Radiographics 2000 Jul-Aug;20(4):1043-57
Department of Radiology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85719, USA.
Pneumomediastinum may result from a variety of causes that may be either intrathoracic (eg, narrowed or plugged airway, straining against a closed glottis, blunt chest trauma, alveolar rupture) or extrathoracic (eg, sinus fracture, iatrogenic manipulation in dental extraction, perforation of a hollow viscus [corrected]. The radiographic signs of pneumomediastinum depend on the depiction of normal anatomic structures that are outlined by the air as it leaves the mediastinum. These signs include the thymic sail sign, "ring around the artery" sign, tubular artery sign, double bronchial wall sign, continuous diaphragm sign, and extrapleural sign. Read More