134 results match your criteria Post Head Injury Autonomic Complications

Operator Experience and Fracture Location Affects the Rate of Facial Nerve Injury in Condylar Fractures: An Analysis of 89 Cases.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 May 29;79(5):1104.e1-1104.e9. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Postgraduate residents, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, H.P.Govt. Dental College & Hospital, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency and identify risk factors for facial nerve injury (FNI) in the open treatment of condylar neck and subcondylar fractures.

Materials And Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted over 5 years on patients who were treated surgically for mandibular condylar fractures using the retomandibular transparotid approach (RMTA). The primary result was FNI occurrence (yes/no). Read More

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Investigation of recurrent laryngeal palsy rates for potential associations during thyroidectomy.

ANZ J Surg 2020 09 11;90(9):1733-1737. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Monash University Endocrine Surgery Unit, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: There are many clinical associations and potential mechanisms of injury resulting in recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (RLNP) after thyroidectomy. One possible cause of RLNP is focal intralaryngeal compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), which may be associated with the tracheal tube (TT). Therefore, we examined current RLNP rates to investigate potential associations, including intralaryngeal, airway, anaesthetic and anthropometric factors. Read More

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September 2020

Facial nerve monitoring during parotid gland surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 11;278(4):933-943. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Center Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal, Canada.

Introduction: Facial nerve injury remains the most severe complication of parotid gland surgery. However, the use of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring (IFNM) during parotid gland surgery among Otolaryngologist-Head and Neck Surgeons continues to be a matter of debate.

Materials And Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was conducted including articles from 1970 to 2019 to try to determine the effectiveness of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring in preventing immediate and permanent postoperative facial nerve weakness in patients undergoing primary parotidectomy. Read More

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Cognitive Dysfunction in Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injuries.

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2020 08 3;31(3):345-368. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pennsylvania-Perelman School of Medicine, 1800 Lombard Street, Philadelphia, PA 19146, USA. Electronic address:

Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is pervasive in individuals who have chronic spinal cord injuries (SCI). Although classically associated with concomitant traumatic brain injuries, many other causes have been proposed, including premorbid neuropsychological conditions, mood disorders, substance abuse, polypharmacy, chronic pain and fatigue, sleep apnea, autonomic dysregulation, post-intensive care unit syndrome, cortical reorganizations, and neuroinflammation. The consequences of CD are likely widespread, affecting rehabilitation and function. Read More

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Hydrocephalus in Guillain barre syndrome: A case report and review of the literature.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Apr;99(16):e18638

Professor, Neurology Department, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, PR China.

Rationale: Guillian-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a devastating autoimmune disorder characterized by progressive ascending weakness, areflexia with or without autonomic and sensory disturbances. Hydrocephalus is a rare but well-documented complication in patients with GBS. However, due to the rarity of this condition, no treatment guideline for GBS with hydrocephalus is currently available. Read More

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TcMEP threshold change is superior to A-train detection when predicting facial nerve outcome in CPA tumour surgery.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2020 05 7;162(5):1197-1203. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Object: Surgery of tumours in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) can lead to loss of facial nerve function. Different methods of intra-operative nerve monitoring (IOM) (including free-running EMG, direct nerve stimulation and transcranial motor evoked potentials (TcMEP)) have been used to predict facial nerve outcome during surgery. Recent research has shown TcMEP threshold increase and the occurrence of A-trains on the EMG to have great potential in doing so. Read More

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[Current possibilities of complex diagnosis and treatment of the consequences of traumatic brain injury].

S A Nemkova

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2019 ;119(10):94-102

Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

Article is devoted to topical issues of complex diagnosis and treatment of the consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children, adolescents and adults. Craniocerebral trauma is one of the most important problems of modern neurology, due to the high frequency and severity of disability. In recent years, there has been a steady increase in effects of TBI, a significant part of which are asthenic, autonomic, cognitive, emotional and motor disorders. Read More

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December 2019

Anatomic Factors Predicting Postoperative Strabismus in Orbital Wall Fracture Repair.

Sci Rep 2019 10 15;9(1):14785. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, 114, Taiwan.

This study is aimed to determine the relationship between orbital fracture sites in each CT scan view and postoperative diplopia. Data for 141 patients of orbital wall fracture were analyzed retrospectively. One group of examiners reviewed sagittal, coronal and axial CT scans. Read More

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October 2019

Lifelong consequences of brain injuries during development: From risk to resilience.

