22,735 results match your criteria Poliomyelitis


AVADAR (Auto-Visual AFP Detection and Reporting): demonstration of a novel SMS-based smartphone application to improve acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Nigeria.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 13;18(Suppl 4):1305. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

World Health Organization country Representative Office, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: Eradication of polio requires that the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance system is sensitive enough to detect all cases of AFP, and that such cases are promptly reported and investigated by disease surveillance personnel. When individuals, particularly community informants, are unaware of how to properly detect AFP cases or of the appropriate reporting process, they are unable to provide important feedback to the surveillance network within a country.

Methods: We tested a new SMS-based smartphone application (App) that enhances the detection and reporting of AFP cases to improve the quality of AFP surveillance. Read More

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December 2018

Transboundary nomadic population movement: a potential for import-export of poliovirus.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 13;18(Suppl 4):1316. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

National Primary Health Care Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: Nomadic populations have a considerably higher risk of contracting a number of diseases but, despite the magnitude of the public health risks involved, they are mostly underserved with few health policies or plans to target them. Nomadic population movements are shown to be a niche for the transmission of diseases, including poliomyelitis. The nomadic routes traverse the northern states of Nigeria to other countries in the Lake Chad subregion. Read More

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December 2018

Assessment of unmet needs to address noncompliant households during polio supplemental immunization activities in Kaduna state, 2014-2016.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 13;18(Suppl 4):1309. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

World Health Organization Country Office, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: Despite concerted global efforts being made to eradicate poliomyelitis, the wild poliovirus still circulates in three countries, including Nigeria. In addition, Nigeria experiences occasional outbreaks of the circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2). Vaccine rejection by caregivers persists in some parts of northern Nigeria, which compromises the quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). Read More

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December 2018

Polio eradication in Nigeria: evaluation of the quality of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance documentation in Bauchi state, 2016.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 13;18(Suppl 4):1307. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Global Public Health Solutions, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Nigeria is the only country in Africa that is yet to be certified as polio free. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is the foundation of the polio eradication initiative since it provides information to alert both health managers and clinician that timely actions should be initiated to interrupt transmission of the polio virus. The strategy also provides evidence for the absence of wild poliovirus. Read More

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December 2018
2.264 Impact Factor

Targeting the last polio sanctuaries with Directly Observed Oral Polio Vaccination (DOPV) in northern Nigeria, (2014-2016).

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 13;18(Suppl 4):1314. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

World Health Organization, Country Representative Office, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: The declaration of poliomyelitis eradication as a programmatic emergency for global public health by the 65th World Health Assembly in 2012 necessitated innovations and strategies to achieve results. Review of the confirmed polio cases in 2013 showed that most of the cases were from non-compliant households, where parents connived with vaccinators to finger mark the children without actually vaccinating the children with oral polio vaccine or children were absent from home at the time of the visit of vaccinators.

Methods: We used pre-post design to quantify the outcomes of directly observed vaccination in 90 local government areas from 12 northern Nigeria states at very high risk of polio transmission. Read More

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December 2018

Towards an effective poliovirus laboratory containment strategy in Nigeria.

BMC Public Health 2018 Dec 13;18(Suppl 4):1304. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

World Health Organization, Country Representative Office, Abuja, Nigeria.

Background: The Global Commission for the Certification of the Eradication of Poliomyelitis will declare the world free of wild poliovirus transmission when no wild virus has been found in at least 3 consecutive years, and all laboratories possessing wild poliovirus materials have adopted appropriate measures of containment. Nigeria has made progress towards poliomyelitis eradication with the latest reported WPV type 1 on 21 Aug 2016 after 2 years without any case. This milestone achievement was followed by an inventory of biomedical laboratories completed in November 2015 with the destruction of all identified infectious materials. Read More

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December 2018

Expression of Rift Valley fever virus N-protein in Nicotiana benthamiana for use as a diagnostic antigen.

BMC Biotechnol 2018 Dec 11;18(1):77. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Biopharming Research Unit, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Cape Town, 6503200115084, Rondebosch, Cape Town, 7700, South Africa.

