29 results match your criteria Pneumothorax Iatrogenic Spontaneous and Pneumomediastinum

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A Case Series of Secondary Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum and Pneumothorax in Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia.

Cureus 2022 Feb 15;14(2):e22247. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Pulmonology, University of Florida College of Medicine - Jacksonville, Jacksonville, USA.

Introduction Pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax are uncommon complications in COVID-19 patients. The exact prevalence, etiology, and outcomes are not well known. We report a case series of patients in our institution with COVID-19 related pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax and address these questions. Read More

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February 2022

Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in patients with COVID-19: A retrospective study from tertiary care institute in India.

Drug Discov Ther 2021 ;15(6):310-316

Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

COVID-19 is associated with rarer extra-parenchymal manifestations, namely pneumothorax (PTX) and pneumomediastinum (PM) leading to complications and increased mortality. The study aims to describe the prevalence, risk factors for mortality, radiological characteristics and outcome of PTX/PM in patients admitted with COVID-19. This was a retrospective, single-centre, observational study in patients with confirmed COVID-19 presenting with non-iatrogenic PTX/PM from April 2020 to May 2021. Read More

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January 2022

Pneumothorax and Pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 Suggest a Pneumocystic Pathology.

Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2021 Oct 25;5(5):827-834. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Baylor Scott & White Research Institute, Dallas, TX.

Objective: To determine whether the apparent excess incidence of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is explained adequately by iatrogenic causes vs reflecting sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection.

Patients And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients within our health care system from March 15, 2020, through May 31, 2020, who had a diagnosis of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum during hospitalization for confirmed COVID-19 infection with attention to timing of pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum; presence, laterality, and placement, or attempts at central lines; and presence of mechanical ventilation before the event.

Results: We report clinical data and outcomes from 9 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who developed pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum among more than 1200 hospitalized patients admitted within our hospital system early in the pandemic. Read More

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October 2021

Spontaneous epidural pneumorrhachis in 14 years old.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 6;12:329. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, UPMC, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

Background: Pneumorrhachis is an exceedingly rare complication of pneumomediastinum as air tracks through tissue planes into the epidural (or subdural space). The majority of these patients present with a clear history of trauma, iatrogenic injury, pneumothorax, vomiting, or retching.

Case Description: A 14-year-old male presented with the asymptomatic spontaneous onset of pneumorrhachis associated with significant pneumomediastinum of unclear etiology. Read More

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Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum as a complication of an asthma attack.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2019 Jan-Mar;29(1):77-80

Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Universitario de Torrejón, Calle Mateo Inurria s/n, Torrejón de Ardoz, Spain.

Introduction: Simultaneous subcutaneous emphysema, spontaneous pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum are complications rarely observed synchronously during an acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma. Although spontaneous pneumothorax has already been reported in asthma patients in the literature, its concurrence with subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum is extremely rare except for iatrogenic conditions.

Case Study: We describe a patient who presented to the emergency room with progressive dyspnea and chest pain. Read More

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[Pneumomediastinum - a case report].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2016 Aug;41(242):93-6

Medical University of Lublin, Poland: Chair and Department of Pneumonology, Oncology and Allergology.

Unlabelled: Pneumomediastinum is a rare disorder which often occurs without symptoms. It is sometimes a result of an injury but most often it is spontaneous. Pneumothorax may be iatrogenic; one of the reasons might be tracheotomy. Read More

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An Unusual Association in an Uncommon Disease: Two Cases of Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Associated with Pneumorrhachis.

Case Rep Pulmonol 2016 26;2016:5092157. Epub 2016 Apr 26.

Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte (CHLN), 1649-035 Lisboa, Portugal.

Pneumomediastinum, the presence of free air in the mediastinum, is described as spontaneous pneumomediastinum when there is no apparent cause such as trauma, surgery, interventional procedures, or intrathoracic infections. Pneumorrhachis is a rare clinical condition, consisting of intraspinal air. The main causes are iatrogenic, traumatic, and nontraumatic. Read More

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Pneumomediastinum, pneumorrhachis and subcutaneous emphysema associated with viral infections: Report of three cases.

Pediatr Int 2015 Oct;57(5):1038-40

Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is usually secondary to alveolar rupture in the pulmonary interstitium, associated with subcutaneous emphysema and occasionally with pneumothorax, but is rarely associated with pneumorrhachis. The leaked air into the pulmonary perivascular interstitium follows the path of least resistance from the mediastinum to the fascial planes of the neck. Air freely communicates via the neural foramina and collects in the epidural space. Read More

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October 2015

Dyspnoea and chest pain as the presenting symptoms of pneumomediastinum: two cases and a review of the literature.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2015 Nov-Dec;26(6):e1-4. Epub 2015 Oct 8.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Pneumomediastinum is the presence of air in the mediastinum. It may occur as spontaneous, traumatic, or iatrogenic pneumomediastinum. Although spontaneous pneumomediastinum is usually observed in healthy young men, traumatic pneumomediastinum may be caused by blunt or penetrating trauma to the chest and neck. Read More

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September 2016

Unique case of pneumomediastinum due to penetrating injury to the mediastinum.

