12,240 results match your criteria Pneumonia Pediatric


Nasogastric versus Orogastric Bolus Tube Feeding in Preterm Infants: Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial.

Am J Perinatol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Mansoura University Children's Hospital, Mansoura, Egypt.

Objective:  According to the most recent metanalysis, the best way to establish safe enteral feeding in preterm babies using nasogastric or orogastric tubes is still not well understood. This study aimed to determine the effects of bolus nasal tubes versus bolus orogastric tubes on the time required to reach full enteral feeding in preterm infants, as well as to compare the incidence rates of adverse events including nonintentional removal or displacement of the feeding tube, aspiration pneumonia/pneumonitis, apnea, necrotizing enterocolitis, gastric residual, and growth parameters between the studied cohort of preterm infants.

Study Design:  We conducted an unblinded pilot randomized clinical trial on hemodynamically stable preterm infants (>28 weeks) recruited from level 2 neonatal intensive care unit at Mansoura University Children's Hospital from June 2015 to May 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1713865DOI Listing

Pediatric Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis: Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Two Cases with Fungal Triggers.

Fetal Pediatr Pathol 2020 Jul 3:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) infrequently presents in childhood. Asthma or a pneumonia-like clinical presentation may lead to diagnostic delay, especially in children. We present two cases of HP, a 6-year-old (Case 1) male and a 5-year-old (Case 2) female. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15513815.2020.1786201DOI Listing

Opioids or Steroids for Pneumonia or Sinusitis.

Pediatrics 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.

Objectives: To compare the frequency of opioid and corticosteroid prescriptions dispensed for children with pneumonia or sinusitis visits on the basis of location of care.

Methods: We evaluated 2016 South Carolina Medicaid claims data for 5 to 18 years olds with pneumonia or sinusitis. Visits were associated with 1 of 3 locations: the emergency department (ED), urgent care, or the ambulatory setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-3690DOI Listing

Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for bacterial pneumonia in children - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2020 Jul 2:1-15. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The predictive role of procalcitonin for childhood bacterial pneumonia, a leading cause of death, is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for childhood bacterial pneumonia. Major bibliographic databases were searched from inception through September 2019 using pre-defined index terms, including 'procalcitonin,' 'pneumonia' and 'children'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2020.1788719DOI Listing

Post-mortem histopathology of a pediatric brain after bilateral DBS of GPI for status dystonicus: case report and review of the literature.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Pediatric Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit, Children's Hospital A. Meyer-University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Purpose: To investigate the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes on the brain of a dystonic pediatric patient submitted to bilateral DBS of the globus pallidus internus (GPI).

Methods: An 8-year-old male patient underwent bilateral DBS of GPI for status dystonicus. He died 2 months later due to multiorgan failure triggered by bacterial pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04761-wDOI Listing

Determination of Antimicrobial Prescribing Practices in an Integrated Health System Emergency Department.

Kans J Med 2020 25;13:131-133. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, KS.

Introduction: Antibiotic stewardship utilizes interprofessional collaborative practices, including professionals from medicine, pharmacy, nursing, social services, and clinical laboratory science, to identify potential problems proactively. A tertiary care integrated health system's Emergency Department (ED) aimed to identify antimicrobials prescribed to the outpatient community as part of a proactive antimicrobial stewardship project.

Methods: A pilot, prospective, snapshot of a tertiary community hospital's outpatient antimicrobial prescribing habits was conducted. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324061PMC

Lessons Learned so Far from the Pandemic: A Review on Pregnants and Neonates with COVID-19.

Eurasian J Med 2020 Jun;52(2):202-210

Department of Chest Diseases, Ataturk University School of Medicine, Erzurum, Turkey.

There are concerns regarding the risk and the course of COVID-19 in pregnancy and in the neonates. In this review, we aimed to present the current understanding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy and neonatal periods considering diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention. Few studies on pregnant women with COVID-19 have been conducted between December 2019 and April 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/eurasianjmed.2020.20118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311134PMC

Amoxicillin for 3 or 5 Days for Chest-Indrawing Pneumonia in Malawian Children.

