11,784 results match your criteria Pneumonia Community-Acquired


Community-acquired Pneumonia Secondary to Legionella pneumophila and Streptococcus pneumoniae: A Rare Co-infection.

Cureus 2019 Feb 16;11(2):e4080. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Infectious Disease, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, USA.

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a frequent cause of hospitalization in adults. S is the most commonly identified pathogen in CAP whereas is infrequently identified in CAP. Although co-infections have been previously described, the presence of both pneumococcus and legionella together is rare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6467430PMC
February 2019

Atypical and Typical Bacteria in Children with Community Acquired Pneumonia.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Basic Sciences, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.

This seeks to determine the pathogens in respiratory specimens and blood serum obtained from children who present with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) diagnosed on the basis of clinical and radiological evidence. The study group consisted of 46 hospitalized children aged 1-11 years. The material for research consisted of pharyngeal swabs and samples of blood serum. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/5584_2019_377
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/5584_2019_377DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Reversible hypoxic brain injury: the penumbra conundrum of Grinker.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Apr 23;12(4). Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

A female patient, aged 61 years, presented to us with a 3-day history of fever and altered sensorium. She was discharged from another hospital 1 week back where she was admitted for community-acquired pneumonia. She was put on mechanical ventilation for threatened airway and her magnetic resonance brain imaging showed evidence of delayed posthypoxic leucoencephalopathy, also known as Grinker's myelinopathy. Read More

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http://casereports.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bcr-2018-22867
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-228670DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Innate Immune Responses to in the Airway.

J Interferon Cytokine Res 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Center for Immunity and Inflammation, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey.

is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that has risen to become a serious global threat, prevalent in health care settings and the community, which results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Its alarming expansion of antibiotic resistance is one of the most problematic traits of and as so, this bacterium has been classified as a serious threat and high priority target by the CDC. The most common types of infections induced by this pathogen include pneumonia (both hospital and community acquired), bacteremia, skin and soft tissue, urinary tract infections, endocarditis, and meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jir.2019.0008DOI Listing

Efficacy and Safety of the Pneumococcal Conjugate-13 Valent Vaccine in Adults.

Aging Dis 2019 Apr 1;10(2):404-418. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal pneumonia cause substantial morbidity and mortality in the elderly. This review focuses on the immunogenicity, safety, efficacy and effectiveness data on the use of the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in adults. A MEDLINE literature search was performed from January 1946 to December 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2018.0512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457056PMC

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Xiyanping Injection (Andrographolide Sulfonate) for Treatment of Adult Community Acquired Pneumonia: A Retrospective, Propensity Score-Matched Cohort Study.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2019 18;2019:4510591. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

International Research Center of Medical Administration, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Xiyanping injection (andrographolide sulfonate) has shown clinical effects on community acquired pneumonia. However, there is little known about the effectiveness and costs of combining Xiyanping injection with conventional treatment on adult community acquired pneumonia in daily practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of combining Xiyanping injection with conventional treatment for treatment of adult community acquired pneumonia by comparing with conventional treatment from a societal perspective. Read More

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https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2019/4510591/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4510591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442483PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Omadacycline: A Newly Approved Antibacterial from the Class of Tetracyclines.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2019 Apr 21;12(2). Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Organic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

Omadacycline (Nuzyra®) is a new aminomethylcycline, approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration in 2018, as a tetracycline antibacterial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph12020063DOI Listing

Melioidosis, an emerging infectious disease in the Midwest Brazil: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Apr;98(16):e15235

Graduate Program in Infectious and Parasitic Diseases of Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul.

Rationale: Melioidosis is an emerging infectious disease in Brazil and caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, with high morbidity and mortality rates. A total of 28 melioidosis cases were reported in Brazil until 2015. The majority of melioidosis cases were reported in the Northwest region of Brazil and such cases were not previously detected in the Midwest region of Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000015235DOI Listing
April 2019
5.723 Impact Factor

First Description of Macrolide-Resistant in Adults with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Italy.

