149 results match your criteria Post Head Injury Autonomic Complications


The safety of epidural spinal cord stimulation to restore function after spinal cord injury: post-surgical complications and incidence of cardiovascular events.

Spinal Cord 2022 Jun 14. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Study Design: Cohort prospective study.

Objectives: Epidural spinal cord stimulation (eSCS) improves volitional motor and autonomic function after spinal cord injury (SCI). While eSCS has an established history of safety for chronic pain, it remains unclear if eSCS in the SCI population presents the same risk profile. Read More

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An atypical bilateral trifurcation of recurrent laryngeal nerve.

BMC Surg 2022 May 13;22(1):176. Epub 2022 May 13.

Rajarajeswari Medical College and Hospital, Kambipura Mysore Road, Bangalore, India, 560074.

Background: Thyroidectomy is a frequently performed surgery for benign and malignant conditions. Nevertheless, one of the most critical complications of thyroidectomy is recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury leading to vocal cord paralysis. A thorough knowledge of the anatomical variations of RLN and ligation of the related vessels close to their distal branches is critical to avoid injury. Read More

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Acute physiologic prediction of pediatric post-traumatic epilepsy.

Epilepsy Res 2022 Jul 27;183:106935. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Barrow Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children's Hospital, 1919 E. Thomas Road, Ambulatory Building, 3rd Floor, Phoenix, AZ 85016, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a known complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Limited physiologic biomarkers have been investigated in relation to pediatric PTE. Our aim is to identify clinical, physiologic and neuroimaging biomarkers predictive of pediatric PTE arising during the acute care phase after injury. Read More

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Post-traumatic Oculomotor Nerve Palsy due to Intraneural Hemorrhage: A Case Report.

Neurol India 2022 Jan-Feb;70(1):334-336

Department of Neurology, Manipal Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Oculomotor nerve palsy following traumatic brain injury is a rare entity. A head injury can result in diffuse neuronal axonal injury with subsequent microbleed within the nerve tissue. We report an unusual case of a patient who presented with complete isolated right third nerve palsy following a road traffic accident. Read More

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Autonomic dysfunction in adults following mild traumatic brain injury: A systematic review.

NeuroRehabilitation 2022 ;50(1):3-32

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Caglary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Background: Increasing evidence suggests autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction may occur following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Measures of heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure and baroreceptor sensitivity can be used to evaluate ANS dysfunction following mTBI.

Objective: Summarize the evidence for ANS dysfunction in adults following mTBI. Read More

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February 2022

Lower cortical volume is associated with poor sleep quality after traumatic brain injury.

Brain Imaging Behav 2022 Jun 12;16(3):1362-1371. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

War Related Illness & Injury Study Center, Veteran Affairs Medical Center, 50 Irving Street NW, Washington, DC, 20422, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to be associated with poor sleep. In this report, we aimed to identify associations between differences in cortical volume and sleep quality post-TBI. MRI anatomical scans from 88 cases with TBI were analyzed in this report. Read More

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Routine Exposure Versus Non-Exposure of Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve during Thyroid Surgery: Our Experience of 300 Cases.

Mymensingh Med J 2022 Jan;31(1):154-160

Dr Sudhangshu Shekhar Biswas, Associate Professor, ENT and Head Neck Surgery Department, BIRDEM General Hospital & Ibrahim Medical College (IMC), Dhaka, Bangladesh; E-mail:

The technique of thyroidectomy has been in evolution for many years. It is a basic rule of surgery that an important structure of a human body must be recognized certainly during the surgical procedure in order to prevent its damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our routine identification and without identification of recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroidectomy aiming to lessen the inadvertent injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Read More

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January 2022

Improving Voice Outcomes After Thyroid Surgery - Review of Safety Parameters for Using Energy-Based Devices Near the Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 24;12:793431. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, International Thyroid Surgery Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Technological advances in thyroid surgery have rapidly increased in recent decades. Specifically, recently developed energy-based devices (EBDs) enable simultaneous dissection and sealing tissue. EBDs have many advantages in thyroid surgery, such as reduced blood loss, lower rate of post-operative hypocalcemia, and shorter operation time. Read More

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February 2022

Clinical Assessment of Concussion and Persistent Post-Concussive Symptoms for Neurologists.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 11 24;21(12):70. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Psychiatry, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, 160 Farber Hall, Buffalo, NY, 14214, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Concussion produces a variety of signs and symptoms. Most patients recover within 2-4 weeks, but a significant minority experiences persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS), some of which may be from associated cervical or persistent neurologic sub-system (e.g. Read More

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November 2021

Discerning a smile - The intricacies of analysis of post-neck dissection asymmetry.

Am J Otolaryngol 2022 Jan-Feb;43(1):103271. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Nottingham City Hospital, Hucknall Road, Nottingham NG5 1PB, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Electronic address:

Introduction: Iatrogenic facial nerve palsy is distressing to the patient and clinician. The deformity is aesthetically displeasing, and can be functionality problematic for oral competence, dental lip trauma and speech. Furthermore such injuries have litigation implications. Read More

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February 2022

Effects of phytocannabinoids on heart rate variability and blood pressure variability in female post-concussion syndrome patients: case series.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2022 Feb 1;100(2):192-196. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Faculty of Kinesiology & Health Studies, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada.

Cannabidiol (CBD) can exert neuroprotective effects without being intoxicating, and in combination with Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) CBD has shown to protect against THC psychosis. Acute concussion and post-concussion syndrome (PCS) can result in autonomic dysfunction in heart rate variability (HRV), but less information is available on blood pressure variability (BPV). Furthermore, the effects of phytocannabinoids on HRV and BPV in PCS are unknown. Read More

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February 2022

Intraoperative facial nerve electromyography parameters to optimize postoperative facial nerve outcome in patients with large unilateral vestibular schwannoma.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 08 7;163(8):2209-2217. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Otology, Auditory Implants and Skull Base Surgery, Sorbonne Université-APHP6, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, 75013, Paris, France.

Background: Decision-making for large sporadic vestibular schwannomas (VS) resection guided by the intraoperative change in supramaximal facial nerve (FN) amplitude and latency response to optimize post-operative FN outcome.

Methods: Prospectively study of 43 patients, from January to December 2018, of large sporadic VS with preoperative normal FN function at our center. Tumors were removed through retrosigmoid (81%) or translabyrinthine (19%) approaches with FN monitoring. Read More

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Operator Experience and Fracture Location Affects the Rate of Facial Nerve Injury in Condylar Fractures: An Analysis of 89 Cases.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 May 29;79(5):1104.e1-1104.e9. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Postgraduate residents, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, H.P.Govt. Dental College & Hospital, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency and identify risk factors for facial nerve injury (FNI) in the open treatment of condylar neck and subcondylar fractures.

Materials And Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted over 5 years on patients who were treated surgically for mandibular condylar fractures using the retomandibular transparotid approach (RMTA). The primary result was FNI occurrence (yes/no). Read More

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Anatomical variation and distribution of the vagus nerve in the esophageal hiatus: a cross-sectional study of post-mortem cases in Uganda.

Surg Radiol Anat 2021 Aug 2;43(8):1243-1248. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

School of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Purpose: Vagus nerve injuries during gastroesophageal surgery may cause significant symptoms due to loss of vagal anti-inflammatory and neuromodulator function. Many previous studies have shown high anatomical variability of the vagus nerve at the esophageal hiatus, but information on its variability in Uganda specifically and Africa in general is scanty. This study provides a reliable and detailed description of the anatomical variation and distribution of the vagus nerve in the esophageal hiatus region of post-mortem cases in Uganda. Read More

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The integrated functions of the cardiac autonomic and vestibular/oculomotor systems in adolescents following severe traumatic brain injury and typically developing controls.

Brain Inj 2020 09 18;34(11):1480-1488. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Physical Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University , Tel Aviv Israel.

Introduction: The cardiac autonomic control system (CACS) is frequently impaired post-traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the prevalence of vestibular/oculomotor impairment is less studied. These two systems interact during position change and contribute to blood-pressure regulation through the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex. Read More

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September 2020

Investigation of recurrent laryngeal palsy rates for potential associations during thyroidectomy.