Background: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), the causative agent of Rift Valley fever, is an enveloped single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus in the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae. The virus is spread by infected mosquitoes and affects ruminants and humans, causing abortion storms in pregnant ruminants, high neonatal mortality in animals, and morbidity and occasional fatalities in humans. The disease is endemic in parts of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, but is described as emerging due to the wide range of mosquitoes that could spread the disease into non-endemic regions. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

[Remarks on the possibility of the introduction of fractionated dose of the inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine in the Latin American Child Immunization Schedule].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2018 Aug;35(4):395-402

Sociedad Latinoamericana de Infectología Pediátrica, Mexico.

As last notified case of poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus type 2 was 1999, in 2012, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE) of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the withdrawal of the type 2 component of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the introduction of bivalent OPV (bOPV) in all countries by 2016. WHO recommended also that the withdrawal should be preceded by the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization schedules. The introduction of IPV prior to the change of the bOPV in 2016 to trivalent OPV (tOPV) was based on the concept of ensuring that a substantial proportion of the population would be protected against type 2 polio after the removal of the type 2 OPV. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Assessment of vaccination coverage of adolescents aged 16-18 years with an innovative electronic immunization record system.

Med Mal Infect 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Groupe d'études en préventologie (GEP), hôpital d'instruction des armées Robert-Picqué, 351, route de Toulouse, 33140 Villenave-d'Ornon, France.

Objectives: To measure vaccine coverage among adolescents aged 16-18 years who participated in the National Defense Preparation Day in the Aquitaine region using the free electronic immunization record.

Patients And Methods: We considered adolescents aged 16-18 years who participated in the National Defense Preparation Day in the Aquitaine region from April to October 2013. All participants received a letter explaining how to create an electronic immunization record. Read More

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December 2018

Evaluation of the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance system in Mwenezi district, Masvingo, 2018: a descriptive study.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Dec 10;11(1):875. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Community Medicine, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Objectives: Poliomyelitis is an infectious disease caused by the polio virus which affects mostly young children below the age of 15 years. For surveillance children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) are tracked. In Zimbabwe every district should report two cases per 100,000 population of children under the age of 15 years old. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Clinical Subpopulations in a Sample of North American Children Diagnosed With Acute Flaccid Myelitis, 2012-2016.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Importance: Acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) is an emerging poliolike illness of children whose clinical spectrum and associated pathogens are only partially described. The case definition is intentionally encompassing for epidemiologic surveillance to capture all potential AFM cases. Defining a restrictive, homogenous subpopulation may aid our understanding of this emerging disease. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Integrated Safety Profile of a New Approved, Fully-liquid DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib Vaccine.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

Background: DTaP5-HB-IPV-Hib is a fully-liquid, hexavalent vaccine containing a 5-antigen pertussis component; approved since 2016 in Europe (Vaxelis™) for primary and booster vaccination in infants and toddlers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The comparator vaccine (control) was INFANRIX™ hexa (DTaP3-IPV-HepB/Hib) in European studies and PENTACEL™ (DTaP5-IPV/Hib) in US studies.

Methods: Data from six studies were integrated and analyzed to provide a comprehensive safety profile. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Predicting Intraserotypic Recombination in Enterovirus 71.

J Virol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Althouse laboratory, University Park, PA 16802.

Enteroviruses are well known for their ability to cause neurological damage and paralysis. The model enterovirus is poliovirus (PV), the causative agent of poliomyelitis, a condition characterized by acute flaccid paralysis. A related virus, enterovirus 71 (EV-A71), causes similar clinical outcomes in recurrent outbreaks throughout Asia. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Development of Thermostable Lyophilized Sabin Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine.

MBio 2018 Nov 27;9(6). Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA

As oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) causes vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, the polio endgame strategy introduced by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative calls for a phased withdrawal of OPV and an introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). The introduction of IPV creates challenges in maintaining the cold chain for vaccine storage and distribution. Recent advances in lyophilization have helped in finding a temperature-stable formulation for multiple vaccines; however, poliovirus vaccines have yet to capture a stable, safe formula for lyophilization. Read More

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November 2018

Poliomyelitis.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;159:337-344

Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Poliomyelitis, often termed "polio," is an acute infectious disease caused by an enterovirus which damages the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord and brainstem. Progress to lower motor neurone cell death leads to disruption of motor units and subsequent muscle weakness or complete paralysis. Although the virus is mostly eradicated from the Western world, postpolio decline is prevalent among people aged 60 years and over. Read More

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January 2018
3 Reads

Polio eradication: next steps and future challenges.