Biomed Res Int 2019 17;2019:7168949. Epub 2019 Mar 17.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology-Hygiene Section, University of Bari, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy.

Background: is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of macrolide-resistant strains in a convenience series of 234 adult hospitalised and nonhospitalised subjects with a diagnosis of CAP in January 2013 to April 2015 in South Italy.

Methods: Respiratory samples were subjected to real-time PCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7168949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441498PMC

Influenza A H1N1 Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Characteristics and Risk Factors-A Case-Control Study.

Can Respir J 2019 17;2019:4301039. Epub 2019 Mar 17.

Service of Pneumology, University Clinical Hospital of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Introduction: Influenza A H1N1 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a quite frequent respiratory disease. Despite being considered more serious than other CAPs, there are very few studies comparing its characteristics with noninfluenza CAP. We aim to establish the differences between pneumonia due to H1N1 virus and pneumonia not caused by H1N1 influenza virus and to determine the probability that a pneumonia is due to an H1N1 virus infection based on the most relevant variables. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4301039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441515PMC

Wheezing independently predicts viral infection in children with community-acquired pneumonia.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Bahia School of Medicine, Salvador, Brazil.

Aim: To assess whether there was a difference in the frequency of symptoms and signs among children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with viral or bacterial infection.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Salvador, Brazil. Children less than 5-years-old hospitalized with CAP were recruited. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ppul.24339
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24339DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Rapid generation of multivirus-specific T lymphocytes for the prevention and treatment of respiratory viral infections.

Haematologica 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA

Respiratory tract infections due to community-acquired respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus, Influenza, parainfluenza virus 3 and human metapneumovirus are detected in up to 40% of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients in whom they cause severe symptoms including pneumonia and bronchiolitis and can be fatal. Given the lack of effective antivirals and the data from our group demonstrating that adoptively transferred ex vivo-expanded virus-specific T cells can be clinically beneficial for the treatment of both latent (Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, BK virus, human herpesvirus 6) and lytic (adenovirus) viruses, we investigated the potential for extending this immunotherapeutic approach to respiratory viruses. We now describe a system that rapidly generates a single preparation of polyclonal (CD4+ and CD8+) virus-specific T cells reactive against 12 antigens derived from 4 viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, Influenza, parainfluenza virus 3 and human metapneumovirus) that commonly cause post-transplant morbidity and mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.206896DOI Listing

Short Course of High-dose Steroids for Anaphylaxis Caused Flare Up of Tuberculosis: A Case Report.

J Transl Int Med 2019 Mar 29;7(1):39-42. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

MIMSR Medical College Latur India, Latur, Maharashtra, India.

A 25-year-old male patient received high-dose intravenous steroids for life-threatening anaphylaxis because of bee sting only for 4 days resulted in reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Clinical presentation is acute form of progressive pulmonary tuberculosis with pleural efusion that can be misdiagnosed as a community-acquired pneumonia. High index of suspicion with adequate evaluation is must in all cases to have satisfactory treatment outcome. Read More

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http://content.sciendo.com/view/journals/jtim/7/1/article-p3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/jtim-2019-0008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6463822PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Budget Impact of Omadacycline for the Treatment of Patients with Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia in the United States from the Hospital Perspective.

Am Health Drug Benefits 2019 Feb;12(1-Supplement 1):S1-S12

Professor, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, NY.

Background: Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) is an acute, lower respiratory bacterial infection. Despite advances in medical care, CABP remains associated with considerable morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs; early empiric treatment is recommended by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and by the American Thoracic Society. Omadacycline is an oral and intravenous (IV) once-daily aminomethylcycline antibiotic that is approved in the United States for the treatment of adult patients with CABP. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6442092PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Meta-analysis of Calibration, Discrimination, and Stratum-Specific Likelihood Ratios for the CRB-65 Score.

J Gen Intern Med 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health , University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Background: The CRB-65 score is recommended as a decision support tool to help identify patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) who can safely be treated as outpatients.