BMJ Case Rep 2015 Sep 16;2015. Epub 2015 Sep 16.

Department of Surgery, Slingeland Hospital Doetinchem, Doetinchem, The Netherlands.

Pneumomediastinum is a rare condition, and mostly occurs following traumatic or iatrogenic tracheal and oesophageal perforation, but spontaneous pneumomediastinum has also been described. We report a case of a 17-year-old woman who presented with a penetrating neck wound after a fall down the stairs. She had an extensive pneumomediastinum without signs of tracheal or oesophageal laceration, rib fractures, pneumothorax or haematothorax. Read More

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September 2015

Pneumopericardium, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and pneumoretroperitoneum complicating pulmonary metastatic carcinoma in a cat.

J Small Anim Pract 2015 Nov 11;56(11):679-83. Epub 2015 May 11.

Ospedale Veterinario Gregorio VII, Piazza di Villa Carpegna 52, 00165, Roma, Italia.

This report describes a case of severe spontaneous tension pneumopericardium with concurrent pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax and retropneumoperitoneum in a cat presenting with dyspnoea and signs of cardiac tamponade secondary to metastatic pulmonary carcinoma. Spontaneous pneumopericardium is an extremely uncommon condition consisting of pericardial gas in the absence of iatrogenic/traumatic causes. In humans, it has been described secondary to pneumonia or lung abscess and very rarely secondary to pulmonary neoplasia. Read More

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November 2015

Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum in a Pediatric Patient After a 1600-m Run: Case Report and Literature Review.

J Am Osteopath Assoc 2015 May;115(5):338-41

Pneumomediastinum occurs as a result of traumatic or iatrogenic causes or in patients with preexisting lung conditions such as interstitial lung disease, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Spontaneous pneumomedi-astinum (SPM), however, is rarely seen in clinical practice. The authors report the case of a 14-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department with chest discomfort and shortness of breath after a 1600-m run as part of a physical education class. Read More

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Spontaneous pneumorrhachis and transverse myelitis complicating purulent meningitis.

J Glob Infect Dis 2013 Oct;5(4):179-82

Department of Intensive Care, University Hospital of Fez, Fez, Morocco.

Pneumorrhachis is the presence of air in the spinal canal; mostly, it has an iatrogenic origin. The association of this entity with spontaneous pneumomediastinum without any pneumothorax is rarely reported in the literature. The spontaneous resorption is the usual evolution. Read More

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October 2013

Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and subcutaneous emphysema: rare and fatal complications of asthma.

Case Rep Emerg Med 2012 23;2012:242579. Epub 2012 Dec 23.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Adana State Hospital, Adana, Turkey.

Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax (SBSP) and pneumomediastinum are complications rarely observed synchronously during an acute asthma attack. It is a clinical condition that manifests itself with serious respiratory distress and must be rapidly diagnosed and treated. Although bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax has already been reported in asthma patients in the literature, its concurrence with subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum is extremely rare except for iatrogenic conditions. Read More

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January 2013

Spontaneous cervicothoracolumbar pneumorrhachis, pneumomediastinum and pneumoperitoneum.

Clin Respir J 2009 Oct;3(4):239-43

Department of Surgery, Division of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20037, USA.

Introduction: Pneumorrhachis, or epidural pneumatosis, is a rare entity that is usually traumatic or iatrogenic. Usually, the epidural emphysema is limited to a few vertebral spaces. Less commonly, it is secondary to mediastinal air that tracks into the epidural space. Read More

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October 2009

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: experience in 18 adult patients.

Lung 2007 Jan-Feb;185(1):9-14. Epub 2007 Feb 15.

Unit of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria G. Martino, Messina, Italy.

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is defined as the presence of air in the mediastinum, developing in the absence of traumatic, iatrogenic, or preceding pulmonary pathologies (emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and lung cancer). The aim of this study was to review our experiences with SPM, underlining its symptomatology, diagnosis, treatment, and followup, and defining a reasonable course of assessment and management. A retrospective case series was conducted to identify adult patients with SPM who were diagnosed and treated in our institution between 1998 and 2005. Read More

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Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: are we overinvestigating?

J Pediatr Surg 2004 May;39(5):681-4

Division of General Surgery, Ste-Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is uncommon in pediatrics. Because of the growing concern about the risks of radiation in children, the authors analyzed whether an extensive radiologic workup influences management and outcome.

Methods: In a retrospective study from 1991 to 2003, 53 patients were diagnosed with SPM. Read More

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[Pneumomediastinum in children].

Rev Med Liege 2001 Jun;56(6):415-9

Service de Pédiatrie, Cliniques Saint Joseph-Espérance.

Pneumomediastinum in children is diagnosed in two circumstances: cervical subcutaneous emphysema or radiological findings. The predominant symptoms are dyspnoea, stabbing chest pain, sore throat and dysphagia. Traumatic injuries and pulmonary diseases such as asthma are the most common causes of pneumomediastinum. Read More

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Cervical emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and pneumothorax following self-induced oral injury: report of four cases and review of the literature.

Chest 2001 Jul;120(1):306-9

Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario "12 de Octubre," Madrid, Spain. fernandez

Spontaneous rupture of the pulmonary alveoli after a sudden increase in intra-alveolar pressure is a common cause of pneumomediastinum, which is usually seen in healthy young men. Other common causes are traumatic and iatrogenic rupture of the airway and esophagus; however, pneumomediastinum following cervicofacial emphysema is much rarer and is occasionally found after dental surgical procedures, head and neck surgery, or accidental trauma. We present four cases of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum with two secondary pneumothoraces after self-induced punctures in the oral cavity. Read More

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Pneumomediastinum revisited.

Radiographics 2000 Jul-Aug;20(4):1043-57

Department of Radiology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85719, USA.

Pneumomediastinum may result from a variety of causes that may be either intrathoracic (eg, narrowed or plugged airway, straining against a closed glottis, blunt chest trauma, alveolar rupture) or extrathoracic (eg, sinus fracture, iatrogenic manipulation in dental extraction, perforation of a hollow viscus [corrected]. The radiographic signs of pneumomediastinum depend on the depiction of normal anatomic structures that are outlined by the air as it leaves the mediastinum. These signs include the thymic sail sign, "ring around the artery" sign, tubular artery sign, double bronchial wall sign, continuous diaphragm sign, and extrapleural sign. Read More

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[Postoperative mediastinal and subcutaneous emphysema after intubation narcosis].

T Obenhaus

Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 1996 Jun;31(5):318-20

Klinik für Anästhesiologie und Intensivmedizin Städt. Klinikum Wiesbaden.

The case of a 16-year old female is presented who underwent laparoscopy under general anaesthesia and uncomplicated endotracheal intubation. Four hours after uneventful anaesthesia and extubation the patient started vomiting and coughing. Subcutaneous tissue emphysema developed and pneumomediastinum was diagnosed on a chest roentgenogram. Read More

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[A paracardiac sickle-shaped air mass following the insertion of a Swan-Ganz catheter--iatrogenic or caused by barotrauma?].

J Heinze H U Röder

Anaesthesist 1991 Aug;40(8):458-61

Klinik für Anaesthesiologie, Universität Tübingen.

We report a 20-year-old male with severe injuries (head, multiple fractures, contusion of the left lung) who developed the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on the 3rd day of treatment. The patient was ventilated as follows: FiO2 1.0; rate 14/min; minute ventilation 17 1/min; PEEP 10 cm H2O; peak inspiratory pressure 44 mmHg; mean pressure 31 mmHg. Read More

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[Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adults].

Rev Clin Esp 1990 Jun;187(1):22-4

Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia.

Pneumomediastinum cases admitted to our Respiratory Intensive Care Unit during the past 15 years are reviewed. After excluding secondary and iatrogenic pneumomediastinum, spontaneous pneumomediastinum was diagnosed in seven patients being all of them males. The causative conditions were status asthmaticus in four patients, intense cough in two and Valsalva manoeuver in one patient. Read More

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Perforation and rupture of the esophagus.

Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1983 ;17(3):311-6

A series of 57 esophageal perforations from the period 1963-1982 is reported. They comprised 42 iatrogenic, instrumental perforations and 15 non-iatrogenic, mainly spontaneous and postemetic ruptures. The clinical manifestations were mostly pain, fever, subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema, pleural effusion and pneumothorax. Read More

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January 1984

Ptosis associated with iatrogenic pneumothorax: a false lateralizing sign.

D Widder

Arch Intern Med 1982 Jan;142(1):145-6

Two cachectic, obtunded patients were seen with unilateral periorbital emphysema resembling ptosis as a primary manifestation of pneumothorax. Speculation is made as to the possible role of malnutrition in this unusual manifestation. Spontaneous pneumothorax should be considered in the obtunded patient with ptosis that is poorly explained by other neurologic findings. Read More

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January 1982

[Intrathoracic gas effusions of iatrogenic origin in neonatal reanimation].

Ann Anesthesiol Fr 1975 May-Jun;16(3):163-72

Intra-thoracic gaseous collections, pneumodiastinum and pneumothorax, have become more common since the use of positive expiratory pressure, either with spontaneous ventilation or in association with artificial ventilation. In our experience, the occurence rate of such collections has increased from 7 p. 100 in 1970 to 19 p. Read More

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December 1975
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