10,335 results match your criteria Pneumonia Pediatric


Clinical and epidemiological impact of varicella infection in children prior to the introduction of the varicella vaccine in the national immunization schedule of Argentina.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2019 Feb;117(1):12-18

Servicio de Infectología Pediátrica.

Introduction: In Argentina, an estimated 400 000 varicella cases occur annually. Given the under-recording of existing cases, the actual burden of disease is unknown.

Objective: To assess the burden of varicella before the introduction of the varicella vaccine in the national immunization schedule. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2018.eng.12DOI Listing
February 2019

Cells under stress: The mechanical environment shapes inflammasome responses to danger signals.

J Leukoc Biol 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Many intracellular signals, such as host danger-associated molecules and bacterial toxins during infection, elicit inflammasome activation. However, the mechanical environment in tissues may also influence the sensitivity of various inflammasomes to activation. The cellular mechanical environment is determined by the extracellular tissue stiffness, or its inverse, tissue compliance. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/JLB.3MIR1118-417R
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.3MIR1118-417RDOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

MHC Class II Deficiency with Normal CD4+ T Cell Counts: A Case Report.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2018 Dec 4;17(6):594-600. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran AND Department of Immunology, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II deficiency is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) with less than 200 cases worldwide. Here, we report an 8 month-old girl with MHC class II deficiency with a novel homozygous mutation in RFXANK gene (NM_001278728: exon 5: c.495G>A: p. Read More

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December 2018

[Treatment strategies for congenital heart disease in infants with severe pneumonia].

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2018 Nov;43(11):1241-1245

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

Objective: To observe the results of different treatment of congenital heart disease (CHD) complicated with severe pneumonia in infants.
 Methods: A total of 27 infants with CHD and severe pneumonia were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital from January 2014 to December 2014, of whom 18 were male and 9 were female. The average age was 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2018.11.012DOI Listing
November 2018

A Homemade, High-fidelity Ultrasound Model for Simulating Pneumonia with Parapneumonic Effusion and Empyema.

J Emerg Med 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Children's Emergency, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) is increasingly used for both diagnostic and guided procedures. Increasingly, POCUS has been used for identification of pneumonia and to assist in the differentiation of pleural effusions, as well as to guide thoracentesis. As such, there is a need for training with ideally high-fidelity lung ultrasound phantoms to ensure ultrasound proficiency and procedural competency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2018.12.015DOI Listing
January 2019

The Role of Maternal Citizenship on Pediatric Avoidable Hospitalization: A Birth Cohort Study in North-East Italy.

Indian J Pediatr 2019 Jan 12. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Unit of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, Vascular Sciences and Public Health, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Objective: Avoidable hospitalization (AH) has been widely studied as a possible measure of primary health care performance. Since studies evaluating AH in migrant children, particularly in Europe, are lacking, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of maternal citizenship on the risk of AH in children.

Methods: The cohort study included all live newborns recorded in the Medical Birth Register (MBR) of Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (Italy) in the years 1989-2012, followed from 30 d after their birth up to the 14th year of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-018-2826-6DOI Listing
January 2019

Viral pathogens associated with acute lower respiratory tract infections in children younger than 5 years of age in Bulgaria.

Braz J Microbiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Medical University, University Hospital Alexandrovska, Pediatric Clinic, 1 St. Georgi Sofiiski, 1431, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and hospital admissions in children. This study aimed to determine the viral etiology of these infections in children aged < 5 years during three successive epidemic seasons in Bulgaria. Nasopharyngeal and throat specimens were collected from children with bronchiolitis and pneumonia during the 2015/2016, 2016/2017, and 2017/2018 seasons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-018-0033-2DOI Listing
December 2018

Clinical Characteristics and Antibiotic Resistance of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Pneumonia in Hospitalized Chinese Children.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Department of Respiration, The First Hospital of Huzhou, First Affiliated Hospital of Huzhou University, No. 158 Guangchanghou Road, Huzhou, Zhejiang, 313000. China.

Aim To analyze the clinical characteristics and antibiotic resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MP) in Chinese patients, providing valuable information for the management of patients with MP. Methods A total of 120 children who were hospitalized in The First Hospital of Huzhou between January and December 2016 for respiratory tract infection due to M. pneumoniae were enrolled in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207322666190111112946DOI Listing
January 2019
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COMPLICATIONS IN LOW-RISK OLDER ADULT TRAUMA PATIENTS: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 Jan 10. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Harborview Injury Prevention and Research Center.

