5,901 results match your criteria Pneumonia Immunocompromised

Comparison of different microbiological procedures for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia on bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid.

BMC Microbiol 2022 May 21;22(1):143. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Traslational Research and of New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Via San Zeno 37, 56127, Pisa, Italy.

Background: The current diagnostic gold standard for Pneumocystis jirovecii is represented by microscopic visualization of the fungus from clinical respiratory samples, as bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid, defining "proven" P. jirovecii pneumonia, whereas qPCR allows defining "probable" diagnosis, as it is unable to discriminate infection from colonization. However, molecular methods, such as end-point PCR and qPCR, are faster, easier to perform and interpret, thus allowing the laboratory to give back the clinician useful microbiological data in a shorter time. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Isoniazid prophylaxis in liver transplant recipient with latent tuberculosis; Is it harmful for transplanted liver?

Transpl Infect Dis 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Abu Ali Sina Organ Transplant Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Liver transplantation (LT) is considered the only treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease and, despite its incredible impacts on the patients' health status, places them in an immunocompromised state in which opportunistic infection would find a way to present. Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) is the most common form of TB and can be diagnosed through Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) or Interferon-Gamma Release Assays (IGRA). LT recipients are at significant risk of TB activation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient developing a subacute disease course with central consolidation.

Respir Med Case Rep 2022 1;37:101659. Epub 2022 May 1.

Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ward, Chiba-city, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

pneumonia (PCP) typically occurs in immunocompromised individuals and rarely presents in immunocompetent individuals. A 55-year-old man was referred to our hospital with cough and anorexia that persisted for 2 months. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral central consolidation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

COVID-19-Associated Pneumonia in a B-Cell-Depleted Patient With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Recovery With Hyperimmune Plasma.

J Hematol 2022 Apr 22;11(2):77-80. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Internal Medicine Unit, Legnano Hospital, ASST Ovest Milanese, Legnano (MI), Italy.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can have a severe course in immunocompromised hosts and patients with hematological malignancies. In some cases, the bad prognosis is associated with the lack of B lymphocytes, with impaired antibody production and inefficient viral clearance. We report a case of a 67-year-old woman with a story of non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), who got a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection while being totally depleted of B cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Management of Newly Diagnosed Chronic Myeloid Leukemia During COVID-19 Hospitalization: A Teaching Case.

Cureus 2022 Apr 13;14(4):e24093. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Internal Medicine, Hackensack Meridian Health Palisades Medical Center, North Bergen, USA.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by the dysregulated production and uncontrolled proliferation of mature and maturing granulocytes. CML has the potential to cause secondary immunodeficiency in affected patients. COVID-19 infection has been associated with worse outcomes in immunocompromised patients, including patients with hematologic cancers, requiring hospitalization. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Evaluation of Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to the SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in Patients With Common Variable Immunodeficiency Phenotype and Patient Receiving B-Cell Depletion Therapy.

Front Immunol 2022 29;13:895209. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines' effectiveness is not yet clearly known in immunocompromised patients. This study aims to assess the humoral and cellular specific immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the predictors of poor response in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) phenotype and in patients treated with B-cell depletion therapies (BCDT), as well as the safety of these vaccines.

Methods: From March to September 2021, we performed a prospective study of all adult patients who would receive the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and were previously diagnosed with (i) a CVID syndrome (CVID phenotype group; n=28) or (ii) multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with B-cell depleting therapies three to six months before vaccination (BCD group; n=24). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Human Adenovirus Associated Hepatic Injury.

Front Public Health 2022 28;10:878161. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Human adenovirus (HAdV) is a common virus, but the infections it causes are relatively uncommon. At the same time, the methods for the detection of HAdV are varied, among which viral culture is still the gold standard. HAdV infection is usually self-limited but can also cause clinically symptomatic in lots of organs and tissues, of which human adenovirus pneumonia is the most common. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in HIV-negative Patients, a Frequently Overlooked Problem. Case Series from a Large Italian Center.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Via Francesco Sforza, 35, 20122, Milan, Italy; Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Via Francesco Sforza, 35, 20122, Milan, Italy.