Objective: To perform an updated meta-analysis of the accuracy, discrimination, and calibration of the CRB-65 score using a novel approach to calculation of stratum-specific likelihood ratios.

Design: Meta-analysis of accuracy, discrimination, and calibration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-019-04869-zDOI Listing

[52-year-old female with community-acquired pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome : Preparation for the medical specialist examination: Part 25].

Authors:
A Güldner P Spieth

Anaesthesist 2019 Apr;68(Suppl 2):194-198

Klinik für Anästhesiologie und Intensivtherapie, Universitätsklinikum Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307, Dresden, Deutschland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00101-019-0580-4DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Basics and the Advancements in Diagnosis of Bacterial Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2019 Apr 3;9(2). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Motif BioSciences, Princeton, NJ 08540, USA.

Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the leading infectious cause of death and the sixth-leading cause of death overall worldwide. , with more than 90 serotypes, remains the most common identified cause of community-acquired acute bacterial pneumonia. Antibiotics treat LRTIs with a bacterial etiology. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4418/9/2/37
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9020037DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

The role of infection acquisition site and inappropriate empirical treatment on the outcome of extended-beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae infections.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Experimental and Clinical Medicine Department, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Florence, Italy; USC Microbiologia e Virologia, AOSP Papa Giovanni XXIII, Piazza OMS 1, Bergamo, Italy; Institute of Infectious Diseases, Catholic University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Clinical Microbiology and Virology Unit, Alessandro Manzoni Hospital, Lecco, Italy; Infectious Diseases Department, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale di Cremona, Cremona, Italy; Emergency Department, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale di Cremona, Cremona, Italy; Microbiology and Virology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy.

Objectives: The impact of inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy (IEAT) on the outcome of severe infections due to extended spectrum beta-lactamases producers Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-Ent) remains under debate. Current evidence is limited by study design and lacking confounder control. The main objective of this study was to define the outcome of severe infections due to ESBL-Ent according to clinical parameters and place of acquisition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2019.04.007DOI Listing
April 2019
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Utility of Blood Cultures in Pneumonia.

Am J Med 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; Division of Hospital Medicine, Chan Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, University of California, San Francisco. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/anilmakam.

Introduction: Blood cultures are of limited utility in non-severe community-acquired pneumonia, though routinely recommended for severe community-acquired pneumonia or healthcare-associated pneumonia, due to perceived greater bacteremia risk, particularly with multidrug resistant organisms. The utility of this practice is unknown.

Methods: In this observational cohort study, we abstracted data from medical records for consecutive hospitalizations for pneumonia by adults to an academic medical center from 2014 to 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2019.03.025DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Clinical Presentation of Pediatric Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections-A Single Center Cohort.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

From the Department of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel.

Background: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a major cause of community-acquired upper and lower respiratory infections in school-age children; however, there is increasing recognition that younger children are also affected. Clinical manifestations vary from asymptomatic, to severe complicated pneumonia sometimes with extrapulmonary manifestations.

Methods: We reviewed the medical records of all MP positive pediatric patients admitted to the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002291DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Yap/Taz regulate alveolar regeneration and resolution of lung inflammation.

J Clin Invest 2019 Apr 15;130. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Pharmacology, Center for Translational Medicine, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Alveolar epithelium plays a pivotal role in protecting the lungs from inhaled infectious agents. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the alveolar epithelium is critical for recovery from these insults in order to rebuild the epithelial barrier and restore pulmonary functions. Here, we show that sublethal infection of mice with Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia, led to exclusive damage in lung alveoli, followed by alveolar epithelial regeneration and resolution of lung inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI125014DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Guideline-Based Clinical Assessment Versus Procalcitonin-Guided Antibiotic Use in Pneumonia: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial.