Background: Although some geriatric trauma patients may be low-risk for complications, poor outcomes are pronounced if complications do occur. Prevention in this group decreases the risk of excess morbidity and mortality.

Methods: We performed a case-control study of trauma patients 65 years or older treated from January 2015 to August 2016 at a level I trauma center with a Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) predicted probability of complication < 20%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002204DOI Listing
January 2019

Determining the Cause of Death Among Children Hospitalized With Respiratory Illness in Kenya: Protocol for Pediatric Respiratory Etiology Surveillance Study (PRESS).

JMIR Res Protoc 2019 Jan 10;8(1):e10854. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Influenza Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, where the burden of respiratory disease-related deaths is the highest, information on the cause of death remains inadequate because of poor access to health care and limited availability of diagnostic tools. Postmortem examination can aid in the ascertainment of causes of death. This manuscript describes the study protocol for the Pediatric Respiratory Etiology Surveillance Study (PRESS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/10854DOI Listing
January 2019

[Multicenter study of human adenovirus infection in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia in China].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2019 Jan;57(1):27-32

Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infectious Diseases, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing 100045, China.

To investigate the predominant genotypes and epidemiological characteristics of human adenovirus (HAdV) in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in China. This was a repeated cross sectional study. Between November 2014 and November 2016, nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) or throat swabs from each hospitalized pediatric patients diagnosed as CAP in 12 hospitals in Northern and Southern China were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2019.01.008DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) presenting in childhood, with agammaglobulinemia, associated with novel compound heterozygous mutations in DCLRE1C.

Clin Immunol 2019 Jan 7;200:16-18. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Immunology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) can be caused by deleterious mutations in DCLRE1C, leading to deficient non-homologous end joining by compromising the function of the Artemis protein. This impairs the process of V(D)J recombination of the T- and B-cell receptors and typically results in radiosensitive T, B, NK SCID presenting during the first months of life. We present a case of a 3-year-old girl with two novel compound heterozygous variants in DCLRE1C (c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clim.2018.12.019DOI Listing
January 2019

Extreme restriction design as a method for reducing confounding by indication in pharmacoepidemiologic research.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Research Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: Confounding by indication is a concern in observational pharmacoepidemiologic studies, including those that use active comparator, new user (ACNU) designs. Here, we present a method of restriction to an indication, which we call "extreme restriction," to reduce confounding in such studies.

Methods: As a case study, we evaluated the effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia (HCAP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.4708DOI Listing
January 2019

Apgar score and long-term respiratory morbidity of the offspring: a population-based cohort study with up to 18 years of follow-up.

Eur J Pediatr 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

The objective of this study is to investigate whether a significant association exists between low 5-min Apgar scores (< 7) and respiratory morbidity of the offspring. A population-based cohort analysis was performed comparing subtypes of respiratory morbidity leading to hospitalizations among children (up to age 18 years) stratified by their 5 min Apgar scores. Data were collected from two databases of a regional tertiary center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-018-03311-6DOI Listing
January 2019
1.983 Impact Factor

Human adenovirus type 7 infection causes a more severe disease than type 3.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Jan 9;19(1):36. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400014, China.

Background: Human adenovirus type 3 (HAdV-3) and 7 (HAdV-7) cause significant morbidity and develop severe complications and long-term pulmonary sequelae in children. However, epidemiologic reports have suggested that nearly all highly severe or fatal adenoviral diseases in children are associated with HAdV-7 rather than HAdV-3. Here, we conduct in-depth investigations to confirm and extend these findings through a comprehensive series of assays in vitro and in vivo as well as clinical correlates. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3651-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327436PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Utility of the Neonatal Calf Model for Testing Vaccines and Intervention Strategies for Use against Human RSV Infection.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Jan 8;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of pediatric respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that two-thirds of infants are infected with RSV during the first year of life and it is one of the leading causes of death in this age group worldwide. Similarly, bovine RSV is a primary viral pathogen in cases of pneumonia in young calves and plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/7/1/7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010007DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Clinical features of coinfection and need for its testing in influenza pneumonia patients.

J Thorac Dis 2018 Nov;10(11):6118-6127

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Background: To investigate the clinical features of coinfection due to (), a common copathogen in influenza, in influenza pneumonia patients.

Methods: We reviewed 4,465 patients with influenza who visited a tertiary care hospital emergency department in Seoul (Korea) from 2010 through 2016, and underwent immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for . Influenza pneumonia was defined as laboratory-confirmed influenza plus radiographic pneumonia. Read More

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http://jtd.amegroups.com/article/view/24984/19090
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.10.33DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297417PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Notoginsenoside R1 up-regulates microRNA-132 to protect human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells from lipopolysaccharide-caused injury.

