3,935 results match your criteria Pneumonia Immunocompromised


Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) amplifying virus-like particles expressing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigens protect mice against RSV infection.

Vaccine 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Infectious Disease, University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA, United States. Electronic address:

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in children under one year of age. In addition to causing severe respiratory diseases in children, it is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality among the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. RSV is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections, yet there are currently no licensed vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.04.042DOI Listing

The Contribution of Host Cells to Immunity: An Update.

Pathogens 2019 Apr 19;8(2). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

AFGrica Medical Mycology Research Unit, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7925, South Africa.

is a ubiquitous atypical fungus that is distributed globally. The genus comprises morphologically similar but genetically heterogeneous species that have co-evolved with specific mammalian hosts as obligate intra-pulmonary pathogens. In humans, is the causative organism of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals, a serious illness frequently leading to life-threatening respiratory failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8020052DOI Listing

Cluster analysis to define distinct clinical phenotypes among septic patients with bloodstream infections.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Apr;98(16):e15276

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

Prior attempts at identifying outcome determinants associated with bloodstream infection have employed a priori determined classification schemes based on readily identifiable microbiology, infection site, and patient characteristics. We hypothesized that even amongst this heterogeneous population, clinically relevant groupings can be described that transcend old a priori classifications.We applied cluster analysis to variables from three domains: patient characteristics, acuity of illness/clinical presentation and infection characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015276DOI Listing

Usefulness of Gastric Aspirate Culture for Diagnosing Congenital Immunodeficiency in an Infant with Fungal Pneumonia Caused by Rasamsonia piperina.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2019 04;247(4):265-269

Department of Pediatrics, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine.

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a type of primary immunodeficiency disease, which increases susceptibility to recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are often obtained using bronchoscopy from adult patients for pathogenic diagnosis, although this approach is much more invasive for infants. We report the case of a 2-month-old boy with CGD, in which gastric aspirate culture was used to diagnose fungal pneumonia. Read More

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https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/247/4/247_265/_art
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.247.265DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Rapid generation of multivirus-specific T lymphocytes for the prevention and treatment of respiratory viral infections.

Haematologica 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

Respiratory tract infections due to community-acquired respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus, Influenza, parainfluenza virus 3 and human metapneumovirus are detected in up to 40% of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients in whom they cause severe symptoms including pneumonia and bronchiolitis and can be fatal. Given the lack of effective antivirals and the data from our group demonstrating that adoptively transferred ex vivo-expanded virus-specific T cells can be clinically beneficial for the treatment of both latent (Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, BK virus, human herpesvirus 6) and lytic (adenovirus) viruses, we investigated the potential for extending this immunotherapeutic approach to respiratory viruses. We now describe a system that rapidly generates a single preparation of polyclonal (CD4+ and CD8+) virus-specific T cells reactive against 12 antigens derived from 4 viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, Influenza, parainfluenza virus 3 and human metapneumovirus) that commonly cause post-transplant morbidity and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.206896DOI Listing

Delayed diagnosis of right-sided valve endocarditis causing recurrent pulmonary abscesses: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2019 Apr 19;13(1):97. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Gosford Hospital, Holden Street, Gosford, NSW, 2250, Australia.

Background: Pulmonary valve infective endocarditis is a rare diagnosis that is usually associated with immunocompromised states or structurally abnormal hearts. It is unusual for it to occur in structurally normal hearts or to cause recurrent symptoms after targeted antibiotics. Although guidelines suggest follow-up with repeat echocardiography and inflammatory marker surveillance, this case demonstrates that these are not always useful investigations, and instead imaging of the chest may be more appropriate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-019-2034-7DOI Listing

Co-infection with bacterial and fungal endocarditis at scar tissue in an immunocompromised patient.

