propose and test a new automatic MPR method in order to address and overcome this limitation. Read More

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The Ogival Palate: A New Risk Marker of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy?

Front Pediatr 2022 18;10:809725. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, AP-HP University Hospital Raymond Poincaré, University of Paris-Saclay, Garches, France.

Objective: Ogival palate (i.e., a narrow and high-arched palate) is usually described in obstructive breath disorder but has been found in infants unexpectedly deceased. Read More

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Accuracy and clinical utility of standard postmortem radiological imaging after early second trimester termination of pregnancy.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2022 Jun 27;273:75-80. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Unit of Fetal Medicine and Prenatal Diagnosis, Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", Trieste, Italy; Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Objective: This study aims to assess accuracy and clinical utility of postmortem radiological exams [Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT) and Radiography (XR)] after termination of pregnancy at <23 weeks' gestation for congenital fetal malformations in comparison to autopsy.

Study Design: This a prospective single-center study on fetuses underwent termination of pregnancy for fetal defects. Overall concordance between any radiological exam and autopsy was evaluated. Read More

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CT findings of the massive air embolism in a case with thorasic gunshot wound: A special case report as if a whole body pneumo-angiography was performed.

Curr Med Imaging 2022 Apr 26. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Anesthesiology, Acibadem Taksim Hastanesi institute, Turkey.

Background: Massive systemic arterial air embolism [SAAE] associated with penetrating trauma is a rare condition. A few cases were reported for massive arterial air embolism in literature. Computed tomography is a fast and easily accessible modality for detecting air in the vasculature. Read More

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Potential for personal identification using the volume of the mastoid air cells extracted from postmortem computed tomographic images.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2022 Apr 6;58:102060. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan. Electronic address:

This study revealed the usefulness of volumetric analysis of mastoid air cells (MACs) extracted from postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) images in characterizing individuals. To characterize deceased persons, the MACs volumes of 61 Japanese PMCT images were measured after thresholding in Hounsfield units and based on the number of voxels on the right and left sides and the voxel size for each person. The volume differences between the right and left MACs and sex were examined. Read More

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Thin-Cap Fibroatheroma Rather Than Any Lipid Plaques Increases the Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Diabetic Patients: Insights From the COMBINE OCT-FFR Trial.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2022 May 29;15(5):e011728. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland (M.R.-D., P.G., W.W., E.K.).

Background: Autopsy studies have established that thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs) are the most frequent cause of fatal coronary events. In living patients, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has sufficient resolution to accurately differentiate TCFA from thick-cap fibroatheroma (ThCFA) and not lipid rich plaque (non-LRP). However, the impact of OCT-detected plaque phenotype of nonischemic lesions on future adverse events remains unknown. Read More

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Multi-Modal Biomarkers of Repetitive Head Impacts and Traumatic Encephalopathy Syndrome: A Clinicopathological Case Series.

J Neurotrauma 2022 Jun 6. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Department of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Traumatic encephalopathy syndrome (TES) criteria were developed to aid diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) pathology during life. Interpreting clinical and biomarker findings in patients with TES during life necessitates autopsy-based determination of the neuropathological profile. We report a clinicopathological series of nine patients with previous repetitive head impacts (RHI) classified retrospectively using the recent TES research framework (100% male and white/Caucasian, age at death 49-84) who completed antemortem neuropsychological evaluations, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging ( = 6), (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ( = 5), and plasma measurement of neurofilament light (NfL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and total tau ( = 8). Read More

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CD8 encephalitis presenting as autoimmune encephalitis in HIV-1 infection.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Apr 22;15(4). Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Radiology, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK.

A man in his 60s presented with a worsening headache, confusion and expressive dysphasia which, on admission, progressed to a falling Glasgow Coma Score and seizures. He was subsequently admitted to the intensive care unit. The clinical diagnosis was antibody-negative autoimmune encephalitis. Read More

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