Ann Emerg Med 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Emergency Medicine and Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Olive View-University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center, Sylmar, California; David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles. Electronic address:

Study Objective: Efforts to reduce unnecessary and unnecessarily long antibiotic treatment for community-acquired pneumonia have been attempted through use of procalcitonin and through guidelines based on serial clinical assessment. Our aim is to compare guideline-based clinical assessment- and procalcitonin algorithm-guided antibiotic use among patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

Methods: We performed a pragmatic, randomized, multicenter trial from November 2012 to April 2015 at 12 French hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.02.025DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Respiratory viruses in adults hospitalised with Community-Acquired Pneumonia during the non-winter months in Melbourne: Routine diagnostic practice may miss large numbers of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections.

Commun Dis Intell (2018) 2019 04 15;43. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Medicine, Melbourne Medical School – Western Health, University of Melbourne General Internal medicine Unit, Western Health, St Albans, Vic

Background: Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is one of the highest health burden conditions in Australia. Disease notifications and other data from routine diagnosis suffers from selection bias that may misrepresent the true contribution of various aetiological agents. However existing Australian prospective studies of CAP aetiology have either under-represented elderly patients, not utilised Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) diagnostics or been limited to winter months. Read More

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April 2019
3 Reads

Disulfide bond of Mycoplasma pneumoniae community acquired respiratory distress syndrome toxin is essential to maintain the ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating activities.

Cell Microbiol 2019 Apr 11:e13032. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial community acquired pneumonia among hospitalized children in United States and worldwide. Community acquired respiratory distress syndrome (CARDS) toxin is a key virulence determinant of M. pneumoniae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cmi.13032DOI Listing
April 2019
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Impact of the pediatric 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on serotype distribution and clinical characteristics of pneumococcal pneumonia in adults: The Japan Pneumococcal Vaccine Effectiveness Study (J-PAVE).

Vaccine 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: The pediatric 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was included in the pediatric immunization programme in Japan in late 2013. The impact of vaccination on the serotype distribution and clinical characteristics of pneumococcal pneumonia has not been described.

Methods: The first phase of this multicentre prospective study was conducted at community-based hospitals in Japan from 2011 to 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.04.009DOI Listing
April 2019
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Patient-Reported Consequences of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis 2019 Apr 9;6(2). Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Research Department, COPD Foundation, Inc., Washington, D.C.

Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) carries high morbidity, mortality, and economic burden, which is even higher in adults diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While several studies have assessed the clinical burden and mortality risk of CAP and COPD, very few studies focus on CAP burden from a COPD patient perspective. Individuals recently diagnosed with CAP and with pre-existing COPD were recruited through the COPD Foundation. Read More

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https://journal.copdfoundation.org/jcopdf/id/1221/Patient-Re
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15326/jcopdf.6.2.2018.0144DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Von Willebrand Factor Mediates Pneumococcal Aggregation and Adhesion in Blood Flow.

Front Microbiol 2019 26;10:511. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Institute of Microbiology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.

is a major cause of community acquired pneumonia and septicaemia in humans. These diseases are frequently associated with thromboembolic cardiovascular complications. Pneumococci induce the exocytosis of endothelial Weibel-Palade Bodies and thereby actively stimulate the release of von Willebrand factor (VWF), which is an essential glycoprotein of the vascular hemostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6443961PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Evaluation of the ELITe InGenius PCR for Detection of .

J Clin Microbiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA

, Mpn, is the leading cause of bacterial community acquired pneumonia in persons of all ages. Due to the fastidious nature of this bacteria and the necessary specialized growth media, nucleic acid amplification testing is currently the most reliable means for patient diagnostics. Analytical sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical performance of the ELITe InGenius automated PCR platform with its MGB Alert Real-Time PCR research use only reagents (ELITechGroup, Inc. Read More

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http://jcm.asm.org/lookup/doi/10.1128/JCM.00287-19
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00287-19DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

[Update on the use of steroids in infectious diseases].

Rev Med Suisse 2019 Apr;15(646):792-796

Service des maladies infectieuses, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.

It is well established in daily clinical practice, on the basis of randomized studies, to add corticosteroïds to the antibiotherapy in cases of S. pneumoniae H. influenzae meningitis, tuberculous meningitis and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in HIV patients. Read More

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April 2019
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The Role of Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Count Ratio in the Differential Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia: a Cross-Sectional Study at Ayder and Mekelle Hospitals, Ethiopia.

Clin Lab 2019 Apr;65(4)

Background: The differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial community-acquired pneumonia is often a challenging phenomenon. The neutrophil to lymphocyte count ratio, a suitable indicator of inflammation, has been demonstrated to be a useful biomarker for predicting bacteremia. The main aim this study is to evaluate the role of neutrophil to lymphocyte count ratio in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial Community-Acquired Pneumonia at Ayder and Mekelle hospitals, Mekelle, Ethiopia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.180833DOI Listing
April 2019
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As a Novel Procalcitonin Assay is Architect B∙R∙A∙H∙M∙S PCT; Comparison of Two Commercial Systems.

Clin Lab 2019 Apr;65(4)

Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) is the precursor structure of the calcitonin hormone with 116 amino acids. The measurement of serum procalcitonin is currently being safely used in community-acquired pneumonia, bacterial peritonitis and sepsis in the diagnosis, decision on the initiation of treatment, and follow-up of the response to treatment. In this study, it is aimed to compare PCT results obtained by the VIDAS PCT that makes measurements by the enzyme-dependent fluorescence (ELFA) method and Architect PCT method, a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) that has just been put into use, both of which are B∙R∙A∙H∙M∙S licensed and have method differences. Read More

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http://www.clin-lab-publications.com/article/2932
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2018.180727DOI Listing
April 2019
12 Reads

Pneumococcal pericarditis, endocarditis, and pneumococcal and tuberculous co-infection are other cardiovascular complications of pneumococcal pneumonia.

Authors:
Oscar M P Jolobe

J Intern Med 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Manchester Medical Society, Simon Building, Brunswick Street, Manchester, M13 9PL.

No account of cardiovascular events in patients with pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia(1) would be complete without mention of cardiovascular complications of pneumococcal pneumonia such as pneumococcal pericarditis(2), and pneumococcal endocarditis(3)(4)(5). Also worthy of mention is the coexistence of pneumococcal pericarditis tuberculous pericarditis in the human immune deficiency virus(HIV) infection era(6), and the co-uccurence of endocarditis of presumably pneumococcal origin, and pneumococcal pneumonia complicated by pneumococcal meningitis in a patient with coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis, in the era antedating the HIV pandemic. This article is protected by copyright. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.12914DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Adenovirus type 5 community-acquired pneumonia in an immunocompetent patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Apr 8;12(4). Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Microbiology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-228914DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Lymphopenic community-acquired pneumonia is associated with a dysregulated immune response and increased severity and mortality.

J Infect 2019 Apr 6. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Center for Biomedical Research Network in Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES, CB06/06/0028), Madrid, Spain; Pneumology Department, Hospital Clínic / Institut D'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: Lymphopenic (<724 lymphocytes/µL) community-acquired pneumonia (L-CAP) is an immunophenotype with an increased risk of mortality. We aimed to characterize the l-CAP immunophenotype though lymphocyte subsets and the inflammatory response and its relationship with severity at presentation and outcome.

Methods: Prospective study of 217 immunocompetent patients hospitalized for CAP. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2019.04.006DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Sepsis in the emergency department: key points, controversies, and proposals for improvements in Latin America.

Emergencias 2019 Abr;31(2):123-135

Sociedad Mexicana de Medicina de Emergencia A.C., México. Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Adultos. Hospital Juárez de México. México D.F., México.

En: Although infection rates and the impact of infection on hospital emergency departments (EDs) are known or can be reliably estimated, the incidence and prevalence of sepsis vary in relation to which definitions or registers used. Sepsis is also well known to be under-diagnosed by physicians in general and by ED physicians in particular. Over half of sepsis cases are community-acquired, and 50% to 60% of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) with sepsis or septic shock are admitted directly from the ED. Read More

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April 2019
2 Reads

A Retrospective Analysis of Probability of Target Attainment in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Ceftaroline Fosamil Versus Comparators.