Background And Objectives: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) still has substantial morbidity and mortality. For non-HIV patients, course of infection is severe, and management guidelines relatively recent. We collected all PCP cases (EORTC criteria) diagnosed in HIV-negative adult inpatients in 2019-2020 at our Center in northern Italy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mast Cells Meet Cytomegalovirus: A New Example of Protective Mast Cell Involvement in an Infectious Disease.

Cells 2022 Apr 21;11(9). Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Institute for Virology, Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg, University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) belong to the β-subfamily of herpesviruses. Their host-to-host transmission involves the airways. As primary infection of an immunocompetent host causes only mild feverish symptoms, human CMV (hCMV) is usually not considered in routine differential diagnostics of common airway infections. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cumulative SARS-CoV-2 mutations and corresponding changes in immunity in an immunocompromised patient indicate viral evolution within the host.

Nat Commun 2022 May 10;13(1):2560. Epub 2022 May 10.

Infektiologie Tirol, Department of Virology, 9931, Unterwalden 30, Außervillgraten, Austria.

Different scenarios explaining the emergence of novel variants of concern (VOC) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported, including their evolution in scarcely monitored populations, in animals as alternative hosts, or in immunocompromised individuals. Here we report SARS-CoV-2 immune escape mutations over a period of seven months in an immunocompromised patient with prolonged viral shedding. Signs of infection, viral shedding and mutation events are periodically analyzed using RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing based on naso-pharyngeal swabs, with the results complemented by immunological diagnostics to determine humoral and T cell immune responses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Invasive Fungal Pneumonia in Immunocompromised Patients.

Radiol Clin North Am 2022 May;60(3):497-506

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Affiliated with the Tel Aviv University, 2 Derech Sheba St, Ramat Gan 5265601, Israel.

Fungal pneumonia is the most frequent presentation of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. The most common causes include Aspergillus, Mucor, Fusarium, and Candida species. The high incidence and high morbidity and mortality rate of fungal pneumonias in HM/HSCT populations arise from severe immune dysfunction that may be caused by both the underlying disease and/or its treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

North American Endemic Fungal Infections.

Jeffrey P Kanne

Radiol Clin North Am 2022 May;60(3):409-427

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue MC 3252, Madison, WI 53792-3252, USA. Electronic address:

Histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, and coccidioidomycosis are endemic fungal infections in North America. Many infections are subclinical, and many symptomatic infections are mild. Pneumonia is the most common clinical manifestation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Viral Pneumonias.

Radiol Clin North Am 2022 May;60(3):383-397

Department of Radiology, MSC 10 5530, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA.

Viral pneumonia is usually community acquired and caused by influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and adenovirus. Many of these infections are airway centric and chest imaging demonstrates bronchiolitis and bronchopneumonia, With the exception of adenovirus infections, the presence of lobar consolidation usually suggests bacterial coinfection. Community-acquired viral pathogens can cause more severe pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts, who are also susceptible to CMV and varicella infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intranasal Lentiviral Vector-Mediated Antibody Delivery Confers Reduction of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Elderly and Immunocompromised Mice.

Front Immunol 2022 22;13:819058. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Centre for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Vaccines for COVID-19 are now a crucial public health need, but the degree of protection provided by conventional vaccinations for individuals with compromised immune systems is unclear. The use of viral vectors to express neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in the lung is an alternative approach that does not wholly depend on individuals having intact immune systems and responses. Here, we identified an anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) monoclonal antibody, NC0321, which can efficiently neutralize a range of SARS-CoV-2 variants, including alpha, beta, delta, and eta. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Kidney Transplant Recipient with Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) Secondary to COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Case Report.

Transplant Proc 2022 Apr 11. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Currently, COVID-19 is becoming one of the most common causes of viral pneumonia worldwide. In the medical literature, very few case reports describe the association between COVID-19 and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in kidney transplant patients.

Methods: A 74-year-old immunocompromised man post-kidney transplant presented with nonspecific symptoms consisting of fatigue, malaise, and anorexia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

SARS-CoV-2 vaccine response and rate of breakthrough infection in patients with hematological disorders.

J Hematol Oncol 2022 05 7;15(1):54. Epub 2022 May 7.

Fundación INCLIVA, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Background: The clinical efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines according to antibody response in immunosuppressed patients such as hematological patients has not yet been established.

Patients And Methods: A prospective multicenter registry-based cohort study conducted from December 2020 to December 2021 by the Spanish transplant and cell therapy group was used to analyze the relationship of antibody response at 3-6 weeks after full vaccination (2 doses) with breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in 1394 patients with hematological disorders.

Results: At a median follow-up of 165 days after complete immunization, 37 out of 1394 (2. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Rhinosinus Mucormycosis with Drug-induced Pancytopenia in an Immunocompromised Severe COVID-19 Patient: A Success.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2022 Mar;26(3):395-398

Department of Internal Medicine, Pushpawati Singhania Hospital and Research Institute, New Delhi, India.

Secondary infections in coronavirus disease (COVID) are becoming common. We report a case of a female known case of diabetes, sarcoidosis on steroids and methotrexate admitted with COVID pneumonia. She was treated with steroids, remdesivir, and anticoagulants and was discharged. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effectiveness of a COVID-19 Additional Primary or Booster Vaccine Dose in Preventing SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Nursing Home Residents During Widespread Circulation of the Omicron Variant - United States, February 14-March 27, 2022.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022 May 6;71(18):633-637. Epub 2022 May 6.

Nursing home residents have experienced disproportionally high levels of COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality and were prioritized for early COVID-19 vaccination (1). Following reported declines in vaccine-induced immunity after primary series vaccination, defined as receipt of 2 primary doses of an mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech] or mRNA-1273 [Moderna]) or 1 primary dose of Ad26.COV2 (Johnson & Johnson [Janssen]) vaccine (2), CDC recommended that all persons aged ≥12 years receive a COVID-19 booster vaccine dose. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Microbial Profile and Resistance Pattern of Pathogens Isolated From Long COVID Pneumonia Patients and Their Correlation to Clinical Outcome: Our Experience From a Tertiary Care Hospital.

Cureus 2022 Mar 30;14(3):e23644. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

General Medicine Department, Kalinga Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, IND.

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with persistent symptoms for at least four weeks in spite of being reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) negative for COVID infection are defined as long COVID (wherein pulmonary involvement is seen in a significant proportion of cases). The history of prolonged use of corticosteroids, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and associated comorbid conditions in these patients increases the possibility of infection with multidrug-resistant microbial strains. It may lead to a grave prognosis, hence appropriate microbiological evaluation and management at the earliest can have a better outcome. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fulminant fungal endogenous endophthalmitis following SARS-CoV-2 infection: A case report.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2022 05;70(5):1819-1821

Ocular Microbiology Service, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Mithu Tulsi Chanrai Campus, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Systemic corticosteroids and immunocompromised state following SARS-CoV-2 infection can predispose individuals to endogenous endophthalmitis. A 66-year-old gentleman presented with complaints of diminution of vision and redness one week post discharge after hospitalization for COVID-19 infection. Clinical examination suggested fulminant endogenous endophthalmitis which responded poorly even after aggressive treatment requiring evisceration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pathophysiological mechanism of non-HIV Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

Respir Investig 2022 Apr 29. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan. Electronic address:

While Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) can occur in immunocompromised patients with HIV infection, the prognosis of non-HIV PCP is still poor, showing a high mortality rate of 30%-75%. The pathophysiological mechanism of non-HIV PCP is quite different from that of HIV-PCP. Aging, underlying disease, dysbiotic gut microbiome, and Th1 predominance, leads to macrophagic polarization shifting from M2 to M1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pseudomonas mendocina Urinary Tract Infection: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Cureus 2022 Mar 28;14(3):e23583. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Internal Medicine, State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center, New York, USA.

is a Gram-negative bacillus from the family Pseudomonadaceae. The first -related infection was reported in 1992. Although a rare cause of infections, has been known to cause severe infections that require intensive treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Stenotophomonas Maltophilia As Not Just a Mere Colonozer: Two Cases of Urinary Tract Infection and Multidrug-Resistant Respiratory Infection.

Cureus 2022 Mar 27;14(3):e23541. Epub 2022 Mar 27.

Internal Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Queens Hospital Center, New York, USA.

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, though commonly reported as an opportunistic respiratory pathogen, has been known to cause a wide variety of illnesses, including urinary tract infection, biliary sepsis, bacteremia, and osteomyelitis. Malignancy and immunocompromised states are the biggest risk factors associated with Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection. Being an emerging nosocomial infection globally, the bacteria should no longer be considered as just a mere colonizer, and emphasis should be laid on understanding the mechanisms of resistance, modes of prevention, and treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Severely Immunocompromised Patients With Complete Remission B-Cell Lymphoma and Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody Therapy: A Case Report of Two Cases.

Front Immunol 2022 14;13:860891. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University Hospital Virgen Macarena, and Biomedicine Institute of Sevilla (IBIS)/CSIC, Seville, Spain.

Immunosuppressant conditions such as hematological malignancies increase the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. It has been described in the literature that patients on anti-CD20 maintenance therapies for lymphoid malignancies are susceptible to having recurrent flares together with viral replication or reinfections, although these cases are scarce. These patients are not well represented in randomized controlled trials, and as a consequence, the evidence for the use of certain treatments in this scenario is lacking. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Etiology, diagnosis, and management of pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2022 Apr 22;35 Suppl 1:89-96. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Miguel Salavert Lletí. Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas. Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, Valencia. Grupo acreditado de Infección Grave del Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Fe. Av/ Fernando Abril Martorell, nº 106. 46016 Valencia, Spain.

Patients with a compromised immune system suffer a wide variety of insults. Pulmonary complications remain a major cause of both morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. When such individuals present with radiographic infiltrates, the clinician faces a diagnostic challenge. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Value of syndromic panels in the management of severe community-acquired pneumonia.

Rev Esp Quimioter 2022 Apr 22;35 Suppl 1:15-20. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Almudena Burillo, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Department, Doctor Esquerdo 46, 28007 Madrid, Spain.

Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospital admission is a prevalent and potentially serious infection, especially in high-risk patients (e.g., those requiring ICU admission or immunocompromised). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Diagnostic value of metagenomic next-generation sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for the diagnosis of suspected pneumonia in immunocompromised patients.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Apr 29;22(1):416. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, South Baixiang, Ouhai, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325015, People's Republic of China.

Background: To evaluate the diagnostic value of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in immunocompromised patients for the diagnosis of suspected pneumonia in comparison with that of conventional microbiological tests (CMTs).

Methods: Sixty-nine immunocompromised patients with suspected pneumonia received both CMTs and mNGS of BALF were analyzed retrospectively. The diagnostic value was compared between CMTs and mNGS, using the clinical composite diagnosis as the reference standard. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Household COVID-19 secondary attack rate and associated determinants in Pakistan; A retrospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2022 28;17(4):e0266277. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Public Health & Nutrition, The University of Haripur, Haripur¸ Pakistan.

Background: COVID-19 household transmissibility remains unclear in Pakistan. To understand the dynamics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus disease epidemiology, this study estimated Secondary Attack Rate (SAR) among household and close contacts of index cases in Pakistan using a statistical transmission model.

Methodology: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an inclusive contact tracing dataset from the provinces of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa to estimate SAR. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding and infectivity in the working age population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Med Lav 2022 Apr 26;113(2):e2022014. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa; Occupational Medicine Unit, IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, working age individuals have been implicated in sustaining the resurgence of SARS-CoV-2 infections, and multiple outbreaks have been observed in several occupational settings. In this regard, Occupational Physicians play a crucial role in the management of infected workers, particularly in the safe return-to-work of subjects after clinical resolution. To this end, knowledge of the duration of the infective phase in the working age population is essential, taking into account previous evidence suggesting that PCR positivity does not coincide with virus viability. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF