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    Rates of Vaccination against Streptococcus Pneumoniae in Cochlear Implant Patients.
    Med Sci Monit 2017 Sep 23;23:4567-4573. Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, Warsaw/Kajetany, Poland.
    BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause life-threatening illness, with invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) like meningitis, sepsis, bacteremic pneumonia, and bacteremia being major causes of morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that patients who have had a cochlear implant, particularly children, have an increased risk of bacterial (pneumococcal) meningitis. Vaccination in patients with cochlear implants is important and recommended universally. Read More

    Caspase-11 deficiency impairs neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance in the early stage of pulmonary Klebsiella pneumoniae infection.
    Int J Med Microbiol 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Pathophysiology, College of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:
    Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is a gram-negative pathogen, and Klebsiella pneumonia is one of the most common nosocomial infections. Canonical NLRP3 and NLRC4 inflammasome was found involved in innate immune response against K. Read More

    Risk factors for mortality from pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in non-HIV patients: a meta-analysis.
    Oncotarget 2017 Aug 4;8(35):59729-59739. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Department of General Surgery, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, China.
    The number of patients with non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) is increasing with widespread immunosuppressive treatment. We performed a meta-analysis to describe the clinical characteristics and factors associated with outcomes of PCP in HIV-negative patients. A total of 13 studies including 867 patients with non-HIV related PCP was included. Read More

    Experimental models of acute lung injury in the newborns.
    Physiol Res 2017 Sep;66(Supplementum 2):S187-S201
    Biomedical Center Martin and Department of Physiology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, Martin, Slovakia.
    Acute lung injury in the preterm newborns can originate from prematurity of the lung and insufficient synthesis of pulmonary surfactant. This situation is known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). In the term neonates, the respiratory insufficiency is related to a secondary inactivation of the pulmonary surfactant, for instance, by action of endotoxins in bacterial pneumonia or by effects of aspirated meconium. Read More

    [Analysis of characteristics of bacteria in respiratory tract infection in 2013-2016 in Heibei 3A hospital: a single-center report of 7 497 patients].
    Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2017 Sep;29(9):799-804
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hebei Chest Hospital, Shijiazhuang 050041, Hebei, China (Hou LL, Dang P, Kang GN, Zhang QF, Li DL); Department of Image, the Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, Sichuan, China (Liu LL). Corresponding author: Hou Lili, Email:
    Objective: To analyze the changes and characteristics of respiratory tract bacteria in Hebei 3A Hospital, and to provide new rationale for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

    Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was conducted. 7 497 patients with respiratory tract infection admitted to Hebei Chest Hospital from January 2013 to December 2016 were enrolled. Read More

    An engineered bispecific DNA-encoded IgG antibody protects against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a pneumonia challenge model.
    Nat Commun 2017 Sep 21;8(1):637. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    The Wistar Institute of Anatomy & Biology, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.
    The impact of broad-spectrum antibiotics on antimicrobial resistance and disruption of the beneficial microbiome compels the urgent investigation of bacteria-specific approaches such as antibody-based strategies. Among these, DNA-delivered monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs), produced by muscle cells in vivo, potentially allow the prevention or treatment of bacterial infections circumventing some of the hurdles of protein IgG delivery. Here, we optimize DNA-delivered monoclonal antibodies consisting of two potent human IgG clones, including a non-natural bispecific IgG1 candidate, targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Read More

    Comparative Proteomics of Streptococcus pneumoniae Response to Vancomycin Treatment.
    OMICS 2017 Sep;21(9):531-539
    2 Key Laboratory of Functional Protein Research of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Institute of Life and Health Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University , Guangzhou, China .
    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive pathogen that causes otitis media, pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious diseases. Vancomycin is one of the most important drugs currently used for the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections, representing, importantly, the last line of defense against bacteria that have developed resistance to other antibiotics. While primary efforts of most investigations focused on the antibacterial mechanism of vancomycin, few studies have been performed to assess the tolerance mechanism of bacteria to vancomycin. Read More

    Isolation, Identification, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria Associated with Waterpipe Contaminants in Selected Area of Saudi Arabia.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 28;2017:8042603. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Majmaah University, Majmaah, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    This study highlights the level of microbial contamination of waterpipe components in selected area of Saudi Arabia and the resistance of selected bacteria to different antibiotics was determined. A series of biochemical tests, microscopic examination, and screening on Vitek 2 compact (bioMérieux Inc., USA) system were done to characterize the bacterial isolates. Read More

    Monoclonal Antibody Protects Against Acinetobacter baumannii Infection by Enhancing Bacterial Clearance and Evading Sepsis.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Aug;216(4):489-501
    Department of Medicine and Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
    Background: Extremely drug-resistant (XDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most commonly encountered, highly resistant pathogens requiring novel therapeutic interventions.

    Methods: We developed C8, a monoclonal antibody (mAb), by immunizing mice with sublethal inocula of a hypervirulent XDR clinical isolate.

    Results: C8 targets capsular carbohydrate on the bacterial surface, enhancing opsonophagocytosis. Read More

    Diagnostic Value of Endotracheal Aspirates Sonication on Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Microbiologic Diagnosis.
    Microorganisms 2017 Sep 20;5(3). Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Centro de Investigación Biomedica En Red-Enfermedades Respiratorias (CibeRes, CB06/06/0028), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques Agust Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), 08036 Barcelona, Spain.
    Microorganisms are able to form biofilms within respiratory secretions. Methods to disaggregate such biofilms before utilizing standard, rapid, or high throughput diagnostic technologies may aid in pathogen detection during ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) diagnosis. Our aim was to determine if sonication of endotracheal aspirates (ETA) would increase the sensitivity of qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative bacterial cultures in an animal model of pneumonia caused by Pseudomonasaeruginosa or by methicillin resistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA). Read More

    Detection of Bacterial Pathogens from Broncho-Alveolar Lavage by Next-Generation Sequencing.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Sep 20;18(9). Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Genomic Research Laboratory, Service of Infectious Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals (HUG), 1205 Geneva, Switzerland.
    The applications of whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMGS) in routine clinical analysis are still limited. A combination of a DNA extraction procedure, sequencing, and bioinformatics tools is essential for the removal of human DNA and for improving bacterial species identification in a timely manner. We tackled these issues with a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) sample from an immunocompromised patient who had developed severe chronic pneumonia. Read More

    Genome-wide association and HLA region fine-mapping studies identify susceptibility loci for multiple common infections.
    Nat Commun 2017 Sep 19;8(1):599. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    23andMe, Mountain View, CA, 94041, USA.
    Infectious diseases have a profound impact on our health and many studies suggest that host genetics play a major role in the pathogenesis of most of them. We perform 23 genome-wide association studies for common infections and infection-associated procedures, including chickenpox, shingles, cold sores, mononucleosis, mumps, hepatitis B, plantar warts, positive tuberculosis test results, strep throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, yeast infections, urinary tract infections, tonsillectomy, childhood ear infections, myringotomy, measles, hepatitis A, rheumatic fever, common colds, rubella and chronic sinus infection, in over 200,000 individuals of European ancestry. We detect 59 genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10(-8)) associations in genes with key roles in immunity and embryonic development. Read More

    A Perfect Storm: Increased Colonization and Failure of Vaccination Leads to Severe Secondary Bacterial Infection in Influenza Virus-Infected Obese Mice.
    MBio 2017 Sep 19;8(5). Epub 2017 Sep 19.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA
    Obesity is a risk factor for developing severe disease following influenza virus infection; however, the comorbidity of obesity and secondary bacterial infection, a serious complication of influenza virus infections, is unknown. To fill this gap in knowledge, lean and obese C57BL/6 mice were infected with a nonlethal dose of influenza virus followed by a nonlethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strikingly, not only did significantly enhanced death occur in obese coinfected mice compared to lean controls, but also high mortality was seen irrespective of influenza virus strain, bacterial strain, or timing of coinfection. This result was unexpected, given that most influenza virus strains, especially seasonal human A and B viruses, are nonlethal in this model. Read More

    The Etiology of Community-acquired Pneumonia among Children under 5 Years of Age in Mainland China, 2001-2015: A Systematic Review.
    Hum Vaccin Immunother 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    a Department of National Immunization Program , Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention , Beijing , China.
    Background: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among Chinese children younger than 5 years and provide evidence for further cost-effectiveness analyses for vaccine development, diagnostic strategies and empirical treatments.

    Methods: The literature review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Data were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase, Web-of Science, and the Chinese databases Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Read More

    Streptococcus pneumoniae and chronic endobronchial infections in childhood.
    Pediatr Pulmonol 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the main cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide and has been studied extensively in this context. However, its role in chronic endobronchial infections and accompanying lower airway neutrophilic infiltration has received little attention. Severe and recurrent pneumonia are risk factors for chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis; the latter causes considerable morbidity and, in some populations, premature death in children and adults. Read More

    Expression of Piwi protein MIWI2 defines a distinct population of multiciliated cells.
    J Clin Invest 2017 Sep 18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    The Pulmonary Center.
    P-element-induced wimpy testes (Piwi) proteins are known for suppressing retrotransposon activation in the mammalian germline. However, whether Piwi protein or Piwi-dependent functions occur in the mammalian soma is unclear. Contrary to germline-restricted expression, we observed that Piwi-like Miwi2 mRNA is indeed expressed in epithelial cells of the lung in adult mice and that it is induced during pneumonia. Read More

    Construction and Evaluation in Vitro and in Vivo of Tedizolid phosphate Loaded Cationic Liposomes.
    J Liposome Res 2017 Sep 18:1-19. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    a School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University , 44 Wenhua Xi Road , Ji'nan , 250012 , China.
    Firstly, The SA-TDZA-Lips were prepared by reverse-phase evaporation method. Then, the drug release behavior was evaluated by dynamic membrane dialysis in vitro and the preliminary safety was evaluated by hemolysis method. Finally, with Tedizolid phosphate injection (TDZA-Inj) and tedizolid phosphate loaded liposomes (TDZA-Lips) as the control groups, the pharmacokinetic characteristic and tissues distribution of SA-TDZA-Lips were evaluated after intravenous injection. Read More

    Pharmacokinetics of doripenem in plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF): comparison of two dosage regimens.
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2017 Sep 17. Epub 2017 Sep 17.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Purpose: In 2014, FDA released a warning for prescription of doripenem for ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia due to unsatisfactory clinical cure rates. The present study explores if the observed lack of efficacy might be explained by insufficient target site pharmacokinetics in intensive care patients after two different infusion schemes.

    Methods: Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage sampling was performed in 16 intubated patients with pneumonia receiving doripenem either as 1-h or as 4-h infusion. Read More

    Does diabetes mellitus comorbidity affect in-hospital mortality and length of stay? Analysis of administrative data in an Italian Academic Hospital.
    Acta Diabetol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism and Clinical Nutrition, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata di Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Aims: Hospitalized patients with comorbid diabetes mellitus may have worse outcomes than the others. We conducted a study to assess whether comorbid diabetes affects in-hospital mortality and length of stay.

