10,206 results match your criteria Postmortem Radiology and Imaging

A molecular pathology, neurobiology, biochemical, genetic and neuroimaging study of progressive apraxia of speech.

Nat Commun 2021 06 8;12(1):3452. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Progressive apraxia of speech is a neurodegenerative syndrome affecting spoken communication. Molecular pathology, biochemistry, genetics, and longitudinal imaging were investigated in 32 autopsy-confirmed patients with progressive apraxia of speech who were followed over 10 years. Corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy (4R-tauopathies) were the most common underlying pathologies. Read More

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Characterization of the phenotypic spectrum of fetal heterotaxy syndrome by combining ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Obstetrics and Fetomaternal Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: Heterotaxy or isomerism of the atrial appendages, is defined as an abnormal arrangement of inner organs across the left-right axis of the heart. Left-atrial isomerism (LAI) is frequently associated with fetal arrhythmia and two-ventricle congenital heart disease (CHD), whereas right-atrial isomerism (RAI) is typically associated with more complex CHD. Both LAI and RAI can exhibit various non-cardiac anomalies with serious impact on fetal outcome. Read More

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Clinical, Imaging, and Pathologic Characteristics of Patients With Right vs Left Hemisphere-Predominant Logopenic Progressive Aphasia.

Neurology 2021 Aug 4;97(5):e523-e534. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

From the Departments of Neurology (M.B., J.R.D., J.G.-R., K.A.J.), Psychiatry and Psychology (M.M.M.), Radiology (N.T.T.P., M.L.S., C.R.J., V.J.L., J.L.W.), Health Science Research (P.R.M.), and Information Technology (M.L.S.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; and Departments of Neurology (N.E.-T.) and Neuroscience (N.E.-T., D.W.D.), Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

Objective: To assess and compare demographic, clinical, neuroimaging, and pathologic characteristics of a cohort of patients with right hemisphere-predominant vs left hemisphere-predominant logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA).

Methods: This is a case-control study of patients with LPA who were prospectively followed at Mayo Clinic and underwent [F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scan. Patients were classified as rLPA if right temporal lobe metabolism was ≥1 SD lower than left temporal lobe metabolism. Read More

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Chronic White Matter Inflammation and Serum Neurofilament Levels in Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurology 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Clinical Trial Unit, Department of Clinical Research, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Objective: To assess whether chronic white matter inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients - as detected by paramagnetic rim MRI lesions (PRL) - is associated with higher serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) levels, a marker of neuro-axonal damage.

Methods: In 118 MS patients with no gadolinium-enhancing lesions or recent relapses, we analyzed 3D-submillimeter phase MRI and sNfL levels. Histopathological evaluation was performed in 25 MS lesions from 20 additional autopsy MS patients. Read More

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Chronic liver disease not a significant comorbid condition for COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 06 3;11(1):11734. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Rhode Island Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

To explore the role of chronic liver disease (CLD) in COVID-19. A total of 1439 consecutively hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from one large medical center in the United States from March 16, 2020 to April 23, 2020 were retrospectively identified. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between patients with and without CLD. Read More

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GABA and glutamate in the preterm neonatal brain: In-vivo measurement by magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Neuroimage 2021 Sep 28;238:118215. Epub 2021 May 28.

Center for the Developing Brain, Children's National Hospital, Washington, D.C., United States; Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children's National Hospital, Washington, D.C., United States; Division of Neurology, Children's National Hospital, Washington, D.C., United States; The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C., United States. Electronic address:

Cognitive and behavioral disabilities in preterm infants, even without obvious brain injury on conventional neuroimaging, underscores a critical need to identify the subtle underlying microstructural and biochemical derangements. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems undergo rapid maturation during the crucial late gestation and early postnatal life, and are at-risk of disruption after preterm birth. Animal and human autopsy studies provide the bulk of current understanding since non-invasive specialized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) to measure GABA and glutamate are not routinely available for this vulnerable population due to logistical and technical challenges. Read More

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September 2021

Report of the 22nd Nationwide Follow-Up Survey of Primary Liver Cancer in Japan (2012-2013).

Hepatol Res 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Follow-up Survey Committee, Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan, Japan.

In the 22nd Nationwide Follow-up Survey of Primary Liver Cancer in Japan, data from 21,155 newly registered patients and 43,041 previously registered follow-up patients were compiled from 538 institutions over a 2-year period from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. Basic statistics compiled for patients newly registered in the 22nd survey was cause of death, past medical history, clinical diagnosis, imaging diagnosis, treatment-related factors, pathological diagnosis, recurrence status, and autopsy findings. Compared with the previous 21st survey, the population of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was older at the time of clinical diagnosis, had more female patients, had more patients with non-B non-C HCC, had smaller tumor diameter, and was more frequently treated with hepatectomy. Read More

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Bile acid synthesis, modulation, and dementia: A metabolomic, transcriptomic, and pharmacoepidemiologic study.