ANZ J Surg 2020 09 11;90(9):1733-1737. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Monash University Endocrine Surgery Unit, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: There are many clinical associations and potential mechanisms of injury resulting in recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (RLNP) after thyroidectomy. One possible cause of RLNP is focal intralaryngeal compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), which may be associated with the tracheal tube (TT). Therefore, we examined current RLNP rates to investigate potential associations, including intralaryngeal, airway, anaesthetic and anthropometric factors. Read More

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September 2020

Facial nerve monitoring during parotid gland surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 11;278(4):933-943. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Center Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.

Introduction: Facial nerve injury remains the most severe complication of parotid gland surgery. However, the use of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IFNM) during parotid gland surgery among Otolaryngologist-Head and Neck Surgeons continues to be a matter of debate.

Materials And Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was conducted including articles from 1970 to 2019 to try to determine the effectiveness of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring in preventing immediate and permanent postoperative facial nerve weakness in patients undergoing primary parotidectomy. Read More

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Cognitive Dysfunction in Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injuries.

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2020 08 3;31(3):345-368. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pennsylvania-Perelman School of Medicine, 1800 Lombard Street, Philadelphia, PA 19146, USA. Electronic address:

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is pervasive in individuals who have chronic spinal cord injuries (SCI). Although classically associated with concomitant traumatic brain injuries, many other causes have been proposed, including premorbid neuropsychological conditions, mood disorders, substance abuse, polypharmacy, chronic pain and fatigue, sleep apnea, autonomic dysregulation, post-intensive care unit syndrome, cortical reorganizations, and neuroinflammation. The consequences of CD are likely widespread, affecting rehabilitation and function. Read More

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Hydrocephalus in Guillain barre syndrome: A case report and review of the literature.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Apr;99(16):e18638

Professor, Neurology Department, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, PR China.

Rationale: Guillian-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a devastating autoimmune disorder characterized by progressive ascending weakness, areflexia with or without autonomic and sensory disturbances. Hydrocephalus is a rare but well-documented complication in patients with GBS. However, due to the rarity of this condition, no treatment guideline for GBS with hydrocephalus is currently available. Read More

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TcMEP threshold change is superior to A-train detection when predicting facial nerve outcome in CPA tumour surgery.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 05 7;162(5):1197-1203. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Object: Surgery of tumours in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) can lead to loss of facial nerve function. Different methods of intra-operative nerve monitoring (IOM) (including free-running EMG, direct nerve stimulation and transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEP)) have been used to predict facial nerve outcome during surgery. Recent research has shown TcMEP threshold increase and the occurrence of A-trains on the EMG to have great potential in doing so. Read More

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[Current possibilities of complex diagnosis and treatment of the consequences of traumatic brain injury].

Authors:
S A Nemkova

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2019 ;119(10):94-102

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Article is devoted to topical issues of complex diagnosis and treatment of the consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children, adolescents and adults. Craniocerebral trauma is one of the most important problems of modern neurology, due to the high frequency and severity of disability. In recent years, there has been a steady increase in effects of TBI, a significant part of which are asthenic, autonomic, cognitive, emotional and motor disorders. Read More

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December 2019

Anatomic Factors Predicting Postoperative Strabismus in Orbital Wall Fracture Repair.

Sci Rep 2019 10 15;9(1):14785. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 114, Taiwan.

This study is aimed to determine the relationship between orbital fracture sites in each CT scan view and postoperative diplopia. Data for 141 patients of orbital wall fracture were analyzed retrospectively. One group of examiners reviewed sagittal, coronal and axial CT scans. Read More

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October 2019

Lifelong consequences of brain injuries during development: From risk to resilience.

Front Neuroendocrinol 2019 10 24;55:100793. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Neuroscience, Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Center for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Traumatic brain injuries in children represent a major public health issue and even relatively mild injuries can have lifelong consequences. However, the outcomes from these injuries are highly heterogeneous, with most individuals recovering fully, but a substantial subset experiencing prolonged or permanent disabilities across a number of domains. Moreover, brain injuries predispose individuals to other kinds of neuropsychiatric and somatic illnesses. Read More

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October 2019

A Surgical Mouse Model for Advancing Laryngeal Nerve Regeneration Strategies.

