42,887 results match your criteria Pneumonia Bacterial


[Human Psittacosis: A Case Report].

Acta Med Port 2019 Feb 28;32(2):161-164. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Serviço de Doenças Infeciosas. Centro Hospitalar do Porto. Porto. Portugal.

Psittacosis is a rare disease caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, an intracellular bacteria transmitted by contaminated birds. The clinical and radiological presentations are nonspecific. We describe a case of a 42-year-old woman, with known exposure to birds, who presented to the emergency department with one-week evolution of myalgia, polyarthritis, and respiratory symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20344/amp.10079DOI Listing
February 2019

Geographic and Temporal Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance in Over 20 Years From the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-2016.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Mar 15;6(Suppl 1):S63-S68. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa.

Background: The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program was established in 1997 and encompasses over 750 000 bacterial isolates from ≥400 medical centers worldwide. Among the pathogens tested, remains a common cause of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bloodstream infections and pneumonia in hospitalized patients. In the present study, we reviewed geographic and temporal trends in resistant phenotypes of over 20 years of the SENTRY Program. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419917PMC

Histological and immunohistochemical assessments of pneumonia in sheep slaughtered at Ibadan, Nigeria and Kumasi, Ghana.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2019 Mar 21:1-14. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

d Pathobiology , Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology , Kumasi , Ghana , USA.

There is a decline in sheep production and contribution to the economy. This study described the histological pattern, immunohistochemically demonstrate bacterial and viral agents of pneumonia in sheep slaughtered in metropolitan abattoirs in Nigeria and Ghana. A total of 805 (600 in Ghana and 205 in Nigeria) sheep lungs were examined for pneumonic lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2019.1589495DOI Listing

Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of 7S and 11S Globulins Isolated from Cowpea Seed Protein.

Molecules 2019 Mar 19;24(6). Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

The present work was carried out to determine the characteristics and antibacterial activity of 7S and 11S globulins isolated from cowpea seed ( (L.) Walp.). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24061082DOI Listing

Omadacycline: A novel tetracycline derivative with oral and intravenous formulations.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Omadacycline, an aminomethylcycline, is a novel member of the tetracycline class of antibiotics. It has received approval by the U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz242DOI Listing

ENDOGENOUS ENDOPHTHALMITIS IN WESTERN AUSTRALIA: A Sixteen-Year Retrospective Study.

Retina 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Purpose: To review the clinical features, microbiology spectrum, management, and outcomes of patients with endogenous endophthalmitis in Western Australia over a 16-year period.

Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of all patients with endogenous endophthalmitis who presented to all tertiary ophthalmology departments between 2000 and 2015 in Western Australia.

Results: Sixty-six eyes of 57 patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified, and follow-up data were available for a mean of 554 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000002512DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Cardiovascular sequelae of pneumonia.

Curr Opin Pulm Med 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Division of Pulmonary Inflammation.

Purpose Of Review: In this brief review, we discuss the current epidemiological data and latest results from basic research on the cardiovascular sequelae after lower respiratory tract infection.

Recent Findings: Novel epidemiological evidence substantiates the association between pneumonia and subsequent cardiovascular events (CVEs) in the short- and long-term after viral or bacterial acute infection. Biomarkers such as cardiac troponin or coronary artery calcium may represent useful predictive tools for the detection of cardiac involvement during and after pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCP.0000000000000584DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Elevated Gut Microbiome-Derived Propionate Levels Are Associated With Reduced Sterile Lung Inflammation and Bacterial Immunity in Mice.

Front Microbiol 2019 14;10:159. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are important dietary and microbiome metabolites that can have roles in gut immunity as well as further afield. We previously observed that gut microbiome alteration via antibiotics led to attenuated lung inflammatory responses. The rationale for this study was to identify gut microbiome factors that regulate lung immune homeostasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413706PMC
February 2019

Why are people with asthma susceptible to pneumonia? A review of factors related to upper airway bacteria.

Respirology 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Respiratory Medicine, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia.

Asthma and pneumonia are common respiratory conditions globally, affecting individuals of all ages. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the predominant bacterial cause of pneumonia, with nasopharyngeal carriage an important step towards invasive and pulmonary disease. Vaccines provide individual protection, and also prevent nasopharyngeal carriage, providing herd immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/resp.13528DOI Listing

Identification of evolutionarily conserved virulence factor by selective pressure analysis of .

Commun Biol 2019 8;2:96. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

1Department of Oral and Molecular Microbiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 Japan.

Evolutionarily conserved virulence factors can be candidate therapeutic targets or vaccine antigens. Here, we investigated the evolutionary selective pressures on 16 pneumococcal choline-binding cell-surface proteins since is one of the pathogens posing the greatest threats to human health. Phylogenetic and molecular analyses revealed that had the highest codon rates to total numbers of codons under considerable negative selection among those examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-019-0340-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6408437PMC

Pediatric meningitis due to and Group B Streptococcus in Tijuana, Mexico: active/prospective surveillance, 2005-2018.

Ther Adv Infect Dis 2019 Jan-Dec;6:2049936119832274. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Autonomous University of Baja-California, Campus ECISALUD, Tijuana, Baja-California, Mexico.

Introduction: In Mexico, is considered to be a rare cause of bacterial meningitis (BM), however, one national publication using active surveillance has suggested the opposite. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is also considered to be infrequent in young infants as a cause of BM in central Mexico. vaccination using the 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) started in our region in May 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2049936119832274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413420PMC

Alveolar Macrophage Phagocytosis and Bacteria Clearance in Mice.

J Vis Exp 2019 Mar 2(145). Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Eastern Virginia Medical School;

Alveolar macrophages (AMs) guard the alveolar space of the lung. Phagocytosis by AMs plays a critical role in the defense against invading pathogens, the removal of dead cells or foreign particles, and in the resolution of inflammatory responses and tissue remodeling, processes that are mediated by various surface receptors of the AMs. Here, we report methods for the analysis of the phagocytic function of AMs using in vitro and in vivo assays and experimental strategies to differentiate between the pattern recognition receptor-, complement receptor-, and Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/59088DOI Listing

Nebulized Amikacin and Fosfomycin for Severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia: An Experimental Study.

Crit Care Med 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: Latest trials failed to confirm merits of nebulized amikacin for critically ill patients with nosocomial pneumonia. We studied various nebulized and IV antibiotic regimens in a porcine model of severe Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia, resistant to amikacin, fosfomycin, and susceptible to meropenem.

Design: Prospective randomized animal study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003724DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia in Children of Rural Areas of The Gambia, 2008-2015.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 Apr;25(4):701-709

Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a substantial cause of childhood disease and death, but few studies have described its epidemiology in developing countries. Using a population-based surveillance system for pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis, we estimated S. aureus bacteremia incidence and the case-fatality ratio in children <5 years of age in 2 regions in the eastern part of The Gambia during 2008-2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2504.180935DOI Listing

Mechanisms of Naturally Acquired Immunity to .

Front Immunol 2019 1;10:358. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Centre for Inflammation and Tissue Repair, UCL Respiratory, London, United Kingdom.

In this review we give an update on the mechanisms of naturally acquired immunity against , one of the major human bacterial pathogens that is a common cause of pneumonia, septicaemia, and meningitis. A clear understanding of the natural mechanisms of immunity to is necessary to help define why the very young and elderly are at high risk of disease, and for devising new prevention strategies. Recent data has shown that nasopharynx colonization by induces antibody responses to protein and capsular antigens in both mice and humans, and also induces Th17 CD4+ cellular immune responses in mice and increases pre-existing responses in humans. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00358
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00358DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405633PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infection in hematological disease.

Infect Drug Resist 2019 26;12:481-491. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China,

Background: Extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial (XDR-GNB) bloodstream infection (BSI) is difficult to treat and is associated with a high mortality rate in patients with hematological diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the predisposing risk factors and the efficacy of the antibiotic treatment in these patients, including exploration of efficacy and adverse effects of high-dose tigecycline.

Methods: Between January 2013 and December 2017, 27 XDR-GNB BSI patients with hematological diseases were diagnosed and retrospectively reviewed in the current study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S191462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396657PMC
February 2019

Spectrum of pulmonary aspergillosis in Hyper IgE syndrome with autosomal dominant STAT3 deficiency.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France; Institut Pasteur, CNRS, Centre National de Référence Mycoses Invasives et Antifongiques, Unité de Mycologie Moléculaire, UMR 2000, Paris,France. Electronic address:

Background: Autosomal dominant signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) deficiency predisposes to recurrent bacterial pneumonia, complicated by bronchiectasis and cavitations. Aspergillosis is a major cause of morbidity in these patients. However, its diagnosis, classification, and treatment are challenging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.02.041DOI Listing

Evaluation of the ratio of the estimated area under the concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (estimated AUIC) as a predictor of the outcome for tigecycline treatment for pneumonia due to multidrug-resistant bacteria in an intensive care unit.

Int J Infect Dis 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, the Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing 210008, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Based on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of tigecycline (TGC), dose increases have been advocated to maximize the efficacy against pneumonia that is suspected to be due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in an intensive care unit. This practice-based study explored the relationship between the predicted PK parameter, the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve to the 24h of dosing/minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC or AUIC), and the clinical and microbiological outcomes in critically ill patients with pneumonia due to MDR bacteria.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of the treatment of pneumonia due to MDR bacteria in an intensive care unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.03.011DOI Listing

Bradykinin receptor deficiency or antagonism do not impact the host response during gram-negative pneumonia-derived sepsis.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2019 Mar 12;7(1):14. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Center of Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Room G2-130, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Kinins are short peptides with a wide range of proinflammatory properties that are generated from kininogens in the so-called kallikrein-kinin system. Kinins exert their biological activities through stimulation of two distinct receptor subtypes, the kinin or bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors (B1R, B2R). Acute challenge models have implicated B1R and B2R in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Read More

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https://icm-experimental.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40635-019-0228-3DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

: Invasion and Inflammation.

Microbiol Spectr 2019 Mar;7(2)

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumoccus) is the leading cause of otitis media, community-acquired pneumonia, and bacterial meningitis. The success of the pneumococcus stems from its ability to persist in the population as a commensal and avoid killing by immune system. This chapter first reviews the molecular mechanisms that allow the pneumococcus to colonize and spread from one anatomical site to the next. Read More

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http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0004-2018DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Extracellular Vesicles from Interferon-γ-primed Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Reduce Escherichia coli-induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats.

Anesthesiology 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

From the Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science (A.K.V., M.J., L.O., S. Gagnon, S. Goyal, R.R., C.M., C.S., C.C.d.S., G.F.C., J.G.L.) Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine and Department of Critical Care (C.C.d.S., G.F.C., J.G.L.) Department of Anesthesia (G.F.C., J.G.L.) St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry (F.X.G.) University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Chemical Engineering, Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada (P.Z.C., F.X.G.) Department of Anesthesia, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland (G.F.C.) Regenerative Medicine Institute (REMEDI) at CÚRAM Centre for Research in Medical Devices, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland (J.G.L.).

What We Already Know About This Topic: Mesenchymal stromal cells are multipotent adult stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell types and have immunomodulatory properties that have been shown to have substantial therapeutic promise in preclinical acute lung injury modelsMesenchymal stromal cells release extracellular vesicles, which are small, spherical membrane fragments comprising distinct populations including both exosomes and microvesicles, which have therapeutic effects in several disease modelsMesenchymal stromal cells are activated or primed by the injury microenvironment, which may be replicated by prior activation of the mesenchymal stromal cells WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: In a rat model of Escherichia coli-induced pneumonia, extracellular vesicles derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells primed with interferon-γ more effectively attenuated E. coli-induced lung injury than did extracellular vesicles from naïve mesenchymal stromal cells, possibly by enhanced macrophage phagocytosis and killing of E. coli bacteria BACKGROUND:: Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells possess considerable therapeutic promise for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000002655DOI Listing

Corticosteroid Catabolism by Klebsiella pneumoniae as a Possible Mechanism for Increased Pneumonia Risk.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, 700019. India.

Background: Several strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae are responsible for causing pneumonia in lung and thereby causing death in immune-suppressed patients. In recent year, few investigations have reported the enhancement of K. pneumoniae population in patients using corticosteroid containing inhaler. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201020666190313153841DOI Listing
March 2019
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Investigating the role of circulating CXCR5-expressing CD8+ T-cells as a biomarker for bacterial infection in subjects with pneumonia.

Respir Res 2019 Mar 12;20(1):54. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Clinical Immunology Laboratory, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006, China.

Background: Recently, lymphoid follicle-confined and circulating CD8+ T-cells expressing the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) were described, which was involved in anti-virus immune response. However, the dynamics and role of circulating CXCR5-expressing CD8+ T-cells during bacterial infection is unknown. So, we asked whether CXCR5+ CD8+ T cells were also generated during bacterial infections in lower respiratory tract. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-019-1011-4DOI Listing
March 2019
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Tuberculosis and other bacterial co-infection in Cambodia: a single center retrospective cross-sectional study.

BMC Pulm Med 2019 Mar 11;19(1):60. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

International Respiratory and Severe Illness Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Cambodia, a lower middle-income country of about 16 million individuals in southeast Asia, endures a high burden of both tuberculosis and other lower respiratory infections. Differentiating tuberculosis from other causes of respiratory infection has important clinical implications yet may be challenging to accomplish in the absence of diagnostic microbiology facilities. Furthermore, co-infection of tuberculosis with other bacterial lower respiratory infections may occur. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-019-0828-4DOI Listing
March 2019
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Inflammatory biomarkers are associated with aetiology and predict outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia: results of a 5-year follow-up cohort study.

ERJ Open Res 2019 Feb 11;5(1). Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Dept of Internal Medicine, Drammen Hospital, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Drammen, Norway.

Background: Biomarkers may facilitate clinical decisions in order to guide antimicrobial treatment and prediction of prognosis in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We measured serum C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT) and calprotectin levels, and plasma pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and presepsin levels, along with whole-blood white cell counts, at three time-points, and examined their association with microbial aetiology and adverse clinical outcomes in CAP.

Methods: Blood samples were obtained at hospital admission, clinical stabilisation and 6-week follow-up from 267 hospitalised adults with CAP. Read More

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http://openres.ersjournals.com/lookup/doi/10.1183/23120541.0
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/23120541.00014-2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6409082PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Severe necrotising pneumonia in a toddler: A rare presentation with dual bacterial aetiology.

Niger Postgrad Med J 2019 Jan-Mar;26(1):65-68

Department of Paediatrics, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria.

Necrotising pneumonia (NP) is a rare complication of bacterial pneumonia which is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Pneumonia of polymicrobial aetiology predicts worse pathology with fulminating clinical course. Reports of necrotising pneumonia from multiple bacterial infections are scanty in published literature. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/npmj.npmj_1_19DOI Listing
March 2019
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Common alternative diagnoses among a pediatric hospital-based cohort evaluated for tuberculosis in Karachi, Pakistan: The need for facilitated referral in tuberculosis clinics.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2019 Jan-Mar;8(1):42-47

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan; Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London WCIE 7HT, England, UK.

Background: Children evaluated for tuberculosis (TB) are often diagnosed with miscellaneous conditions that mimic TB. Knowledge of differentials informs policy on service provision through liaison with referral centers offering definitive diagnosis and treatment for common alternative disorders.

Methods: We reviewed medical records of children who were offered diagnostic testing for TB (culture or Xpert MTB/RIF) at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan to identify common alternative diagnoses among children who are evaluated for TB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_8_19DOI Listing
March 2019
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Comparison of Unyvero P55 Pneumonia Cartridge, in-house PCR and culture for the identification of respiratory pathogens and antibiotic resistance in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids in the critical care setting.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Medical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH16 4SA, UK.

Faster respiratory pathogen detection and antibiotic resistance identification are important in critical care due to the severity of illness, significant prior antibiotic exposure and infection control implications. Our objective was to compare the performance of the commercial Unyvero P55 Pneumonia Cartridge (Curetis AG) with routine bacterial culture methods and in-house bacterial multiplex real-time PCR assays. Seventy-four bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from patients admitted to a Scottish intensive care unit (ICU) over a 33-month period were tested prospectively by routine culture and viral PCR and retrospectively by Unyvero P55 and in-house bacterial PCR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-019-03526-xDOI Listing
March 2019
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Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Outcomes of Omadacycline in Women with Cystitis: Results from a Phase 1 Study.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Paratek Pharmaceuticals, Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Omadacycline, an aminomethylcycline antibiotic, is approved as once-daily intravenous and oral monotherapy for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, and is under development for treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI). This is a phase 1, randomized, open-label study of omadacycline in women with cystitis (defined as UTI symptoms and positive urine leukocyte esterase test). Patients received omadacycline for 5 days (Group 1: 200 mg intravenously on Day 1 then 300 mg orally every 24 hours [Q24h]; Group 2: 300 mg orally every 12 hours [Q12h] on Day 1 then 300 mg orally Q24h; Group 3: 450 mg orally Q12h on Day 1 then 450 mg orally Q24h). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02083-18DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Gut microbiota in HIV-pneumonia patients is related to peripheral CD4 counts, lung microbiota, and in vitro macrophage dysfunction.

Microbiome 2019 Mar 11;7(1):37. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA, 94143, USA.

Pneumonia is common and frequently fatal in HIV-infected patients, due to rampant, systemic inflammation and failure to control microbial infection. While airway microbiota composition is related to local inflammatory response, gut microbiota has been shown to correlate with the degree of peripheral immune activation (IL6 and IP10 expression) in HIV-infected patients. We thus hypothesized that both airway and gut microbiota are perturbed in HIV-infected pneumonia patients, that the gut microbiota is related to peripheral CD4+ cell counts, and that its associated products differentially program immune cell populations necessary for controlling microbial infection in CD4-high and CD4-low patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-019-0651-4DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Disseminated nocardiosis with Nocardia brasiliensis bacteremia in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis using tocilizumab.

J Infect Chemother 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Rheumatology, Iizuka, Japan.

Here, we present a case of disseminated nocardiosis, involving pneumonia, percutaneous abscess, and bacteremia, in a 67-year-old Japanese woman. She had also been treated for rheumatoid arthritis with prednisolone, methotrexate, and tocilizumab (interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor). Based on the 16S rRNA sequence analysis and a blast search, we identified the isolate as Nocardia brasiliensis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2019.02.005DOI Listing
March 2019
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Disseminated "Haemophilus quentini" infection in a patient with multiple myeloma - a case report and review of the literature.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Feb 10. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Central Laboratories, Ministry of Health, Jerusalem, Israel.

We describe a case report of a 56-year-old male with undiagnosed multiple myeloma who had severe sepsis associated with pneumonia, meningitis, polyarthritis, and osteomyelitis related to invasive "Haemophilus quentini" infection. The genus was misidentified as H. influenzae by the common bacterial identification systems including newly introduced syndromic PCR-based methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

[Features of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent hospitalized adults according to the causal agent].

Rev Med Chil 2018 Dec;146(12):1371-1383

Departamento de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Molecular biological techniques allow the identification of more pathogens associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Aim: To compare clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with CAP caused by different groups of pathogens.

Material And Methods: In a prospective study, immunocompetent adult patients hospitalized with CAP were tested for the presence of a broad range of possible respiratory pathogens using bacterial cultures, polymerase chain reaction, urinary antigen testing and serology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0034-98872018001201371DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Optimization and Characterization of a Larval Infection Model for Virulence Studies and the Evaluation of Therapeutics Against .

Front Microbiol 2019 21;10:311. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.

is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia. Infection is linked to high morbidity and mortality rates and antibiotic resistance within this pathogen is on the rise. Therefore, there is a need for novel antimicrobial therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394149PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Lifestyle risk factors, obesity and infectious disease mortality in the general population: Linkage study of 97,844 adults from England and Scotland.

Prev Med 2019 Mar 4;123:65-70. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; Charles Perkins Centre Epidemiology Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; Prevention Research Collaboration, School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

We examined associations between lifestyle variables and infectious disease mortality in a large general population cohort. A sample of 97,844 men and women (aged 47.1 ± 17. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.03.002DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Geographical and temporal variation in the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from patients hospitalized with bacterial pneumonia: results from 20 years of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997-2016).

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA, USA.

Background: The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program monitors the frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms from various infection types worldwide.

Methods: A total of 102 995 bacterial isolates were consecutively collected (one per patient) in 1997-2016 from 258 medical centres in North America (n = 44 999; 113 centres), Europe (n = 30 988; 61 centres from 22 nations), the Asia-Pacific region (APAC; n = 16 503; 67 centres from 12 nations) and Latin America (n = 10 505; 17 centres from 7 nations). Organisms were isolated from respiratory tract specimens and tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods in a central laboratory. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jac/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jac
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz074DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Pulmonary Sepsis.

J Intensive Care Med 2019 Mar 6:885066619833910. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

3 Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Loma Linda University Health, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Purpose:: To date, studies have provided conflicting results regarding the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) on sepsis-related outcomes. Our objective is to understand the impact of type 2 DM in bacterial pneumonia and sepsis-related intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes.

Methods:: Retrospective study using Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885066619833910DOI Listing
March 2019
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Bacteremic Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Ethiopian Children: Etiology, Antibiotic Resistance, Risk Factors, and Clinical Outcome.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Mar 23;6(3):ofz029. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Laboratory Bacteriology Research, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine the magnitude, etiology, and risk factors of CAP in children 5 years after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) 10 in Ethiopia.

Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study on the bacterial etiology and risk factors of CAP among children aged 0-15 years in 2 pediatric emergency departments in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6396085PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Peptidoglycan Recognition Protein 2 Regulates Neutrophil Recruitment Into the Lungs After Infection.

Front Microbiol 2019 19;10:199. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Respiratory Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Peptidoglycan (PGN) recognition proteins (PGLYRPs) are a highly conserved group of host defense proteins in insects and mammals that sense bacterial cell wall PGN and act bactericidally or cleave PGN by amidase function. () is one of the top five killers worldwide and causes, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6389715PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Complete Genome Sequences of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains HU-OH (Serotype 3, Sequence Type 183 [ST183]), NU83127 (Serotype 4, ST246), and ATCC 49619 (Serotype 19F, ST1203).

Microbiol Resour Announc 2019 Feb 28;8(9). Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogenic bacterium frequently found in the respiratory tract of humans and commonly causes pneumonia and bacterial meningitis. Here, the complete circular genome sequences of three S. pneumoniae strains with different serotypes and sequence types have been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01504-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395870PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Considerations for Dose Selection and Clinical Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics for the Development of Antibacterial Agents.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA.

In June 2017, The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, organized a workshop entitled "Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) for Development of Therapeutics against Bacterial Pathogens" to discuss details and critical parameters of various PK/PD methods and identify approaches for linking human pharmacokinetic (PK) data and drug efficacy analyses. The workshop participants included individuals from academia, industry and government. This and the accompanying mini-review on nonclinical PK/PD summarize the workshop discussions and recommendations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02309-18DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Redefining the sRNA Transcriptome in Serotype 2 Strain D39.

J Bacteriol 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA

(pneumococcus) is a major human respiratory pathogen and a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia worldwide. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), which often act by post-transcriptionally regulating gene expression, have been shown to be crucial for the virulence of and other bacterial pathogens. Over 170 putative sRNAs have been identified in TIGR4 strain (serotype 4) through transcriptomic studies, and a subset of these sRNAs have been further implicated in regulating pneumococcal pathogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00764-18DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Measles Pneumonitis.

Adv Respir Med 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

First Academic Department of Pneumonology, Hospital for Diseases of the Chest, "SOTIRIA", Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, Mesogeion 152, Athens, Greece.

Measles represents an acute febrile illness, potentially fatal and highly contagious through the respiratory mode of transmission. Fever combined with one of the following: cough, coryza, conjunctivitis are the first manifestations of the disease. Koplik's spots may also appear on the buccal mucosa providing an opportunity to set the diagnosis even before the appearance of rash. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/ARM.a2019.0010DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Guideline Adherence in Diagnostic Testing and Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Ann and Robert H Lurie Children's Hospital, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine emergency department (ED) physician adherence with the 2011 Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS) and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for outpatient management of children with mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of physicians on the American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Emergency Medicine Survey listserv was conducted. We evaluated ED physicians' reported adherence with the PIDS/IDSA guidelines through presentation of 4 clinical vignettes representing mild-to-moderate CAP of presumed viral (preschool-aged child), bacterial (preschool and school-aged child), and atypical bacterial (school-aged child) etiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001745DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Surveillance of omadacycline activity tested against clinical isolates from the United States and Europe: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Programme, 2017.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA, United States.

Objectives: Omadacycline is an aminomethylcycline antibacterial (oral and intravenous once-daily formulation) that recently (October 2018) received FDA approval for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) against selected organism groups. In this study, omadacycline and comparators were tested against 14000 non-duplicate bacterial isolates collected prospectively during 2017 from medical centres in Europe (EUR; 7000 isolates) and the United States (USA; 7000 isolates).

Methods: Omadacycline was tested by broth microdilution following CLSI M07-A11 (2018) methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2019.02.017DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Epidemiological characteristics of nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae strains among children with pneumonia in Chongqing, China.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 1;9(1):3324. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders; Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing, CSTC2009CA5002; Chongqing International Science and Technology Cooperation Center for Child Development and Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400014, China.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the most common respiratory pathogen worldwide. Nasopharyngeal carriage with S. pneumoniae is the major source of lower respiratory tract infection and horizontal spread among children. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-40088-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40088-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6397308PMC
March 2019
8 Reads

Two Novel Bacteriophages Improve Survival in Infection and Mouse Acute Pneumonia Models Infected with Extensively-drug-resistant .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Research Institute of Bacterial Resistance, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Extensively-drug-resistant (XDR-PA) is a life-threatening pathogen that causes serious global problems. Here, we investigated two novel bacteriophages (phages), Bφ-R656 and Bφ-R1836, , and to evaluate the potential of phage therapy to control XDR-PA clinical strains. Bφ-R656 and Bφ-R1836 belong to the family and exhibited broad host ranges which could lyse 18 (64%) and 14 (50%) of the 28 XDR-PA strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02900-18DOI Listing
March 2019
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Factors influencing mortality in hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by Gram-negative bacteria in China.

J Infect Public Health 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Institute of Respiratory Diseases of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality despite advances in antimicrobial therapy. The emergence of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) is of major concern. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology, microbiology, and predictors of infection-related 30-day mortality in HAP with GNB. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S18760341193008
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2019.02.014DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Clindamycin clearance during Cytosorb hemoadsorption: A case report and pharmacokinetic study.

Int J Artif Organs 2019 Feb 28:391398819831303. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

1 Adult Intensive Care Unit, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Panton-Valentine leucocidin producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections are rare but associated with very high mortality rates. We report the case of a 14-year-old patient with Panton-Valentine leucocidin producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection and Influenza B pneumonia requiring veno-arterial extra-corporeal membrane oxygenator for refractory shock. In the absence of response to conventional therapy, we have inserted a Cytosorb® cartridge within the extra-corporeal membrane oxygenator circuit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0391398819831303DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read