3,892 results match your criteria Pneumonia Immunocompromised


Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia as an initial manifestation of hyper-IgM syndrome in an infant: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Feb;98(7):e14559

Department of Pediatrics.

Rationale: Pneumocystis jirovecii causes severe pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Human immunodeficiency virus infection, malignancy, solid organ or hematopoietic cell transplantation, and primary immune deficiency compose the risk factors for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in children, and PCP can be an initial clinical manifestation of primary immune deficiency.

Patient Concerns: A 5-month-old infant presented with cyanosis and tachypnea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014559DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A Case of Fulminant Bacillus cereus Lung Necrosis in a Preterm Neonate.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2019 Feb 13:1093526619825895. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

5 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous Gram-positive rod seldom considered pathogenic in clinical isolates. However, it possesses multiple virulence factors explaining why it has been linked to fulminant and pyogenic infections in vulnerable hosts. Its recovery from sterile samples in immunocompromised patients cannot be disregarded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1093526619825895DOI Listing
February 2019

Hemoptysis in the Immunocompromised Patient: Do Not Forget Strongyloidiasis.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Feb 12;4(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Health, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

Strongyloidiasis, due to infection with the nematode , affects millions of people in the tropics and subtropics. has a unique auto-infective lifecycle such that it can persist in the human host for decades. In immunosuppressed patients, especially those on corticosteroids, potentially fatal disseminated strongyloidiasis can occur, often with concurrent secondary infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010035DOI Listing
February 2019

and Co-infection in a Patient with Giant-cell Arteritis.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2019 3;6(1):000997. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Unidade Funcional de Medicina 2.1, Hospital de Santo António dos Capuchos, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal.

Immunosuppressed patients are at greater risk of unusual infections. The authors present the case of a woman with giant-cell arteritis, on oral steroids, who developed cavitating pneumonia due to co-infection with and . Reports of such co-infection are rare in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12890/2019_000997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372051PMC
January 2019

Rhodococcus equi pVAPN type causing pneumonia in a dog coinfected with canine morbillivirus (distemper virus) and Toxoplasma gondii.

Microb Pathog 2019 Feb 6;129:112-117. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

UNESP-São Paulo State University, Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Public Health, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Canine morbillivirus (previously, canine distemper virus, CDV) is a highly contagious infectious disease-causing agent that produces immunosuppressive infections and multiple clinical signs. Canine toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic disease characterized by enteric, pulmonary, and neuromuscular signs that might be confused with CDV-induced infections. Rhodococcus equi is a Gram-positive intracellular facultative bacterium that is also opportunistic in nature, and causes pyogranulomatous infections in humans and multiple host animals, although canine rhodococcosis is rare or unrecognized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.01.048DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Severe case of pneumonia with pleural effusion in an immunocompromised woman due to .

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Jan 31;12(1). Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Mostoles, Mostoles, Madrid, Spain.

Infections caused by fusobacteria have a wide clinical spectrum, and in certain patients, they can lead to severe systemic illness. We report the case of an immunocompromised young woman who presented with severe pneumonia complicated by parapneumonic pleural effusion, despite wide-spectrum antibiotic treatment. was isolated in the samples obtained after thoracentesis was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-227603DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Colonization of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Patients Who Received and not Received Corticosteroids Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit: Airborne Transmission Approach.

Iran J Pathol 2018 17;13(2):136-143. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Dept. of Microbiology and Medical Parasitology, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

Background & Objective: pneumonia (PCP) is responsible for pulmonary infection in immunocompromised patients. The current study aimed at investigating the frequency of colonization in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) and evaluating the relationship between PCP and colonization.

Methods: The current cross sectional study was conducted on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids of 100patients collected from surgery and neurosurgery ICUs with different underlying corticosteroid therapy conditions. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339491PMC
July 2018
3 Reads

Effect of macrolide- and rifampin-resistance on fitness of .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Large Animal Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

is a leading cause of severe pneumonia in foals. Standard treatment is dual antimicrobial therapy with a macrolide and rifampin, but the emergence of macrolide- and rifampin-resistant isolates is an increasing problem. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of macrolide and/or rifampin resistance on fitness of Three unique isogenic sets were created, each consisting of four strains: a susceptible parent isolate, strains resistant to macrolides or rifampin, and a dual macrolide- and rifampin-resistant strain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02665-18DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Galactosaminogalactan (GAG) and its multiple roles in Aspergillus pathogenesis.

