9,457 results match your criteria Postmortem Radiology and Imaging


Iatrogenic embolization following cardiac intervention: postmortem analysis of 110 cases.

Cardiovasc Pathol 2019 Jan 19;40:12-18. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

University of British Columbia, Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Vancouver General Hospital, Neuropathology, Vancouver, BC, Canada; St. Paul's Hospital, Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Iatrogenic embolization following cardiac investigative procedures may result from hydrophilic polymer emboli (HPE) from catheter valve and vessel wall calcifications, and air embolism from open heart surgery. This retrospective clinical pathologic analysis was undertaken to ascertain the frequency and extent of these potentially fatal complications.

Methods: This retrospective clinical pathologic autopsy analysis with premortem diagnostic imaging correlation identified 110 individuals who had undergone endovascular procedures between 2010 and 2016 within 90 days of death and followed by hospital autopsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carpath.2019.01.003DOI Listing
January 2019

Ultrahigh-resolution MRI reveals structural brain differences in serotonin transporter knockout rats after sucrose and cocaine self-administration.

Addict Biol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Centre for Neuroscience, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Excessive use of cocaine is known to induce changes in brain white and gray matter. It is unknown whether the extent of these changes is related to individual differences in vulnerability to cocaine addiction. One factor increasing vulnerability involves reduced expression of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12722DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The Structural Signature of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.

Eur J Neurol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Neurology, Washington University in Saint Louis, Saint Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rapidly-progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by an abnormal isoform of the human prion protein. Structural MRI in pathologically-confirmed sCJD patients was compared to cognitively-normal individuals to identify a cortical thickness signature of sCJD.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study compared autopsy-confirmed sCJD patients with dementia (n=11) to age- and sex-matched cognitively normal individuals (n=22). Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/ene.13930
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.13930DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

18F-Florbetaben PET/CT to Assess Alzheimer's Disease: A new Analysis Method for Regional Amyloid Quantification.

J Neuroimaging 2019 Feb 3. Epub 2019 Feb 3.

U.O.C. Neurologia, Fondazione IstitutoG. Giglio, Contrada Pietrapollastra-Pisciotto, 90015, Cefalù, Italy.

Background And Purpose: While AD can be definitively confirmed by postmortem histopathologic examination, in vivo imaging may improve the clinician's ability to identify AD at the earliest stage. The aim of the study was to test the performance of amyloid PET using new processing imaging algorithm for more precise diagnosis of AD.

Methods: Amyloid PET results using a new processing imaging algorithm (MRI-Less and AAL Atlas) were correlated with clinical, cognitive status, CSF analysis, and other imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12601DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Normal Aging Brain Collection Amsterdam (NABCA): A comprehensive collection of postmortem high-field imaging, neuropathological and morphometric datasets of non-neurological controls.

Neuroimage Clin 2019 Jan 29;22:101698. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Well-characterized, high-quality brain tissue of non-neurological control subjects is a prerequisite to study the healthy aging brain, and can serve as a control for the study of neurological disorders. The Normal Aging Brain Collection Amsterdam (NABCA) provides a comprehensive collection of post-mortem (ultra-)high-field MRI (3Tesla and 7 Tesla) and neuropathological datasets of non-neurological controls. By providing MRI within the pipeline, NABCA uniquely stimulates translational neurosciences; from molecular and morphometric tissue studies to the clinical setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.101698DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

3T MRI Whole-Brain Microscopy Discrimination of Subcortical Anatomy, Part 1: Brain Stem.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Departments of Radiology (M.T.B., N.C., T.M.S.)

Background And Purpose: The brain stem is compactly organized with life-sustaining sensorimotor and autonomic structures that can be affected by numerous pathologies but can be difficult to resolve on conventional MR imaging.