N Engl J Med 2020 07;383(1):13-23

From the Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington Clinical Trial Center, Seattle (A.-S.G., R.S., J.H., S.M.); the University of North Carolina Project, Lilongwe Medical Relief Fund Trust, Tidziwe Centre (T.M., M.P., C.B.N.), and Acute Respiratory Infection and Emergency Triage Assessment and Treatment, Malawi Ministry of Health (N.L.), Lilongwe, and the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Blantyre (A.P.) - all in Malawi; Save the Children, Fairfield, CT (E.N.); and Eudowood Division of Pediatric Respiratory Sciences, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore (E.D.M.).

Background: Evidence regarding the appropriate duration of treatment with antibiotic agents in children with pneumonia in low-resource settings in Africa is lacking.

Methods: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled, noninferiority trial in Lilongwe, Malawi, to determine whether treatment with amoxicillin for 3 days is less effective than treatment for 5 days in children with chest-indrawing pneumonia (cough lasting <14 days or difficulty breathing, along with visible indrawing of the chest wall with or without fast breathing for age). Children not infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were 2 to 59 months of age and had chest-indrawing pneumonia were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin twice daily for either 3 days or 5 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1912400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233470PMC

Age-dependent Differences in T Cell Responses to Influenza A Virus.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 12244, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

Respiratory infections from influenza A virus cause substantial morbidity and mortality in children relative to adults. T cells play a critical role in the host response to influenza A virus by supporting the innate and humoral responses, mediating cytotoxic activity, and promoting recovery. There are age-dependent differences in the number, subsets, and localization of T cells, which impact the host response to pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2020-0169TRDOI Listing

4-month-old boy coinfected with COVID-19 and adenovirus.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jun 30;13(6). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Pediatrics, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, United States.

A 4-month-old boy with a history of muscular ventricular septal defect and atopic dermatitis presented with decreased oral intake, loose stools, stuffy nose, mild cough and diaphoresis. The patient had an in-home exposure to COVID-19. The initial respiratory pathogen panel was positive for adenovirus, consistent with his symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-236264DOI Listing

Incidence and Risk Factors for Severe Pneumonia in Children Hospitalized with Pneumonia in Ujjain, India.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Jun 27;17(13). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Ruxmaniben Deepchand Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Childhood pneumonia is a major public health problem. The aim of this prospective hospital-based study is to determine the incidence and risk factors for community-acquired severe pneumonia in children in Ujjain, India. The study includes 270 children, 161 (60%) boys and 109 (40%) girls, aged between 2 months and 5 years with World Health Organization defined and radiologically confirmed severe pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134637DOI Listing

Febuxostat therapy in outpatients with suspected COVID-19: A clinical trial.

Int J Clin Pract 2020 Jun 30:e13600. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate the effects of febuxostat (FBX) in comparison with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and chest CT findings in outpatients with moderate symptoms of COVID-19 infection.

Methods: We conducted a clinical trial involving adult outpatients with the moderate respiratory illness following COVID-19 infection. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either FBX or HCQ for 5 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13600DOI Listing

Stress ulcer prophylaxis versus placebo-a blinded randomized control trial to evaluate the safety of two strategies in critically ill infants with congenital heart disease (SUPPRESS-CHD).

Trials 2020 Jun 29;21(1):590. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Critically ill infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) are often prescribed stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) to prevent upper gastrointestinal bleeding, despite the low incidence of stress ulcers and limited data on the safety and efficacy of SUP in infants. Recently, SUP has been associated with an increased incidence of hospital-acquired infections, community-acquired pneumonia, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The objective of this pilot study is to investigate the feasibility of performing a randomized controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of withholding SUP in infants with congenital heart disease admitted to the cardiac intensive care unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04513-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322718PMC

Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations.

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Nowadays, reports in the literature support that patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at higher risk to develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). However, the interpretation of -positive cultures from the airways in critically ill COPD is still a challenge. Indeed, as the patient could be merely colonized, tissue samples are required to ascertain IPA diagnosis but they are rarely obtained before death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1702210DOI Listing

Dysregulation of angiopoietin-Tie-2 axis in ugandan children hospitalized with pneumonia.

Cytokine 2020 Jun 26;133:155175. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Canada; Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; Distinguished Researcher, Stollery Science Lab, Canada; Member, Women and Children's Health Research Institute, Canada. Electronic address:

Objective: Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children under 5, with the highest burden in resource-limited countries. Endothelial activation occurs in pneumonia and can be assessed using quantitative levels of biomarkers angiopoietin (Ang)-1 and Ang-2. We examined admission levels of Ang-1 and Ang-2 in pediatric pneumonia and their association with disease severity and outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2020.155175DOI Listing

Childhood COVID-19: a multi-center retrospective study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Ningbo Women and Children's Hospital 315012.

