4,786 results match your criteria Pneumonia Nosocomial


Analysis of acute respiratory infections due to influenza virus A, B and RSV during an influenza epidemic 2018.

Infection 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Kliniken für Pneumologie und Infektiologie, EVK Herne und Augusta-Kranken-Anstalt Bochum, Thoraxzentrum Ruhrgebiet, Bergstrasse 26, 44791, Bochum, Germany.

Purpose: We studied the incidence, morbidity and mortality of all patients presenting in our teaching hospital with proven influenza virus and/or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection during the influenza epidemic season 2018 which was characterized by a predominant incidence of influenza virus B type B of the Yamagata line.

Methods: In the fall of 2017, specific precaution measures in addition to standard measures were implemented, including standardized testing for influenza virus A,B and RSV by multiplex PCR of pharyngeal swabsData from all consecutive patients were analyzed retrospectively.

Results: Overall 651 patients were examined for the presence of influenza virus and RSV; 214 patients had influenza virus A (n = 36), B (n = 152), and/or RSV (n = 30), including four patients with dual infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-018-1262-xDOI Listing
January 2019

[Treatment strategies for congenital heart disease in infants with severe pneumonia].

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2018 Nov;43(11):1241-1245

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008, China.

Objective: To observe the results of different treatment of congenital heart disease (CHD) complicated with severe pneumonia in infants.
 Methods: A total of 27 infants with CHD and severe pneumonia were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital from January 2014 to December 2014, of whom 18 were male and 9 were female. The average age was 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11817/j.issn.1672-7347.2018.11.012DOI Listing
November 2018

The impact of glycemic variability on length of stay and mortality in diabetic patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Jan - Feb;13(1):149-153. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Instituto Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Aim: To investigate the influence of glycemic variability (GV) on length of stay and in-hospital mortality in non-critical diabetic patients.

Methods: A observation retrospective study was performed. Diabetic patients admitted between January and June 2016 with the diagnosis of community-acquire pneumonia (CAP) and/or acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were enrolled and glycemic control (persistent hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, mean glucose level (MGL) and respective standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV)) were evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2018.08.028DOI Listing

Awareness among intensive care nurses regarding oral care in critically ill patients.

J Indian Soc Periodontol 2018 Nov-Dec;22(6):541-545

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, JSS Dental College and Hospital, Jagadguru Shri Shivarathreeshwara University, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.

Background: Oral health and general health are interdependent which influence each other through biological, psychological, emotional, and developmental factors. As patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are completely dependent on the caregivers, the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the nurses influence the recovery of patients to a greater extent.

Objectives: Unfortunately, oral health problems are usually overshadowed by other serious needs in critically ill patients. Read More

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http://www.jisponline.com/text.asp?2018/22/6/541/244563
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jisp.jisp_30_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305093PMC
January 2019
1 Read

[Clinical characteristics of influenza acute respiratory distress syndrome in 2017 to 2018].

Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2019 Jan;42(1):9-14

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University; Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine; Beijing Key Laboratory of Respiratory and Pulmonary Circulation Disorders;Beijing Engineering Research Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (Beijing Chaoyang Hospital), Beijing 100020, China.

To describe the clinical characteristics of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by severe influenza virus in our hospital. From November 2017 to February 2018, 48 patients were diagnosed with ARDS caused by influenza virus pneumonia. There characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were summarized and analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2019.01.005DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

[Clinical characteristics and risk factors of very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia: multicenter retrospective analysis].

Authors:

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2019 Jan;57(1):33-39

To analyze clinical characteristics and risk factors of very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). A retrospective epidemiological study was performed in 768 neonates (376 males) with birth weights<1 500 g and gestational age ≤ 34 weeks who survived ≥28 days. Clinical data were obtained from the multi-center clinical database of neonatal intensive care units (NICU) in 19 hospitals of Jiangsu Province between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2019.01.009DOI Listing
January 2019

Outcomes Associated With De-escalating Therapy for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Culture-Negative Nosocomial Pneumonia.