Int Immunopharmacol 2019 Jan 7;68:137-144. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Jining No.1 People's Hospital, Jining, Shandong 272011, China. Electronic address:

Background: Pneumonia is a common lung disease in children with high fatality rate. Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is the main active component extracted from the roots of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S15675769183085
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2018.12.065DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Therapy Reduces Antibiotic Use for Lower Respiratory Tract Infections in a United States Medical Center: Results of a Clinical Trial.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2018 Dec 3;5(12):ofy327. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: European trials using procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic therapy for patients with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) have demonstrated significant reductions in antibiotic use without increasing adverse outcomes. Few studies have examined PCT for LRTIs in the United States.

Methods: In this study, we evaluated whether a PCT algorithm would reduce antibiotic exposure in patients with LRTI in a US hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6306569PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Respiratory Viral Infections in Patients With Cancer or Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

Front Microbiol 2018 12;9:3097. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pathology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States.

Survival rates for pediatric cancer have steadily improved over time but it remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Infections are a major complication of cancer and its treatment. Community acquired respiratory viral infections (CRV) in these patients increase morbidity, mortality and can lead to delay in chemotherapy. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03097
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299032PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Osteopontin Expression in Cardiomyocytes Is Increased in Pediatric Patients With Sepsis or Pneumonia.

Front Physiol 2018 10;9:1779. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute, University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.

Sepsis and pneumonia are major causes of death in the United States, and their pathophysiology includes infection with inflammation and immune dysfunction. Both sepsis and pneumonia cause cardiovascular dysfunction. The expression of Osteopontin (OPN) in cardiomyocytes of patients with sepsis or pneumonia, and its role the induced cardiac dysfunction have not been thoroughly investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295581PMC
December 2018

CYTOKINES PROFILE AND ITS CONNECTION WITH DISEASE SEVERITY IN COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PEDIATRIC PNEUMONIA.

Georgian Med News 2018 Nov(284):103-108

Vl. Bakhutashvili Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Tbilisi State Medical University; M. Iashvili Central Children Hospital, Tbilisi; G. Zhvania Pediatric Clinic. Tbilisi, Georgia.

Community-acquired pneumonia is (CAP) associated with serious complications and is the leading cause of death in children. Severity of CAP is depend on an impairment of host defenses. Persistent and toxic inflammation directs to an excessively pro-inflammatory cytokine production, neutrophil hyper-responsiveness, and dysregulation of lung neutrophil apoptosis, which results in lung injury and poor patient outcomes. Read More

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November 2018

A 3-Year-Old Girl With a Mediastinal Mass.

Chest 2019 Jan;155(1):e13-e16

Department of Pediatrics, Juliana Children's Hospital, Haga Teaching Hospital, The Hague, The Netherlands; Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Sophia Children's Hospital, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Case Presentation: A 3-year-old girl was referred to a pediatric pulmonologist for dyspnea and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (RTIs). The patient was born full term to unrelated Dutch parents after an uneventful pregnancy and birth. The year before presentation, she had suffered from pneumonia and > 10 upper RTIs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2018.07.042DOI Listing
January 2019

First successful hemoadsorption using CytoSorb® in a septic pediatric patient in Kazakhstan: A case report.

Int J Artif Organs 2019 Jan 7:391398818819953. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

1 National Research Center for Maternal and Child Health, Astana, Kazakhstan.

Purpose:: For the first time in Kazakhstan, we have used a combined extracorporeal support, by including the CytoSorb system in a continuous veno-venous hemofiltration system in an 8-month-old patient with a body weight of 5600 g.

Results:: The CytoSorb therapy session resulted in a reduction of inflammation markers IL-6, S100, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein. Simultaneously, the level of transaminases, creatine kinase, and troponin were normalized, by the end of the session patient hemodynamics were stable and there was no need for vasopressors, acid-base balance was maintained, and the patient was weaned from mechanical ventilation to spontaneous breathing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0391398818819953DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Interleukin-4 -590C/T gene polymorphism in Egyptian children with acute lower respiratory infection: A multicenter study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 6. Epub 2019 Jan 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Background: Acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is the leading cause of child mortality, especially in the developing world. Polymorphisms in the interleukin 4 (IL-4) gene have been linked to a variety of human diseases.