Objectives: To investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pediatric patients with Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19).

Methods: Pediatric patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from January 15 to March 15, 2020, from seven hospitals in Zhejiang Province were collected retrospectively and analyzed.

Results: Thirty-two children with COVID-19, ranging from 3 months to 18 years old, were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.06.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319932PMC

[Features of central hemodynamics in patients with community - acquired pneumonia depending on the course of the disease and cardiovascular comorbidity].

Ter Arkh 2019 Dec 15;91(12):29-34. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Vvedenskaya City Clinical Hospital.

Aim: The study of intracardiac hemodynamics and blood flow in the pulmonary circuit in patients with community - acquired pneumonia, depending on the presence of concomitant pathology of the cardiovascular system and the severity of the pathological process.

Materials And Methods: In 43 patients with community - acquired pneumonia (22 men, 21 women, mean age 67±17 years), the functional state of pulmonary - cardiac hemodynamics was assessed by echodoplerography. All subjects were divided into 2 groups: 1st group - 25 patients with community - acquired pneumonia (mean age 49±18 years) without concomitant pathology of the cardiovascular system and 2nd group - 18 patients with community - acquired pneumonia (mean age 70. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2019.12.000441DOI Listing
December 2019

First Case of Meningitis in a Term Newborn: A but Pathogen.

Front Pediatr 2020 12;8:308. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, NY, United States.

is a Gram-negative, catalase positive and anaerobic enterobacterium first described in 1983. Infections caused by this pathogen, such as bacteremia and pneumonia, are extremely rare and primarily occur in patients with underlying pathologies or immunosuppression. There is still a debate as to whether is a real pathogen or if it can be considered an opportunistic infectious agent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303839PMC

SARS-CoV-2 isolation and propagation from Turkish COVID-19 patients.

Turk J Biol 2020 21;44(3):192-202. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Acıbadem Labcell Cellular Therapy Laboratory, İstanbul Turkey.

The novel coronavirus pneumonia, which was named later as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, namely SARS-CoV-2. It is a positive-strand RNA virus that is the seventh coronavirus known to infect humans. The COVID-19 outbreak presents enormous challenges for global health behind the pandemic outbreak. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/biy-2004-113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314506PMC

Analysis of oral risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients.

Clin Oral Investig 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Londrina State University, Londrina, Brazil.

Objective: This a cross-sectional study to evaluate the association between oral health findings and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) among critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICU).

Material And Methods: Data were collected from medical records, and a detailed oral physical examination was performed on 663 critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. Data were statistically analysed using univariate and logistic regression models relating the development of VAP with the oral findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-020-03426-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320842PMC

Time-resolved mRNA and miRNA expression profiling reveals crucial coregulation of molecular pathways involved in epithelial-pneumococcal interactions.

Immunol Cell Biol 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major causative agent of pneumonia worldwide and its complex interaction with the lung epithelium has not been thoroughly characterized. In this study, we exploited both RNA-seq and miRNA-seq approaches to monitor the transcriptional changes in human lung alveolar epithelial cells infected by S. pneumoniae in a time-resolved manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imcb.12371DOI Listing

Paediatrics in Theresienstadt ghetto.

Cent Eur J Public Health 2020 Jun;28(2):155-160

Faculty of Education, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

The main objective of this study is to describe the most common childhood diseases occurring in the Theresienstadt ghetto during the Second World War as well as applied anti-epidemic measures. A partial objective is to describe medical and nursing care of sick child prisoners. The data was obtained by the method of synthesis of primary and secondary data with the highest importance after adequate external source criticism using selected monographs, memoirs, survivor diaries, Orders of the day by the Council of the Elders and Reports of the Jewish self-government of the Theresienstadt ghetto from 1941 to 1945, the Archives of the Jewish Museum in Prague, the Ghetto Museum, the Museum of the History of Polish Jews in Warsaw, Post Bellum online electronic collection of oral historical interviews, and witness accounts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21101/cejph.a5557DOI Listing

Massive Hemoptysis in Children.

Can Respir J 2020 6;2020:6414719. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Pediatric, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, China.

. Hemoptysis is a rare but often life-threatening condition in pediatric patients. Massive hemoptysis can easily lead to asphyxia, respiratory failure, shock, and even death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6414719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305531PMC

Evaluation of organ function in patients with severe COVID-19 infections.

Med Clin (Barc) 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Emergency, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 72 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210008, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: The purpose of our study was to assess organ function in 102 patients with severe COVID-19 infections, using retrospective clinical analysis.

Material And Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 102 patients with severe COVID-19 infections. The patients were divided into a survival group (n=73) and a non-survival group (n=29) according to their prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2020.05.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269959PMC

Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 specific neutralising antibodies in blood donors from the Lodi Red Zone in Lombardy, Italy, as at 06 April 2020.

Euro Surveill 2020 06;25(24)

Department of Clinical Surgical Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 RNA and neutralising antibodies in blood donors (BD) residing in the Lodi Red Zone, Italy. Of 390 BDs recruited after 20 February 2020 - when the first COVID-19 case in Lombardy was identified, 91 (23%) aged 19-70 years were antibody positive. Viral RNA was detected in an additional 17 (4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.24.2001031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315724PMC

Population pharmacokinetics and dose optimization of ceftriaxone for children with community-acquired pneumonia.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, No. 44, Wenhua West Road, Jinan, Shandong Province, China.

Purpose: To assess ceftriaxone population pharmacokinetics in a large pediatric population and describe the proper dose for establishing an optimized antibiotic regimen.

Methods: From pediatric patients using ceftriaxone, blood samples were obtained and the concentration was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection. The NONMEM software program was used for population pharmacokinetic analysis, for which data from 99 pediatric patients (2 to 12 years old) was collected and 175 blood concentrations were obtained. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-020-02939-4DOI Listing

Value of Blood Cultures in the Management of Children Hospitalized with Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Cureus 2020 May 21;12(5):e8222. Epub 2020 May 21.

Pediatrics, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, New York, USA.

Background and objectives Current guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children recommend obtaining a blood culture for children with moderate to severe pneumonia; yet, there is no guidance to assess the severity of the disease. Thus, a blood culture is obtained for the majority of children admitted with CAP, regardless of the severity of their symptoms. The study was designed to investigate and identify the prevalence of bacteremia in pediatric patients hospitalized with CAP and to evaluate the clinical and laboratory variables associated with bacteremia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306671PMC

How Taiwan, a non-WHO member, takes actions in response to COVID-19.

J Glob Health 2020 Jun;10(1):010380

Division of Pediatric Pulmonary Medicine, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.10.010380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307800PMC

Lack of Association Between Genetic Variants at and Genes Involved in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Human Quantitative Phenotypes.

Front Genet 2020 8;11:613. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shows a wide variation in expression and severity of symptoms, from very mild or no symptoms, to flu-like symptoms, and in more severe cases, to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even death. Large differences in outcome have also been observed between males and females. The causes for this variability are likely to be multifactorial, and to include genetics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295011PMC

Maternal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors during pregnancy is associated with pediatric germ cell tumors.

Nagoya J Med Sci 2020 May;82(2):323-333

Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) are natural or synthetic chemical compounds that interfere with normal endocrine function in both wildlife and humans. Previous studies have indicated that EEDs may contribute to oncogenesis. This study explores the relationship between EEDs and pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18999/nagjms.82.2.315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7276419PMC

Prediction Rule for Scrub Typhus Meningoencephalitis in Children: Emerging Disease in North India.

J Child Neurol 2020 Jun 25:883073820933148. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Pediatrics, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Objectives: To evaluate the proportion of scrub typhus meningoencephalitis among children with acute encephalitis syndrome and to outline its differentiating features. To develop a prediction rule for scrub typhus meningoencephalitis.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care public hospital in Northern India. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073820933148DOI Listing

A Case of Pediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Temporally Associated with COVID-19 in South Dakota.

S D Med 2020 Jun;73(6):246-251

Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Critical Care, Avera McKennan Children's Hospital and University Health Center.

Coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was deemed a worldwide pandemic by the World Health Organization in February 2020. The U.S. Read More

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Interleukin-22 Inhibits Respiratory Syncytial Virus Production by Blocking Virus-Mediated Subversion of Cellular Autophagy.

iScience 2020 Jun 10;23(7):101256. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3459 Fifth Avenue, MUH 628 NW, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection can cause severe bronchiolitis in infants requiring hospitalization, whereas the elderly and immunocompromised are prone to RSV-induced pneumonia. RSV primarily infects lung epithelial cells. Given that no vaccine against RSV is currently available, we tested the ability of the epithelial-barrier protective cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22) to control RSV production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317237PMC

Hydroxyurea Dose Escalation for Sickle Cell Anemia in Sub-Saharan Africa.