Front Neuroendocrinol 2019 10 24;55:100793. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Department of Neuroscience, Group in Behavioral Neuroendocrinology, Center for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Traumatic brain injuries in children represent a major public health issue and even relatively mild injuries can have lifelong consequences. However, the outcomes from these injuries are highly heterogeneous, with most individuals recovering fully, but a substantial subset experiencing prolonged or permanent disabilities across a number of domains. Moreover, brain injuries predispose individuals to other kinds of neuropsychiatric and somatic illnesses. Read More

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October 2019

Parotidectomy-related facial nerve lesions: proposal for a modified Sunnybrook Facial Grading System.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2019 07 29;77(7):460-469. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Eli Lilly and Company, Neuroscience Research, Indianapolis, USA.

Objective: Facial nerve injury, affecting mainly the marginal mandibular branch, is the most frequent neurologic complication from parotidectomy. To test a modified Sunnybrook Facial Grading System as a new tool to assess the facial nerve function following parotidectomy, emphasizing the marginal mandibular branch.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 73 post-parotidectomy patients (40 female, 18-84 years old, mean age 53. Read More

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Emotional and Autonomic Processing of Olfactory Stimuli Is Compromised in Patients with a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Neurotrauma 2020 01 16;37(1):125-138. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Smell and Taste Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Patients with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (post-mTBI patients) may have enduring cardiovascular-autonomic dysregulation and emotional problems. Olfactory stimulation (OS) triggers emotional and cardiovascular-autonomic responses that might be compromised in post-mTBI patients. We therefore evaluated these responses to OS in post-mTBI patients. Read More

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January 2020

Iatrogenic facial nerve exposure in cochlear implant surgery: incidence and clinical significance in the absence of intra-operative nerve monitoring.

Cochlear Implants Int 2019 09 12;20(5):250-254. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

b Department of ORL-HNS , Tanta University , Tanta , Egypt.

Iatrogenic facial nerve injury is one of the most feared complications of cochlear implantation. Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring is used as an adjunctive modality in a variety of neurotologic surgeries including cochlear implantation. With the lack of nerve monitoring, there is a theoretically higher risk of iatrogenic fallopian canal dehiscence with facial nerve exposure, particularly the mastoid portion, during cochlear implant surgery. Read More

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September 2019

Importance of incorporating intraoperative neuromonitoring of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve in thyroidectomy: A review and meta-analysis study.

Head Neck 2019 06 1;41(6):2034-2041. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: Voice changes are frequently reported after thyroidectomy due to injury to the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EBSLN) and paralysis of the cricothyroid muscle, The objective is to evaluate the advantage of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) in identifying EBSLN during thyroid surgery.

Methods: Data sources were MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library from January 1, 1995, through July 1, 2018. Published studies of adult patients who had thyroid surgery and an attempt to identify EBSLN done by conventional methods and/or IONM were selected. Read More

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Intraoperative neuromonitoring versus visual nerve identification for prevention of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury in adults undergoing thyroid surgery.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 Jan 19;1:CD012483. Epub 2019 Jan 19.

Department of General Surgery, University of Perugia, Terni, Italy, 05100.

Background: Injuries to the recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve (RILN) remain one of the major post-operative complications after thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Damage to this nerve can result in a temporary or permanent palsy, which is associated with vocal cord paresis or paralysis. Visual identification of the RILN is a common procedure to prevent nerve injury during thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Read More

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January 2019

Precious cargo: Modulation of the mesenteric lymph exosome payload after hemorrhagic shock.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 01;86(1):52-61

From the Division of Trauma, Surgical Critical Care, Burns and Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California San Diego Health, San Diego, California (E.C.W., T.W.C., A.B., B.P.E., T.W.C.); and Riverside University Health System Medical Center, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Moreno Valley, California (R.C.).

Background: Trauma/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) causes a release of proinflammatory mediators into the mesenteric lymph (ML) that may trigger a systemic inflammatory response and subsequent organ failure. Recently, we showed that exosomes in postshock ML are biologically active mediators of this inflammation. Because the specific inflammatory mediators in postshock ML exosomes have yet to be characterized, we hypothesized that T/HS would lead to a distinct ML proinflammatory exosome phenotype that could be identified by proteomic analysis. Read More

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January 2019

Posttraumatic Headache.