Materials And Methods: We applied an optimized TSE T2 sequence to washed postmortem brain samples to reveal exquisite and reproducible brain stem anatomic MR imaging contrast comparable with histologic atlases. This resource-efficient approach can be performed across multiple whole-brain samples with relatively short acquisition times (2 hours per imaging plane) using clinical 3T MR imaging systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A5956DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Micro-computed tomography: a new diagnostic tool in postmortem assessment of brain anatomy in small fetuses.

Neuroradiology 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Radiology-Studio Diagnostico Eco, Vimercate, Italy.

Purpose: The aim of our study was to evaluate the postmortem micro-CT anatomy of early fetal human fetal brains, either in situ or isolated.

Methods: We studied 12 ex vivo specimens, 9 whole human fetuses (9-18 GW), and 3 isolated samples (16-26 GW). Specimens were fixed in formalin, then immersed in Lugol solution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-019-02168-2DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Applicability of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Assessment of Fetal Urinary Tract Malformations.

Can Assoc Radiol J 2019 Feb;70(1):83-95

Department of Maternal and Child, Fluminense Federal University (UFF), Niteroi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Objective: To assess the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to complement ultrasound in the diagnosis of fetal urinary tract anomalies.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that included 41 women between 19 weeks and 37 weeks and 6 days of gestation carrying fetuses with malformations of the urinary tract which were initially diagnosed by ultrasound and then referred for MRI. In all cases, the diagnosis was confirmed after birth either through imaging or autopsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carj.2018.10.006DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Postmortem Imaging: An Update.

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2019 Feb 28;40(1):86-93. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Department of Radiology, University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy; Department of Radiology, Scientific Institute "Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza" Hospital, Foggia, Italy. Electronic address:

Postmortem imaging is a fascinating field of forensic radiology that has seen extraordinary growth in the last 10 years. Indeed, if autopsy represents the sole reliable method of determining the definitive cause of death, imaging may provide an efficient guide to supplement conventional autopsy. This is particularly true because of several techniques that are currently available, such as postmortem computed tomography, multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography, and postmortem magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.sult.2018.10.012DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Role of Postmortem CT in the Forensic Evaluation of Hemopericardium.

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2019 Feb 13;40(1):79-85. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Molecular Imaging and Radiotherapy, PTV Foundation, "Tor Vergata" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Hemopericardium (HP) is defined as the accumulation of blood in the pericardial sack. In a clinical setting, prompt identification of the presence of HP is of huge importance, because HP can result in pericardial tamponade. While echocardiography remains the most appropriate method for the evaluation of pericardial effusions in the clinical setting, postmortem imaging computed tomography (PMCT) is a valuable instrument for detecting the presence of HP and in evaluating its significance in causing mechanical impairment of cardiac activity and finally death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.sult.2018.10.005DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Virtopsy and Living Individuals Evaluation Using Computed Tomography in Forensic Diagnostic Imaging.

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2019 Feb 27;40(1):67-78. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Department of Biopathology and Medical Biotechnologies (Di.Bi.Med), University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

The applications of forensic radiology involve both Virtopsy both studies on living people - to demonstrate bone age, search for foreign bodies, such as voluntary injection of drug ovules or surgical sponges accidentally forgotten, to assess gunshot wounds, to evaluate injuries by road accidents, and cases of violence or abuse (both in adults and in children). Computed tomography is the most used imaging tool used in forensic pathology and its indications are mainly focused on cases of unnatural deaths or when a crime is suspected. It is preferred over the standard autopsy in selected cases, such as in putrefied, carbonized or badly damaged bodies; or as a preliminary evaluation in mass disasters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.sult.2018.10.013DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A Practical Guide to Virtual Autopsy: Why, When and How.

Semin Ultrasound CT MR 2019 Feb 27;40(1):56-66. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Molecular Imaging and Radiotherapy, PTV Foundation, "Tor Vergata" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Postmortem imaging is considered a routine investigative modality in many forensic institutions worldwide. Because of its ability to provide a quick and complete documentation of skeletal system and major parenchymal alterations, postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is the imaging technique most frequently applied in postmortem forensic investigations. Also postmortem magnetic resonance has been implemented in postmortem setting, but its use is mostly limited to focused analysis (eg, study of the heart and brain). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.sult.2018.10.011DOI Listing
February 2019
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Neuropathological correlates and genetic architecture of microglial activation in elderly human brain.