PLoS Med 2021 May 27;18(5):e1003615. Epub 2021 May 27.

Clinical and Translational Neuroscience Section, Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: While Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) may be accelerated by hypercholesterolemia, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We tested whether dysregulation of cholesterol catabolism, through its conversion to primary bile acids (BAs), was associated with dementia pathogenesis.

Methods And Findings: We used a 3-step study design to examine the role of the primary BAs, cholic acid (CA), and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) as well as their principal biosynthetic precursor, 7α-hydroxycholesterol (7α-OHC), in dementia. Read More

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Atypical presentation of Takayasu aortitis and myocarditis contributing to sudden death in a young Canadian first nations adult.

Cardiovasc Pathol 2021 May 24:107347. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pathology, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Electronic address:

This is a rare presentation of Takayasu arteritis in a 30-year-old Canadian First Nations woman with cardiac and aortic root-predominant disease, which manifested in complete heart block. She had a past medical history significant for substance misuse. At presentation, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging identified diffuse thickening of the left atrium and ventricular outflow tract with left ventricular cavity dilation and preserved systolic function. Read More

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Pseudocirrhosis caused by lung adenocarcinoma with diffuse liver metastasis: An autopsy case report.

Thorac Cancer 2021 07 19;12(13):2046-2049. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Institute Hospital, Koto, Tokyo, Japan.

We describe a rare case of a 64-year-old man with lung adenocarcinoma with lymph node and bone metastases who developed pseudocirrhosis. Initial examination revealed a hepatic disorder of unknown cause with narrowing of the portal vein and a low-density area surrounding the portal veins in computed tomography (CT) imaging. Diffuse liver metastasis was diagnosed after percutaneous liver biopsy. Read More

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Spinal ligamentous injury in abusive head trauma: a pictorial review.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 May 17;51(6):971-979. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Radiology,University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS),, 4301 W. Markham St., Slot 556, Little Rock, AR, 72205, USA.

There is growing evidence of spine injury in abusive head trauma (AHT). Historically, spine injury was considered rare in AHT because of a lack of attributable clinical symptoms or signs and a lack of advanced imaging. Increased use of MRI in AHT has been instrumental in helping identify evidence of ligamentous injuries of the spine. Read More

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Radiologically Undetectable Latent Pulmonary Lymphocyte Infiltration Suggesting the Need for Early Glucocorticoid Therapy: An Autopsy Case of Rapidly Progressive COVID-19 Pneumonia with Lymphopenia.

Intern Med 2021 Jul 14;60(13):2145-2148. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Rheumatic Diseases, Tokyo Metropolitan Tama Medical Center, Japan.

We herein report a fatal case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia with rapid progression of respiratory failure and lymphopenia. Excessive recruitment and sequestration of lymphocytes in the lung were suggested as the pathophysiology underlying COVID-19-associated lymphopenia. Interestingly, the autopsy in this case revealed lymphocytic infiltration in the lungs even at sites that appeared normal on autopsy imaging. Read More

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Pathological drivers of neurodegeneration in suspected non-Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 05 14;13(1):100. Epub 2021 May 14.

Penn Memory Center, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

Background: Little is known about the heterogeneous etiology of suspected non-Alzheimer's pathophysiology (SNAP), a group of subjects with neurodegeneration in the absence of β-amyloid. Using antemortem MRI and pathological data, we investigated the etiology of SNAP and the association of neurodegenerative pathologies with structural medial temporal lobe (MTL) measures in β-amyloid-negative subjects.

Methods: Subjects with antemortem MRI and autopsy data were selected from ADNI (n=63) and the University of Pennsylvania (n=156). Read More

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Role of autopsy imaging-computed tomography in the post-mortem study of farm animals.

Vet Rec Open 2021 Dec 7;8(1):e1. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Faculty of Agriculture University of Miyazaki Miyazaki Japan.

Background: Autopsy imaging (Ai) is used to determine the cause of death, providing pre-dissection information. Ai is often used in the field of human forensic medicine but has never been applied on farm animals.

Methods: Ai-computed tomography (CT) was performed before necropsy for farm animals (one goat, one ox, one cow and three calves) that died or were euthanised. Read More

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December 2021

COVID-19 - neuropathological point of view, pathobiology, and dilemmas after the first year of the pandemic struggle.

Folia Neuropathol 2021 ;59(1):1-16

Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Medical University of Gdansk, Poland.

This article constitutes a summary of the knowledge on the involvement of the nervous system in COVID-19, concerning its general pathobiology, clinical presentation and neuropathological features as well as the future directions of investigation. Variable definitions, selection bias, mainly retrospective analyses of hospitalized patients and different methodologies are implemented in the research of this new disease. Central nervous system (CNS) pathology presents most frequently features of non-specific neuroinflammation with microglial activation and lymphoid infiltrations, ischemic/hypoxic encephalopathy, acute cerebrovascular disease, and microthrombi. Read More

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Post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance parameters in normal and diseased conditions.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Apr;11(2):373-382

Sydney Medical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Background: Post-mortem cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a non-invasive alternative to conventional autopsy. At present, diagnostic guidelines for cardiovascular conditions such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have not been established. We correlated post-mortem CMR images to definite conventional autopsy findings and hypothesed that elevated T2-weighted signal intensity and RV to LV area ratios can identify myocardial infarction and pulmonary emboli respectively. Read More

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In Vivo Imaging and Autoradiography in a Case of Autopsy-Confirmed Pick Disease.

Neurol Clin Pract 2021 Feb;11(1):e11-e14

Department of Neurology (RLU, KAJ) and Department of Radiology (CGS, NES, VJL, JLW), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; and Department of Neuroscience (MEM), Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL.

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February 2021

Thrombosis is not a marker of bridging vein rupture in infants with alleged abusive head trauma.

Acta Paediatr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Clinical Medicine K1, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Aim: Thrombosis of bridging veins has been suggested to be a marker of bridging vein rupture, and thus AHT, in infants with subdural haematoma.

Methods: This is a non-systematic review based on Pubmed search, secondary reference tracking and authors' own article collections.

Results: Radiological studies asserting that imaging signs of cortical vein thrombosis were indicative of traumatic bridging vein rupture were unreliable as they lacked pathological verification of either thrombosis or rupture, and paid little regard to medical conditions other than trauma. Read More

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White matter abnormalities and iron deposition in prenatal mucolipidosis IV- fetal imaging and pathology.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV; OMIM 252,650) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in MCOLN1. MLIV causes psychomotor impairment and progressive vision loss. The major hallmarks of postnatal brain MRI are hypomyelination and thin corpus callosum. Read More

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Multi-Parametric Evaluation of Cerebral Hemodynamics in Neonatal Piglets Using Non-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Methods.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Disruption of brain oxygen delivery and consumption after hypoxic-ischemic injury contributes to neonatal mortality and neurological impairment. Measuring cerebral hemodynamic parameters, including cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO ), is clinically important.

Purpose: Phase-contrast (PC), velocity-selective arterial spin labeling (VSASL), and T -relaxation-under-phase-contrast (TRUPC) are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques that have shown promising results in assessing cerebral hemodynamics in humans. Read More

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Prenatal Diagnosis of Skeletal Dysplasia and Review of the Literature.

Case Rep Obstet Gynecol 2021 13;2021:9940063. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Sonography, RAAJ Specialist Scan, Cape Coast, Ghana.

Introduction: Obstetric ultrasonography is routinely used to screen for fetal anomalies. Thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) is one of the common though rare lethal skeletal dysplasia, detected during routine ultrasound scan. TD is caused by a mutation in FGFR3 gene. Read More

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A high-resolution interactive atlas of the human brainstem using magnetic resonance imaging.

Neuroimage 2021 08 2;237:118135. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Neurology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States; Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University, Durham NC, United States. Electronic address:

Conventional atlases of the human brainstem are limited by the inflexible, sparsely-sampled, two-dimensional nature of histology, or the low spatial resolution of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Postmortem high-resolution MRI circumvents the challenges associated with both modalities. A single human brainstem specimen extending from the rostral diencephalon through the caudal medulla was prepared for imaging after the brain was removed from a 65-year-old male within 24 h of death. Read More

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Possible Neuroprotective Effects of l-Carnitine on White-Matter Microstructural Damage and Cognitive Decline in Hemodialysis Patients.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 14;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

Although l-carnitine alleviated white-matter lesions in an experimental study, the treatment effects of l-carnitine on white-matter microstructural damage and cognitive decline in hemodialysis patients are unknown. Using novel diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) techniques, white-matter microstructural changes together with cognitive decline in hemodialysis patients and the effects of l-carnitine on such disorders were investigated. Fourteen hemodialysis patients underwent dMRI and laboratory and neuropsychological tests, which were compared across seven patients each in two groups according to duration of l-carnitine treatment: (1) no or short-term l-carnitine treatment (NSTLC), and (2) long-term l-carnitine treatment (LTLC). Read More

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Evaluation of the mediastinal-thoracic volume ratio on postmortem computed tomography.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the mediastinal-thoracic volume ratio (CTR_VOL) on PMCT as a more accurate version of traditional CTR, in order to assess the terminal positional relationship between the heart and lungs in the different causes of death with regard to age, gender, BMI, cardiomegaly, and lung expansion.