Brigid Dwyer

Semin Neurol 2018 12 6;38(6):619-626. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts.

Posttraumatic headaches are among the most challenging complaints after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). They are a debilitating problem experienced by patients after TBI of all severities. Up to 90% of mild TBI patients experience headache, particularly if female and with a premorbid history of primary headache. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of Motor-Evoked Potential Monitoring on Facial Nerve Outcomes after Vestibular Schwannoma Resection.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2019 Jan 20;128(1):56-61. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

3 Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Objectives:: Assess the utility of intraoperative transcranial facial motor-evoked potential (FMEP) monitoring in predicting and improving facial function after vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection.

Study Design:: Retrospective chart review.

Methods:: Data were obtained from 82 consecutive VS resections meeting inclusion criteria. Read More

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January 2019

[The efficacy of ansa cervicalis anterior root for unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve injury].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Sep;53(9):655-660

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Changhai Hospital of the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.

To discuss the long-term efficacy of laryngeal reinnervation using the anterior root of the ansa cervicalis in the treatment of unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) caused by thyroid surgery. From January 2010 to January 2016, a total of 39 UVFP patients who underwent ansa cervicalis anterior root-to-recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) anastomosis and who had suffered nerve disfunction for 6 to 24 months were enrolled as UVFP group.Another 39 age and gender matched normal subjects served as control group. Read More

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September 2018

Symptoms of Autonomic Dysfunction Among Those With Persistent Posttraumatic Headache Attributed to Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Comparison to Migraine and Healthy Controls.

Headache 2018 Oct 29;58(9):1397-1407. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Background: Most persistent posttraumatic headaches (PPTH) have a phenotype that meets diagnostic criteria for migraine or probable migraine. Although symptoms of autonomic dysfunction have been well described among those with migraine, the presence and relative severity of such symptoms among those with PPTH have yet to be reported.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess and compare symptoms of autonomic dysfunction among those with PPTH attributed to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) vs migraine vs healthy controls using Composite Autonomic Symptom Score 31 (COMPASS-31) questionnaire scores. Read More

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October 2018

End-tidal carbon dioxide levels in patients with post-concussion syndrome during neurocognitive and physical tasks compared to a normative control group.

Brain Inj 2018 1;32(13-14):1824-1833. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

a School of Kinesiology , Lakehead University , Thunder Bay , ON , Canada.

Primary Objective: Recent findings suggest breathing may negatively affect performance after concussion. The aim of the study was to examine group differences between individuals with and without post-concussion syndrome (PCS) in end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO) and respiratory rate (RR) during neurocognitive and physical tasks.

Hypothesis: Individuals in the PCS group will have elevated ETCO and lower RR compared to the control group. Read More

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September 2019

An Experimental Study on the Optimal Timing for the Repair of Incomplete Facial Paralysis by Hypoglossal-facial 'Side'-to-side Neurorrhaphy in Rats.

Biomed Environ Sci 2018 Jun;31(6):413-424

Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To investigate the optimal timing for the repair of persistent incomplete facial paralysis by hypoglossal-facial 'side'-to-side neurorrhaphy in rats.

Methods: A total of 30 adult rats with crushed and bulldog-clamped facial nerve injury were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 6 each) that were subjected to injury without nerve repair or with immediate repair, 2-week-delayed repair, 4-week-delayed repair, or 8-week-delayed repair. Three months later, the effects of repair in each rat were evaluated by facial symmetry assessment, electrophysiological examination, retrograde labeling, and axon regeneration measurement. Read More

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Assessment of Infraorbital Hypesthesia Following Orbital Floor and Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fractures Using a Novel Sensory Grading System.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019 Jan/Feb;35(1):53-55

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary.

Purpose: Introduction of a novel sensory grading system to assess the incidence and long-term recovery of infraorbital hypesthesia following orbital floor and inferior orbital rim fractures.

Methods: Patients who presented for evaluation of orbital floor and/or zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures between January 2015 and April 2016 were analyzed. Two-point subjective infraorbital sensory grading in 5 discrete anatomic areas was performed. Read More

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December 2019

The incidence of vocal fold motion impairment after primary thyroid and parathyroid surgery for a single high-volume academic surgeon determined by pre- and immediate post-operative fiberoptic laryngoscopy.

Int J Surg 2018 Aug 14;56:73-78. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Division of Head and Neck Endocrine Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Vocal fold motion impairment (VFMI) is a well-recognized complication of thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Preoperative counseling requires a thorough understanding of the incidence, risk factors, and value of early diagnosis of postoperative VFMI. Our objective is to describe the incidence of and risk factors for VFMI for a single high-volume academic surgeon, and to assess the utility of immediate postoperative fiberoptic laryngoscopy (FOL) in early diagnosis of VFMI. Read More

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Hyperbaric oxygen for post-concussive symptoms in United States military service members: a randomized clinical trial.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2018 Mar-Apr;45(2):129-156

University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Background: In prior military randomized trials, participants with persistent symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) reported improvement regardless of receiving hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) or sham intervention. This study's objectives were to identify outcomes for future efficacy trials and describe changes by intervention.

Methods: This Phase II, randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial enrolled military personnel with mild TBI and persistent post-concussive symptoms. Read More

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October 2019

Recurrent laryngeal nerve reinnervation for management of aspiration in a subset of children.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Jan 6;104:104-107. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Pediatric Otolaryngology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Blvd, 1 Wood ENT, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Pediatric aspiration is a multifactorial process that is often complex to manage. Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury can cause glottic insufficiency and aspiration. We describe three cases of unilateral vocal fold paralysis resulting in aspiration and the successful use of the RLN reinnervation for its treatment. Read More

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January 2018

An anatomical and physiological basis for the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system consequences of sport-related brain injury.

Int J Psychophysiol 2018 10 29;132(Pt A):155-166. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

School of Health and Medical Sciences, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ, USA; The Institute for Advanced Study of Rehabilitation and Sports Science, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ, USA; Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research & Development Service National Center for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA; Seton Hall University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, 400 South Orange Avenue, South Orange, NJ 07079, USA.. Electronic address:

Concussion is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain that is induced by the application or transmission of traumatic biomechanical forces to the head. The result of the impact is the onset of transient symptoms that may be experienced for approximately 2weeks in most individuals. However, in some individuals, symptoms may not resolve and persist for a protracted period and a chronic injury ensues. Read More

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October 2018

Severity of traumatic brain injury correlates with long-term cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction.

J Neurol 2017 Sep 2;264(9):1956-1967. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Department of Neurology, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.

After traumatic brain injury (TBI), central autonomic dysfunction might contribute to long-term increased mortality rates. Central autonomic dysfunction might depend on initial trauma severity. This study was performed to evaluate differences in autonomic modulation at rest and upon standing between patients with a history of mild TBI (post-mild-TBI patients), moderate or severe TBI (post-moderate-severe-TBI patients), and healthy controls. Read More

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September 2017

Linear analysis of heart rate variability in post-concussive syndrome.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2016 Aug-Sept;43(5):531-547

The Emmes Corporation, Rockville, Maryland U.S.

Heart rate variability (HRV) represents measurable output of coordinated structural and functional systems within the body and brain. Both mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and HRV are modulated by changes in autonomic nervous system function. We present baseline HRV results from an ongoing mTBI clinical trial. Read More

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November 2017

Hyperbaric oxygen for mild traumatic brain injury: Design and baseline summary.

Undersea Hyperb Med 2016 Aug-Sept;43(5):491-509

The Emmes Corporation, Rockville, Maryland U.S.

The Brain Injury and Mechanisms of Action of Hyperbaric Oxygen for Persistent Post-Concussive Symptoms after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) (BIMA) study, sponsored by the Department of Defense, is a randomized double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trial that has a longer duration of follow-up and more comprehensive assessment battery compared to recent HBO₂ studies. BIMA randomized 71 participants from September 2012 to May 2014. Primary results are expected in 2017. Read More

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November 2017

Lightheadedness After Concussion: Not All Dizziness is Vertigo.

Clin J Sport Med 2018 05;28(3):272-277

Division of Sports Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio.

Objective: To characterize the presence and degree of postconcussion lightheadedness in relation to postconcussion vertigo and dizziness, and to determine whether lightheadedness influences overall symptom duration.

Design: Prospective, cohort design.

Setting: Nationwide Children's Hospital, Sports Concussion Clinic. Read More

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