Nat Commun 2019 01 24;10(1):409. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Center for Translational and Computational Neuroimmunology, Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY, 10032, USA.

Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, have important roles in brain health. However, little is known about the regulation and consequences of microglial activation in the aging human brain. Here we report that the proportion of morphologically activated microglia (PAM) in postmortem cortical tissue is strongly associated with β-amyloid, tau-related neuropathology, and the rate of cognitive decline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-08279-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6345810PMC
January 2019
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Acute Posterior Multifocal Placoid Pigment Epitheliopathy Complicated by Fatal Cerebral Vasculitis.

J Neuroophthalmol 2019 Jan 22. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Departments of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences (RNM, GPVS, RR, GJH) and Neurology (LS), Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri; Blue Sky Neurology (NHK), Denver, Colorado; Department of Pathology and Immunology (CJF, RES, SD, GJH), Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; Department of Radiology (JT), University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado; and Department of Neurology (AD), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

A 21-year-old man experienced unilateral vision loss associated with multiple atrophic chorioretinal lesions. He was treated for a presumptive diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis, but his vision did not improve with antiviral therapy. Over the course of several weeks, his symptoms progressed to involve both eyes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000000750DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Blood-Brain Barrier Leakage and Microvascular Lesions in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

Stroke 2019 Feb;50(2):328-335

MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disease (MIND), Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown (W.M.F., B.J.B., M.P.F., S.J.v.V.).

Background and Purpose- Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a common small vessel disease that independently effects cognition in older individuals. The pathophysiology of CAA and CAA-related bleeding remains poorly understood. In this postmortem study, we explored whether blood-brain barrier leakage is associated with CAA and microvascular lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.023788DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Reference Transcriptome for Deriving Marmoset Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1919:175-186

Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Limited access to primary tissue from various nonhuman primate (NHP) species represents a significant unmet need that hampers progress in understanding unique cellular diversity and gene regulation of specific tissues and organs in stem cell translational research. Most comparative biology studies have been limited to using postmortem tissue usually frozen specimens with limited utility for research. The generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from somatic cells, such as adult skin or blood cells, offers an alternative to invasive and ethically controversial interventions for acquiring tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9007-8_13DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Variable phenotypic expression of Apert syndrome in monozygotic twins.

Clin Case Rep 2019 Jan 11;7(1):54-57. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics CHRU de Nancy Nancy France.

Apert syndrome in monozygotic twins can lead to different phenotypic expression of the disease in the two fetuses. Apert syndrome can be associated with congenital left diaphragmatic hernia and cleft palate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.1915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6333066PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Postmortem fetal imaging: a prospective blinded comparison study of 2-dimensional ultrasound with MR imaging.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Brugmann, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic rate and diagnostic accuracy of 3 Tesla (T) postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (PMMRI) and postmortem ultrasound (PMUS) in an unselected population.

Methods: In a blinded manner, we prospectively performed 3T PMMRI and PMUS on 160 unselected fetuses at 13-41 weeks of gestation. All imaging was reported according to a pre-specified template, for 5 anatomical regions: brain, thorax, heart, abdomen and spine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.20217DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

PET imaging of microglia by targeting macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Jan 11;116(5):1686-1691. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287;

While neuroinflammation is an evolving concept and the cells involved and their functions are being defined, microglia are understood to be a key cellular mediator of brain injury and repair. The ability to measure microglial activity specifically and noninvasively would be a boon to the study of neuroinflammation, which is involved in a wide variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including traumatic brain injury, demyelinating disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Parkinson's disease, among others. We have developed [C]CPPC [5-cyano--(4-(4-[C]methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-(piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)furan-2-carboxamide], a positron-emitting, high-affinity ligand that is specific for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), the expression of which is essentially restricted to microglia within brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1812155116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358677PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Relevant findings on postmortem CT and postmortem MRI in hanging, ligature strangulation and manual strangulation and their additional value compared to autopsy - a systematic review.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2019 Mar 9;15(1):84-92. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057, Zurich, Switzerland.

