42,557 results match your criteria Pneumonia Bacterial


Tug-of-war between Acinetobacter baumannii and host immune responses.

Pathog Dis 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging nosocomial, opportunistic pathogen with growing clinical significance. A. baumannii has an exceptional ability to rapidly develop drug resistance and to adhere to abiotic surfaces, including medical equipment, significantly promoting bacterial spread and also limiting our ability to control A. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/femspd/advance-article/doi/10.1093/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftz004DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

ABL kinase inhibition promotes lung regeneration through expansion of an SCGB1A1+ SPC+ cell population following bacterial pneumonia.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710;

Current therapeutic interventions for the treatment of respiratory infections are hampered by the evolution of multidrug resistance in pathogens as well as the lack of effective cellular targets. Despite the identification of multiple region-specific lung progenitor cells, the identity of molecules that might be therapeutically targeted in response to infections to promote activation of progenitor cell types remains elusive. Here, we report that loss of specifically in SCGB1A1-expressing cells leads to a significant increase in the proliferation and differentiation of bronchiolar epithelial cells, resulting in dramatic expansion of an SCGB1A1+ airway cell population that coexpresses SPC, a marker for type II alveolar cells that promotes alveolar regeneration following bacterial pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1816030116DOI Listing
January 2019

A Metagenomic Comparison of Tracheal Aspirate and Mini-Bronchial Alveolar Lavage for Assessment of Respiratory Microbiota.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Unviersity of California, San Francisco, United States.

Accurate and informative microbiologic testing is essential for guiding diagnosis and management of pneumonia in critically ill patients. Sampling of tracheal aspirate (TA) is less invasive compared to mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mBAL) and is now recommended as a frontline diagnostic approach in mechanically ventilated patients, despite the historical belief that TA was suboptimal due to contamination from oral microbes. Advancements in metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) now permit assessment of airway microbiota without a need for culture, and as such provide an opportunity to examine differences between mBAL and TA at a resolution previously unachievable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00476.2018DOI Listing
January 2019

Alveolar Macrophage Apoptosis-Associated Bacterial Killing Helps Prevent Murine Pneumonia.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

University of Edinburgh, Department of Infection Medicine and MRC Centre for Inflammation Reserach, Edinburgh, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland ;

Rationale: Antimicrobial resistance challenges therapy of pneumonia. Enhancing macrophage microbicidal responses would combat this problem but is limited by our understanding of how alveolar macrophages (AM) kill bacteria.

Objectives: To define the role and mechanism of AM apoptosis-associated bacterial killing in the lung. Read More

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https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/10.1164/rccm.201804-0646OC
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201804-0646OCDOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Evidence-Based Study Design for Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia.

J Infect Dis 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, North Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: The US Food and Drug Administration solicited evidence-based recommendations to improve guidance for studies of hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP).

Methods: We analyzed 7 HABP/VABP datasets to explore novel noninferiority study endpoints and designs, focusing on alternatives to all-cause mortality (ACM).

Results: ACM at day 28 differed for ventilated HABP (27. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy578DOI Listing
January 2019

Procalcitonin to guide antibiotic decision making.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau.

Purpose Of Review: There is convincing evidence linking antibiotic-stewardship efforts which include the infection marker procalcitonin (PCT) to more rational use of antibiotics with improvements in side-effects and clinical outcomes. This is particularly true in the setting of respiratory infection and sepsis. Yet, some recent trials have shown no benefit of PCT-guided care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000522DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads

The FNIH Biomarkers Consortium: Past Accomplishments and New Strategic Direction.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019 Jan 16. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Takeda Pharmaceuticals International Co., 300 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA, 02139.

The FNIH Biomarkers Consortium (BC) is a public-private partnership that aims to facilitate drug development with biomarkers across a range of therapeutic areas. The BC is organized to address specific precompetitive biomarker projects, giving participating stakeholders a role in the design and conduct of projects, and making the results freely public. Ultimately, the goals of the BC are to accelerate the development of new medicines, inform regulatory decision-making, and improve patient care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1362DOI Listing
January 2019

Btk inhibitor ibrutinib reduces inflammatory myeloid cell responses in the lung during murine pneumococcal pneumonia.

Mol Med 2019 Jan 15;25(1). Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine (CEMM), Amsterdam UMC, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Room G2-132, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major causative agent in community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis. Overwhelming lung inflammation during pneumococcal pneumonia may hamper lung function. Ibrutinib is an irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), a key signaling protein controlling the activation of various immune cells, including macrophages and neutrophils. Read More

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https://molmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s10020-018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10020-018-0069-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332549PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Cells under stress: The mechanical environment shapes inflammasome responses to danger signals.

J Leukoc Biol 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Many intracellular signals, such as host danger-associated molecules and bacterial toxins during infection, elicit inflammasome activation. However, the mechanical environment in tissues may also influence the sensitivity of various inflammasomes to activation. The cellular mechanical environment is determined by the extracellular tissue stiffness, or its inverse, tissue compliance. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/JLB.3MIR1118-417R
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.3MIR1118-417RDOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Costunolide alleviates HKSA-induced acute lung injury via inhibition of macrophage activation.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Engineering Research Center of Cell & Therapeutic Antibody, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection leads to a severe inflammatory response and causes acute lung injury (ALI), eventually threatening human life. Therefore, it is of importance to find an agent to inhibit inflammation and reduce ALI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41401-018-0192-6DOI Listing
January 2019

Gut pathobionts underlie intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver T helper 17 cell immune response in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 14. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinanomachi, Tokyo, Japan.

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease and its frequent complication with ulcerative colitis highlights the pathogenic role of epithelial barrier dysfunction. Intestinal barrier dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PSC, yet its underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we identify Klebsiella pneumonia in the microbiota of patients with PSC and demonstrate that K. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0333-1DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Antimicrobial activity of ceftolozane-tazobactam tested against gram-negative contemporary (2015-2017) isolates from hospitalized patients with pneumonia in US medical centers.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA 52317.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 1531) and Enterobacteriaceae (n = 2373) clinical isolates from hospitalized patients with pneumonia were collected from 31 US medical centers during 2015-2017. Isolates were susceptibility tested against ceftolozane-tazobactam and comparators by broth microdilution. Results from intensive care unit (ICU) patients and patients with ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP) were analyzed separately. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2018.11.021DOI Listing
November 2018

Preventive effect of the phage VB-SavM-JYL01 on rabbit necrotizing pneumonia caused by Staphylococcus aureus.

Vet Microbiol 2019 Feb 18;229:72-80. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, PR China. Electronic address:

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most important pathogens causing rabbit necrotizing pneumonia and brings huge economic losses to rabbit production. This study investigated the preventive effect of a phage on rabbit necrotizing pneumonia caused by S. aureus. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03781135183132
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.12.021DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Accuracy of comprehensive PCR analysis of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for CT-scan confirmed pneumonia in elderly patients: a prospective cohort study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Rehabilitation and Geriatrics, Geneva University Hospitals, Switzerland; Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT02467192 OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the accuracy of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of viruses and bacteria on naso- and oropharyngeal swabs (NPS) for the diagnosis of pneumonia in elderly patients.

Methods: We included consecutive hospitalised elderly patients suspected of pneumonia. At inclusion, NPS were collected in all patients and tested by PCR for the presence of viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens (index test, defined as comprehensive molecular testing). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2018.12.037DOI Listing
January 2019

New antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review provides the rationale for the development of new antibiotics to treat community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It also provides an overview of the new antibiotics targeting CAP that have recently received approval by the regulatory agencies, and those antibiotics that are in the development pipeline.

Recent Findings: CAP is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and carries a significant morbidity and risk of mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0000000000000526DOI Listing
January 2019

Intradermal vaccination with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine adjuvanted with a mutant bacterial ADP-ribosylating enterotoxin protects against acute pneumonia.

Vaccine 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Tulane University, 1430 Tulane Ave., New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Respiratory infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. This is partially due to a lack of effective vaccines and a clear understanding of how vaccination route and formulation influence protective immunity in mucosal tissues such as the lung. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing acute pulmonary infections and is a leading cause of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264410X193000
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.12.053DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

The Role of Maternal Citizenship on Pediatric Avoidable Hospitalization: A Birth Cohort Study in North-East Italy.

Indian J Pediatr 2019 Jan 12. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Unit of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, Vascular Sciences and Public Health, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Objective: Avoidable hospitalization (AH) has been widely studied as a possible measure of primary health care performance. Since studies evaluating AH in migrant children, particularly in Europe, are lacking, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of maternal citizenship on the risk of AH in children.

Methods: The cohort study included all live newborns recorded in the Medical Birth Register (MBR) of Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (Italy) in the years 1989-2012, followed from 30 d after their birth up to the 14th year of life. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12098-018-2826-6DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

CPn0572, the C. pneumoniae ortholog of TarP, reorganizes the actin cytoskeleton via a newly identified F-actin binding domain and recruitment of vinculin.

PLoS One 2019 10;14(1):e0210403. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Institute of Functional Microbial Genomics, Heinrich-Heine-University, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of the two major species of the Chlamydiaceae family that have a profound effect on human health. C. pneumoniae is linked to a number of severe acute and chronic diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract including pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis and infection by the pathogen might play a role in lung cancer. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210403PLOS
January 2019
2 Reads

The Effect of Text Message Reminders to Health Workers on Quality of Care for Malaria, Pneumonia, and Diarrhea in Malawi: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

The use of mobile technologies in medicine, or mHealth, holds promise to improve health worker (HW) performance, but evidence is mixed. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of text message reminders to HWs in outpatient health facilities (HFs) on quality of care for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea in Malawi. After a baseline HF survey (2,360 patients) in January 2015, 105 HFs were randomized to three arms: 1) text messages to HWs on malaria case management; 2) text messages to HWs on malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea case management (latter two for children < 5 years); and 3) control arm (no messages). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0529DOI Listing
January 2019
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Utility of the Neonatal Calf Model for Testing Vaccines and Intervention Strategies for Use against Human RSV Infection.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Jan 8;7(1). Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Ruminant Diseases and Immunology Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Ames, IA 50010, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of pediatric respiratory tract infections. It is estimated that two-thirds of infants are infected with RSV during the first year of life and it is one of the leading causes of death in this age group worldwide. Similarly, bovine RSV is a primary viral pathogen in cases of pneumonia in young calves and plays a significant role in bovine respiratory disease complex. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/7/1/7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010007DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Aetiology and Risk Factors for Mortality in an Adult Community-Acquired Pneumonia Cohort in Malawi.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme, Blantyre, Malawi.

Rationale: In the context of rapid antiretroviral therapy (ART) rollout and an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases, there are few contemporary data describing the aetiology and outcome of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in sub-Saharan Africa.

Objectives: To describe the current aetiology of CAP in Malawi and identify risk factors for mortality.

Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of adults hospitalised with CAP to a teaching hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201807-1333OCDOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Septicemia Caused by Secondary to Pneumonia.

Ann Lab Med 2019 05;39(3):340-342

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Research Institute of Bacterial Resistance, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3343/alm.2019.39.3.340DOI Listing

The pleotropic Legionella transcription factor LvbR links the Lqs and c-di-GMP regulatory networks to control biofilm architecture and virulence.

Environ Microbiol 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zürich, Gloriastrasse 30/32, 8006, Zürich, Switzerland.

The causative agent of Legionnaires' pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila, colonizes amoebae and biofilms in the environment. The opportunistic pathogen employs the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system and the signaling molecule LAI-1 (Legionella autoinducer-1) to regulate virulence, motility, natural competence, and expression of a 133 kb genomic island, including a putative novel regulator. Here, we show that the regulator termed LvbR is an LqsS-regulated, pleotropic transcription factor that binds to the promoter of lpg1056/hnox1 (encoding an inhibitor of the diguanylate cyclase Lpg1057), and thus regulates proteins involved in c-di-GMP metabolism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14523DOI Listing
January 2019

Clinical features of coinfection and need for its testing in influenza pneumonia patients.

J Thorac Dis 2018 Nov;10(11):6118-6127

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Background: To investigate the clinical features of coinfection due to (), a common copathogen in influenza, in influenza pneumonia patients.

Methods: We reviewed 4,465 patients with influenza who visited a tertiary care hospital emergency department in Seoul (Korea) from 2010 through 2016, and underwent immunoglobulin M (IgM) serology or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for . Influenza pneumonia was defined as laboratory-confirmed influenza plus radiographic pneumonia. Read More

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http://jtd.amegroups.com/article/view/24984/19090
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.10.33DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297417PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Multicentre pilot study evaluation of lung ultrasound for the management of paediatric pneumonia in low-resource settings: a study protocol.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2018 19;5(1):e000340. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

International Programs, Save the Children Federation Inc, Fairfield, Connecticut, USA.

Introduction: Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide. However, pneumonia is challenging to diagnose. Lung ultrasound (LUS) is a promising diagnostic technology. Read More

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http://bmjopenrespres.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjresp-201
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjresp-2018-000340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307622PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Silver nanopaticles synthesized using the seed extract of L. and their antimicrobial mechanism and anticancer properties.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 Jan 8;26(1):148-154. Epub 2017 Jul 8.

Grassland and Forage Division, National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Seonghwan-Eup, Cheonan-Si, Chungnam, Republic of Korea.

Background: Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through biological route plays an important role in their applications in the medical field, especially in the prevention of disease causing microbial pathogens and arresting the propagation of cancer cells. The stable, green synthesis of AgNPs is very much welcomed in the medical field because of their low toxicity. Therefore, the demands of AgNPs synthesised biologically is on the rise. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1319562X173018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6319018PMC
January 2019
4 Reads
0.741 Impact Factor

Innate Immune Cell Suppression and the Link With Secondary Lung Bacterial Pneumonia.

Front Immunol 2018 14;9:2943. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Manchester Collaborative Centre for Inflammation Research, The Lydia Becker Institute of Immunology and Inflammation, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Secondary infections arise as a consequence of previous or concurrent conditions and occur in the community or in the hospital setting. The events allowing secondary infections to gain a foothold have been studied for many years and include poor nutrition, anxiety, mental health issues, underlying chronic diseases, resolution of acute inflammation, primary immune deficiencies, and immune suppression by infection or medication. Children, the elderly and the ill are particularly susceptible. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02943
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302086PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Relationship Between the Quorum Network (Sensing/Quenching) and Clinical Features of Pneumonia and Bacteraemia Caused by .

Front Microbiol 2018 17;9:3105. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Microbiology Department-Biomedical Research Institute A Coruña (INIBIC), Hospital A Coruña (CHUAC), University of A Coruña (UDC), A Coruña, Spain.

(Ab) is one of the most important pathogens associated with nosocomial infections, especially pneumonia. Interest in the Quorum network, i.e. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03105
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304438PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Persistence: A Survival Strategy to Evade Antimicrobial Effects and .

Front Microbiol 2018 12;9:3101. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

CIBICI-CONICET, Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

The comprise a group of highly adapted bacterial pathogens sharing a unique intracellular lifestyle. Three species are pathogenic to humans: , and . is the leading bacterial cause of sexually-transmitted infections and infectious blindness worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.03101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6299033PMC
December 2018
1 Read

A miRNA Host Response Signature Accurately Discriminates Acute Respiratory Infection Etiologies.

Front Microbiol 2018 11;9:2957. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Center for Applied Genomics and Precision Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, United States.

Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the leading indication for antibacterial prescriptions despite a viral etiology in the majority of cases. The lack of available diagnostics to discriminate viral and bacterial etiologies contributes to this discordance. Recent efforts have focused on the host response as a source for novel diagnostic targets although none have explored the ability of host-derived microRNAs (miRNA) to discriminate between these etiologies. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02957
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6298190PMC
December 2018
4 Reads

CYTOKINES PROFILE AND ITS CONNECTION WITH DISEASE SEVERITY IN COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PEDIATRIC PNEUMONIA.

Georgian Med News 2018 Nov(284):103-108

Vl. Bakhutashvili Institute of Medical Biotechnology, Tbilisi State Medical University; M. Iashvili Central Children Hospital, Tbilisi; G. Zhvania Pediatric Clinic. Tbilisi, Georgia.

Community-acquired pneumonia is (CAP) associated with serious complications and is the leading cause of death in children. Severity of CAP is depend on an impairment of host defenses. Persistent and toxic inflammation directs to an excessively pro-inflammatory cytokine production, neutrophil hyper-responsiveness, and dysregulation of lung neutrophil apoptosis, which results in lung injury and poor patient outcomes. Read More

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November 2018

Molecular insights into the master regulator CysB-mediated bacterial virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Key Laboratory of Resources Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, ShaanXi, 710069, China.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen that causes serious acute and chronic infections in humans. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an important virulence factor that plays essential roles in acute infections. However, the regulatory mechanisms of T3SS are not fully understood. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/mmi.14200
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14200DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Antimicrobial Activity of Omadacycline Tested against Clinical Bacterial Isolates from Hospitals in China (including Hong Kong) and Taiwan: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2013-2016).

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA 52317, USA.

Omadacycline is a derivative of minocycline and the first agent of the aminomethylcycline class. A total of 3,282 organisms (one per patient) were consecutively collected from patients hospitalized in China (including Hong Kong) and Taiwan. Susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution methods in a central laboratory (JMI Laboratories). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02262-18DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Differing Performance of the Warning Signs for Immunodeficiency in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Versus Adult Patients in a Two-Center Tertiary Referral Population.

J Clin Immunol 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Purpose: Primary immunodeficiency (PID) represents disorders with a spectrum of clinical presentations. The medical community seeks clinical features to prompt evaluation for immunodeficiency given improved prognosis with early identification. We hoped to identify clinical characteristics that would improve the diagnostic accuracy of the widely disseminated Jeffrey Modell Foundation warning signs for immunodeficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-018-0582-zDOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Contribution of respiratory viruses and bacteria to community-acquired pneumonia in highly vaccinated children: a case-control study.

Thorax 2019 Jan 4. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

Institute in the Park, Alder Hey Children's Hospital, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-212625DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Septicemic Actinobacillus suis infection in a neonatal piglet with multifocal necrotic glossitis.

J Vet Med Sci 2019 Jan 1. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Division of Pathology and Pathophysiology, National Institute of Animal Health, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization.

Five-day-old neonatal piglets presented with debilitation and ananastasia. At the necropsy of one piglet, the apex of the tongue was found to be discolored dark red, and disseminated white foci were found on the cut surface. Many white foci were also found in the lungs and on the serosa of the liver and spleen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1292/jvms.18-0630DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Antibody Dependent Enhancement of Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in a Mouse Pneumonia Model.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2019 Jan 3. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

Acinetobacter baumannii has become a pathogen of increasing medical importance due to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains and the high rate of mortality of infected patients. Promising animal study results have been reported recently with active and passive immunization against A. baumannii virulence factors. Read More

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http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.1124/jpet.118.25
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.118.253617DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Use of Aerosolized Antibiotics in Gram-Negative Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Trauma Patients.

Am Surg 2018 Dec;84(12):1906-1912

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with significant morbidity (ventilator days, ICU days, and cost) and mortality increase in trauma patients. Multidrug-resistant strains of causative VAP pathogens are becoming increasingly common. Aerosolized antibiotics achieve high alveolar concentrations and provide valuable adjuncts in the treatment of VAP. Read More

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December 2018
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Risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal carriage and density of , , , and in young children living in Indonesia.

Pneumonia (Nathan) 2018 25;10:14. Epub 2018 Dec 25.

1Department of Child Health, Universitas Padjadjaran/Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung, West Java Indonesia.

Background: Potentially pathogenic bacteria , , , and are commonly carried in the nasopharynx of young children. Host and environmental factors have been linked with pathogen carriage, and in many studies rural children have higher carriage rates than their urban counterparts. There are few published data on what factors contribute to increased pathogen density. Read More

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https://pneumonia.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41479-
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41479-018-0058-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6305570PMC
December 2018
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Defining the aetiology of paediatric community-acquired pneumonia: an unsolved problem.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2019 Jan 2:1-9. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

b Università degli Studi di Milano , Milan , Italy.

Introduction: Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a significant health problem worldwide. Although knowledge in the etiology of CAP is not satisfactory, in most cases, therapy is decided following probability-based criteria that are derived from studies that report the frequency of detection of pathogens in children with CAP. Areas covered: This narrative review discusses the present knowledge on pediatric CAP etiology, the limits of the aetiological studies and the tests for differentiation of viral from bacterial infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2019.1562341DOI Listing
January 2019
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Discontinuing cotrimoxazole preventive therapy in HIV-infected adults who are stable on antiretroviral treatment in Uganda (COSTOP): A randomised placebo controlled trial.

PLoS One 2018 31;13(12):e0206907. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Medical Research Council / Uganda Virus Research Institute and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Uganda Research Unit, Entebbe, Uganda.

Background: Cotrimoxazole (CTX) preventive therapy (CPT) reduces opportunistic infections and malaria in HIV-infected patients. In Africa, policies on sustained CPT during antiretroviral therapy (ART) differ between countries. We assessed the safety of discontinuing CPT in stable patients on ART in Uganda. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0206907PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312229PMC
December 2018
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3.234 Impact Factor

The burden of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in the era of antibiotic resistance.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2018 Dec 30:1-14. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

d GST Micro LLC , Henrico , VA , USA.

Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant global health problem and leading cause of death and hospitalization in both the US and abroad. Increasing macrolide resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogens results in a greater disease burden, along with changing demographics and a higher preponderance of comorbid conditions. Areas covered: This review summarizes current data on the clinical and economic burden of CAP, with particular focus on community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2019.1562339DOI Listing
December 2018
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HMGB1 signaling blocking protects against carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae in a murine model of infection.