Chest 2019 Jan 25;155(1):53-59. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Barnes-Jewish Hospital, Saint Louis, MO; Saint Louis College of Pharmacy, Saint Louis, MO. Electronic address:

Background: In culture-positive nosocomial pneumonia, de-escalation (DE) from broad-spectrum empirical antimicrobials to narrower-spectrum agents has shown to decrease broad-spectrum antibiotic use without compromising patient outcomes. However, uncertainty exists regarding the safety of anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) agent DE in culture-negative nosocomial pneumonia. This study aimed to determine if anti-MRSA agent DE in culture-negative nosocomial pneumonia affects 28-day and hospital mortality, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), treatment failure, and safety. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00123692183259
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2018.10.014DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Neonatal bronchoscopy: Role in respiratory disease of the newborn-A 7 year experience.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Discipline of Medical Biochemistry and Chemical Pathology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a standardized method to obtain specimen samples from the airway lumen of the respiratory system. BAL is used to diagnose lung infection and infection markers in neonates.

Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the utility of flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy in term and preterm neonates and to evaluate the use of BAL obtained by bronchoscopy in neonatal lung disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24243DOI Listing
January 2019

Relationship Between the Quorum Network (Sensing/Quenching) and Clinical Features of Pneumonia and Bacteraemia Caused by .

Front Microbiol 2018 17;9:3105. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Microbiology Department-Biomedical Research Institute A Coruña (INIBIC), Hospital A Coruña (CHUAC), University of A Coruña (UDC), A Coruña, Spain.

(Ab) is one of the most important pathogens associated with nosocomial infections, especially pneumonia. Interest in the Quorum network, i.e. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03105
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304438PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Characterize carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates for nosocomial pneumonia and their Gram-negative bacteria neighbors in the respiratory tract.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Jan 2. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Department of Infectious Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230022, China.

This study was conducted to perform an epidemiological survey of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) isolates for nosocomial pneumonia (NP) and visit their Gram-negative bacteria neighbors (GNNs) from the respiratory tracts. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi locus sequence typing were performed to evaluate the clonal relationships of these isolates. Statistical methods were then used to understand their possible relationship between CRKP and their GNNs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-018-4515-yDOI Listing
January 2019

Comparing current US and European guidelines for nosocomial pneumonia.

Curr Opin Pulm Med 2018 Dec 28. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Multidisciplinary Intensive Care Research Organization (MICRO), St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Purpose Of Review: In the last 2 years, two major guidelines for the management of nosocomial pneumonia have been published: The International European Respiratory Society/European Society of Intensive Care Medicine/European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases/Asociación Latinoamericana de Toráx guidelines for the management of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the American guidelines for management of adults with HAP and VAP; both the guidelines made important clinical recommendations for the management of patients.

Recent Findings: With the increasing emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) organisms, paired with a relative reduction in new antibiotic development, nosocomial infections have become one of the most significant issues affecting global healthcare today. Despite several stark differences between the European and American guidelines, they are in agreement about many aspects of nosocomial pneumonia management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCP.0000000000000559DOI Listing
December 2018

[Effect of enteral nutrition tolerance assessment standardized process management on ventilator associated pneumonia and prognosis in patients with tracheotomy and long-term mechanical ventilation in intensive care unit].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2018 Dec;30(12):1173-1177

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changzhou First People's Hospital, Changzhou 213003, Jiangsu, China. Corresponding author: Wang Bin, Email:

Objective: To investigate the effect of enteral nutrition (EN) tolerance assessment standardized process management on nosocomial infection and prognosis in patients with tracheotomy and long-term mechanical ventilation (MV) in intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Forty-six patients who required long-term MV due to tracheotomy admitted to ICU of Changzhou First People's Hospital from January 2015 to December 2017 were enrolled. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2018.012.014DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Emergence and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant isolates harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamases causing ventilator-associated pneumonia in China.

Infect Drug Resist 2019 20;12:33-43. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China,

Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection associated with high morbidity due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, especially , in ()-associated VAP and to investigate the antimicrobial resistance patterns and molecular epidemiological characteristics of strains.

Materials And Methods: From January 2013 to December 2015, we retrospectively collected 89 VAP-causing isolates from tertiary-care hospitals in China, among which ESBL-producing strains were assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility. Read More

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https://www.dovepress.com/emergence-and-molecular-characteri
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S189494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304254PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Risk factors for ventilator-associated events: A prospective cohort study.

Am J Infect Control 2018 Dec 22. Epub 2018 Dec 22.

Department of Infection Control, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; Center of Infectious Diseases, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: In January 2013, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released new surveillance definitions for ventilator-associated event (VAE) to replace ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in adult patients. VAEs are associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospital death, but little is known about their risk factors and how best to prevent them.

Methods: We compared VAE cases with non-VAE cases with regard to demographics, comorbidities, sedative exposures, opioids exposures, paralytic exposures, routes of nutrition, blood products, gastric retention, and fluid balance. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01966553183098
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2018.09.032DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

A lethal pneumonia model of Acinetobacter baumannii: an investigation in immunocompetent mice.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Dec 21. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Biopharm Research Institute of West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii can cause severe nosocomial and community-acquired pneumonia. To study the pathogenesis of A. baumannii and develop new treatments, appropriate mouse models are needed. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1198743X183080
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2018.12.020DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Endotracheal Tube Biofilm and its Impact on the Pathogenesis of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia.

J Crit Care Med (Targu Mures) 2018 Apr 1;4(2):50-55. Epub 2018 Apr 1.

Anesthesia and Intensive Care Department, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iași, Romania.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common and serious nosocomial infection in mechanically ventilated patients and results in high mortality, prolonged intensive care unit- (ICU) and hospital-length of stay and increased costs. In order to reduce its incidence, it is imperative to better understand the involved mechanisms and to identify the source of infection. The role of the endotracheal tube (ET) in VAP pathogenesis became more prominent over the last decades, along with extensive research dedicated to medical device-related infections and biofilms. Read More

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http://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/jccm/4/2/article-p5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jccm-2018-0011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294989PMC
April 2018
4 Reads

Lung ultrasound for diagnosis and monitoring of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Ann Transl Med 2018 Nov;6(21):418

Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICU) and is associated with increased mortality, use of antimicrobials, longer mechanical ventilation, and higher healthcare costs. Lung ultrasonography (LUS) can be used at the bedside and gained widespread acceptance in ICU. Although the visualization of a single LUS sign cannot be considered specific for a diagnosis, clinically-driven LUS examination in particular setting and clinical conditions allow ruling in or out quickly and accurately several causes of acute respiratory failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2018.10.46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6275403PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Comparative proteomics analyses of Acinetobacter baumannii strains ATCC 17978 and AB5075 reveal the differential role of type II secretion system secretomes in lung colonization and ciprofloxacin resistance.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 20;128:20-27. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, 11562, Egypt. Electronic address:

Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial pathogen with alarming antibiotic resistance profiles. A better understanding of the virulence and resistance mechanisms of this pathogen is necessary for identifying new methods to combat its infections in a more efficient way. In this regard, the type II secretion system (T2SS) of A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.12.039DOI Listing
December 2018
2.000 Impact Factor

Unexpected source of bacteraemia.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Dec 3;11(1). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of General Medicine, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, South Australia, Australia.

Mycotic (infected) aneurysm involving the thoracic aorta is an exceedingly rare and life-threatening condition that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report an unusual source of bacteraemia thought to be due to an infected aneurysm in the thoracic aortic arch in an elderly woman. Source of gram-negative bacteraemia is usually isolated to an intra-abdominal or a pelvic source. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-226744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6301452PMC
December 2018

CpaA Is a Glycan-Specific Adamalysin-like Protease Secreted by Acinetobacter baumannii That Inactivates Coagulation Factor XII.

MBio 2018 Dec 18;9(6). Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Antibiotic-resistant is increasingly recognized as a cause of difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections, including pneumonia, wound infections, and bacteremia. Previous studies have demonstrated that the metalloprotease CpaA contributes to virulence and prolongs clotting time when added to human plasma as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) assay. Here, we show that CpaA interferes with the intrinsic coagulation pathway, also called the contact activation system, in human as well as murine plasma, but has no discernible effect on the extrinsic pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01606-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299215PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Complete genome analysis of a Siphoviridae phage TSK1 showing biofilm removal potential against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 17;8(1):17904. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is a nosocomial pathogen, produces septicemia, pneumonia and UTI. Excessive use of antibiotics contributes towards emergence of multidrug-resistance. Bacteriophage-therapy is a potential substitute of antibiotics with many advantages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36229-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297243PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Emerging Infection in Indian Neonatal Intensive Care Units: A Case Report.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2018 Dec 14;7(4). Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, RD Gardi Medical College, Ujjain 456006, India.

Antibiotic-resistant pathogens and nosocomial infections constitute common and serious problems for neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units worldwide. is a non-lactose-fermenting, gram-negative, health care-associated pathogen (HCAP). It is ubiquitous and intrinsically resistant to several antibiotics. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/7/4/109
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics7040109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316706PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

Baicalin Weakens Pathogenicity by Targeting Sortase B.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 30;8:418. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

() is a human and other animal pathogen that contributes to the primary etiology of nosocomial pneumonia, a disease with high mortality rates and costs. Treatment of multidrug-resistant infection is extremely challenging, and new therapeutic strategies beyond antibiotic treatment are needed. Anti-virulence agents that specifically target the molecular determinants of virulence may be a novel method for treating drug-resistant nosocomial infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284026PMC
November 2018

Clinical, immunological and bacteriological characteristics of H7N9 patients nosocomially co-infected by Acinetobacter Baumannii: a case control study.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 14;18(1):664. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, 518112, China.

Background: Bacterial co-infection of patients suffering from influenza pneumonia is a key element that increases morbidity and mortality. The occurrence of Acinetobacter baumannii co-infection in patients with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection has been described as one of the most prevalent bacterial co-infections. However, the clinical and laboratory features of this entity of H7N9 and A. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3447-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6295110PMC
December 2018
3 Reads
2.613 Impact Factor

Ventilator-associated pneumonia: The central role of transcolonization.

J Crit Care 2018 Dec 6;50:155-161. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Unit, Groupe Hospitalier Paris Saint Joseph, Paris, France; Endotoxins, Structures and Host Response, Department of Microbiology, Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell, UMR 9891 CNRS-CEA-Paris Saclay University, 98190 Gif-sur-Yvette, France. Electronic address:

Ventilator-associated pneumonia remain frequent and serious diseases since they are associated with considerable crude mortality. Pathophysiology is centered on modifications of regional bacterial flora, especially tracheobronchial tree and oropharyngeal sphere. Bacterial migration from an anatomical area to another seems to be the main explanation of these alterations which are called "transcolonization". Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08839441183061
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2018.12.005DOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

The Importance of Acinetobacter Species in the Hospital Environment.

Med Arch 2018 Nov;72(5):325-329

Clinical for Nephrology, Clinical Center of Sarajevo University, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Introduction: species is associated with health care associated infections especially in patients on respiratory therapy equipment and indwelling catheters. They are becoming increasingly drug resistant. The knowledge of the prevalence and pattern of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Acinetobacter spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/medarh.2018.72.330-334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282909PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Tailoring Empirical Antimicrobial Therapy in Subjects With Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia With a 10-Hour E-Test Approach.

Respir Care 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Univ. de Bordeaux, UMR 5234 CNRS 'Microbiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire et Pathogénicité'', Bordeaux, France.

Background: In a previous study of subjects suspected of having ventilator-associated pneumonia, a rapid susceptibility testing approach by using ETEST (BioMérieux) strips directly applied to bronchoalveolar lavage samples provided valuable information at hour 24. The primary objective of this study was to assess a new direct specimen testing by using an even more-rapid E-test approach (at hour 10), which could promote an early de-escalation of the antimicrobial therapy.

Methods: Twenty-eight subjects with ventilator-associated pneumonia admitted to a medical ICU were prospectively included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.06255DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

[Results of a single-centre study of open and endovascular operations of prosthetic repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms].

Angiol Sosud Khir 2018 ;24(4):126-130

National Medical Research Centre named after V.A. Almazov under the RF Ministry of Public Health, Saint Petersburg, Russia.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess surgical outcomes in patients suffering from an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and treated at the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery #2 of the National Medical Research Centre named after V.A. Almazov. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Prospective investigation of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia transmission among the staff, environment and patients in five major intensive care units, Beijing.

J Hosp Infect 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Nosocomial Infection Management and Disease Control, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Following the alarming outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia (CRKP) in five intensive care units (ICUs) of a tertiary care hospital in China, a prospective investigation of CRKP colonized/infected patients was conducted.

Aim: To describe the diffusion and transmission of CRKP among epidemiologically linked ICU patients, staff and environment.

Methods: Enhanced CRKP infected/colonized case monitoring was performed by the real-time nosocomial infection surveillance system (RT-NISS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2018.11.019DOI Listing
December 2018

Inhibition of inflammasome activation by a clinical strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae impairs efferocytosis and leads to bacterial dissemination.

Cell Death Dis 2018 Dec 5;9(12):1182. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for severe cases of nosocomial pneumonia. During the infectious process, both neutrophils and monocytes migrate to the site of infection, where they carry out their effector functions and can be affected by different patterns of cell death. Our data show that clinical strains of K. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-018-1214-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6281591PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Pneumonia in patients with cirrhosis: risk factors associated with mortality and predictive value of prognostic models.

Respir Res 2018 Dec 4;19(1):242. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 79 Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310003, People's Republic of China.

Background: Cirrhosis always goes with profound immunity compromise, and makes those patients easily be the target of pneumonia. Cirrhotic patients with pneumonia have a dramatically increased mortality. To recognize the risk factors of mortality and to optimize stratification are critical for improving survival rate. Read More

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https://respiratory-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-018-0934-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280505PMC
December 2018
7 Reads

Is One Sample Enough? β-lactam Target Attainment and Penetration into Epithelial Lining Fluid based on Multiple Bronchoalveolar Lavage Sampling Time Points in a Swine Pneumonia Model.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA

Describing the disposition of antimicrobials agents at the site of infection is crucial to guide optimal dosing for investigational agents. For antibiotics in development for nosocomial pneumonia, concentrations are frequently determined in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lung from a bronchoscopy at a single time point. The influence of profiles constructed from a single ELF concentration point for each subject has never been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01922-18DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Nosocomial Pathogens in Regional China: A Brief Report from Two Tertiary Hospitals in China.

Med Sci Monit 2018 Nov 28;24:8602-8607. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of General Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Antimicrobial resistance of nosocomial pathogens has become a worldwide problem that leads to major healthcare and economic burdens. Regional antimicrobial resistance profiles are needed to inform selection of proper antimicrobial agents. MATERIAL AND METHODS In collaboration with the Hospital Infection Control Office at our hospitals, we analyzed the constitution of nosocomial pathogens and the corresponding drug-resistance profiles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.911229DOI Listing
November 2018

Intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of antibiotics used to treat nosocomial pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacilli: a systematic review.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Centre for Translational Anti-Infective Pharmacodynamics, School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, Queensland, Australia; Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia.

Background: . Knowledge of antibiotic concentrations achievable in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) will help guide antibiotic dosing for treating patients with gram-negative bacillary ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).

Objective: . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2018.11.011DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Oropharyngeal Irrigation to Prevent Ventilator-Associated-Pneumonia: Comparing Potassium Permangenate with Chlorhexidine.

Int J Prev Med 2018 12;9:93. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Pneumonia is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections among bedridden patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Colonization of mouth and pharynx by pathogenic bacteria and their aspiration into the lower respiratory tract is an important step in pathogenesis of hospital-acquired pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of chlorhexidine and potassium permanganate mouthwashes in preventing incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients in the ICU. Read More

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http://www.ijpvmjournal.net/text.asp?2018/9/1/93/243218
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_370_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202778PMC
October 2018
6 Reads

Pseudohemoptysis in an elderly due to pneumonitis.

Med J Armed Forces India 2018 Oct 5;74(4):383-385. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

Consultant and Head, Department of Pathology, Command Hospital (Southern Command), Pune 411040, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mjafi.2017.08.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6224691PMC
October 2018
1 Read

A Case-Control Study: Clinical Characteristics of Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections Versus Non-bloodstream Infections of Acinetobacter spp.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Nov;67(suppl_2):S189-S195

Institute of Antibiotics, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai.

Background: Acinetobacter spp. are among the most common causes of bacterial nosocomial infections, including pneumonia and bloodstream infections. Previous studies on the risk factors of bloodstream Acinetobacter spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy671DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Subdistribution hazard models for competing risks in discrete time.

Biostatistics 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Institute of Statistics, Ulm University, Helmholtzstrasse 20, Ulm, Germany.

A popular modeling approach for competing risks analysis in longitudinal studies is the proportional subdistribution hazards model by Fine and Gray (1999. A proportional hazards model for the subdistribution of a competing risk. Journal of the American Statistical Association94, 496-509). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/biostatistics/advance-article/doi/1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biostatistics/kxy069DOI Listing
November 2018
15 Reads

Ceftolozane/tazobactam for the treatment of serious P. aeruginosa infections: a multicenter nationwide clinical experience.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Infectious Diseases Clinic, Department of Medicine University of Udine and Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata, Udine, Italy; Medicine Department, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.. Electronic address:

To describe the largest clinical experience using ceftolozane-tazobactam (C/T) for treatment of different type of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. A retrospective study was performed at 22 hospitals in Italy from June 2016 to March 2018. All adult patients treated with at least 4 days of C/T were enrolled. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09248579183032
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2018.11.001DOI Listing
November 2018
11 Reads

GRam stain-guided Antibiotics ChoicE for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (GRACE-VAP) trial: rationale and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2018 Nov 8;19(1):614. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa, Nishinomiya, Hyogo, 663-8501, Japan.

Background: Optimising the use of antibiotic agents is a pressing challenge to overcoming the rapid emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens in intensive care units (ICUs). Although Gram staining may possibly provide immediate information for predicting pathogenic bacteria, Gram stain-guided initial antibiotic treatment is not well established in the ICU setting. We planned the GRam stain-guided Antibiotics ChoicE for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (GRACE-VAP) trial to investigate whether Gram staining can safely restrict the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections in ICUs. Read More

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https://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2971-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225572PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

Reappraisal of Contemporary Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Principles for Informing Aminoglycoside Dosing.

Pharmacotherapy 2018 Dec;38(12):1229-1238

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, New York.

Therapeutic drug management is regularly performed for aminoglycosides in an effort to maximize their effectiveness and safety. The ratio of maximum plasma drug concentration to minimum inhibitory concentration (Cmax/MIC) has long been regarded as the primary pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) index of clinical efficacy for aminoglycosides due to their concentration-dependent killing. In this review, however, we discuss why the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio may be a more reliable indicator of bacterial killing and clinical efficacy for these agents. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/phar.2193
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2193DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

N-substituted piperazinyl sarafloxacin derivatives: synthesis and in vitro antibacterial evaluation.

