Viruses 2022 Jun 10;14(6). Epub 2022 Jun 10.
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
Antibody measurements are primarily used to evaluate experimental and approved COVID-19 vaccines, which is unilateral considering our immune responses' complex nature. Previously, we showed that nanoparticle plasmid DNA adjuvant system, QAC, and MVA based vaccines were immunogenic against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report on the protective efficacy of systemic humoral and mucosal cell-mediated immune responses in transgenic mice models against SARS-CoV-2 following nanoparticle immunization. Read More