Dysphagia 2020 06 6;35(3):419-437. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO, USA.

Iatrogenic recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is a morbid complication of anterior neck surgical procedures. Existing treatments are predominantly symptomatic, ranging from behavioral therapy to a variety of surgical approaches. Though laryngeal reinnervation strategies often provide muscle tone to the paralyzed vocal fold (VF), which may improve outcomes, there is no clinical intervention that reliably restores true physiologic VF movement. Read More

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Parotidectomy-related facial nerve lesions: proposal for a modified Sunnybrook Facial Grading System.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2019 07 29;77(7):460-469. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Eli Lilly and Company, Neuroscience Research, Indianapolis, USA.

Objective: Facial nerve injury, affecting mainly the marginal mandibular branch, is the most frequent neurologic complication from parotidectomy. To test a modified Sunnybrook Facial Grading System as a new tool to assess the facial nerve function following parotidectomy, emphasizing the marginal mandibular branch.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 73 post-parotidectomy patients (40 female, 18-84 years old, mean age 53. Read More

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Emotional and Autonomic Processing of Olfactory Stimuli Is Compromised in Patients with a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Neurotrauma 2020 01 16;37(1):125-138. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Patients with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (post-mTBI patients) may have enduring cardiovascular-autonomic dysregulation and emotional problems. Olfactory stimulation (OS) triggers emotional and cardiovascular-autonomic responses that might be compromised in post-mTBI patients. We therefore evaluated these responses to OS in post-mTBI patients. Read More

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January 2020

Iatrogenic facial nerve exposure in cochlear implant surgery: incidence and clinical significance in the absence of intra-operative nerve monitoring.

Cochlear Implants Int 2019 09 12;20(5):250-254. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

b Department of ORL-HNS , Tanta University , Tanta , Egypt.

Iatrogenic facial nerve injury is one of the most feared complications of cochlear implantation. Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring is used as an adjunctive modality in a variety of neurotologic surgeries including cochlear implantation. With the lack of nerve monitoring, there is a theoretically higher risk of iatrogenic fallopian canal dehiscence with facial nerve exposure, particularly the mastoid portion, during cochlear implant surgery. Read More

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September 2019

Importance of incorporating intraoperative neuromonitoring of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve in thyroidectomy: A review and meta-analysis study.

Head Neck 2019 06 1;41(6):2034-2041. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: Voice changes are frequently reported after thyroidectomy due to injury to the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) and paralysis of the cricothyroid muscle, The objective is to evaluate the advantage of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) in identifying EBSLN during thyroid surgery.

Methods: Data sources were MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library from January 1, 1995, through July 1, 2018. Published studies of adult patients who had thyroid surgery and an attempt to identify EBSLN done by conventional methods and/or IONM were selected. Read More

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Intraoperative neuromonitoring versus visual nerve identification for prevention of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in adults undergoing thyroid surgery.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Jan 19;1:CD012483. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Department of General Surgery, University of Perugia, Terni, Italy, 05100.

Background: Injuries to the recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (RILN) remain one of the major post-operative complications after thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Damage to this nerve can result in a temporary or permanent palsy, which is associated with vocal cord paresis or paralysis. Visual identification of the RILN is a common procedure to prevent nerve injury during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Read More

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January 2019

Precious cargo: Modulation of the mesenteric lymph exosome payload after hemorrhagic shock.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 01;86(1):52-61

From the Division of Trauma, Surgical Critical Care, Burns and Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego Health, San Diego, California (E.C.W., T.W.C., A.B., B.P.E., T.W.C.); and Riverside University Health System Medical Center, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Moreno Valley, California (R.C.).

Background: Trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) causes a release of proinflammatory mediators into the mesenteric lymph (ML) that may trigger a systemic inflammatory response and subsequent organ failure. Recently, we showed that exosomes in postshock ML are biologically active mediators of this inflammation. Because the specific inflammatory mediators in postshock ML exosomes have yet to be characterized, we hypothesized that T/HS would lead to a distinct ML proinflammatory exosome phenotype that could be identified by proteomic analysis. Read More

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January 2019