Daru 2018 Dec 3;26(2):199-207. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Drug Design and Development Research Center, The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are compounds of major interest with broad antimicrobial activities against community and hospital-acquired infections such as respiratory tract infections (nosocomial pneumonia, chronic bronchitis and tuberculosis), skin and soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, intra-abdominal infections and sexually transmitted diseases. This broad range of activities along with favorable pharmacokinetic and low toxicity introduced this class of compounds as important antimicrobial chemotherapy agents. The rapid increase in prevalence of FQs resistant microbes in environment motivated medicinal chemists to discover new quinolone-based compounds with potent activities against Gram-positive bacteria. Read More

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https://darujps.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1007/s40199-01
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40199-018-0226-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6279671PMC
December 2018
7 Reads

Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and with acute-on-chronic liver failure in Europe.

J Hepatol 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

European Foundation of Chronic Liver Failure (EF-Clif), Barcelona, Spain.

Background & Aims: Antibiotic resistance has been increasingly reported in patients with decompensated cirrhosis in single-center studies. Prospective investigations reporting broad epidemiological data are scarce. We aimed to analyze epidemiological changes in bacterial infections in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01688278183251
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2018.10.027DOI Listing
November 2018
12 Reads

New Antibiotics for Pneumonia.

Clin Chest Med 2018 Dec;39(4):853-869

Infectious Diseases Clinic, Department of Medicine, University of Udine, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria, Presidio Ospedaliero Universitario Santa Maria della Misericordia, Colugna Street, Udine 33100, Italy.

Delayed antimicrobial prescriptions and inappropriate treatment can lead to poor outcomes in pneumonia. In nosocomial infections, especially in countries reporting high rates of antimicrobial resistance, the presence of multidrug-resistant gram-negative and gam-positive bacteria can limit options for adequate antimicrobial treatment. New antibiotics, belonging to known classes of antimicrobials or characterized by novel mechanisms of actions, have recently been approved or are under development. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02725231183009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccm.2018.08.007DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Management of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Guidelines.

Clin Chest Med 2018 Dec;39(4):797-808

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985400 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

Two recent major guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) recommend consideration of local antibiotic resistance patterns and individual patient risks for resistant pathogens when formulating an initial empiric antibiotic regimen. One recommends against invasive diagnostic techniques with quantitative cultures to determine the cause of VAP; the other recommends either invasive or noninvasive techniques. Both guidelines recommend short-course therapy be used for most patients with VAP. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02725231183009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccm.2018.08.002DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Changing drug resistance profile in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection among HIV patients from 2010-2017 - A retrospective study.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Y. R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Voluntary Health Services Hospital Campus, Chennai, India. Electronic address:

Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important etiological agent causing pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and bacteraemia. High use of antibiotics in nosocomial settings and during immunocompromised conditions results in increasing multidrug resistance. This study analyzes the antibiotic resistance profile of P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2018.10.019DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Effect of Oral Care Program on Prevention of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2018 Nov-Dec;23(6):486-490

Critical Care Nursing Department, Nursing and Midwifery School, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common nosocomial infections that increase mortality rate and the length of hospitalization. Oral care can improve patient's oral health, however, the role of oral care in the reduction in incidence rate of VAP is indisputable. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of oral care on the frequency of VAP of patients in intensive care unit. Read More

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http://www.ijnmrjournal.net/text.asp?2018/23/6/486/242695
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_164_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6178571PMC
November 2018
21 Reads

Current pharmacotherapeutic options for pediatric lower respiratory tract infections with a focus on antimicrobial agents.

Expert Opin Pharmacother 2018 Oct 25:1-11. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

b Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery , University of Rome Tor Vergata , Rome , Italy.

Introduction: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed to children in the community and in nosocomial settings, mainly because of lower respiratory tract infections(LRTIs), which include influenza, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and tuberculosis, in addition to bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis lung disease. It is important to note, however, that more than 50% of these prescriptions are unnecessary or inappropriate. Areas covered: The current choice of antimicrobial therapy for etiological agents of LRTIs is examined and discussed considering each type of LRTI. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14656566.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14656566.2018.1534957DOI Listing
October 2018
12 Reads