Virulence 2019 Jan 22:1-8. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

e Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology , McGill University , Montréal , Canada.

Aspergillus spp and particularly the species Aspergillus fumigatus are the causative agents of invasive aspergillosis, a progressive necrotizing pneumonia that occurs in immunocompromised patients. The limited efficacy of currently available antifungals has led to interest in a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis in order to identify new therapeutic targets for this devastating disease. The Aspergillus exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental invasive aspergillosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2019.1568174DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Clinical and epidemiological impact of varicella infection in children prior to the introduction of the varicella vaccine in the national immunization schedule of Argentina.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2019 02;117(1):12-18

Servicio de Infectología Pediátrica.

Introduction: In Argentina, an estimated 400 000 varicella cases occur annually. Given the under-recording of existing cases, the actual burden of disease is unknown.

Objective: To assess the burden of varicella before the introduction of the varicella vaccine in the national immunization schedule. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2019.eng.12DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Establishment of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of .

Exp Ther Med 2019 Jan 31;17(1):131-136. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Molecular Diagnosis Laboratory, Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, P.R. China.

is one of the three most pathogenic bacteria that frequently cause life-threatening opportunistic human infections, pneumonia, and lower respiratory tract infections in immunocompromised hosts, particularly in the burns ward. The present study aimed to establish a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid and sensitive detection of -specific gene (GenBank ID: 882161). The gene was obtained through local and online BLAST, and specific primers were designed for this gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2018.6910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307377PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Infectious and Other Complications of Immunobiologic Agents.

Authors:
Peter Chin-Hong

Top Antivir Med 2019 Jan;26(4):100-103

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Individuals with HIV infection are living longer, and are at risk of autoimmune disorders and cancers associated with aging. Many of these conditions are treated with immunobiologic agents that affect immune function and may increase risk of opportunistic infections (OIs) and other immune disorders in individuals with HIV infection. For example, tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors, used to treat such disorders as Crohn's disease, are associated with risk of tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. Read More

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January 2019
6 Reads

New antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review provides the rationale for the development of new antibiotics to treat community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It also provides an overview of the new antibiotics targeting CAP that have recently received approval by the regulatory agencies, and those antibiotics that are in the development pipeline.

Recent Findings: CAP is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and carries a significant morbidity and risk of mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000526DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Polymyxin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa assigned as ST245: First report in an intensive care unit in São Paulo, Brazil.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2019 Jan 8;16:147-149. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases and LIM-54, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar 470, São Paulo - SP, 05403-000, Brazil.

Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe infections, especially in hospitalised and immunocompromised patients. Polymyxins are the last therapeutic option to treat infections caused by this micro-organism. Here we describe a polymyxin-resistant P. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22137165193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2018.12.021DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

An intervention to improve pneumococcal vaccination uptake in high risk 50-64 year olds vs. expanded age-based recommendations: an exploratory cost-effectiveness analysis.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

a University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , Pittsburgh , PA.

In the U.S., pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) uptake among high-risk adults aged <65 years is consistently low and improvement is needed. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645515.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2018.1564439DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Severe systemic cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent patient outside the intensive care unit: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Jan 9;19(1):34. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Clinica Medica, University of Milano-Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Via G.B. Pergolesi 33, 20900, Monza, Italy.

Background: Cytomegalovirus is responsible for an opportunistic infection that can be life threatening in immunocompromised patients, while it is usually mild or completely asymptomatic in immunocompetent subjects. In the recent years, however, some cases of severe cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompetent patients have been reported, showing this to be a less rare occurrence than previously reported.

Case Presentation: We report the case of an 83-year-old man, admitted to our hospital for gastroenteritis, complicated by dehydration and severe prothrombin time prolongation due to oral anticoagulant therapy accumulation, who developed hospital-acquired pneumonia; neither of these illnesses responded to several lines of antibiotic therapy. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3621-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327531PMC
January 2019
6 Reads

Respiratory Viral Infections in Patients With Cancer or Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

Front Microbiol 2018 12;9:3097. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pathology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States.

Survival rates for pediatric cancer have steadily improved over time but it remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Infections are a major complication of cancer and its treatment. Community acquired respiratory viral infections (CRV) in these patients increase morbidity, mortality and can lead to delay in chemotherapy. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03097
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299032PMC
December 2018
9 Reads

[Post-transplant pulmonary complications: Guidelines from the francophone Society of bone marrow transplantation and cellular therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2019 Jan 27;106(1S):S10-S17. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

CHU Hôtel-Dieu, service d'hématologie clinique, place A. Ricordeau, 44093 Nantes, France. Electronic address:

Pulmonary complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation occur frequently (30-75%), vary in severity, and sometimes prove lethal. They may occur at an early stage post-transplant before D100 but may also surface later. Etiological support for these complications has shown a beneficial impact on survival. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00074551183035
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2018.11.006DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Development of a fully automated PCR assay for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii using the GENECUBE system.

Med Mycol 2018 Dec 26. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

We developed a fully automated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii using the GENECUBE system. This assay was evaluated against an in-house real-time PCR assay using 82 bronchoalveolar lavage and 139 sputum samples from 221 immunocompromised patients who were suspected of having Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). After loading the maximum of eight samples into the GENECUBE system, the results were obtained within approximately 60 minutes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myy145DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

A case of Verruconis gallopava infection in a heart transplant recipient successfully treated with posaconazole.

Transpl Infect Dis 2018 Dec 26:e13044. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona.

Verruconis gallopava is an environmental dematiaceous fungus that is recognized increasingly as a cause of human disease, especially for immunocompromised persons. Infection can range from superficial and localized lesions to pulmonary involvement and disseminated disease, including central nervous system abscesses. Optimal therapy is undefined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13044DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Infection of lung cavitations in a young dog owner with Hodgkin's lymphoma caused by , without a dog bite: confirmed zoonotic transmission by tagmentation microbiome analysis.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Dec 3;11(1). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Internal Medicine, Spaarne Gasthuis Hoofddorp, Hoofddorp, The Netherlands.

is a known pathogen in humans, mostly reported after animal bite incidents. Atraumatic infections have been described, especially in immunocompromised patients. A 20-year-old patient with a history of stage IV Hodgkin's lymphoma with cavitating pulmonary lesions presented with a bilateral pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-226646DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Mouse Model of Cytomegalovirus Disease and Immunotherapy in the Immunocompromised Host: Predictions for Medical Translation that Survived the "Test of Time".

Viruses 2018 12 6;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute for Virology, University Medical Center and Center for Immunotherapy of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Str. 67, D-55131 Mainz, Germany.

Human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV), which is the prototype member of the β-subfamily of the herpesvirus family, is a pathogen of high clinical relevance in recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). hCMV causes multiple-organ disease and interstitial pneumonia in particular upon infection during the immunocompromised period before hematopoietic reconstitution restores antiviral immunity. Clinical investigation of pathomechanisms and of strategies for an immune intervention aimed at restoring antiviral immunity earlier than by hematopoietic reconstitution are limited in patients to observational studies mainly because of ethical issues including the imperative medical indication for chemotherapy with antivirals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v10120693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6315540PMC
December 2018
2 Reads
3.279 Impact Factor

Clinical and Radiologic Characteristics of Human Metapneumovirus Infections in Adults, South Korea.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 Jan;25(1):15-24

Clinical features of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection have not been well documented for adults. We investigated clinical and radiologic features of HMPV infection in 849 adults in a tertiary hospital in South Korea. We classified patients into groups on the basis of underlying diseases: immunocompetent patients, solid tumor patients, solid organ transplantation recipients, hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, hematologic malignancy patients, and patients receiving long-term steroid treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2501.181131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302610PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

[The clinical laboratory characteristic of primary acute cytomegalovirus infection in non-immunocompromised adult patients].

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(1):51-54

The state budget institution of health care "The clinical center of prevention and struggle with AIDS" of the Minzdrav of the Krasnodar kraii, 350015, Krasnodar, Russia.

The purpose of study is the clinical laboratory characteristic of acquired acute cytomegalovirus infection in nonimmunocompromised adult patients. The sampling included 75 patients with acquired acute cytomegalovirus infection admitted to the specialized clinical infection hospital of the Minzdrav of the Krasnodar kraii. The verifcation of diagnosis was implemented using serological tests and polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18821/0869-2084-2018-63-1-51-54DOI Listing
January 2018
4 Reads

Pulmonary mucormycosis in an adolescent female with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

IDCases 2018 27;14:e00474. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

University of Nevada Las Vegas School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Las Vegas, NV, USA.

Mucormycosis is a relatively rare, life-threatening and opportunistic infection that affects immunocompromised patients. We present the unusual case of pulmonary mucormycosis in a 13-year-old Caucasian female that had recently been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Our case serves as an example to healthcare providers treating immunosuppressed patients with pneumonia to have a high clinical suspicion for fungal infections, as delay in diagnosis and treatment can result in disseminated disease and higher patient mortality risk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2018.e00474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6279882PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Detection and identification of fungi in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from immunocompromised patients using panfungal PCR.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Internal Medicine - Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.

Rapid diagnostics of fungal pneumonia and initiation of appropriate therapy are still challenging. In this study, we used two panfungal assays to test bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples to prove their ability to confirm invasive fungal disease diagnosis and identify causative agents. Two methods targeting different fungal rDNA regions were used, and the obtained PCR products were sequenced directly or after cloning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12223-018-00669-wDOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

[Obstructive tracheobronchitis due to Aspergillus fumigatus in an immunocompetent patient].

Rev Iberoam Micol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cádiz, España; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Cádiz (INiBICA), Cádiz, España.

Background: Aspergillus tracheobronchitis (ATB) is an uncommon type of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in which fungal involvement is limited to the tracheobronchial tree. While the more severe forms, such as pseudomembranous and ulcerative ATB, occur almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients, the milder obstructive form may occur in patients without immune deficiency.

Case Report: The case of a 32 year-old man with no previous history of illness, who was evaluated for recurrent right lower lobe pneumonia, is presented. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.riam.2018.03.003DOI Listing
November 2018
2 Reads

Leclercia adecarboxylata: a case report and literature review of 74 cases demonstrating its pathogenicity in immunocompromised patients.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2018 Nov 29:1-10. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

a Department of Clinical Microbiology , Copenhagen University Hospital (Rigshospitalet) , Copenhagen , Denmark.

Leclercia adecarboxylata is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It has been described as an emerging human pathogen with the potential to cause severe infection in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to describe a clinical case of infection with L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2018.1536830DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

[A 64-year-old male with recurrence of herpes simplex encephalitis after suffering from severe pneumonia and sepsis].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2018 Dec 29;58(12):771-774. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, NTT Medical Center Tokyo.

The case is a 64-year-old male who had a past history of herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) two years prior to his admission. He was admitted to our hospital due to severe pneumonia and sepsis. Several days later, he developed HSE again. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5692/clinicalneurol.cn-001226DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Next-generation sequencing of the BALF in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompromised patients.

J Infect 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2018.11.005DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Cytomegalovirus Pneumonia with Progressive Lung Volume Loss.

Am J Case Rep 2018 Nov 23;19:1393-1397. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba City, Chiba, Japan.

BACKGROUND Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is common in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies. Although the spectrum of illness caused by CMV is well-documented in immunocompromised patients, the clinical course and evolution of lung changes after initiation of antiviral therapy remain unclear. CASE REPORT We present the cases of 3 patients with leukemia who developed CMV pneumonia following cord blood transplantation and who presented with distinctive features on chest computed tomography (CT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.911708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266627PMC
November 2018
9 Reads

The Impact of High-Flow Nasal Oxygen in the Immunocompromised Critically Ill: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Respir Care 2018 Dec;63(12):1555-1566

Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, Sinai Health System/University Health Network, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: High-flow nasal-cannula (HFNC) may be an oxygen modality useful for preventing invasive mechanical ventilation and mortality; however, its role in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure is not clearly defined. We sought to evaluate the impact of HFNC on mortality across immunocompromised subjects compared to alternative noninvasive oxygen therapies, namely conventional oxygen therapy and noninvasive ventilation (NIV).

Methods: We systematically searched the major databases to identify randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies (until May 2018). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.05962DOI Listing
December 2018
19 Reads

Clinical course, treatment and outcome of Pneumocystis pneumonia in immunocompromised adults: a retrospective analysis over 17 years.

Crit Care 2018 11 19;22(1):307. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Despite modern intensive care with standardized strategies against acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) remains a life-threatening disease with a high mortality rate. Here, we analyzed a large mixed cohort of immunocompromised patients with PcP, with regard to clinical course and treatment, and aimed at identifying predictors of outcome.

Methods: This was a single-center retrospective analysis in a tertiary care institution across 17 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-018-2221-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6245758PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

Klebsiella pneumoniae infection biology: living to counteract host defences.

FEMS Microbiol Rev 2018 Nov 18. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

Wellcome-Wolfson Institute for Experimental Medicine, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.

Klebsiella species cause a wide range of diseases including pneumonia, UTIs, bloodstream infections, and sepsis. These infections are particularly a problem among neonates, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Klebsiella is also responsible for a significant number of community-acquired infections. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/femsre/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsre/fuy043DOI Listing
November 2018
28 Reads

Comparative Evaluation Between the RealStar PCR Kit and the AmpliSens ()-FRT PCR Kit for Detecting in Non-HIV Immunocompromised Patients.

Ann Lab Med 2019 Mar;39(2):176-182

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Genetics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Real-time PCR is more sensitive than microscopic examination for detecting . We compared the performance of two assays for detecting DNA: the RealStar PCR Kit 1.0 CE (Altona Diagnostics, Hamburg, Germany) and the AmpliSens ()-FRT PCR kit (InterLabService Ltd. Read More

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https://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.3343/alm.2019.39
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3343/alm.2019.39.2.176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6240529PMC
March 2019
12 Reads

Treatment of a broncho-esophageal fistula complicated by severe ARDS.

Infection 2018 Nov 11. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Department of Medicine III (Interdisciplinary Medical Intensive Care), Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Introduction: Broncho-esophageal fistula formation is a rare complication of tuberculosis, most often seen in immunocompromised patients.

Methods And Results: In this paper, we report the case of a young non-immunocompromised refugee from Somalia diagnosed with open pulmonary tuberculosis complicated by extensive osseous involvement and a broncho-esophageal fistula with consecutive aspiration of gastric contents. The patient rapidly developed a severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy for nearly 2 months. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s15010-018-1247-9
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-018-1247-9DOI Listing
November 2018
20 Reads

Natural prognosis of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia in patients who did not receive appropriate antibiotic treatment: A retrospective multicenter study in Korea.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Oct;97(43):e12984

Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infection is a major issues in current era. The aim of study was to investigate the natural prognosis and prognostic factors associated with 28-day mortality in patients with CRAB bacteremia who were not receiving appropriate antibiotic treatment.Adult patients with CRAB bacteremia were retrospectively identified between April 2012 and March 2015 at 5 tertiary hospitals in Republic of Korea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000012984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6221697PMC
October 2018
8 Reads

Influenza and Viral Pneumonia.

Clin Chest Med 2018 Dec;39(4):703-721

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville, Med Center One, 501 E. Broadway Suite 100, Louisville, KY 40202, USA.

Influenza and other respiratory viruses are commonly identified in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and in immunocompromised patients with pneumonia. Clinically, it is difficult to differentiate viral from bacterial pneumonia. Similarly, the radiological findings of viral infection are nonspecific. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccm.2018.07.005DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Changing drug resistance profile in Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection among HIV patients from 2010-2017 - A retrospective study.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Infectious Diseases Laboratory, Y. R. Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Voluntary Health Services Hospital Campus, Chennai, India. Electronic address:

Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important etiological agent causing pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and bacteraemia. High use of antibiotics in nosocomial settings and during immunocompromised conditions results in increasing multidrug resistance. This study analyzes the antibiotic resistance profile of P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2018.10.019DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Pulmonary cryptococcosis coexisting with adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.

J Med Case Rep 2018 Nov 2;12(1):327. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Shanghai Respiratory Research Institute, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Pulmonary cryptococcosis is a common fungal infection frequently seen in immunocompromised patients. Owing to its nonspecific clinical and radiographic features, the differential diagnosis with secondary tuberculosis, malignant tumor, and bacterial pneumonia is sometimes difficult. Many case reports have focused on misdiagnosis of pulmonary cryptococcosis as a malignant tumor. Read More

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https://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.11
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-018-1853-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214163PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

Respiratory failure in the hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient.

World J Crit Care Med 2018 Oct 16;7(5):62-72. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Multidisciplinary Epidemiology and Translational Research in Intensive Care Group, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, United States.

The number of patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is rapidly rising worldwide. Despite substantial improvements in peri-transplant care, pulmonary complications resulting in respiratory failure remain a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the post-transplant period, and represent a major barrier to the overall success of HSCT. Infectious complications include pneumonia due to bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and most commonly occur during neutropenia in the early post-transplant period. Read More

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http://www.wjgnet.com/2220-3141/full/v7/i5/62.htm
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5492/wjccm.v7.i5.62DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201323PMC
October 2018
23 Reads

Case presentation: persistent adenovirus B3 infections associated with bronchiolitis obliterans treated with cidofovir in a child with mosaic tetrasomy 9p.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Oct 22;18(1):529. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Background: Adenoviruses (AdV) are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses with multiple serotypes, which cause a variety of end-organ disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Some adenoviruses can become latent in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3441-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6198380PMC
October 2018
3 Reads

Pulmonary cryptococcosis: A review of pathobiology and clinical aspects.

Med Mycol 2019 Feb;57(2):133-150

Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, UK.

Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an important opportunistic invasive mycosis in immunocompromised patients, but it is also increasingly seen in immunocompetent patients. The main human pathogens are Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii, which have a worldwide distribution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mmy/myy086DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Corynebacteria as a cause of pulmonary infection: a case series and literature review.

Pneumonia (Nathan) 2018 5;10:10. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

1Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030 USA.

Background: In most cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), an etiologic agent is not determined; the most common report from the microbiological evaluation of sputum cites "normal respiratory flora." Non-diphtheria spp. a component of this flora, is commonly viewed as a contaminant, but it may be the cause of pneumonia and the frequency with which it causes CAP may be underestimated. Read More

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https://pneumonia.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41479-
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41479-018-0054-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173903PMC
October 2018
13 Reads

pneumonia in a patient with untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Med Mycol Case Rep 2018 Dec 21;22:65-68. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Pneumology Unit, A.O.U. "Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele", Via S.Sofia 78, Catania 95123, Italy.

Several cases have been reported of infections in immunocompromised patients. Acute leukemia is the main predisposing factor. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is not usually associated with opportunistic infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mmcr.2018.09.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6169324PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

A Fatal Case of Atypical Disseminated Herpes Zoster in a Patient with Meningoencephalitis and Seizures Associated with Steroid Immunosuppression.

Am J Case Rep 2018 Oct 1;19:1162-1167. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kimitsu Chuo Hospital, Kisarazu, Chiba, Japan.

BACKGROUND Herpes zoster is caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and usually presents with vesicular skin lesions with a dermatomal distribution. Disseminated herpes zoster (DHZ) infection is characterized by non-dermatomal skin eruptions, often with involvement of other organs, and occurs in immunocompromised patients. CASE REPORT A 69-year-old man who was treated with prednisolone for amiodarone-associated interstitial lung disease, presented with seizures and altered consciousness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.910521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6180941PMC
October 2018
6 Reads

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) pneumonia in the non-ventilated immunocompromised host: Burden and predictors.

J Infect 2019 Feb 26;78(2):127-133. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Pulmonology Unit, University Hospital of Trieste, Strada di Fiume 447, 34149 Trieste, Italy.

Objectives: To evaluate burden and predictors of HSV pneumonia among immunocompromised patients not undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation according to a tailored diagnostic algorithm.

Methods: This prospective, observational study included immunocompromised adults with pneumonia non-responding to empirical antibiotic therapy. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens were cultured for bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2018.09.010DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Virulence-associated protein A from Rhodococcus equi is an intercompartmental pH-neutralising virulence factor.

Cell Microbiol 2019 Jan 9;21(1):e12958. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Division of Biophysics, Cell Biology Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Professional phagocytic cells such as macrophages are a central part of innate immune defence. They ingest microorganisms into membrane-bound compartments (phagosomes), which acidify and eventually fuse with lysosomes, exposing their contents to a microbicidal environment. Gram-positive Rhodococcus equi can cause pneumonia in young foals and in immunocompromised humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cmi.12958DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

The association between Cytomegalovirus co-infection with Pneumocystis pneumonia and mortality in immunocompromised non-HIV patients.

Clin Respir J 2018 Nov;12(11):2590-2597

Department of Medical Microbiology, Ege University Medical School, Izmir, Turkey.

Introduction: Impact of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) co-infection pneumonia in non-HIV patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is unclear.

Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine whether CMV co-infection is associated with an increased risk of mortality.

Methods: Our study was conducted at Ege University Hospital, Turkey. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/crj.12961DOI Listing
November 2018
5 Reads

Changes in the immune system in experimental acanthamoebiasis in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Sep 20;11(1):517. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 70-204, Szczecin, Poland.

Background: Acanthamoebiasis is most often found in patients with immune deficiency, with infections facilitated by the intake of immunosuppressive drugs. The host immune response to Acanthamoeba spp. infection is poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3108-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6149055PMC
September 2018
4 Reads