Objectives: To investigate whether the IL-4 -590C/T (rs2243250) polymorphism could be a genetic marker for susceptibility to ALRIs in young Egyptian children. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ppul.24235
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24235DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Recommendations and guidelines for the treatment of pneumonia in Taiwan.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, ranking third both globally and in Taiwan. This guideline was prepared by the 2017 Guidelines Recommendations for Evidence-based Antimicrobial agents use in Taiwan (GREAT) working group, formed under the auspices of the Infectious Diseases Society of Taiwan (IDST). A consensus meeting was held jointly by the IDST, Taiwan Society of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (TSPCCM), the Medical Foundation in Memory of Dr. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S16841182183048
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2018.11.004DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Down Syndrome and Postoperative Complications in Children Undergoing Intestinal Operations.

J Pediatr Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, John R. Oishei Children's Hospital, Buffalo, NY; Department of Surgery, University at Buffalo Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Buffalo, NY.

Objective: This paper intends to evaluate the association between Down Syndrome (DS) and postoperative medical and surgical complications and inpatient postoperative mortality in pediatric patients undergoing intestinal operations.

Methods: The 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database was queried to compare short-term postoperative medical and surgical complications and in-patient mortality among patients with DS undergoing intestinal operations to a cohort without DS using inverse probability weighting. Subset analysis was performed for patients undergoing intestinal operations exclusive of gastrostomy placement. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00223468183078
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2018.11.013DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Lung hypoperfusion in children with complicated pneumonia may be assessed by Doppler ultrasound of the main pulmonary arteries.

Clin Respir J 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Unit.

Patients with complicated pneumonia usually require invasive procedures and have a protracted course of the disease, although most children have a complete recovery with no evident long-term sequelae. Recovery is monitored by clinical findings, biochemical measurements in blood and imaging studies of the chest (x-ray and ultrasound). Lung ultrasound has been widely used in the study of pneumonia and its complications, but Doppler ultrasound, and echocardiography have been less often. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/crj.12989DOI Listing
January 2019

Differing Performance of the Warning Signs for Immunodeficiency in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Versus Adult Patients in a Two-Center Tertiary Referral Population.

J Clin Immunol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Purpose: Primary immunodeficiency (PID) represents disorders with a spectrum of clinical presentations. The medical community seeks clinical features to prompt evaluation for immunodeficiency given improved prognosis with early identification. We hoped to identify clinical characteristics that would improve the diagnostic accuracy of the widely disseminated Jeffrey Modell Foundation warning signs for immunodeficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-018-0582-zDOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Varying Patterns of CNS Imaging in Influenza A Encephalopathy in Childhood.

Clin Neuroradiol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Clinic for Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Purpose: The brain imaging findings in children with neurological complications associated with influenza A infections are presented and analyzed and pathological imaging changes including atypical intracerebral hemorrhages in these patients are discussed.

Methods: Neuroimaging findings in six children with influenza encephalopathy following influenza A infection between 2012-2017 were retrospectively investigated. Of these five underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and one computed tomography (CT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00062-018-0756-3DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Provider Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Bronchiolitis and Pneumonia Guidelines.

Hosp Pediatr 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital, Columbia University Medical Center and.

Background And Objectives: Practice guidelines have been published for bronchiolitis and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but little is known about pediatricians' knowledge of and attitudes toward these guidelines since their publication.

Methods: We surveyed pediatric providers at 6 children's hospitals in the New York City area. Two vignettes, an infant with bronchiolitis and a child with CAP, were provided, and respondents were asked about management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/hpeds.2018-0211DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Disease severity in respiratory syncytial virus infection: Role of host genetic variation.

Rev Med Virol 2019 Jan 4:e2026. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the most common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in the pediatric population worldwide. The immunopathology of RSV infection varies considerably and severe disease occurs only in a minority of the population. There are many factors (host, viral, and environmental) that contribute to the complicated disease phenotype. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/rmv.2026
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rmv.2026DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Defining the aetiology of paediatric community-acquired pneumonia: an unsolved problem.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2019 Jan 2:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

b Università degli Studi di Milano , Milan , Italy.

Introduction: Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a significant health problem worldwide. Although knowledge in the etiology of CAP is not satisfactory, in most cases, therapy is decided following probability-based criteria that are derived from studies that report the frequency of detection of pathogens in children with CAP. Areas covered: This narrative review discusses the present knowledge on pediatric CAP etiology, the limits of the aetiological studies and the tests for differentiation of viral from bacterial infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2019.1562341DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Comparative evaluation of the effects of BLES and Survanta on treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in newborns.