Exp Lung Res 2018 Dec 29:1-9. Epub 2018 Dec 29.

b Department of Scientific Research and Teaching , Heze municipal Hospital , Heze , China.

Purpose Of The Study: Pulmonary infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality in pneumonia. Recent studies have indicated that High-Mobility Group Box 1 Protein (HMGB1) plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of pneumonia. However the role of HMGB1 in CRKP-induced pneumonia has not been addressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01902148.2018.1505976DOI Listing
December 2018
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Necrotizing pneumonia due to Mycoplasma in children: an uncommon presentation of a common disease.

Adv Respir Med 2018 Dec 30. Epub 2018 Dec 30.

DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRICS. COMPLEJO HOSPITAL DE NAVARRA, C/ IRUNLARREA 3, 31008 PAMPLONA, Spain; INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACION SANITARIA DE NAVARRA IdisNa, c Irunlarrea, 31008 pamplona, Spain.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen, especially in children, responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Although, in most cases, infections caused by this bacterium follow a benign self-limited clinical course, cases of severe respiratory infections have been reported. We present two pediatric cases of necrotizing pneumonia due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2018.0049DOI Listing
December 2018
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PAMAM-dendrimer Enhanced Antibacterial Effect of Vancomycin Hydrochloride Against Gram-Negative Bacteria.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2018 ;22(1):10-21

Department of Pharmaceutics and Nanotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: The antibacterial activity of some antibiotics is specific to either Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria.  There are different mechanisms behind such insensitivities like inability of antibiotics to permeate through some bacterial membranes, as is the case for vancomycin in Gram-negative bacteria. The present investigation tries to overcome this problem by dendrimers, in order to make Gram-negative bacteria responsive to vancomycin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/jpps29659DOI Listing
January 2018
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Prospective evaluation of lung function in children with parapneumonic empyema.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Biostatistics and Medical Information Technology, Polytechnics University of Marche, Center of Epidemiology, Ancona, Italy.

Rationale: Prospective studies that evaluated the outcome of childhood empyema are limited.

Objective: To compare the outcome of pulmonary function in children with empyema.

Patients And Methods: Children discharged with a diagnosis of empyema underwent a longitudinal study including measurement of pulmonary function and radiographic imaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24204DOI Listing
December 2018
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A Biomimetic Non-Antibiotic Approach to Eradicate Drug-Resistant Infections.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 27:e1806024. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials of Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.

The chronic infections by pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) remain to be properly addressed. In particular, for drug-resistant strains, limited medication is available. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201806024DOI Listing
December 2018
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Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are increased in the alveolar spaces of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia.

Crit Care 2018 12 27;22(1):358. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, 750 Republican Street, Rm. E563, Box 358060, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.

Background: Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to invading pathogens. Although NETs play an important role in host defense against microbial pathogens, they have also been shown to play a contributing mechanistic role in pathologic inflammation in the absence of infection. Although a role for NETs in bacterial pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is emerging, a comprehensive evaluation of NETs in the alveolar space of critically ill patients has yet to be reported. Read More

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https://ccforum.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13054-01
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-018-2290-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307268PMC
December 2018
5 Reads

In vitro pharmacological effects of Astragalus eremophilus and Melilotus parviflora.

Acta Biol Hung 2018 Dec;69(4):411-422

1 Department of Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology Bannu-28100, KPK , Pakistan.

Traditional medicines are composed of herbal formulations and their active ingredients and constituents which play a crucial role in the treatment of various human ailments. Astragalus eremophilus and Melilotus indicus (L.) All. Read More

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https://www.akademiai.com/doi/10.1556/018.69.2018.4.4
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/018.69.2018.4.4DOI Listing
December 2018
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The diagnosis of multiple opportunistic infections in advanced stage AIDS: when Ockham's Razor doesn't cut it.

Autops Case Rep 2018 Apr-Jun;8(2):e2018028. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Anatomic Pathology . São Paulo, SP , Brazil .

In the advanced stage of AIDS, the diagnosis of the opportunistic infections may be challenging due to the high risk of performing invasive diagnostic methods in a patient with a critical clinical condition, as well as the correct interpretation of the results of microbiological exams. One of the challenges for the diagnosis and treatment of the opportunistic infections is that they may occur concomitantly in the same patient and they may mimic each other, leading to a high discrepancy between clinical and autopsy diagnoses. We describe the case of a 52-year-old man who was hospitalized because of weight loss, anemia, cough, and hepatosplenomegaly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4322/acr.2018.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6287276PMC
June 2018
1 Read