Several articles have described the use of postmortem computed tomography (CT) and postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in forensic medicine. Although access to CT scanners and, particularly, access to MRI scanners, is still limited for several institutes, both modalities are being applied with increasing frequency in the forensic setting. Certainly, postmortem imaging can provide crucial information prior to autopsy, and this method has even been considered a replacement to autopsy in selected cases by some forensic institutes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-018-0070-zDOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Progress in diagnosing and managing cardiac amyloidosis.

Cleve Clin J Med 2019 Jan;86(1):29-37

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

The last decade has seen major advances in diagnosing and treating cardiac amyloidosis. Early diagnosis can often now be made using noninvasive laboratory testing and imaging. New treatments are effective and well tolerated. Read More

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https://www.mdedge.com/ccjm/article/191792/cardiology/progre
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3949/ccjm.86gr.18004DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Prediction of Autopsy Verified Neuropathological Change of Alzheimer's Disease Using Machine Learning and MRI.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 10;10:406. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. While neuropathological changes pathognomonic for AD have been defined, early detection of AD prior to cognitive impairment in the clinical setting is still lacking. Pioneer studies applying machine learning to magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) data to predict mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD have yielded high accuracies, however, an algorithm predicting neuropathological change is still lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2018.00406DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295575PMC
December 2018
6 Reads

Probing the intravascular and interstitial compartments of remodeled myocardium in heart failure patients with preserved and reduced ejection fraction: a CMR study.

BMC Med Imaging 2019 Jan 5;19(1). Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Lausanne University Hospital, Cardiovascular Department, and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Recent autopsy studies found microvascular rarefaction in remodeled myocardium of patients who died of heart failure with preserved ejection-fraction (HFpEF). This condition has not been investigated so far by non-invasive methods in patients with HFpEF. The aim was to quantify the intravascular volume (IVV) compartment by CMR in HFpEF patients. Read More

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https://bmcmedimaging.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12880-018-0301-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6320584PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

Normal development of costal element ossification centers of sacral vertebrae in the fetal spine: a postmortem magnetic resonance imaging study.

Neuroradiology 2019 Feb 3;61(2):183-193. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

School of Medicine, Shandong University, No. 44 West Wenhua Road, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, China.

Purpose: This postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of the fetal spine aimed to describe the timing of appearance, shape, volume, and relative positions of the S1-S3 costal element ossification centers (CEOCs).

Methods: We obtained sagittal 3D dual-echo steady-state with water excitation T2 images of the entire spine in 71 fetuses (gestational ages (GAs), 17-42 weeks). Computed tomography and histological examinations were performed on two fetal specimens (GAs, 21 and 30 weeks) to validate the MR images. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-018-2147-5DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Blunt Thoracolumbar-Spine Trauma Evaluation in the Emergency Department: A Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy for History, Physical Examination, and Imaging.

J Emerg Med 2019 Feb 28;56(2):153-165. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Delayed diagnoses of unstable thoracolumbar spine (TL-spine) fractures can result in neurologic deficits and avoidable pain, so it is important for clinicians to reach prompt diagnostic decisions. There are no validated decision aids for determining which trauma patients warrant TL-spine imaging.

Objective: Our aim was to quantify the diagnostic accuracy of the injury mechanism, physical examination, associated injuries, clinical decision aids, and imaging for evaluating blunt TL-spine trauma patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2018.10.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369004PMC
February 2019
1 Read

A novel alignment procedure to assess calcified coronary plaques in histopathology, post-mortem computed tomography angiography and optical coherence tomography.

Cardiovasc Pathol 2018 Dec 7;39:25-29. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Medical Research, Odense University Hospital Svendborg, Valdemarsgade, 53, Svendborg, Denmark.

Purpose: Improve mapping and registration of longitudinal view on histopathology vessels in a three-dimensional alignment procedure for postmortem quantitative coronary plaque analyses. This new procedure is applied and results shown using calcified coronary plaque analyses within post-mortem computed tomography angiography (PMCTA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the gold standard of histopathology.

Results: In total, 338 annotated histopathology images were included, 166 PMCTA transversal images and 285 OCT images were aligned in the comparison. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carpath.2018.11.005DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

A case report of delayed cortical infarction adjacent to sulcal clots after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in the absence of proximal vasospasm.

BMC Neurol 2018 Dec 18;18(1):210. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Cortical ischemic lesions represent the predominant pathomorphological pattern of focal lesions after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Autopsy studies suggest that they occur adjacent to subarachnoid blood and are related to spasm of small cortical rather than proximal arteries. Recent clinical monitoring studies showed that cortical spreading depolarizations, which induce cortical arterial spasms, are involved in lesion development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-018-1217-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297952PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Meningeal carcinomatosis presenting with leukoencephalopathy-like imaging findings.

eNeurologicalSci 2019 Mar 19;14:21-23. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Neurology, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tenodai, Tsukuba-city, Japan.

Meningeal carcinomatosis is a unique and rare form of metastasis observed in patients with malignant tumours. Diagnosis is simple when the primary lesion of the malignant tumour is clear, and when multiple miliary lesions are confirmed via cranial contrast MRI; however, many patients exhibit atypical imaging findings. In the present report, we discuss the case of a 72-year-old man who presented with subacute consciousness impairment and MRI findings suggestive of progressive, bilateral leukoencephalopathy-like lesions around the ventricles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2018.11.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6275227PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Fatal Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis Associated with Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia: An Autopsy Case Report.

Intern Med 2018 15;57(24):3619-3624. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Japan.

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) usually occurs in patients with severe immunodeficiencies involving neutropenia. Underlying lung disease is a well-known risk factor of IPA; however, interstitial lung disease has not been recognized as a risk factor of IPA. We herein report a patient with fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia who experienced IPA without neutropenia. Read More

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https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/internalmedicine/57/24/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.1144-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6355419PMC
January 2019
9 Reads

The impact of amyloid-beta and tau on prospective cognitive decline in older individuals.

Ann Neurol 2019 Feb 21;85(2):181-193. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Harvard Aging Brain Study, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Objectives: Amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau pathologies are commonly observed among clinically normal older individuals at postmortem and can now be detected with in vivo neuroimaging. The association and interaction of these proteinopathies with prospective cognitive decline in normal aging and preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains to be fully elucidated.

Methods: One hundred thirty-seven older individuals (age = 76. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25395DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Intrauterine fetal MR versus postmortem MR imaging after therapeutic termination of pregnancy: evaluation of the concordance in the detection of brain abnormalities at early gestational stage.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Pediatric Radiology and Neuroradiology Department, Children's Hospital V. Buzzi - ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Via Castelvetro 32, 20154, Milan, Italy.

Background And Purpose: Fetal postmortem MR Imaging (pmMRI) has been recently used as an adjuvant tool to conventional brain autopsy after termination of pregnancy (TOP). Our purpose was to compare the diagnostic performance of intrauterine MRI (iuMRI) and pmMRI in the detection of brain anomalies in fetuses at early gestational age (GA).

Material And Methods: We retrospectively collected 53 fetuses who had undergone iuMRI and pmMRI for suspected brain anomalies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-018-5878-0DOI Listing
December 2018

Symmetrical Apophyses on the Posterior Margins of the Thyroid Cartilage: A Previously Undescribed Anatomical Variation With Potential Forensic Implications.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2019 Mar;40(1):84-88

Departamento de Anatomía y Embriología Humana Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Differential diagnosis between normal/variant anatomy and pathological/traumatic findings represents one of the main matters of investigation of the so-called forensic clinical anatomy. In the literature, many anatomical variations of the laryngeal thyroid cartilage have been reported, with potential implications in forensic pathology. They include triticeal cartilages, foramen thyroideum, asymmetry, segmentation or agenesis of the superior thyroid horns, bone connections with the hyoid bone, absence of cricothyroid facets, hypertrophy of the inferior thyroid tubercle, and asymmetries in the thyroid notch, isthmus, or length of the inferior horn. Read More

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http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00000433-900000000-9917
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAF.0000000000000452DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Three-legged radiographic view for evaluating cranioventral lung region in standing calves with bovine respiratory disease.

J Vet Med Sci 2019 Jan 7;81(1):120-126. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Veterinary Medical Center, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan.

This study proposed a novel radiographic positioning in order to image the cranioventral lung region using a portable X-ray unit and digital radiography system. In the novel position, calves were restrained in a chute and a unilateral forelimb was pulled cranially with the contralateral forelimb tied to the chute; the forelimbs were then spread cranio-caudally as in a scissor position (Three-legged view: TL view). In a preliminary study, we applied the TL view for imaging of 14 clinically healthy calves. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.18-0333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361651PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Evaluation of septal insertion of atrioventricular valves in fetuses by postmortem 4.7 Tesla cardiac MRI: A feasibility study.

Diagn Interv Imaging 2019 Feb 7;100(2):109-116. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Congenital and Pediatric Cardiology Unit, Centre de Référence Maladies Cardiaques Congénitales Complexes-M3C, hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, 75006 Paris, France; Université Paris-Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75005 Paris, France.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare non-invasive high-spatial-resolution postmortem cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and autopsy findings for evaluating the septal insertion of atrioventricular valves in fetuses.

Materials And Methods: Five fetal heart specimens including two normal hearts, one heart with complete atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) and two hearts with linear insertion of atrioventricular valves (LIAVV; gestational age 17 to 34 weeks) were studied with cardiac MRI using a 4.7 T MRI scanner without sample preparation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diii.2018.11.004DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Noninvasive C-rifampin positron emission tomography reveals drug biodistribution in tuberculous meningitis.

Sci Transl Med 2018 Dec;10(470)

Center for Infection and Inflammation Imaging Research, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a devastating form of tuberculosis (TB), and key TB antimicrobials, including rifampin, have restricted brain penetration. A lack of reliable data on intralesional drug biodistribution in infected tissues has limited pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling efforts to optimize TBM treatments. Current methods to measure intralesional drug distribution rely on tissue resection, which is difficult in humans and generally limited to a single time point even in animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aau0965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360528PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Stromal Content Is Correlated With Tissue Site, Contrast Retention, and Survival in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

JCO Precis Oncol 2018 16;2018. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Purpose: Desmoplastic stroma is a cardinal feature of primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but its effects on the biology, prognosis and therapeutic outcomes are not known. We developed an automated method to assess tumor stroma density (TSD) and investigated computed tomography (CT)-correlates of stroma in PDAC.

Patients And Methods: We collected PDAC samples from rapid autopsy and resection series and digitally annotated samples to quantify TSD. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6262879PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.17.00121DOI Listing
January 2018
3 Reads

Effect of age and autism spectrum disorder on oxytocin receptor density in the human basal forebrain and midbrain.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Dec 4;8(1):257. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Psychology, California National Primate Research Center, University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

The prosocial hormone oxytocin (OXT) has become a new target for research on the etiology and treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a condition characterized by deficits in social function. However, it remains unknown whether there are alterations in OXT receptor (OXTR) levels in the ASD brain. This study quantified the density of OXTR and of the structurally related vasopressin 1a receptor (AVPR1a) in postmortem brain tissue from individuals with ASD and typically developing individuals. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-018-0315-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-018-0315-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6279786PMC
December 2018
7 Reads

Forensic Radiology: An Update.

J Belg Soc Radiol 2017 Dec 16;101(Suppl 2):21. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

University of Foggia, IT.

Forensic radiology is a specialized area of medical imaging using radiological techniques to assist physicians and pathologists in matters related to the law. The forensic application of diagnostic medical radiology can be applied in many fields; the prime target of evaluation is the osseous skeleton, but soft tissues and abdominal and thoracic viscera may offer key findings. The technological progress in clinical radiology provides a lot of potential tools to forensic radiology, allowing wider fields of applications in this matter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/jbr-btr.1420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6251081PMC
December 2017
1 Read

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: neuroimaging biomarkers.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;158:309-322

Psychiatric Neuroimaging Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatic, and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with repetitive head impact exposure, such as that resulting from sports-related concussive and subconcussive brain trauma. Currently, the only way to diagnose CTE is by using neuropathologic markers obtained postmortem. To diagnose CTE earlier, so that possible treatment interventions may be employed, there is a need to develop noninvasive in vivo biomarkers of CTE. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B97804446395470
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63954-7.00029-XDOI Listing
January 2018
8 Reads

Case report: A fatal case of cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient due to (AFLP6/VGII).

JMM Case Rep 2018 Oct 23;5(10):e005168. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Canisius-Wilhelmina Hospital, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Cryptococcosis in immunocompetent adults is a rare disease in Europe, mostly induced by members of the species complex. The diagnosis can be challenging due to its rarity, unspecific symptoms and long symptomless latency.

Case Presentation: A 49-year-old woman with a three weeks history of headache was admitted to the hospital due to discrete ataxia and impaired vision. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmmcr.0.005168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249430PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Three-Dimensional Printing Technology Combined With Postmortem Computed Tomography Angiography as New Form of Forensic Evidence: A Case Report.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2019 Mar;40(1):61-64

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Academy of Forensic Science, Shanghai, China.

Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and PMCT angiography are increasingly used in forensic practice. However, their application in court is still limited because they need professional equipment or software to be displayed. In this article, the authors introduce 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology as a new approach to provide evidence in court. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAF.0000000000000443DOI Listing
March 2019
12 Reads

and Amplifications Determine Response to HER2 Inhibition in -Amplified Esophagogastric Cancer.

Cancer Discov 2019 Feb 21;9(2):199-209. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.

: The anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab is standard care for advanced esophagogastric (EG) cancer with (HER2) amplification or overexpression, but intrinsic and acquired resistance are common. We conducted a phase II study of afatinib, an irreversible pan-HER kinase inhibitor, in trastuzumab-resistant EG cancer. We analyzed pretreatment tumor biopsies and, in select cases, performed comprehensive characterization of postmortem metastatic specimens following acquisition of drug resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368868PMC
February 2019
19 Reads

In vivo hippocampal subfield shape related to TDP-43, amyloid beta, and tau pathologies.

Neurobiol Aging 2019 Feb 25;74:171-181. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Radiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:

Despite advances in the development of biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), accurate ante-mortem diagnosis remains challenging because a variety of neuropathologic disease states can coexist and contribute to the AD dementia syndrome. Here, we report a neuroimaging study correlating hippocampal deformity with regional AD and transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDA pathology burden. We used hippocampal shape analysis of ante-mortem T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging images of 42 participants from two longitudinal cohort studies conducted by the Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01974580183037
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2018.10.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331233PMC
February 2019
23 Reads

Visceral artery aneurysms - classification, diagnosis and treatment.

J Ultrason 2018 ;18(73):148-151

Department of Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland.

Although visceral artery aneurysms are rare, mortality due to their rupture is high, estimated at even 25-75%. That is why it is significant to detect each such lesion. Visceral artery aneurysms are usually asymptomatic and found incidentally during examinations performed for other indications. Read More

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http://jultrason.pl/index.php/issues/volume-18-no-73/viscera
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15557/JoU.2018.0021DOI Listing
January 2018
12 Reads

Low-field magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of a calf with aqueductal stenosis caused by web: comparison with normal calves.

J Vet Med Sci 2019 Jan 14;81(1):42-47. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582-1 Bunkyoudai-Midorimachi, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501, Japan.

A 6-day-old female Holstein displayed a dome-shaped skull and cardiac murmur on physical examination. Neurological abnormalities included progressive ataxia, decreased pupillary light reflex, and blindness soon after birth. On diagnostic imaging, CT identified expanded ventricles and thyroid hypoplasia on the left side. Read More

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https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jvms/advpub/0/advpub_18
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.18-0020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361635PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

Death by hanging: a retrospective case-control investigation of the intervertebral disc vacuum phenomenon on PMCT.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 12 13;14(4):484-496. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, CH-8057, Zurich, Switzerland.

During hanging gravitational forces affect the spine. Intervertebral vacuum phenomenon (VP) implies that gas accumulations in the discs are caused by degeneration of the spine and trauma. It was hypothesized that VP detected on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) has a higher incidence in hanging deaths, which can be correlated to age, degenerative spinal changes and type of hanging (complete-incomplete). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12024-018-0034-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-018-0034-3DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Positron emission tomography/computed tomography detection of increased F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the cardiac atria of patients with atrial fibrillation.

Int J Cardiol 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Radiology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Toon, Ehime, Japan.

Background: Direct evidence of inflammatory activity in the atria of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is scarce. We assessed the capability of positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to diagnose AF based on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the atrial wall.

Methods And Results: Among 8233 patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT as work-up for malignancies, we identified 180 consecutive patients with AF (2. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01675273183452
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2018.10.106DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Dissecting the genetic relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and Alzheimer's disease.

Acta Neuropathol 2019 Feb 9;137(2):209-226. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Neuroradiology Section, L-352, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Cardiovascular (CV)- and lifestyle-associated risk factors (RFs) are increasingly recognized as important for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Beyond the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE), comparatively little is known about whether CV-associated genes also increase risk for AD. Using large genome-wide association studies and validated tools to quantify genetic overlap, we systematically identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) jointly associated with AD and one or more CV-associated RFs, namely body mass index (BMI), type 2 diabetes (T2D), coronary artery disease (CAD), waist hip ratio (WHR), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-018-1928-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358498PMC
February 2019
15 Reads

Microvessels may Confound the "Swallow Tail Sign" in Normal Aged Midbrains: A Postmortem 7 T SW-MRI Study.

J Neuroimaging 2019 Jan 8;29(1):65-69. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, High Field Magnetic Resonance Centre, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background And Purpose: Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) plays a role in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, but lacks widespread acceptance in clinical routine. In a descriptive pilot study, we assessed hypointense microstructures of the normal substantia nigra pars compacta at ultrahigh-field strength for interpretation of the "swallow tail sign."

Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging at 7 Tesla was performed in five postmortem samples obtained from subjects not affected by Parkinson's disease. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jon.12576
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12576DOI Listing
January 2019
6 Reads

Magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of foetal multicystic dysplastic kidney.

Authors:
Hui Ji Su-Zhen Dong

Eur J Radiol 2018 Nov 24;108:128-132. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children's Medical Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127, China. Electronic address:

We sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of foetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for multicystic dysplastic kidney (MCDK) disease. We retrospectively identified 55 foetuses with MCDK diagnosed (51 unilateral; 4 bilateral) by foetal MRI. We analysed the anatomical findings by prenatal MRI and compared them with the prenatal ultrasound (US) and postnatal findings. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0720048X183033
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2018.09.025DOI Listing
November 2018
9 Reads