Materials: Two hundred fifty consecutive postmortem cases with pre-autopsy PMCT and full forensic autopsy were retrospectively evaluated. The lungs and the mediastinum were manually segmented on the PMCT data and the correspondent volumes were estimated in situ. Read More

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Identification of hippocampal cortical microinfarcts on postmortem 3-T magnetic resonance imaging.

Neuroradiology 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

CIMC - Centre d'Imagerie Médicale de Cornavin, Place de Cornavin 18, 1201, Geneva, Switzerland.

Cortical microinfarcts (CMI) are increasingly recognized in the neurological community as a biomarker related to cognitive impairment and dementia. If their radiological depiction has been largely described in experimental settings using ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), less is known about their visibility on routinely used 3-T MRI. In this radiologic-pathologic correlation study, using 3-T post-mortem MRI, we searched for hippocampal CMI, in a double-blinded fashion, and found that only 4/36, or 11%, were clearly demonstrated on both radiological and histopathological exams. Read More

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Tau aggregation and increased neuroinflammation in athletes after sports-related concussions and in traumatic brain injury patients - A PET/MR study.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 7;30:102665. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and repeated sports-related concussions (rSRCs) are associated with an increased risk for neurodegeneration. Autopsy findings of selected cohorts of long-term TBI survivors and rSRC athletes reveal increased tau aggregation and a persistent neuroinflammation. To assess in vivo tau aggregation and neuroinflammation in young adult TBI and rSRC cohorts, we evaluated 9 healthy controls (mean age 26 ± 5 years; 4 males, 5 females), 12 symptomatic athletes (26 ± 7 years; 6 males, 6 females) attaining ≥3 previous SRCs, and 6 moderate-to severe TBI patients (27 ± 7 years; 4 males, 2 females) in a combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) scanner ≥6 months post-injury. Read More

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Reduced synchrony in alpha oscillations during life predicts post mortem neurofibrillary tangle density in early-onset and atypical Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Introduction: Neurophysiological manifestations selectively associated with amyloid beta and tau depositions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are useful network biomarkers to identify peptide specific pathological processes. The objective of this study was to validate the associations between reduced neuronal synchrony within alpha oscillations and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) density in autopsy examination, in patients with AD.

Methods: In a well-characterized clinicopathological cohort of AD patients (n = 13), we quantified neuronal synchrony within alpha (8-12 Hz) and delta-theta (2-8 Hz) oscillations, using magnetoencephalography during the disease course, within six selected neocortical and hippocampal regions, including angular gyrus, superior temporal gurus, middle frontal gyrus, primary motor cortex, CA1, and subiculum, and correlated these with regional NFT density quantified at histopathological examination. Read More

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Human fetal whole-body postmortem microfocus computed tomographic imaging.

Nat Protoc 2021 05 14;16(5):2594-2614. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Clinical Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK.

Perinatal autopsy is the standard method for investigating fetal death; however, it requires dissection of the fetus. Human fetal microfocus computed tomography (micro-CT) provides a generally more acceptable and less invasive imaging alternative for bereaved parents to determine the cause of early pregnancy loss compared with conventional autopsy techniques. In this protocol, we describe the four main stages required to image fetuses using micro-CT. Read More

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Heterogeneous distribution of tau pathology in the behavioural variant of Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Objective: The clinical phenotype of the rare behavioural variant of Alzheimer's disease (bvAD) is insufficiently understood. Given the strong clinico-anatomical correlations of tau pathology in AD, we investigated the distribution of tau deposits in bvAD, in-vivo and ex-vivo, using positron emission tomography (PET) and postmortem examination.

Methods: For the tau PET study, seven amyloid-β positive bvAD patients underwent [F]flortaucipir or [F]RO948 PET. Read More

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A multisite analysis of the concordance between visual image interpretation and quantitative analysis of [F]flutemetamol amyloid PET images.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 07 12;48(7):2183-2199. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: [F]flutemetamol PET scanning provides information on brain amyloid load and has been approved for routine clinical use based upon visual interpretation as either negative (equating to none or sparse amyloid plaques) or amyloid positive (equating to moderate or frequent plaques). Quantitation is however fundamental to the practice of nuclear medicine and hence can be used to supplement amyloid reading methodology especially in unclear cases.

Methods: A total of 2770 [F]flutemetamol images were collected from 3 clinical studies and 6 research cohorts with available visual reading of [F]flutemetamol and quantitative analysis of images. Read More

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