    Methods: For this population-based study, we analyzed the administrative databases of the Regional Health Information System of the Region Friuli Venezia Giulia, where the Hospital of Udine is located. Read More

    Bacterial Pneumonia in Older Adults.
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 2017 Sep 12. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Michigan, 1150 West Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5680, USA. Electronic address:
    The incidence of pneumonia increases with age, and is particularly high in patients who reside in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Mortality rates for pneumonia in older adults are high and have not decreased in the last decade. Atypical symptoms and exacerbation of underlying illnesses should trigger clinical suspicion of pneumonia. Read More

    Multiplicity of Mathematical Modeling Strategies to Search for Molecular and Cellular Insights into Bacteria Lung Infection.
    Front Physiol 2017 30;8:645. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Laboratory of Systems Tumor Immunology, Department of Dermatology, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg and Universitätsklinikum ErlangenErlangen, Germany.
    Even today two bacterial lung infections, namely pneumonia and tuberculosis, are among the 10 most frequent causes of death worldwide. These infections still lack effective treatments in many developing countries and in immunocompromised populations like infants, elderly people and transplanted patients. The interaction between bacteria and the host is a complex system of interlinked intercellular and the intracellular processes, enriched in regulatory structures like positive and negative feedback loops. Read More

    Rapid Detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Related Species Isolated from Food, Environment, Cosmetics, a Medical Device, and Clinical Samples Using the VITEK MS Microbial Identification System.
    J AOAC Int 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Southeast Food and Feed Laboratory, Microbiological Sciences Branch, 60 Eighth St NE, Atlanta, GA 30309.
    Staphylococcus spp. is considered as one of the most common human-pathogenic bacteria, causing illnesses ranging from nonthreatening skin infections to lethal diseases, including sepsis, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and food poisoning. The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains has increased morbidity and mortality and resulted in a major healthcare burden worldwide. Read More

    Pediatric ambulatory care sensitive conditions: Birth cohorts and the socio-economic gradient.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e257-e264. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, Department of Community Health Sciences, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB.
    Objectives: This study examines the socio-economic gradient in utilization and the risk factors associated with hospitalization for four pediatric ambulatory care sensitive conditions (dental conditions, asthma, gastroenteritis, and bacterial pneumonia). Dental conditions, where much care is provided by dentists and insurance coverage varies among different population segments, present special issues.

    Methods: A population registry, provider registry, physician ambulatory claims, and hospital discharge abstracts from 28 398 children born in 2003-2006 in urban centres in Manitoba, Canada were the main data sources. Read More

    Clinical and microbiological characteristics of pyogenic liver abscess in a tertiary hospital in East China.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Sep;96(37):e8050
    aState Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases bKey Laboratory of Clinical In Vitro Diagnostic Techniques of Zhejiang Province, Department of Laboratory Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a potentially life-threatening disease affecting many parts of the world, especially Asia. In this study, we explored the clinical and microbiological characteristics of PLA in Chinese patients.A 5-year (2010-2014) retrospective review of medical records on all PLA patients who were admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital was performed. Read More

    Treatment of Achromobacter Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Critically Ill Trauma Patients.
    Ann Pharmacother 2017 Sep 1:1060028017730838. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    1 University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.
    Background: Achromobacter sp are nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) that rarely cause severe infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Data on the treatment of Achromobacter pneumonia are very limited, and the organism has been associated with a high mortality rate. Thus, more data are needed on treating this organism. Read More

    Elucidation of Bacterial Pneumonia-Causing Pathogens in Patients with Respiratory Viral Infection.
    Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Korea.
    Background: Bacterial pneumonia occurring after respiratory viral infection is common. However, the predominant bacterial species causing pneumonia secondary to respiratory viral infections other than influenza remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to know whether the pathogens causing post-viral bacterial pneumonia vary according to the type of respiratory virus. Read More

    Evaluation of bacterial meningitis surveillance data of the northern region, Ghana, 2010-2015.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 30;27:164. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, Legon.
    Introduction: Bacterial meningitis is a disease of major public health importance especially for countries such as Ghana; whose northern part lies within the meningitis belt. The Northern region of Ghana has been recording cases with outbreaks over the years. In order to generate evidence to improve surveillance, we described the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis using surveillance data of the northern region. Read More

    Microbiological assessment of effects of clinical mouth rinses on common oral microbes.
    J Oral Sci 2017 ;59(3):391-395
    Department of Prosthodontics, Gerodontology and Oral Rehabilitation, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry.
    Dry mouth occurs frequently in aged individuals, as well as in patients who are hospitalized, receiving multiple drugs, undergoing radiation treatment to the head and neck, or wearing a removable denture prosthesis, use of mouth rinse being often an option for relief. In the present study, we performed microbiological assessments of subjects given three different commercially available mouth rinses commonly employed in clinical practice (Peptisal, Biotène, ConCool) to determine their effects. For bacterial clearance in vitro, Peptisal showed the highest level of suppression of oral indigenous bacteria found in both planktonic formations and biofilm. Read More

    Case 28-2017. A 13-Month-Old Girl with Pneumonia and a 33-Year-Old Woman with Hip Pain.
    N Engl J Med 2017 09;377(11):1077-1091
    From the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (S.M.H.); and the Departments of Pediatrics (V.M.P.), Pathology (V.M.P., K.G.), Radiology (R.S.), and Medicine (J.R.F.), Massachusetts General Hospital, and the Departments of Pathology (V.M.P., K.G.), Radiology (R.S.), and Medicine (J.R.F.), Harvard Medical School - both in Boston.

    Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus Infections.
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Pediatrics, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC6054, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.
    Staphylococcus aureus, although generally identified as a commensal, is also a common cause of human bacterial infections, including of the skin and other soft tissues, bones, bloodstream, and respiratory tract. The history of S. aureus treatment is marked by the development of resistance to each new class of antistaphylococcal antimicrobial drugs, including the penicillins, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, glycopeptides, and others, complicating therapy. Read More

    [Pathogen distribution and bacterial resistance in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia].
    Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Sep;19(9):983-988
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China.
    Objective: To investigate the distribution of pathogens and bacterial resistance in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

    Methods: A total of 522 children with severe CAP who were hospitalized in 2016 were enrolled as study subjects. According to their age, they were divided into infant group (402 infants aged 28 days to 1 year), young children group (73 children aged 1 to 3 years), preschool children group (35 children aged 3 to 6 years), and school-aged children group (12 children aged ≥6 years). Read More

    Transcript profiling of the immunological interactions between Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 7 and the host by dual RNA-seq.
    BMC Microbiol 2017 Sep 12;17(1):193. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Huimin Road 211, Weenjiang District, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.
    Background: The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism underlying the host immune response to Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia (App) makes the use of preventive measures difficult, and a more global view of the host-pathogen interactions and new insights into this process are urgently needed to reveal the pathogenic and immune mechanisms underlying App infection. Here, we infected specific pathogen-free Mus musculus with App serotype 7 by intranasal inoculation to construct an acute hemorrhagic pneumonia infection model and isolated the infected lungs for analysis of the interactions by dual RNA-seq.

    Results: Four cDNA libraries were constructed, and 2428 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the host and 333 DEGs of App were detected. Read More

    Procalcitonin for Diagnostics and Treatment Decisions in Pediatric Lower Respiratory Tract Infections.
    Front Pediatr 2017 28;5:183. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, University of Basel Children's Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.
    Mortality and morbidity remain high in pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) despite progress in research and implementation of global diagnostic and treatment strategies in the last decade. Still, 120 million annual episodes of pneumonia affect children younger than 5 years each year leading to 1.3 million fatalities with the major burden of disease carried by low- and middle-income countries (95%). Read More

    Sirtuin 2 Deficiency Increases Bacterial Phagocytosis by Macrophages and Protects from Chronic Staphylococcal Infection.
    Front Immunol 2017 28;8:1037. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Epalinges, Switzerland.
    Sirtuin 2 (SIRT2) is one of the seven members of the family of NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylases. Sirtuins target histones and non-histone proteins according to their subcellular localization, influencing various biological processes. SIRT2 resides mainly in the cytoplasm and regulates cytoskeleton dynamics, cell cycle, and metabolic pathways. Read More

    Phenol-soluble modulin peptides contribute to influenza-associated Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia.
    Infect Immun 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine, Infection Biology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
    Influenza A virus (IAV) infections are often followed by secondary bacterial lung infection, which is a major reason for severe, often fatal pneumonia. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) strains such as USA300 cause particularly severe and difficult-to-treat cases of IAV-associated pneumonia. CA-MRSA are known to produce extraordinarily high amounts of phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides, important cytotoxins and proinflammatory molecules contributing to several types of S. Read More

    Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens among hospitalized children with community acquired lower respiratory tract infections in Dongguan, China (2011-2016).
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Sep 11;17(1):614. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Department of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, Dongguan Children's Hospital, Xihu Third Road NO. 68, Dongguan, Guangdong, 523325, China.
    Background: Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of childhood community acquired lower respiratory tract infections (CA-LRTIs), and few data described the impact of antimicrobial resistance on children with CA-LRTIs. This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial resistance in common bacterial agents among hospitalized children with CA-LRTIs between 2011 and 2016 in Dongguan, China.

    Methods: Sputum samples were collected from hospitalized children (0-5 years old) with CA-LRTIs in Dongguan Children's Hospital. Read More

    Compendium of Measures to Control Chlamydia psittaci Infection Among Humans (Psittacosis) and Pet Birds (Avian Chlamydiosis), 2017.
    J Avian Med Surg 2017 Sep;31(3):262-282
    Psittacosis, also known as parrot fever and ornithosis, is a bacterial infection that can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems in humans. It is caused by Chlamydia psittaci. Reclassification of the order Chlamydiales in 1999 into 2 genera (Chlamydia and Chlamydophila) was not wholly accepted or adopted. Read More

    Biofilm formation and determination of minimum biofilm eradication concentration of antibiotics in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.
    J Vet Med Sci 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University.
    The study was aimed to investigate biofilm forming ability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and to determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentrations of antibiotics. Biofilm forming ability of six strains of M. hyopneumoniae was examined using crystal violet staining on coverslips. Read More

    Infection dynamics and genetic variability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in self-replacement gilts.
    Vet Microbiol 2017 Sep 8;208:18-24. Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, United States. Electronic address:
    The aim of this study was to assess the longitudinal pattern of M. hyopneumoniae detection in self-replacement gilts at various farms and to characterize the genetic diversity among samples. A total of 298 gilts from three M. Read More

    Interleukin-22 level is negatively correlated with neutrophil recruitment in the lungs in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia model.
    Sci Rep 2017 Sep 8;7(1):11010. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Laboratoire UPRES EA3826 « Thérapeutiques cliniques et expérimentales des infections », IRS2 - Nantes Biotech, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major threat for immune-compromised patients. Bacterial pneumonia can induce uncontrolled and massive neutrophil recruitment ultimately leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and epithelium damage. Interleukin-22 plays a central role in the protection of the epithelium. Read More

    ramR is not involved in the regulation of ramA associated antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Sep 5;111:198-202. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215004, PR China. Electronic address:
    RamA, a global transcriptional activator, belongs to the AraC/XylS family of regulatory proteins and can regulate multidrug resistance through activating the expression of AcrAB. In Salmonella spp., Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterobacter aerogenes, RamR represses the transcription of gene ramA through binding to the upstream sequences of ramA. Read More

    Enhanced efficacy of the engineered antimicrobial peptide WLBU2 via direct airway delivery in a murine model of P. aeruginosa pneumonia.
    Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, PA; USA. Electronic address:
    Objectives: P. aeruginosa is a common cause of pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients with the property to generate multidrug resistance against clinically used antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse group of effector molecules of the innate immunity that protect the host against pathogens. Read More

    Monitoring sputum culture in resected esophageal cancer patients with preoperative treatment.
    Dis Esophagus 2017 Dec;30(12):1-9
    Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto.
    Pneumonia is a major cause of postesophagectomy mortality and worsens the long-term survival in resected esophageal cancer patients. Moreover, preoperative treatments such as chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (which have recently been applied worldwide) might affect the bacterial flora of the sputum. To investigate the association among preoperative treatments, the bacterial flora of sputum, and the clinical and pathological features in resected esophageal cancer patients, this study newly investigates the effect of preoperative treatments on the bacterial flora of sputum. Read More

    The Staphylococcus aureus superantigen SElX is a bifunctional toxin that inhibits neutrophil function.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Sep 7;13(9):e1006461. Epub 2017 Sep 7.
    The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Campus, Midlothian, Scotland, United States of America.
    Bacterial superantigens (SAgs) cause Vβ-dependent T-cell proliferation leading to immune dysregulation associated with the pathogenesis of life-threatening infections such as toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing pneumonia. Previously, we demonstrated that staphylococcal enterotoxin-like toxin X (SElX) from Staphylococcus aureus is a classical superantigen that exhibits T-cell activation in a Vβ-specific manner, and contributes to the pathogenesis of necrotizing pneumonia. Here, we discovered that SElX can also bind to neutrophils from human and other mammalian species and disrupt IgG-mediated phagocytosis. Read More

    Experimental phage therapy against haematogenous multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia in mice.
    Afr J Lab Med 2016 30;5(1):435. Epub 2016 Sep 30.
    Institute of Primate Research (IPR), Nairobi, Kenya.
    Background: Community-acquired haematogenous Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia is a rare infection, though it can be acquired nosocomially. Currently, antibiotics used against S. aureus pneumonia have shown reduced efficacy. Read More

    Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK1/2 reduces lung inflammation without impairing bacterial clearance in experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.
    Pneumonia (Nathan) 2017 5;9:13. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Center for Lung Biology, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Washington, 850 Republican St, Seattle, WA 98109 USA.
    This study was designed to test the therapeutic potential of a MEK1/2 inhibitor (MEKi) in an experimental model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The study found that treatment with MEKi reduced alveolar neutrophilic inflammation and led to faster recovery of weight compared to carrier-treated mice, without impairing bacterial clearance. Alveolar macrophages isolated from MEKi-treated mice also had increased M2 gene and protein expression, supporting the concept that MEKi modulates in vivo macrophage inflammatory responses. Read More

    Respiratory Commensal Bacteria Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum Improves Resistance of Infant Mice to Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae Superinfection.
    Front Microbiol 2017 23;8:1613. Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Food and Feed Immunology Group, Laboratory of Animal Products Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku UniversitySendai, Japan.
    Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a Gram-positive bacterium found as a member of the normal microbiota of the upper respiratory tract. It was suggested that C. pseudodiphtheriticum may be potentially used as a next-generation probiotic for nasal application, although no deep studies were performed in this regard. Read More

    Analysis of biofilm production by clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.
    Rev Bras Ter Intensiva 2017 Sep 4. Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular Aplicada, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Pernambuco - Recife (PE), Brasil.
    Objective:: To phenotypically evaluate biofilm production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinically isolated from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Methods:: Twenty clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were analyzed, 19 of which were from clinical samples of tracheal aspirate, and one was from a bronchoalveolar lavage sample. Read More

    Role of rifampin for the treatment of bacterial infections other than mycobacteriosis.
    J Infect 2017 Sep 1. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Objectives: Rifampin was initially approved for the treatment of tuberculosis. Because of its low toxicity, broad-spectrum activity, and good bioavailability, rifampin is now commonly administered as combination antimicrobial therapy for the treatment of various infections caused by organisms other than mycobacteria. This review summarizes the most recent clinical studies on the use of rifampin combinations for treating four common non-mycobacterial infections: acute bacterial meningitis, infective endocarditis and bacteraemia, pneumonia, and biofilm-related infections. Read More

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