J Cardiol Cases 2019 Apr 17;19(4):117-120. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

We present the case of a 65-year-old immunocompromised male with a history of kidney transplantation, diabetes, coronary artery bypass, and cardiac resynchronization therapy device implantation who was finally diagnosed with an unusual form of infective endocarditis due to co-infection of fungal and bacterial pathogens. He was afebrile at the time of admission and presented with decompensated heart failure and pneumonia. A spleen abscess was discovered incidentally and prompted us to search for a cardiac source of emboli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jccase.2018.11.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451046PMC
April 2019
1 Read

High-resolution CT, histopathologic, and clinical features of granulomatous pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Jun 3;14(6):746-749. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Although pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia was historically associated with HIV/AID patients, there is a recent shift in demographics with increasing incidence in patients with hematologic malignancies and transplants. A granulomatous response to pneumocytis jiroveci infection is uncommon and most commonly presents as multiple randomly distributed nodules on chest imaging. Granulomatous pneumocytis jiroveci pneumonia presents with similar clinical manifestations as typical pneumocytis pneumonia but is usually not detected by bronchoalveolar lavage and may require biopsy for a definitive diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radcr.2019.03.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449737PMC

Epidemiology and outcomes of hospitalized adults with respiratory syncytial virus: A 6-year retrospective study.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Objectives: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in adults. Existing studies are limited by the number of seasons studied and most have focused on the immunocompromised.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on all adults (≥18 years) with a positive RSV molecular test admitted from 2009 to 2015 to one hospital in Chicago, IL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irv.12643DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Programmed death ligand 1 is overexpressed by neutrophils in the blood of immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Center for Respiratory Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000237DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads
1.016 Impact Factor

A Case of Pulmonary Mycetoma Caused by .

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2019 20;6(2):001040. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Internal Medicine Department, Hospital de Egas Moniz, Lisbon, Portugal.

Fungal infections caused by species are rare. Although most cases of human infection occur in immunocompromised patients, this species is also being increasingly recognized as a pathogen in immunocompetent individuals. and are the most common pathogens in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12890/2019_001040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6432827PMC
February 2019
5 Reads

Epidemiologic Trends and Clinical Features of Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Non-HIV Patients in a Tertiary-Care Hospital in Korea over a 15-Year-Period.

Jpn J Infect Dis 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center.

Subsequent to the increasing use of immunosuppressant therapy, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PcP) has emerged as a life-threatening condition in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients. We investigated changes in epidemiological and clinical characteristics among PcP cases with and without HIV infections. Data of 424 patients diagnosed with PcP in a 2,700-bed Korean tertiary care hospital between February 2003 and April 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/yoken/advpub/0/advpub_J
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7883/yoken.JJID.2018.400DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

Caspofungin as Salvage Therapy for Pneumocystis Pneumonia in a Heart Transplant Recipient.

Tanaffos 2018 Mar;17(3):203-206

Clinical Tuberculosis and Epidemiology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a common opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. In general, clinical response to therapy with cotrimoxazole is excellent. However, therapy may be limited by side effects or treatment failure. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6428377PMC
March 2018
4 Reads

CMV Encephalitis/Radiculitis: The Difficulty in Diagnosing in an Intubated Patient.

Case Rep Crit Care 2019 18;2019:8067648. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, USA.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can cause severe disease including colitis, pneumonitis, and less commonly encephalitis, in profoundly immunocompromised individuals. CNS imaging findings are nonspecific and diagnosis is made by identifying CMV in cerebral spinal fluid through PCR testing or cell culture. Early initiation of antiviral therapy is key with an overall poor outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/8067648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398064PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Multiple abscesses in the lower extremities caused by Trichophyton rubrum.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Mar 20;19(1):271. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Dermatology, Hangzhou Third Hospital, Zhejiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou, 310009, People's Republic of China.

Background: Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi, that usually infect the hair, stratum corneum, and nails. However, dermatophytes occasionally invade the dermis, subcutaneous tissues, and internal organs, resulting in a condition called deep dermatophytosis. We report a case of an unusual presentation of Trichophyton rubrum infection causing multiple fungal abscesses in the lower extremities of an immunocompromised patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3897-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425592PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Atypical presentation of pneumonia in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tofacitinib: a case presentation.