Infect Dis Ther 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Pfizer, San Diego, CA, USA.

Introduction: This retrospective analysis compares the probability of target attainment (PTA) for ceftriaxone, levofloxacin and ceftaroline fosamil against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in a representative patient population with moderate-to-severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Methods: Published pharmacokinetic (PK) models for levofloxacin and ceftriaxone, and an existing model for ceftaroline, were used with standard dosage regimens for simulating individual PK data with covariates representative of patients with CAP (5000 patients/drug regimen). PTA for clinically relevant pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets was calculated from steady state PK profiles for a range of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-019-0243-4DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Community-acquired Pneumonia and Hospital-acquired Pneumonia.

Med Clin North Am 2019 May 7;103(3):487-501. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Physiology and Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, 1000 West Carson Street, Box 402, Torrance, CA 90509, USA.

Pneumonia is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most likely cause in most cases, the variety of potential pathogens can make choosing a management strategy a complex endeavor. The setting in which pneumonia is acquired heavily influences diagnostic and therapeutic choices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2018.12.008DOI Listing
May 2019
2 Reads

Determination of Procalcitonin, C-Reactive Protein and White Blood Cell Levels to Diagnose Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP).

Indian J Pediatr 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Children's Hospital, Shaanxi Provincial People's Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-019-02938-zDOI Listing
April 2019
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Culture of all sputum samples irrespective of quality adds value to the diagnosis of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

Culture of expectorated sputum in the microbiological diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is considered valid only if high-quality (HQ) samples are obtained, but evidence regarding pneumococcal etiology specifically is lacking. We studied 323 radiologically confirmed CAP cases in patients aged ≥ 65 years. Sputum samples were assessed for quality microscopically and cultured. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-019-03536-9DOI Listing
April 2019
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Introduction: lefamulin and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic rationale to support the dose selection of lefamulin.

Authors:
Keith A Rodvold

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Apr;74(Supplement_3):iii2-iii4

University of Illinois at Chicago, Colleges of Pharmacy and Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Lefamulin is the first semisynthetic pleuromutilin being developed for oral and intravenous administration. The drug selectively inhibits prokaryotic ribosomal protein synthesis by binding to the peptidyl transferase centre via four H-bonds and other interactions, resulting in an 'induced fit' that tightens the binding pocket around lefamulin. This unique mechanism of action has been associated with a low probability of cross-resistance to other antimicrobial classes commonly used to treat community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449571PMC
April 2019
5 Reads

Prediction of lefamulin epithelial lining fluid penetration after intravenous and oral administration using Phase 1 data and population pharmacokinetics methods.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Apr;74(Supplement_3):iii27-iii34

Institute for Clinical Pharmacodynamics, Schenectady, NY, USA.

Objectives: Lefamulin is a semi-synthetic intravenous and oral pleuromutilin antibiotic with activity against pathogens commonly associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Using data from two Phase 1 studies, a population pharmacokinetics (PPK) model for lefamulin in plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) was constructed.

Methods: Plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) data from a crossover, bioavailability, food-effect study and plasma and ELF PK data from a tissue penetration study in normal healthy volunteers were used to construct a PPK model for lefamulin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449575PMC
April 2019
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Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of lefamulin in a neutropenic murine pneumonia model with Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Apr;74(Supplement_3):iii11-iii18

Nabriva Therapeutics GmbH, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: To present results of preclinical studies that supported further development of lefamulin for treating patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP).

Methods: The effect of bovine lung surfactant on the antibacterial activity of lefamulin against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus was determined by broth microdilution assay. In vitro accumulation of lefamulin was evaluated in J774 mouse macrophages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449573PMC
April 2019
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Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment analyses to support intravenous and oral lefamulin dose selection for the treatment of patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Apr;74(Supplement_3):iii35-iii41

Institute for Clinical Pharmacodynamics, Schenectady, NY, USA.

Objectives: Lefamulin is a semi-synthetic intravenous (iv) and oral pleuromutilin antibiotic active against community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) pathogens. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target attainment analyses were carried out to evaluate lefamulin 150 mg iv q12h and 600 mg orally q12h under fed and fasted conditions for the treatment of patients with CABP.

Methods: The analyses undertaken used a population PK model based on Phase 1 PK data, non-clinical PK/PD targets for efficacy and in vitro surveillance data for Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA), and Monte Carlo simulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449570PMC

Empyema thoracis secondary to community-acquired Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) methicillin-resistant (MRSA) infection.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Apr 3;12(4). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospitals of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

We report a case of a previously fit middle-aged man presenting to the outpatient setting with unilateral pleural effusion, with minimal symptoms. On subsequent investigations, he was diagnosed with empyema thoracis secondary to Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-toxin positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant (MRSA). The patient was treated with prolonged antibiotics and pleural drainage, and he remained haemodynamically stable throughout hospital admission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-228297DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Sequential organ failure assessment score is an excellent operationalization of disease severity of adult patients with hospitalized community acquired pneumonia - results from the prospective observational PROGRESS study.

Crit Care 2019 Apr 4;23(1):110. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology (IMISE), Härtelstr. 16-18, 04107, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: CAP (Community acquired pneumonia) is frequent, with a high mortality rate and a high burden on health care systems. Development of predictive biomarkers, new therapeutic concepts, and epidemiologic research require a valid, reproducible, and quantitative measure describing CAP severity.

Methods: Using time series data of 1532 patients enrolled in the PROGRESS study, we compared putative measures of CAP severity for their utility as an operationalization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-019-2316-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450002PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Points & Pearls: Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia: diagnosis and management in the emergency department

Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2019 Apr 1;16(Suppl 4):1-2. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Chief Resident, Emergency Medicine & Pediatrics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ

Worldwide, pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children aged < 5 years. Distinguishing viral from bacterial causes of pneumonia is paramount to providing effective treatment but remains a significant challenge. For patients who can be managed with outpatient treatment, the utility of laboratory tests and radiographic studies, as well as the need for empiric antibiotics, remains questionable. Read More

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April 2019
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Combination of clinical symptoms and blood biomarkers can improve discrimination between bacterial or viral community-acquired pneumonia in children.

BMC Pulm Med 2019 Apr 2;19(1):71. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases, Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Australia.

Background: Differentiating bacterial from viral pneumonia is important for guiding targeted management and judicious use of antibiotics. We assessed if clinical characteristics and blood inflammatory biomarkers could be used to distinguish bacterial from viral pneumonia.

Methods: Western Australian children (≤17 years) hospitalized with radiologically-confirmed community-acquired pneumonia were recruited and clinical symptoms and management data were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-019-0835-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444754PMC
April 2019
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Is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease a risk factor for death in patients with community acquired pneumonia?

Infect Dis (Lond) 2019 May 2;51(5):340-347. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

b Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences , University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark.

Background: It is still a matter of debate whether the outcome of community acquired pneumonia is more severe in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We aimed to determine whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was associated with increased mortality and to identify risk-factors for mortality in patients with community acquired pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study comparing patients with community acquired pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to patients without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2019.1565416DOI Listing
May 2019
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Validation of a diagnostic score model for the prediction of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia.

J Infect Chemother 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Development of Anti-Infective Agents, Faculty of Medical Science and Welfare, Tohoku Bunka Gakuen University, Japan.

Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Legionella has a high mortality rate in patients who do not receive adequate antibiotic therapy. In a previous study, we developed a simple Legionella Score to distinguish patients with Legionella and non-Legionella pneumonia based on clinical information at diagnosis. In the present study, we validated this Legionella Score for the presumptive diagnosis of Legionella CAP. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1341321X193007
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.03.009DOI Listing
March 2019
14 Reads