Euro Surveill 2018 Nov;23(47)

National Institute for Biological Standards and Controls (NIBSC), Potters Bar, United Kingdom.

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November 2018

An ethical appraisal of the choice of vaccines against Poliomyelitis.

Indian J Med Ethics 2018 Sep 21;-(-):1-4. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Consultant in Paediatrics and Paediatric Infectious Diseases, Apollo Hospitals, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400614.,

Medical ethics is invoked for immunisation of children as it involves an interaction between a healthcare professional and the child. Immunisation under the national immunisation programme is a public health intervention and the common belief is that ethics is not relevant. Two vaccines with contrasting safety and efficacy profiles were available against polio before the national immunisation programme was launched: the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and the live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Evaluation of the genetic stability of Sabin strains and the consistency of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine made from Sabin strains using direct deep-sequencing.

Vaccine 2019 Jan 19;37(1):130-136. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming 650118, Yunnan, China; Yunnan Key Laboratory of Vaccine Research and Development on Severe Infections Diseases, Kunming 650118, Yunnan, China. Electronic address:

Inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine made from Sabin strains (sIPV) has been encouraged to introduce in the "Global Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan" and increasingly used worldwide. Attenuated Sabin strains used in manufacture of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and sIPV may regain full or partial neurovirulence during growth in vaccine recipients and the vaccine manufacturing processes. Ensuring the molecular consistency of sIPV batches and that no mutation accumulates beyond the level present in past batches are important for quality control of vaccine manufacture process. Read More

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January 2019
2 Reads

Precise tracking of vaccine-responding T cell clones reveals convergent and personalized response in identical twins.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 20;115(50):12704-12709. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Genomics of Adaptive Immunity, Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, 117997 Moscow, Russia;

T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire data contain information about infections that could be used in disease diagnostics and vaccine development, but extracting that information remains a major challenge. Here we developed a statistical framework to detect TCR clone proliferation and contraction from longitudinal repertoire data. We applied this framework to data from three pairs of identical twins immunized with the yellow fever vaccine. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

The Contribution of Poliomyelitis to President Roosevelt's Heart Failure. A Lesson on the Importance of Vaccinations for Cardiovascular Prevention.

High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev 2018 Dec 19;25(4):425-426. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Archaeology, College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia.

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December 2018
1 Read

Immunogenicity and safety following primary and booster vaccination with a hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: a randomized trial in the United States.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

c GSK , Wavre , Belgium.

Combined hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib) can further reduce the number of injections in pediatric immunization schedules of countries currently using pentavalent DTaP combination vaccines. This open-label, randomized, multicenter study (NCT02096263) conducted in the United States evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine compared with concomitant administration of DTaP-HBV-IPV and Hib or DTaP-IPV/Hib and HBV vaccines. We randomized (1:1:1) infants to receive 3-dose priming with DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib boosted with DTaP+ Hib, DTaP-HBV-IPV+ Hib boosted with DTaP+ Hib, or DTaP-IPV/Hib+ HBV boosted with DTaP-IPV/Hib, at 2, 4, 6, and 15-18 months of age. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Oral polio vaccine response in the MAL-ED birth cohort study: Considerations for polio eradication strategies.

Vaccine 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa.

Background: Immunization programs have leveraged decades of research to maximize oral polio vaccine (OPV) response. Moving toward global poliovirus eradication, the WHO recommended phased OPV-to-IPV replacement on schedules in 2012. Using the MAL-ED prospective birth cohort data, we evaluated the influence of early life exposures impacting OPV immunization by measuring OPV response for serotypes 1 and 3. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Correction of Poliomyelitis-Related Spinal Deformities: A Comparison Among Three Types of Pelvic Instrumentations.

World Neurosurg 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Spine Surgery, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Background: We compared the clinical and radiographic outcomes of corrective surgery in patients with poliomyelitis-related spinal deformity (PSD) using 3 types of pelvic fixation and investigated the incidence and risk factors for complications.

Methods: We reviewed the data from 42 patients with PSD who had undergone spinopelvic reconstruction at a single institution from 2000 to 2016. Of the 42 patients, 15 had been treated with the Galveston technique, 13 with iliac screw fixation, and 14 with S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screw fixation. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads
2.417 Impact Factor

Assessment of seroprevalence against poliovirus among Italian adolescents and adults.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

a Department of Medical Sciences , University of Ferrara , Italy.