J Family Med Prim Care 2018 Sep-Oct;7(5):1063-1067

Faculty of Medicine, Urmia Medical Science University, Urmia, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Symptoms of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), which is inverse correlation with gestational age and birth weight, occur in premature infants and newborns. The main objective of the study is comparative evaluation of the effects of BLES and Survanta on treatment of RDS in newborns.

Materials And Methods: In all, 100 patients were randomly divided into two groups of 50 subjects in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_188_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6259541PMC
January 2019

Evaluation of dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis in children with community-acquired pneumonia.

Pediatr Int 2018 Dec 30. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

Medical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey.

Background: The alterations in the thiol levels under oxidative stress may contribute to the community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The goal of this study was to evaluate whether there are changes in thiol/disulfide homeostasis and nitric oxide (NO) levels in children with CAP.

Methods: In total, 130 participants were included in the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13773DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Necrotizing pneumonia due to Mycoplasma in children: an uncommon presentation of a common disease.

Adv Respir Med 2018 Dec 30. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRICS. COMPLEJO HOSPITAL DE NAVARRA, C/ IRUNLARREA 3, 31008 PAMPLONA, Spain; INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACION SANITARIA DE NAVARRA IdisNa, c Irunlarrea, 31008 pamplona, Spain.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen, especially in children, responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Although, in most cases, infections caused by this bacterium follow a benign self-limited clinical course, cases of severe respiratory infections have been reported. We present two pediatric cases of necrotizing pneumonia due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2018.0049DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Paediatric postdischarge mortality in developing countries: a systematic review.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 28;8(12):e023445. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Center for International Child Health, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Objectives: To update the current evidence base on paediatric postdischarge mortality (PDM) in developing countries. Secondary objectives included an evaluation of risk factors, timing and location of PDM.

Design: Systematic literature review without meta-analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318528PMC
December 2018
1 Read
2.063 Impact Factor

Diagnosis, Classification, and Management of Pediatric Tracheobronchomalacia: A Review.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) describes an increased collapsibility of the trachea and bronchi that is greatest on forced expiration. A broad term, TBM encompasses intrinsic tracheal weakness, some forms of tracheal deformation, and extrinsic compression. Tracheobronchomalacia is the most common congenital tracheal anomaly, affecting 1 in 2100 children. Read More

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http://archotol.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?doi=10.1001/jam
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2018.3276DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Prospective evaluation of lung function in children with parapneumonic empyema.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Biostatistics and Medical Information Technology, Polytechnics University of Marche, Center of Epidemiology, Ancona, Italy.

Rationale: Prospective studies that evaluated the outcome of childhood empyema are limited.

Objective: To compare the outcome of pulmonary function in children with empyema.

Patients And Methods: Children discharged with a diagnosis of empyema underwent a longitudinal study including measurement of pulmonary function and radiographic imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24204DOI Listing
December 2018
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Clinical identification of feeding and swallowing disorders in 0-6 month old infants with Down syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Feeding and swallowing disorders have been described in children with a variety of neurodevelopmental disabilities, including Down syndrome (DS). Abnormal feeding and swallowing can be associated with serious sequelae such as failure to thrive and respiratory complications, including aspiration pneumonia. Incidence of dysphagia in young infants with DS has not previously been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.11DOI Listing
December 2018

Elevated CD3 double negative T lymphocyte is associated with pneumonia and its severity in pediatric patients.

PeerJ 2018 18;6:e6114. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Institute of Pediatrics, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Background: Previous studies have shown that the adaptive immunity function of T cells in disease states correlates with CD3 surface expression closely. During routine assessment of TBNK subsets in peripheral blood of pediatric patients by flow cytometry, we noticed that variable expression levels of CD3 on CD3CD4CD8 double-negative T (DNT) lymphocytes in different patients. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of CD3 expression levels on DNT cells with disease severity. Read More

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https://peerj.com/articles/6114
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302782PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Isolated Congenital Tracheobiliary Fistula.

Indian Pediatr 2018 Nov;55(11):995-996

Department of Pediatrics, Shree Jagdish Children Hospital, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Background: Congenital tracheobiliary fistula is a rare developmental anomaly with a persistent communication between the biliary system and the trachea.

Characteristics: A 7-day-old baby with severe respiratory distress and aspiration pneumonia.

Outcome: Tracheobilliary fistula identified on bronchoscopy. Read More

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November 2018

Comparison of Outcomes using Pediatric Index of Mortality (PIM) -3 and PIM-2 Models in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

Indian Pediatr 2018 Nov;55(11):972-974

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Objective: To compare patient outcomes using the Pediatric Index of Mortality-3 (PIM-3) model with PIM-2 model for children admitted to the intensive care unit.