BMC Rheumatol 2018 3;2:34. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

3Department of Rheumatology, Immunology and Rehabilitation, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.

Background: We report the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with tofacitinib who developed severe pneumonia (PJP) with an atypical clinical presentation.

Case Presentation: A 78-year old male patient with RA treated with tofacitinib, methotrexate (MTX) and low dose corticosteroids was admitted to the hospital with arthralgia and nausea. Laboratory findings revealed hypercalcemia with normal levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and elevated 1,25-(OH) vitamin D levels. Read More

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https://bmcrheumatol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s419
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41927-018-0042-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6390573PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

Med Clin (Barc) 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Vasculitis Research Unit, Department of Autoimmune Diseases, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) causes a potentially fatal pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals (Pneumocystis pneumonia or PcP), particularly in HIV-infected patients and those treated with immunosuppressive drugs, such as transplant patients and those with systemic autoimmune diseases. P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2019.01.010DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Severe infections due to Francisella tularensis ssp. holarctica in solid organ transplant recipient: report of two cases and review of literature.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Mar 8;19(1):238. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Tours, Hospital Bretonneau, 2, boulevard Tonnellé, 37044, Tours Cedex 9, France.

Background: Tularemia is a rare zoonotic infection caused by bacterium Francisella tularensis. It has been well described in immunocompetent patients but poorly described in immunocompromised patients notably in solid organ transplant recipients.

Case Presentations: We report here two cases of tularemia in solid organ transplant recipients including first case after heart transplant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3863-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408858PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

pneumonia a thread in the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

IDCases 2019 19;15:e00509. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Medical Center, Bridgeport, The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University North Haven, CT USA.

is primarily a zoonotic pathogen, which is often found in upper respiratory tract of various domestic and wild animals. Human infections are rarely reported in immunocompromised patients and are associated with a wide spectrum of presentation ranging from mild cough, tracheobronchitis to sepsis and death. Here, we describe a case of pneumonia that led to the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.idcr.2019.e00509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6389593PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Cost-effectiveness of adult pneumococcal vaccination policies in underserved minorities aged 50-64 years compared to the US general population.

Vaccine 2019 Mar 4;37(14):2026-2033. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Changing pneumococcal disease epidemiology due to childhood vaccination has prompted re-examination of US adult pneumococcal vaccination policies, as have considerations of greater pneumococcal disease incidence and higher prevalence of conditions that increase risk in underserved minority populations. Prior analyses suggest routine pneumococcal vaccination at age 50 could be considered, which could disproportionately benefit underserved populations.

Methods: A Markov cohort model estimated the cost-effectiveness of US pneumococcal vaccination policies in hypothetical 50-year-old underserved minority and general population cohorts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444341PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Coincident airway exposure to low-potency allergen and cytomegalovirus sensitizes for allergic airway disease by viral activation of migratory dendritic cells.

PLoS Pathog 2019 03 7;15(3):e1007595. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Institute for Virology and Research Center for Immunotherapy (FZI), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Despite a broad cell-type tropism, cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an evidentially pulmonary pathogen. Predilection for the lungs is of medical relevance in immunocompromised recipients of hematopoietic cell transplantation, in whom interstitial CMV pneumonia is a frequent and, if left untreated, fatal clinical manifestation of human CMV infection. A conceivable contribution of CMV to airway diseases of other etiology is an issue that so far attracted little medical attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405056PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Contribution of pretomanid to novel regimens containing bedaquiline with either linezolid or moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide in murine models of tuberculosis.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Center for Tuberculosis Research, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Novel regimens combining bedaquiline and pretomanid with either linezolid (BPaL regimen) or moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide (BPaMZ regimen) shorten the treatment duration needed to cure TB in BALB/c mice compared to the first-line regimen and have yielded promising results in initial clinical trials. However, the independent contribution of the investigational new drug pretomanid to the efficacy of BPaMZ has not been examined and its contribution to BPaL has been examined only over the first 2 months of treatment. In the present study, the addition of pretomanid to BL increased bactericidal activity, prevented emergence of bedaquiline resistance, and shortened the duration needed to prevent relapse with drug-susceptible isolates by at least 2 months in BALB/c mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00021-19DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Conventional-dose Versus Half-dose Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim for the Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Patients with Systemic Rheumatic Disease: A Non-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

Acta Med Okayama 2019 Feb;73(1):85-89

Department of Internal Medicine and Rheumatology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan.

Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) due to Pneumocystis jirovecii infection is the leading cause of fatal opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. We will determine whether a daily sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX/TMP) dose of 200/40 mg was non-inferior to 400/80 mg for PCP prevention in patients with systemic rheumatic disease under immunosuppressive therapy. This is a randomized, open-label, multicenter controlled trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18926/AMO/56464DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Nocardia infections in solid organ transplantation: Guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation.

Clin Transplant 2019 Feb 28:e13509. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, Illinois.

These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention, and management of Nocardia infections after solid organ transplantation (SOT). Nocardia infections have increased in the last two decades, likely due to improved detection and identification methods and an expanding immunocompromised population. The risk of developing nocardiosis after transplantation varies with the type of organ transplanted and the immunosuppression regimen used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.13509DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Factors Associated with Mortality in Immunocompetent Patients with Hospital-acquired Pneumonia.

J Glob Infect Dis 2019 Jan-Mar;11(1):13-18

Department of Pharmaceutical Care Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the factors associated with 28-day mortality in immunocompetent patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP).

Methods: This was a 42-month retrospective cohort study in Chiang Kham Hospital. Patients with HAP diagnosed between January 2013 and June 2016 who did not have an immunocompromised status were recruited into the study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jgid.jgid_33_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380105PMC

Varicella complications in children one-site Polish population – a 19- year long survey

Przegl Epidemiol 2018 ;72(4):459-467

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Collegium Medicum Nicolaus Copernicus University

Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of chickenpox complications in children, based on a 19-year long survey.

Methods: This publication constitutes a review of medical records of 761 patients under the age of 18 who were hospitalized at the T. Browicz Provincial Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Bydgoszcz, Poland from the 1st of January 1999 to the 31st of December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.32394/pe.72.4.21DOI Listing
January 2018
1 Read

Prognostic significance of crazy paving ground grass opacities in non-HIV Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia: an observational cohort study.

BMC Pulm Med 2019 Feb 21;19(1):47. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kurashiki Central Hospital, 1-1-1 Miwa, Kurashiki, Okayama, 710-0052, Japan.

Background: In patients with non-HIV Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PjP), computed tomography imaging reveals ground grass opacities (GGO). Previous reports show that some patients with non-HIV PjP exhibit GGO with crazy paving. However, there have been no studies on the association between crazy paving GGO and non-HIV PjP clinical outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-019-0813-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6385404PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Infections in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 02 20;16(4). Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy Via Pastore, 1-16132 Genoa, Italy.

belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae, which is commonly found in water, soil, animals, insects, plants. Although displays relatively low virulence, it causes nosocomial infections and outbreaks in severely immunocompromised or critically ill patients, particularly in settings such as intensive care units (ICUs), especially neonatal units (NICUs). This microorganism gives rise to a wide range of clinical manifestations in newborns: from asymptomatic colonization to keratitis, conjunctivitis, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, surgical wound infections, sepsis, bloodstream infection and meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406414PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Epidemiological and clinical features of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 12F in adults, Japan.

PLoS One 2019 21;14(2):e0212418. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Infectious Diseases Surveillance Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.

Enhanced surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in adults was conducted during April 2013-March 2018 in 10 of 47 prefectures in Japan, and a total of 1277 IPD patients were enrolled. An emergence of IPD caused by serotype 12F was identified during May 2015-March 2018 through this surveillance. 12F isolates were composed of four related sequence types. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212418PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383924PMC
February 2019
1 Read

CD11b Regulates Fungal Outgrowth but Not Neutrophil Recruitment in a Mouse Model of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

Front Immunol 2019 4;10:123. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany.

ß2 integrin receptors consist of an alpha subunit (CD11a-CD11d) and CD18 as the common beta subunit, and are differentially expressed by leukocytes. ß2 integrins are required for cell-cell interaction, transendothelial migration, uptake of opsonized pathogens, and cell signaling processes. Functional loss of CD18-termed leukocyte-adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD1)-results in an immunocompromised state characterized by frequent occurrence of severe infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369709PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Clinical Characteristics and Radiologic Features of Immunocompromised Patients With Pauci-Bacillary Pulmonary Tuberculosis Receiving Delayed Diagnosis and Treatment.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Feb 17;6(2):ofz002. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Departments of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Pauci-bacillary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can be delayed to diagnose and start anti-TB therapy, especially in immunocompromised patients. We therefore evaluated the clinical and radiologic features of these delayed cases.

Methods: Immunocompromised adult patients with pauci-bacillary pulmonary TB were retrospectively enrolled in a tertiary hospital in an intermediate-TB burden country over a 5-year period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366656PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Vaccine containing G protein fragment and recombinant baculovirus expressing M2 protein induces protective immunity to respiratory syncytial virus.

Clin Exp Vaccine Res 2019 Jan 31;8(1):43-53. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause serious respiratory illnesses such as pneumonia, asthma, and bronchiolitis in infants and elderly or immunocompromised individuals. An RSV vaccine has yet to be developed; only prophylactic anti-RSV antibody is commercially available. So, we investigated whether our vaccine candidate is able to induce type 1 CD4 T helper (Th1), CD8 T-cell responses, and protective immunity without vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) against RSV. Read More

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https://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.7774/cevr.2019.8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7774/cevr.2019.8.1.43DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369125PMC
January 2019
6 Reads

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia as an initial manifestation of hyper-IgM syndrome in an infant: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Feb;98(7):e14559

Department of Pediatrics.

Rationale: Pneumocystis jirovecii causes severe pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. Human immunodeficiency virus infection, malignancy, solid organ or hematopoietic cell transplantation, and primary immune deficiency compose the risk factors for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in children, and PCP can be an initial clinical manifestation of primary immune deficiency.

Patient Concerns: A 5-month-old infant presented with cyanosis and tachypnea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000014559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408131PMC
February 2019
10 Reads

A Case of Fulminant Bacillus cereus Lung Necrosis in a Preterm Neonate.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2019 Feb 13:1093526619825895. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

5 Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous Gram-positive rod seldom considered pathogenic in clinical isolates. However, it possesses multiple virulence factors explaining why it has been linked to fulminant and pyogenic infections in vulnerable hosts. Its recovery from sterile samples in immunocompromised patients cannot be disregarded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1093526619825895DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Hemoptysis in the Immunocompromised Patient: Do Not Forget Strongyloidiasis.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Feb 12;4(1). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Health, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

Strongyloidiasis, due to infection with the nematode , affects millions of people in the tropics and subtropics. has a unique auto-infective lifecycle such that it can persist in the human host for decades. In immunosuppressed patients, especially those on corticosteroids, potentially fatal disseminated strongyloidiasis can occur, often with concurrent secondary infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4010035DOI Listing
February 2019
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and Co-infection in a Patient with Giant-cell Arteritis.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2019 3;6(1):000997. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Unidade Funcional de Medicina 2.1, Hospital de Santo António dos Capuchos, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal.

Immunosuppressed patients are at greater risk of unusual infections. The authors present the case of a woman with giant-cell arteritis, on oral steroids, who developed cavitating pneumonia due to co-infection with and . Reports of such co-infection are rare in the literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12890/2019_000997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372051PMC
January 2019
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Rhodococcus equi pVAPN type causing pneumonia in a dog coinfected with canine morbillivirus (distemper virus) and Toxoplasma gondii.

Microb Pathog 2019 Apr 6;129:112-117. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

UNESP-São Paulo State University, Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Public Health, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Canine morbillivirus (previously, canine distemper virus, CDV) is a highly contagious infectious disease-causing agent that produces immunosuppressive infections and multiple clinical signs. Canine toxoplasmosis is an opportunistic disease characterized by enteric, pulmonary, and neuromuscular signs that might be confused with CDV-induced infections. Rhodococcus equi is a Gram-positive intracellular facultative bacterium that is also opportunistic in nature, and causes pyogranulomatous infections in humans and multiple host animals, although canine rhodococcosis is rare or unrecognized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.01.048DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Acute Kidney Injury Secondary to Hypercalcemia in a Kidney Transplant Patient With Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia: A Case Report.

Transplant Proc 2019 Jan - Feb;51(1):220-222. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Renal Transplant Unit, AO Brotzu, Cagliari, Italy.

Background: Persistent hyperparathyroidism is one of the main causes of hypercalcemia following kidney transplantation; differential diagnosis is required.

Case Presentation: We report the case of a 61-year-old kidney transplant recipient who underwent transplant in September 2016. She was admitted in March 2017 presenting with a 3-week history of asthenia, hypotension, and cough. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2018.04.077DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Severe case of pneumonia with pleural effusion in an immunocompromised woman due to .

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Jan 31;12(1). Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Internal Medicine, Hospital Universitario de Mostoles, Mostoles, Madrid, Spain.

Infections caused by fusobacteria have a wide clinical spectrum, and in certain patients, they can lead to severe systemic illness. We report the case of an immunocompromised young woman who presented with severe pneumonia complicated by parapneumonic pleural effusion, despite wide-spectrum antibiotic treatment. was isolated in the samples obtained after thoracentesis was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-227603DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Colonization of Pneumocystis jirovecii in Patients Who Received and not Received Corticosteroids Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit: Airborne Transmission Approach.

Iran J Pathol 2018 17;13(2):136-143. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Dept. of Microbiology and Medical Parasitology, School of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

Background & Objective: pneumonia (PCP) is responsible for pulmonary infection in immunocompromised patients. The current study aimed at investigating the frequency of colonization in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit (ICU) and evaluating the relationship between PCP and colonization.

Methods: The current cross sectional study was conducted on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids of 100patients collected from surgery and neurosurgery ICUs with different underlying corticosteroid therapy conditions. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339491PMC
July 2018
4 Reads

Effect of Macrolide and Rifampin Resistance on the Fitness of Rhodococcus equi.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 Apr 22;85(7). Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Large Animal Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

is a leading cause of severe pneumonia in foals. Standard treatment is dual antimicrobial therapy with a macrolide and rifampin, but the emergence of macrolide- and rifampin-resistant isolates is an increasing problem. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of macrolide and/or rifampin resistance on fitness of Three unique isogenic sets were created, each consisting of four strains, as follows: a susceptible parent isolate, strains resistant to macrolides or rifampin, and a dual macrolide- and rifampin-resistant strain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02665-18DOI Listing
April 2019
9 Reads

Galactosaminogalactan (GAG) and its multiple roles in Aspergillus pathogenesis.

Virulence 2019 Jan 22:1-8. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

e Departments of Medicine and of Microbiology and Immunology , McGill University , Montréal , Canada.

Aspergillus spp and particularly the species Aspergillus fumigatus are the causative agents of invasive aspergillosis, a progressive necrotizing pneumonia that occurs in immunocompromised patients. The limited efficacy of currently available antifungals has led to interest in a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis in order to identify new therapeutic targets for this devastating disease. The Aspergillus exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental invasive aspergillosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21505594.2019.1568174DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Rhodococcus equi Pneumonia in Kidney Transplant Recipient Affected by Acute Intermittent Porphyria: A Case Report.

Transplant Proc 2019 Jan - Feb;51(1):229-234. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Surgical, Medical and Dental Department of Morphological Sciences, Section of Nephrology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive coccobacillus responsible for severe infections in patients with weakened immune systems. R equi generally causes pnumonia that may evolve into fatal systemic infection if left untreated. Here, we present a case of a 67-year-old woman affected by acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) who developed R equi pneumonia 7 months after kidney transplantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2018.02.213DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Clinical and epidemiological impact of varicella infection in children prior to the introduction of the varicella vaccine in the national immunization schedule of Argentina.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2019 02;117(1):12-18

Servicio de Infectología Pediátrica.

Introduction: In Argentina, an estimated 400 000 varicella cases occur annually. Given the under-recording of existing cases, the actual burden of disease is unknown.

Objective: To assess the burden of varicella before the introduction of the varicella vaccine in the national immunization schedule. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2019.eng.12DOI Listing
February 2019
15 Reads

Establishment of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of .

Exp Ther Med 2019 Jan 31;17(1):131-136. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Molecular Diagnosis Laboratory, Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, P.R. China.

is one of the three most pathogenic bacteria that frequently cause life-threatening opportunistic human infections, pneumonia, and lower respiratory tract infections in immunocompromised hosts, particularly in the burns ward. The present study aimed to establish a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid and sensitive detection of -specific gene (GenBank ID: 882161). The gene was obtained through local and online BLAST, and specific primers were designed for this gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2018.6910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307377PMC
January 2019
6 Reads

Infectious and Other Complications of Immunobiologic Agents.

Authors:
Peter Chin-Hong

Top Antivir Med 2019 Jan;26(4):100-103

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Individuals with HIV infection are living longer, and are at risk of autoimmune disorders and cancers associated with aging. Many of these conditions are treated with immunobiologic agents that affect immune function and may increase risk of opportunistic infections (OIs) and other immune disorders in individuals with HIV infection. For example, tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors, used to treat such disorders as Crohn's disease, are associated with risk of tuberculosis and histoplasmosis. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372358PMC
January 2019
15 Reads

New antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;32(2):169-175

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review provides the rationale for the development of new antibiotics to treat community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It also provides an overview of the new antibiotics targeting CAP that have recently received approval by the regulatory agencies, and those antibiotics that are in the development pipeline.

Recent Findings: CAP is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and carries a significant morbidity and risk of mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000526DOI Listing
April 2019
11 Reads

Polymyxin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa assigned as ST245: First report in an intensive care unit in São Paulo, Brazil.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2019 Mar 8;16:147-149. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases and LIM-54, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar 470, São Paulo - SP, 05403-000, Brazil.

Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes severe infections, especially in hospitalised and immunocompromised patients. Polymyxins are the last therapeutic option to treat infections caused by this micro-organism. Here we describe a polymyxin-resistant P. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22137165193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2018.12.021DOI Listing
March 2019
15 Reads

An intervention to improve pneumococcal vaccination uptake in high risk 50-64 year olds vs. expanded age-based recommendations: an exploratory cost-effectiveness analysis.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Jan 11:1-10. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

a Departments of Medicine and Family Medicine , University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , Pittsburgh , PA , USA.

In the U.S., pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) uptake among high-risk adults aged <65 years is consistently low and improvement is needed. Read More

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https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645515.2018.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2018.1564439DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

Severe systemic cytomegalovirus infection in an immunocompetent patient outside the intensive care unit: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Jan 9;19(1):34. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Clinica Medica, University of Milano-Bicocca, San Gerardo Hospital, Via G.B. Pergolesi 33, 20900, Monza, Italy.

Background: Cytomegalovirus is responsible for an opportunistic infection that can be life threatening in immunocompromised patients, while it is usually mild or completely asymptomatic in immunocompetent subjects. In the recent years, however, some cases of severe cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompetent patients have been reported, showing this to be a less rare occurrence than previously reported.

Case Presentation: We report the case of an 83-year-old man, admitted to our hospital for gastroenteritis, complicated by dehydration and severe prothrombin time prolongation due to oral anticoagulant therapy accumulation, who developed hospital-acquired pneumonia; neither of these illnesses responded to several lines of antibiotic therapy. Read More

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https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s128
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3621-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327531PMC
January 2019
13 Reads