In 2002, the WHO European Region was declared polio-free. Nonetheless global eradication has not yet been completed and the reintroduction from at risk areas is still possible. This seroprevalence study evaluated samples collected from each Italian region in the 12-50 years old age range to assess protection against Poliovirus (PV) 1, 2 and 3 among subjects immunised with different vaccination schedules. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

For how long do denervated muscles in children retain the ability to regenerate?: Restoration of elbow flexion and shoulder function by partial nerve transfer in a child with long-standing poliomyelitis-like paralysis.

J Orthop Sci 2018 Nov 10. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki Prefecture 305-8575, Japan.

Background: In infant poliomyelitis or poliomyelitis-like paresis, there has been no means of treating residual paralysis and the policy has been to wait until an affected infant has grown sufficiently to enable tendon transfer or arthrodesis. However, recent reports have described relatively good results for early surgical intervention in the form of nerve transfer.

Methods: In a 4-year and 6-month-old child we transferred a partial ulnar nerve for elbow flexor reconstruction even 3 years and 10 months after the onset of poliomyelitis-like palsy and also transferred partial accessory and radial nerves for shoulder function restoration 6 months after the first operation. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Pakistan, January 2017-September 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Nov 9;67(44):1242-1245. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only WPV type 1 (WPV1) has been reported in polio cases or detected from environmental surveillance globally since 2012. Pakistan remains one of only three countries worldwide (the others are Afghanistan and Nigeria) that has never had interrupted WPV1 transmission. This report documents Pakistan's activities and progress toward polio eradication during January 2017-September 2018 and updates previous reports (1,2). Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Genetic Predisposition to Infectious Disease.

Authors:
Nikolai Klebanov

Cureus 2018 Aug 27;10(8):e3210. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.

In contemporary medical practice, approaches to infectious disease management have been primarily rooted in a pathogen-centered model. However, host genetics also contribute significantly to infectious disease burden. The fast expansion of bioinformatics techniques and the popularization of the genome-wide association study (GWAS) in recent decades have allowed for rapid and affordable high-throughput genomic analyses. Read More

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August 2018
7 Reads

The push to eradicate poliomyelitis in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (Editorial).

East Mediterr Health J 2017 Nov 19;23(9):587-588. Epub 2017 Nov 19.

Manager, Polio Eradication and Emergency Support, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

The Eastern Mediterranean Region, and the world, has never been closer to eradicating poliomyelitis. Wild poliovirus transmission is at the lowest levels in history and is limited to a few zones in the two remaining polio-endemic countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. As at 30 October 2017, only 13 cases of poliomyelitis due to wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV 1) had been reported in the Region in 2017: 8 from Afghanistan and 5 from Pakistan. Read More

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November 2017
2 Reads

Environmental Surveillance Reveals Complex Enterovirus Circulation Patterns in Human Populations.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Oct 1;5(10):ofy250. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Division of Virology, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), South Mimms, Potters Bar, Herts, United Kingdom.

Background: Enteroviruses are common human pathogens occasionally associated with severe disease, notoriously paralytic poliomyelitis caused by poliovirus. Other enterovirus serotypes such as enterovirus A71 and D68 have been linked to severe neurological syndromes. New enterovirus serotypes continue to emerge, some believed to be derived from nonhuman primates. Read More

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October 2018
8 Reads

Pediatric HIV Infection and Decreased Prevalence of OPV Point Mutations Linked to Vaccine-associated Paralytic Poliomyelitis.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Oct;67(suppl_1):S78-S84

Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, California.

Background: Mutations associated with prolonged replication of the attenuated polioviruses found in oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) can lead to vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) and cause paralysis indistinguishable from that caused by wild poliovirus. In response, the World Health Organization has initiated the transition to exclusive use of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), with OPV administration in cases of outbreak. However, it is currently unclear how IPV-only vaccination, well known to provide humoral but not mucosal immunity, will impact the development of paralysis causing OPV variants. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Seroprevalence of Poliomyelitis Antibodies Among Children Aged 1 to 4 Years Old and Factors Associated With Poliovirus Susceptibility; Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey, 2012.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Oct;67(suppl_1):S110-S114

Centro de Investigación sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

Background: An essential component of the "Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018" is the evaluation of population immunity. Mexico introduced the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization schedule in 2007 but continued to give trivalent oral polio vaccine OPV twice a year during National Health Weeks through 2016.

Methods: To describe the seroprevalence of poliomyelitis among children one to four years old in Mexico and analyze risk factors for susceptibility. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Immunogenicity of New Primary Immunization Schedules With Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine and Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine for the Polio Endgame: A Review.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Oct;67(suppl_1):S35-S41

Biostatistics Consultant, Seattle, Washington.

In May 2016, countries using oral polio vaccine for routine immunization switched from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) to bivalent type 1 and 3 OPV (bOPV). This was done in order to reduce risks from type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV2) and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and to introduce ≥1 dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) to mitigate post-switch loss of type 2 immunity. We conducted a literature review of studies that assessed humoral and intestinal immunogenicity induced by the newly recommended schedules. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read
8.890 Impact Factor

Update on Vaccine-Derived Polioviruses - Worldwide, January 2017-June 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Oct 26;67(42):1189-1194. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was launched in 1988 (1), the number of polio cases worldwide has declined by >99.99%. Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only type 1 (WPV1) has been detected since 2012. Read More

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October 2018
14 Reads

Inverse Relationship Between Polio Incidence in the US and Colorectal Cancer.

In Vivo 2018 Nov-Dec;32(6):1485-1489

Severn Health Solutions, Severna Park, MD, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Polio is predominantly an enteric viral infection that was progressively eradicated in the United States after the introduction of polio vaccine in the early 1950s. U.S. Read More

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August 2018
6 Reads

[Quantifying the impact of mass vaccination programmes on notified cases in the Netherlands].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2018 09 20;162. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Centrum Infectieziektebestrijding, RIVM, Bilthoven, Nederland.

Objective: To quantify the impact of long-standing vaccination programmes on notified cases in the Netherlands.

Design: Estimates based on model projections of historical morbidity data.

Method: We collected and digitised previously unavailable monthly case notifications of diphtheria, poliomyelitis, mumps and rubella in the Netherlands over the period 1919-2015. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Pulmonary hernia: Case report and review of the literature.

Respirol Case Rep 2018 Nov 2;6(8):e00354. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Respiratory Disease and Lung Function Unit University of Parma Parma Italy.

Pulmonary hernia (PH) is an uncommon condition. We report a case of PH secondary to thoracic surgical intervention. In addition to the rarity, the peculiarity of the case is given by the clinical course as it is characterized by a clinical latency before the onset. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Contribution of Vaccination to the Reduction of Infectious Mortality in Ukraine in the Second Half of the 20th and Early 21st Century: A Comparative Population Based Study of the Dynamics and Structure of Infectious Mortality and Incidence.

Viral Immunol 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

2 Biosecurity Research Institute, Kansas State University , Manhattan, Kansas.

Our work presents an epidemiological analysis of the dynamics and structure of the annual indicators such as Cumulative Incidence, Mortality Rate (MR), and Case Fatality Rate for infections preventable by vaccines (vaccine-preventable infections-VPIs) in Ukraine between 1944 and 2015 compared to the same indicators for infections not preventable by vaccines (nonvaccine-preventable infections-non-VPIs). In 1965, the proportion of all infectious diseases in the context of mortality (7.47%), and especially of VPI (3. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Modeling Undetected Live Poliovirus Circulation After Apparent Interruption of Transmission: Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Risk Anal 2018 Oct 8. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Kid Risk, Inc., Columbus, OH, USA.

Since most poliovirus infections occur with no paralytic symptoms, the possibility of silent circulation complicates the confirmation of the end of poliovirus transmission. Based on empirical field experience and theoretical modeling results, the Global Polio Eradication Initiative identified three years without observing paralytic cases from wild polioviruses with good acute flaccid paralysis surveillance as an indication of sufficient confidence that poliovirus circulation stopped. The complexities of real populations and the imperfect nature of real surveillance systems subsequently demonstrated the importance of specific modeling for areas at high risk of undetected circulation, resulting in varying periods of time required to obtain the same level of confidence about no undetected circulation. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Orthopaedic surgery for patients with central nervous system lesions: Concepts and techniques.

Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Oct 2. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Penn Neuro-Orthopaedics Service, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Since ancient times, the aim of orthopedic surgery has been to correct limb and joint deformities, including those resulting from central nervous system lesions. Recent developments in the treatment of spasticity have led to changes in concepts and management strategies. The increase in life expectancy has increased the functional needs of patients. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Inhospital Complications of Patients With Neuromuscular Disorders Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2018 Oct 2. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham Hospital, Birmingham, AL.

Introduction: Orthopaedic surgeons are wary of patients with neuromuscular (NM) diseases as a result of perceived poor outcomes and lack of data regarding complication risks. We determined the prevalence of patients with NM disease undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and characterized its relationship with in-hospital complications, prolonged length of stay, and total charges.

Methods: Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2005 to 2014 was used for this retrospective cohort study to identify 8,028,435 discharges with total joint arthroplasty. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Transcatheter bicuspid aortic valve replacement in Turner syndrome: A unique experience of interventional cardiologist.

J Cardiol Cases 2018 Jan 5;17(1):29-32. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA.

A 69-year-old short-statured Turner syndrome (TS) patient with a history of poliomyelitis in childhood and moderate bicuspid aortic stenosis (BAS) reported worsening dyspnea and fatigue over six months. A repeat transthoracic echocardiogram revealed progression to severe aortic stenosis with dilated ascending aorta (AA). As part of the work-up for aortic valve replacement, the patient underwent cardiac catheterization, which revealed a severely calcified AV with an area of 0. Read More

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January 2018
6 Reads

Effect of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine Campaigns, Pakistan, 2014-2017.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Nov 17;24(11):2113-2115. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Pakistan began using inactivated poliovirus vaccine alongside oral vaccine in mass campaigns to accelerate eradication of wild-type poliovirus in 2014. Using case-based and environmental surveillance data for January 2014-October 2017, we found that these campaigns reduced wild-type poliovirus detection more than campaigns that used only oral vaccine. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

After polio: Imagining, planning, and delivering a world beyond eradication.

Authors:
Stephen Taylor

Health Place 2018 Nov 18;54:29-36. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

School of Geography, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UK. Electronic address:

As the world comes closer to the eradication of polio, the question of preparing for life after this debilitating disease becomes increasingly pertinent. This paper focuses on on-going institutional attempts to conceptualise, plan, and deliver a world after polio. Drawing upon interviews with global health officials and ethnographic fieldwork with eradication initiatives in Nigeria and Pakistan, I explore how international donors are transitioning towards life after the disease and the curtailment of the substantial resources it has successfully mobilised. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Environmental Surveillance System Characteristics and Impacts on Confidence About No Undetected Serotype 1 Wild Poliovirus Circulation.

Risk Anal 2018 Sep 21. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Kid Risk, Inc., Columbus, OH, USA.

Surveillance for poliovirus during the polio endgame remains uncertain. Building on prior modeling of the potential for undetected poliovirus transmission for conditions like those in Pakistan and Afghanistan, we use a hypothetical model to explore several key characteristics of the poliovirus environmental surveillance (ES) system (e.g. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Poliomyelitis era in Trinidad from 1940 to 1972 and beyond: Implications for effective global health governance for its eradication.

J Family Med Prim Care 2018 Jul-Aug;7(4):664-670

Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Mount Hope, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

Background: Acute poliomyelitis (APM/polio) is a viral infection caused by the polio virus that continues to have a fascinating social and economic impact on countries throughout the world. Humans acquire the virus by close personal contact with transmission occurring through the fecal-oral route. The majority of poliovirus infections results in no illness or produces only self-limited symptoms, however in approximately 5% of infected patients flaccid paralysis of the limbs can occur and 1% can die. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Ability of inactivated vaccines based on far-eastern tick-borne encephalitis virus strains to induce humoral immune response in originally seropositive and seronegative recipients.

J Med Virol 2019 Feb 28;91(2):190-200. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides, FSBSI "Chumakov FSC IBP RAS,", Moscow, Russia.

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) remains one of the major public health concerns in northern Eurasia, and its' area is expanding. TBE virus (TBEV) includes three subtypes and several monophyletic groups, cocirculating in Russia. Five inactivated vaccines are used for TBE prophylaxis. Read More

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February 2019
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