N Engl J Med 2020 06;382(26):2524-2533

From the Ryan White Center for Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Global Health, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University, Indianapolis (C.C.J.); the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Makerere University (R.O.O., H.A.H., C.N., P.K., C.M.N.), Global Health Uganda (R.O.O., C.N.), and Mulago Hospital (P.K.) - all in Kampala, Uganda; the Division of Hematology, Department of Pediatrics (T.S.L., A.L., R.E.W.), and the Global Health Center (R.E.W.), Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, and the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (A.L., R.E.W.) - all in Cincinnati; and the Department of Pediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, University of Montreal, Montreal (H.A.H.).

Background: Hydroxyurea has proven safety, feasibility, and efficacy in children with sickle cell anemia in sub-Saharan Africa, with studies showing a reduced incidence of vaso-occlusive events and reduced mortality. Dosing standards remain undetermined, however, and whether escalation to the maximum tolerated dose confers clinical benefits that outweigh treatment-related toxic effects is unknown.

Methods: In a randomized, double-blind trial, we compared hydroxyurea at a fixed dose (approximately 20 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) with dose escalation (approximately 30 mg per kilogram per day). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2000146DOI Listing

Clinical characteristics of acute respiratory syndrome with SARS-CoV-2 infection in children in South China.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital (GDPH), Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Background: A retrospective study was conducted to summarize the clinical information of childhood infections during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic.

Methods: Children with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 11 hospitals from three provinces of South China were included in the study. Clinical information was collected and compared with children and adults infected by SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24921DOI Listing

Prevalence and clinical significance of common respiratory pathogens in the upper respiratory tract of children with community-acquired pneumonia in Zunyi, China.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University (The First People's Hospital of Zunyi City), Zunyi, Guizhou, P. R. China.

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of common respiratory pathogens among children with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Zunyi City, Guizhou, China, and to assess whether the presence of common respiratory pathogens in patients is associated with disease severity.

Patients And Methods: This retrospective study assessed the prevalence of common respiratory viruses and bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of among infants and children aged 1 month to 5 years hospitalized with radiologically confirmed CAP between April 2017 and March 2018. Direct immunofluorescence assay and bacterial culture were used to identify viruses and bacteria in the upper airway specimens, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24922DOI Listing

Beyond ventilatory support: challenges in general practice and in the treatment of critically Ill children and adolescents with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2020 Apr;66(4):521-527

. Universidade de São Paulo Instituto da Criança, Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2 infection) is a new challenge for all countries, and children are predisposed to acquire this disease. Some studies have demonstrated more severe diseases in adults, but critically ill pediatric patients have been described in all ages. Pulmonary involvement is the major feature, and ventilatory support is common in critical cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.66.4.521DOI Listing

Nanopore Targeted Sequencing for the Accurate and Comprehensive Detection of SARS-CoV-2 and Other Respiratory Viruses.

Small 2020 Jun 24:e2002169. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Key Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, Ministry of Education and Wuhan University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.

The ongoing global novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 outbreak has engendered numerous cases of infection and death. COVID-19 diagnosis relies upon nucleic acid detection; however, currently recommended methods exhibit high false-negative rates and are unable to identify other respiratory virus infections, thereby resulting in patient misdiagnosis and impeding epidemic containment. Combining the advantages of targeted amplification and long-read, real-time nanopore sequencing, herein, nanopore targeted sequencing (NTS) is developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses simultaneously within 6-10 h, with a limit of detection of ten standard plasmid copies per reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202002169DOI Listing
June 2020
8.368 Impact Factor

Critical care practice in India: Results of the intensive care unit need assessment survey (ININ2018).

World J Crit Care Med 2020 Jun 5;9(2):31-42. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Critical Care, United Memorial Medical Center, Houston, TX 77091, United States.

Background: A diverse country like India may have variable intensive care units (ICUs) practices at state and city levels.

Aim: To gain insight into clinical services and processes of care in ICUs in India, this would help plan for potential educational and quality improvement interventions.

Methods: The Indian ICU needs assessment research group of diverse-skilled individuals was formed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5492/wjccm.v9.i2.31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7298589PMC

Hypothermia from a two-component mixture comprising Amoxicillin and Sulbactam.

Clin Case Rep 2020 Jun 10;8(6):1101-1103. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Pediatrics Department Haiphong University of Medicine and Pharmacy Haiphong Vietnam.

Hypothermia might be an adverse effect of Amoxicillin and/or Sulbactam, and clinicians should be aware of this effect. Further clinical and laboratory investigations are also needed to confirm and clarify the underlying mechanism of this side effect. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.2829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303855PMC

Impact of COVID-19 on pediatric clinical research in France.

CMAJ 2020 05;192(21):E589

Professor of pediatrics, French Clinical Research Infrastructure Network (F-CRIN) - PEDSTART, University of Tours, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Tours, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.75416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7259967PMC

SARS-CoV-2 Infection and the Newborn.

Authors:
Fahri Ovalı

Front Pediatr 2020 22;8:294. Epub 2020 May 22.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects people at all ages and it may be encountered in pregnant women and newborns also. The information about its clinical features, laboratory findings and prognosis in children and newborns is scarce. All the reported cases in pregnant women were in the 2nd or 3rd trimester and only 1% of them developed severe disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256185PMC

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Neonates and Children From China: A Review.

Front Pediatr 2020 15;8:287. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pediatrics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus began to spread in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The confirmed cases increased nationwide rapidly, in part due to the increased population mobility during the Chinese Lunar New Year festival. The World Health Organization (WHO) subsequently named the novel coronavirus pneumonia Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and named the virus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243210PMC

Estimating the prevalence and risk of COVID-19 among international travelers and evacuees of Wuhan through modeling and case reports.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(6):e0234955. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) started in Wuhan, China and has spread through other provinces and countries through infected travelers. On January 23rd, 2020, China issued a quarantine and travel ban on Wuhan because travelers from Wuhan were thought to account for the majority of exported COVID-19 cases to other countries. Additionally, countries evacuated their citizens from Wuhan after institution of the travel ban. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234955PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310725PMC

Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccination coverage in children aged 2-59 months in Malawi.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Jun 23:1-3. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

University of Washington Clinical Trial Center , Seattle, WA, USA.

High vaccination coverage with type b (Hib) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is critical to addressing childhood pneumonia's high mortality. The Innovative Treatments in Pneumonia project in Lilongwe, Malawi collected Hib and pneumococcal vaccination information from children's health passports and found the majority demonstrated inadequate and inconsistent documentation. We were unable to confidently assess the impact of Hib and pneumococcal vaccination on pneumonia treatment failure in our study population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1773142DOI Listing

COVID-19 and comorbidities: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Postgrad Med 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, McGill University Health Centre , Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

1.0 Abstract SARS-CoV-2 has caused a worldwide pandemic that began with an outbreak of pneumonia cases in the Hubei province of China. Knowledge of those most at risk is integral for treatment, guideline implementation and resource allocation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00325481.2020.1786964DOI Listing

Suspected case of COVID-19-associated pancreatitis in a child.

Radiol Case Rep 2020 Aug 6;15(8):1309-1312. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Emergency and Hospital Medicine, Lehigh Valley Health Network, USF Morsani College of Medicine, Cedar Crest Boulevard & I-78, Allentown 18103, PA, USA.

The world has been challenged by SARS CoV-2, a new virus causing pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, with common symptoms of COVID-19 in pediatric patients including both respiratory and GI symptoms. There is a lack of literature implicating COVID-19 in pancreatitis, yet viruses are generally understood to be a cause of pancreatitis in children. We present a case of a previously well 7-year-old girl, who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of abdominal pain and anorexia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2020.06.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275143PMC

[Value of sTREM-1 in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, APACHE II score, and SOFA score in evaluating the conditions and prognosis of children with severe pneumonia].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2020 Jun;22(6):626-631

Department of Pediatrics, First Affiliated Hospital of University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230001, China.

Objective: To study the significance of the level of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score in evaluating the conditions and prognosis of children with severe pneumonia.

Methods: A total of 76 children with severe pneumonia who were admitted from August 2017 to October 2019 were enrolled as the severe pneumonia group. According to the treatment outcome, they were divided into a non-response group with 34 children and a response group with 42 children. Read More

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