Methods: We prospectively recorded the baseline characteristics, variables of PIM-3 and PIM-2 at admission, and outcomes of children ≤17 years over a period of 11 months. We used Area Under Receiver Operating Characteristics (AU-ROC) curves and Goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests to determine which of the two models had better discrimination and calibration. Read More

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November 2018

Preoperative Variables Associated With Respiratory Complications After Pediatric Neuromuscular Spine Deformity Surgery.

Spine Deform 2019 Jan;7(1):107-111

Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

Objective: The objective of this study is to identify preoperative laboratory values and patient factors that are associated with postoperative respiratory complications in pediatric neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) populations undergoing posterior spinal fusion (PSF) with instrumentation.

Summary Of Background Data: PSF in NMS patients are high-risk surgeries. Respiratory complications are the most common postoperative event, with rates up to 28. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jspd.2018.05.005DOI Listing
January 2019
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Use of Computerized Provider Order Entry Events for Postoperative Complication Surveillance.

JAMA Surg 2018 Dec 26. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City.

Importance: Conventional approaches for tracking postoperative adverse events requires manual medical record review, thus limiting the scalability of such efforts.

Objective: To determine if a surveillance system using computerized provider order entry (CPOE) events for selected medications as well as laboratory, microbiologic, and radiologic orders can decrease the manual medical record review burden for surveillance of postoperative complications.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study reviewed the medical records of 21 775 patients who underwent surgical procedures at a university-based tertiary referral center (University of Utah, Salt Lake City) from July 1, 2007, to August 31, 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamasurg.2018.4874DOI Listing
December 2018
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lncRNA GAS5 promotes M1 macrophage polarization via miR-455-5p/SOCS3 pathway in childhood pneumonia.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 24. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Objectives: We herein aimed to explore whether growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) promotes M1 macrophage polarization in childhood pneumonia and to investigate the underlying mechanism.

Methods: Relative GAS5 and miR-455-5p expression and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) messenger RNA level were examined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of SOCS3 and the Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) pathway-related proteins was detected using western blot analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.27996DOI Listing
December 2018
3.839 Impact Factor

Using Quality Improvement to Change Testing Practices for Community-acquired Pneumonia.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2018 Sep-Oct;3(5):e105. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

Background: National guidelines for pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) contain recommendations regarding diagnostic testing including chest radiographs (CXRs), complete blood counts (CBCs), and blood cultures. Local data indicated that our institution was not delivering care at standards outlined by these guidelines. This project aimed to decrease CXRs for children with CAP discharged from the emergency department (ED) by 10% and decrease CBCs and blood cultures for patients hospitalized with uncomplicated CAP by 20% within 1 year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/pq9.0000000000000105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6221590PMC
September 2018
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Simultaneous Occurrence of Dysrhythmia and Seizure as a Diagnostic Difficulty; a Case Report.

Emerg (Tehran) 2018 8;6(1):e49. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Student Research Committee, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Torsades de pointes (TdP) is a rare but hazardous ventricular dysrhythmia caused by an increase in the QT interval of the heart rhythm and is categorized into congenital or acquired types. Signs and symptoms of TdP include syncope, seizure, ventricular fibrillation, and even sudden death. According to statistics, among these symptoms, syncope and the seizure can be considered as signs that make the TdP diagnosis difficult. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289149PMC
August 2018
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A case of primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma in a neutropenic patient.

J Cutan Pathol 2018 Dec 24. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Department of Dermatology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa.

Primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma is a rare clinical presentation of Ewing sarcoma, usually occurring as a small, localized tumor on the extremities of young adults and associated with favorable prognosis. We report a case of primary cutaneous Ewing sarcoma, which presented on the sole of the foot of a 27-year-old patient with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia and neutropenia. Diagnosis was determined through histological features and staining, as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization and molecular testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cup.13406DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Observations from a pediatric dysphagia clinic: Characteristics of children at risk of aspiration pneumonia.

Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 24. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Dysphagia Services, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Center, Kochi, Kerala, India.

Objectives: The clinical variables that are predictive of aspiration pneumonia are not clear in the pediatric population. This study was conducted in order to identify the demographic, clinical, and radiological risk factors for the development of aspiration pneumonia in children referred to the dysphagia clinic.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical records of 88 children referred to the dysphagia clinic who had undergone videofluroscopic swallow study (VFSS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.27654DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads