118,407 results match your criteria Postmortem Radiology and Imaging


Solving for X: Evidence for sex-specific autism biomarkers across multiple transcriptomic studies.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centre for Pattern Recognition and Data Analytics (PRaDA), Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a markedly heterogeneous condition with a varied phenotypic presentation. Its high concordance among siblings, as well as its clear association with specific genetic disorders, both point to a strong genetic etiology. However, the molecular basis of ASD is still poorly understood, although recent studies point to the existence of sex-specific ASD pathophysiologies and biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

An interdisciplinary review of the thanatomicrobiome in human decomposition.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

Death does not occur instantaneously and organs do not decompose at the same rate or in the same way. Nulligravid human uteri and prostate glands are the last internal organs to deteriorate during decomposition; however, the reason for this very important observation is still enigmatic. Recent studies have elucidated that the composition and abundance of microbes in the human thanatomicrobiome (microbiome of death) varies by organ and changes as a function of time and temperature. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Pleural anthracosis presenting with massive effusion: a rare entity.

Respirol Case Rep 2019 Feb 28;7(2):e00390. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Respiratory Department Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.

Pleural anthracosis is rare and, in most cases, is diagnosed incidentally or at autopsy. We report a 67-year-old man with pleural anthracosis. He was initially referred for possible tuberculous pleural effusion and had recurrent admissions for symptomatic pleural effusion, which increased with each subsequent episode. Read More

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February 2019

A human-derived antibody targets misfolded SOD1 and ameliorates motor symptoms in mouse models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Sci Transl Med 2018 Dec;10(470)

Neurimmune AG, 8952 Schlieren, Switzerland.

Mutations in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) lead to misfolding and aggregation of SOD1 and cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). However, the implications of wild-type SOD1 misfolding in sporadic forms of ALS (SALS) remain unclear. By screening human memory B cells from a large cohort of healthy elderly subjects, we generated a recombinant human monoclonal antibody (α-miSOD1) that selectively bound to misfolded SOD1, but not to physiological SOD1 dimers. Read More

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December 2018

Noninvasive C-rifampin positron emission tomography reveals drug biodistribution in tuberculous meningitis.

Sci Transl Med 2018 Dec;10(470)

Center for Infection and Inflammation Imaging Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a devastating form of tuberculosis (TB), and key TB antimicrobials, including rifampin, have restricted brain penetration. A lack of reliable data on intralesional drug biodistribution in infected tissues has limited pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling efforts to optimize TBM treatments. Current methods to measure intralesional drug distribution rely on tissue resection, which is difficult in humans and generally limited to a single time point even in animals. Read More

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December 2018

Siglec-1 Macrophages and the Contribution of IFN to the Development of Autoimmune Congenital Heart Block.

J Immunol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016.

Given that diseases associated with anti-SSA/Ro autoantibodies, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome, are linked with an upregulation of IFN and type I IFN-stimulated genes, including sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 1 (Siglec-1), a receptor on monocytes/macrophages, recent attention has focused on a potential role for IFN and IFN-stimulated genes in the pathogenesis of congenital heart block (CHB). Accordingly, three approaches were leveraged to address the association of IFN, IFN-stimulated genes, and the phenotype of macrophages in affected fetal cardiac tissue: 1) cultured healthy human macrophages transfected with hY3, an anti-SSA/Ro-associated ssRNA, 2) RNA isolated from freshly sorted human leukocytes/macrophages after Langendorff perfusion of three fetal hearts dying with CHB and three healthy gestational age-matched hearts, and 3) autopsy tissue from three additional human CHB hearts and one healthy heart. TLR ligation of macrophages with hY3 led to the upregulation of a panel of IFN transcripts, including SIGLEC1, a result corroborated using quantitative PCR. Read More

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December 2018

Magnitude, trends and causes of maternal mortality among reproductive aged women in Kersa health and demographic surveillance system, eastern Ethiopia.

BMC Womens Health 2018 Dec 5;18(1):198. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Mothers and Babies Research Centre, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.

Background: Despite efforts at curbing maternal morbidity and mortality, developing countries are still burdened with high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality. Ethiopia is not an exception and has one of the world's highest rates of maternal deaths. Reducing the huge burden of maternal mortality remains the single most serious challenge in Ethiopia. Read More

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December 2018
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Modeling Parkinson's Disease and Atypical Parkinsonian Syndromes Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 4;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Neurology, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan.

Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonian syndromes are age-dependent multifactorial neurodegenerative diseases, which are clinically characterized by bradykinesia, tremor, muscle rigidity and postural instability. Although these diseases share several common clinical phenotypes, their pathophysiological aspects vary among the disease categories. Extensive animal-based approaches, as well as postmortem studies, have provided important insights into the disease mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Association of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein Levels With Cognition in Patients With Dementia, Motor Neuron Disease, and Movement Disorders.

JAMA Neurol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.

Importance: Neuronal and axonal destruction are hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases, but it is difficult to estimate the extent and progress of the damage in the disease process.

Objective: To investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light (NFL) protein, a marker of neuroaxonal degeneration, in control participants and patients with dementia, motor neuron disease, and parkinsonian disorders (determined by clinical criteria and autopsy), and determine its association with longitudinal cognitive decline.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this case-control study, we investigated NFL levels in CSF obtained from controls and patients with several neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Correlation of In Vivo [18F]Flortaucipir With Postmortem Alzheimer Disease Tau Pathology.

JAMA Neurol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Importance: In Alzheimer disease (AD), tau filaments form neuronal inclusions in neurites (neuropil threads) and in somata (neurofibrillary tangles), and neurite tau pathology constitutes the most common pathology. Positron emission tomography (PET) ligands have been developed to detect in vivo tau pathology in AD. However, the association of AD tau pathology post mortem with in vivo tau PET retention has not been established. Read More

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December 2018

Do dGEMRIC and T2 Imaging Correlate With Histologic Cartilage Degeneration in an Experimental Ovine FAI Model?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

F. Schmaranzer, E. F. Liechti, M. Tannast, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland L. Arendt, K. Nuss, B. von Rechenberg, M. Tannast, Musculoskeletal Research Unit (MSRU), Equine Hospital, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland P. R. Kircher, Department of Small Animals, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Background: Biochemical MRI of hip cartilage such as delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) and T2 mapping is increasingly used to judge cartilage quality in the assessment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The current evidence is sparse about which of these techniques yields a stronger correlation with histologic cartilage degeneration because of the difficulty in validating biochemical MRI techniques against histology in the clinical setting. Recently, an experimental ovine FAI model was established that induces chondrolabral damage and offers a validated platform to address these limitations. Read More

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November 2018
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Supervised Classification of CYP2D6 Genotype and Metabolizer Phenotype With Postmortem Tramadol-Exposed Finns.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Cytochrome p450 family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6 (CYP2D6) may be used to infer the metabolizer phenotype (MP) of an individual as poor, intermediate, extensive/normal, or ultrarapid. Metabolizer phenotypes may suggest idiosyncratic drug responses as contributing factors to cause and/or manner of death in postmortem investigations. Application of CYP2D6 has used long-range amplification of the locus and restriction enzyme digestion to detect single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) associated with MPs. Read More

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November 2018

Global, regional, and national burden of tuberculosis, 1990-2016: results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2016 Study.

Authors:

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Dec;18(12):1329-1349

Background: Although a preventable and treatable disease, tuberculosis causes more than a million deaths each year. As countries work towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target to end the tuberculosis epidemic by 2030, robust assessments of the levels and trends of the burden of tuberculosis are crucial to inform policy and programme decision making. We assessed the levels and trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis by drug resistance and HIV status for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Read More

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December 2018
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Global, regional, and national burden of meningitis, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

Authors:

Lancet Neurol 2018 Dec 13;17(12):1061-1082. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Background: Acute meningitis has a high case-fatality rate and survivors can have severe lifelong disability. We aimed to provide a comprehensive assessment of the levels and trends of global meningitis burden that could help to guide introduction, continuation, and ongoing development of vaccines and treatment programmes.

Methods: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) 2016 study estimated meningitis burden due to one of four types of cause: pneumococcal, meningococcal, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a residual category of other causes. Read More

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December 2018

Optimization and Pharmacological Characterization of Receptor-Mediated G Activation in Postmortem Human Prefrontal Cortex.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Neuropharmacology, Institut Universitari d'Investigació en Ciències de la Salut (IUNICS), University of the Balearic Islands (UIB), and Institut d'investigació Sanitària Illes Balears (IdISBa), Palma de Mallorca, Spain.

The biochemical abnormalities in transmembrane signal transduction mediated through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been postulated as underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and mood disorders. In the present study, the experimental conditions of agonist-induced [ S]GTPγS binding in postmortem human brain membranes were optimized, and the responses induced by a series of agonists were pharmacologically characterized. The [ S]GTPγS binding assay was performed in postmortem human prefrontal cortical membranes by means of filtration techniques, and standardized as to GDP concentration, membrane protein content, MgCl and NaCl concentrations in assay buffer, incubation period, and effect of white matter contamination. Read More

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December 2018

Extracellular traps derived from macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils and neutrophils are generated in a time-dependent manner during atherothrombosis.

J Pathol 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Pathology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Extracellular traps generated by neutrophils contribute to thrombus progression in coronary atherosclerotic plaques. It is not known whether other inflammatory cell types in coronary atherosclerotic plaque or thrombus also release extracellular traps. We investigated their formation by macrophages, mast cells and eosinophils in human coronary atherosclerosis, and in relation to the age of thrombus of myocardial infarction patients. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of the specificity of the central diagnostic criterion for chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

Ir J Med Sci 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Neuropathology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Road, Dublin 9, Ireland.

Introduction: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a postmortem diagnosis. Consensus postmortem, but not antemortem, diagnostic criteria have been established. A key factor in these criteria is evidence of phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) around sulcal vessels in the cortex. Read More

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November 2018

Simon's hemorrhages in a case of a fatal construction site accident as the result of body hyperextension in the upside-down position - a possible reconstruction of the injury mechanism.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Belgrade - School of Medicine, 31a Deligradska str., Belgrade, 11000, Serbia.

An accident occurred at a construction site and a 27-year-old worker was fatally injured. Equipped with personal protective equipment (helmet and a safety belt), he was standing on an 8-meter-high platform holding a large hose that was attached to a pipe connected to a concrete pump truck. Whilst in use the pipe broke and the hose sent the man flying with force, knocking down the platform railing. Read More

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December 2018

Stromal Content Is Correlated With Tissue Site, Contrast Retention, and Survival in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

JCO Precis Oncol 2018 16;2018. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Purpose: Desmoplastic stroma is a cardinal feature of primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but its effects on the biology, prognosis and therapeutic outcomes are not known. We developed an automated method to assess tumor stroma density (TSD) and investigated computed tomography (CT)-correlates of stroma in PDAC.

Patients And Methods: We collected PDAC samples from rapid autopsy and resection series and digitally annotated samples to quantify TSD. Read More

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January 2018

Spectral-Domain OCT Findings of Retinal Vascular-Avascular Junction in Infants with Retinopathy of Prematurity.

Ophthalmol Retina 2018 Sep 21;2(9):963-971. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.

Purpose: Bedside examination of premature infants at risk for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is predominantly performed with ophthalmoscopic viewing of the retina. While postmortem retinal microstructures have been studied at the vascular-avascular junction, a critical location for pathogenesis of ROP, to date this has not been possible . Here we present bedside, non-sedated cross-sectional imaging and analysis of retinal microstructures at the vascular-avascular junction in infants with ROP using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). Read More

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September 2018
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Complete Routine Remote Digital Pathology Services.

J Pathol Inform 2018 29;9:36. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Pathology, Førde Central Hospital, Førde, Norway.

Background: Validation studies in digital pathology addressed so far diverse aspects of the routine work. We aimed to establish a complete remote digital pathology service.

Methods: Altogether 2295 routine cases (8640 slides) were reported in our studies on digital versus microscopic diagnostics, remote reporting, diagnostic time, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) clinics, frozen sections, and diagnostic sessions with residents. Read More

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October 2018

Visceral Mycoses in Autopsied Cases in Japan from 1989 to 2013.

Med Mycol J 2018 ;59(4):E53-E62

Department of Pathology, Kitasato University School of Medicine.

Background And Methods: Our group has continuously studied the epidemiology of visceral mycoses (VM) among autopsy cases in Japan from 1989 to 2013.

Results: First, from a total of 11,149 autopsied cases, 571 (5.1%) cases of VM were observed in 2013. Read More

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January 2018

Autopsy in dengue encephalitis: An analysis of three cases.

Neurol India 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1721-1725

Department of Pathology and Neurology, Command Hospital Air Force, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Dengue viral infection with unusual presentations has been described in literature, but autopsy is rarely done and is only limited to some cases, based on the literature review. Here, we present the autopsy findings in three cases of dengue encephalitis. All the three patients clinically presented with signs of meningoencephalitis and were positive for dengue non-structural (NS) 1 antigen (Ag) in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Read More

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December 2018

Sudden and unexpected death due to intracranial sellar extramedullary plasmacytoma.

J Forensic Leg Med 2018 Nov 26;61:89-91. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Institute od Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Slovak Medical University and Cytopathos Ltd., Limbova 12, 833 03 Bratislava, Slovakia. Electronic address:

The incidence of sudden death caused by undiagnosed primary intracranial neoplasm in young adults is extremely low. The aim of the work is to present a case report of the sudden death of a 24-year-old woman. The autopsy has revealed enlargement of sella turcica with an intrasellar tumorous mass extending into the adjacent basal parts of the brain. Read More

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November 2018
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Hematopoietic cell transplantation for severe MPS I in the first six months of life: The heart of the matter.

Mol Genet Metab 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Background: Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is accepted therapy for severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS IH). With implementation of newborn screening (NBS) for MPS I in the US, HCT may now occur earlier than 1-2 years of age and it might be assumed that cardiac issues will be fewer. To examine this hypothesis, we reviewed our records for any MPS IH infant who underwent HCT at ≤6 months of age. Read More

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November 2018

Inhibitors of NF-κB and P2X7/NLRP3/Caspase 1 pathway in microglia: Novel therapeutic opportunities in neuroinflammation induced early-stage Alzheimer's disease.

J Neuroimmunol 2018 Nov 20;326:62-74. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Pharmacology, SPP School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, V.L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai 400056, India. Electronic address:

Microglial activation is a distinguished attribute in many neurodegenerative diseases of aging. Compelling evidence suggests that neuroinflammation stimulated by microglia, the resident macrophage-like immune cells in the brain, play a contributing role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Postmortem brain tissue of individuals with AD has credibly demonstrated that neuroinflammation is likely to be a key driver of the disease. Read More

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November 2018

Do Autopsies Still Matter? The Influence of Autopsy Data on Final Injury Severity Score Calculations.

J Surg Res 2019 Jan 22;233:453-458. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Division of Trauma and Burns, Department of Surgery, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address:

Background: Despite a proven record of identifying injuries missed during clinical evaluation, the effect of autopsy on injury severity score (ISS) calculation is unknown. We hypothesized that autopsy data would alter final ISS and improve the accuracy of outcome data analyses.

Materials And Methods: All trauma deaths from January 2010 through June 2014 were reviewed. Read More

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January 2019

Is Olfactory Epithelium Biopsy Useful for Confirming Alzheimer's Disease?

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2018 Dec 2:3489418814865. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

1 University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives:: The clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are preceded by a long asymptomatic period associated with "silent" deposition of aberrant paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and amyloid-beta proteins in brain tissue. Similar depositions have been reported within the olfactory epithelium (OE), a tissue that can be biopsied in vivo. The degree to which such biopsies are useful in identifying AD is controversial. Read More

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December 2018

Decreased Neuron Density and Increased Glia Density in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (Brodmann Area 25) in Williams Syndrome.

Brain Sci 2018 Nov 29;8(12). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Anthropology, Social Sciences Building Rm. 210, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0532, USA.

Williams Syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a deletion of 25⁻28 genes on chromosome 7 and characterized by a specific behavioral phenotype, which includes hypersociability and anxiety. Here, we examined the density of neurons and glia in fourteen human brains in Brodmann area 25 (BA 25), in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), using a postmortem sample of five adult and two infant WS brains and seven age-, sex- and hemisphere-matched typically developing control (TD) brains. We found decreased neuron density, which reached statistical significance in the supragranular layers, and increased glia density and glia to neuron ratio, which reached statistical significance in both supra- and infragranular layers. Read More

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November 2018

Diabetes insipidus secondary to tuberculous meningoencephalitis with hypothalamic involvement extending to the hypophysis: a case report.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2018 Nov-Dec;51(6):865-867

Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, AM, Brasil.

The involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommon and devastating manifestation of tuberculosis. We report a case of disseminated tuberculosis presenting as meningoencephalitis, hypothalamic involvement with extension to the hypophysis, and secondary insipidus diabetes diagnosed at autopsy. Read More

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December 2017

Three-dimensional kinematic corridors of the head, spine, and pelvis for small female driver seat occupants in near- and far-side oblique frontal impacts.

Traffic Inj Prev 2018 Dec 5:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

a Department of Neurosurgery , Medical College of Wisconsin , Milwaukee , Wisconsin.

Objectives: Analyses of recent automotive accident data indicate an increased risk of injury for small female occupants compared to males in similar accidents. Females have been shown to be more susceptible to spinal injuries than males. To protect this more vulnerable population, advanced anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) and computer human body models are being developed and require biofidelity curves for validation. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Nurr1 (NR4A2) regulates Alzheimer's disease-related pathogenesis and cognitive function in the 5XFAD mouse model.

Aging Cell 2018 Dec 4:e12866. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts.

The orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 (also known as NR4A2) is critical for the development and maintenance of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and is associated with Parkinson's disease. However, an association between Nurr1 and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology has not previously been reported. Here, we provide evidence that Nurr1 is expressed in a neuron-specific manner in AD-related brain regions; specifically, it is selectively expressed in glutamatergic neurons in the subiculum and the cortex of both normal and AD brains. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Rearward movement of the slide in semi-automatic pistols: a factor potentially influencing the configuration of muzzle imprint marks in contact shots.

Int J Legal Med 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Institute of Legal Medicine, University Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Albertstraße 9, 79104, Freiburg, Germany.

A muzzle imprint mark is a highly diagnostic finding, which indicates a contact shot. In many cases, it also provides additional information on the type of the weapon used and on the way in which it was held at the time of firing. In semi-automatic pistols, some constructional elements constituting the muzzle plane move to the rear together with the slide, which may prevent them from causing a corresponding imprint close to the bullet entrance hole. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The Outcome of Dopamine Dysregulation Syndrome in Parkinson's Disease: A Retrospective Postmortem Study.

Mov Disord Clin Pract 2018 Sep-Oct;5(5):519-522. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Reta Lila Weston Institute of Neurological Studies Institute of Neurology, University College London London United Kingdom.

Introduction: We have performed a retrospective analysis of the frequency and relation to treatment of dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS) using the Queen Square Brain Bank (QSBB) database.

Methods: A search of the QSBB database for consecutive cases donated between 2005 and 2016 with a pathological diagnosis of Parkinson's disease was performed.

Results: DDS was present in 8. Read More

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October 2018

Postmortem transport in fossil and modern shelled cephalopods.

PeerJ 2018 27;6:e5909. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Geology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, United States of America.

The chambered shells of cephalopod mollusks, such as modern and fossil ammonoids, have the potential to float after death, which could result in significant postmortem transport of shells away from living habitats. Such transport would call into question these clades' documented biogeographic distributions and therefore the many (paleo)biological interpretations based on them. It is therefore imperative to better constrain the likelihood and extent of postmortem transport in modern and fossil cephalopods. Read More

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November 2018

Assessment of the Prevalence of Vascular Anomalies of the Circle of Willis Based on the Autopsy of Cadavers in Kurdish Race Between 2016 and 2017.

Mater Sociomed 2018 Oct;30(3):189-192

Department of Neurosurgery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Introduction: Cerebral arterial variations are commonly associated with cerebrovascular disease and should be considered during brain surgeries. Since some cerebrovascular diseases are seen in certain breeds, it seems that different distributions of cerebral arterial variations depend on race.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the random incidence of vascular anomalies of the circle of Willis in autopsy of the cadavers. Read More

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October 2018

Effect of age and autism spectrum disorder on oxytocin receptor density in the human basal forebrain and midbrain.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Dec 4;8(1):257. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Psychology, California National Primate Research Center, University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

The prosocial hormone oxytocin (OXT) has become a new target for research on the etiology and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a condition characterized by deficits in social function. However, it remains unknown whether there are alterations in OXT receptor (OXTR) levels in the ASD brain. This study quantified the density of OXTR and of the structurally related vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a) in postmortem brain tissue from individuals with ASD and typically developing individuals. Read More

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December 2018
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Disseminated cryptococcosis in Crohn's disease: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 4;18(1):620. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Wanglang Road, Bangkoknoi, Bangkok, 10700, Thailand.

Background: Gastrointestinal (GI) cryptococcosis is rarely reported. Most cases were diagnosed during evaluation of comorbid conditions, incidental findings, or postmortem. Here, we present a case of Crohn's disease with gastrointestinal cryptococcosis that resembled exacerbation of Crohn's disease. Read More

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December 2018

Correlation of height and maximum overhead reach of a person in the forensic scenario: A study among the North Indian population.

Med Sci Law 2018 Dec 4:25802418816283. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Forensic Medicine, ESIC Medical College, India.

This study formulated a regression equation to estimate the maximum overhead reach of a person using his/her height. Height and maximum overhead reach of participants aged 21-30 years were measured. A regression equation was formulated to find the relation between height and maximum overhead reach. Read More

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December 2018

Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: Insights from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 30;19(12). Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, 80804 Munich, Germany.

Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by earlier onset, more severe course, and poorer outcome relative to adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS). Even though, clinical, neuroimaging, and genetic studies support that COS is continuous to AOS. Early neurodevelopmental deviations in COS are thought to be significantly mediated through poorly understood genetic risk factors that may also predispose to long-term outcome. Read More

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November 2018

Une épidémie de cancers due au surdiagnostic.

Rev Prat 2017 Jun;67(6):668-672

service de médecine nucléaire institut Gustave- Roussy, université Paris-Saclay, Inserm U1018, Villejuif, France.

Epidemiology of thyroid cancer. There is an important increase in the frequency of thyroid cancer in France, even after taking into account population increase and aging. This increase is essentially due to overdiagnosis. Read More

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Systemic Dissemination of Injected Foreign Material.

J Forensic Sci 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Forensic Science SA, GPO Box 2790, Adelaide, 5001.

A 32-year-old woman collapsed following an intravenous injection of material that included crushed pharmaceutical tablets. Resuscitation was attempted but was unsuccessful. She had an extensive past medical history of complications resulting from intravenous drug use. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Prenatal and postnatal presentation of PRMT7 related syndrome: Expanding the phenotypic manifestations.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 (PRMT7) is a member of a family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-l-methionine to nitrogen atoms on arginine residues. Arginine methylation is involved in multiple biological processes, such as signal transduction, mRNA splicing, transcriptional control, DNA repair, and protein translocation. Currently, 10 patients have been described with mutations in PRMT7. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Discussion: Understanding Fatal Fat Embolism in Gluteal Lipoinjection: A Review of the Medical Records and Autopsy Reports of 16 Patients.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Nov;142(5):1209-1211

Santa Monica, Calif. From the David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles.

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November 2018

Early growth response-1 regulates acetylcholinesterase and its relation with the course of Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Pathol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurobiology and, Department of Neurology of the Second Affiliated Hospital, NHC and CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, P.R. China.

Our previous studies showed that the transcription factor early growth response-1 (EGR1) may play a role in keeping the brain cholinergic function intact in the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved, we first performed data mining on our previous microarray study on postmortem human prefrontal cortex (PFC) for the changes in the expression of EGR1 and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the relationship between them during the course of AD. The study contained 49 patients, ranging from non-demented controls (Braak stage 0) to late AD patients (Braak stage VI). Read More

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December 2018

An autopsy case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after rituximab therapy for malignant lymphoma.

Neuropathology 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by reactivation of the JC virus (JCV), which is named after the initials of the patient from whom the virus was first isolated. JCV is highly prevalent worldwide, infects humans in early childhood, and the infection persists throughout the course of life in latent form. The present paper deals with the second autopsy case report of rituximab-associated PML in Japan. Read More

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December 2018
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of long clinical course clinically presenting with progressive muscular atrophy.

Neuropathology 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, Mifukai Vihara Hananosato Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) primarily affects upper and lower motor neurons. Phosphorylated trans-activation response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) inclusion bodies are reportedly a pathological hallmark of sporadic ALS. Here, we present an atypical case of sporadic ALS that progressed very slowly, persisted for 19 years, and clinically appeared to only affect the lower motor neurons; however, upper motor neuron degeneration was detected at autopsy. Read More

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December 2018

A controlled inflammation and a regulatory immune system are associated with more favorable prognosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

J Neurol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 1-5-45 Yushima Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8510, Japan.

Objective: In the present study, we analyzed the inflammatory profiles of brain tissues obtained from patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) due to John Cunningham (JC) virus infection to identify potential prognostic factors.

Methods: The study included seven patients (two men, five women) who had been pathologically diagnosed with PML, and all of whom were HIV negative. Fixed brain samples were analyzed via hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Klüver-Barrera (KB) staining. Read More

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December 2018