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    Simultaneous Streptococcus pneumoniae empyema in fraternal twins.
    IDCases 2017 26;9:9-11. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    University of Nevada, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Lied Clinic, 1524 Pinto Lane, Second Floor, 89106 Las Vegas, NV, United States.
    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial cause of community acquired pneumonia. The current trend in Streptococcus pneumoniae infections has been the rise of multi-drug resistance in the last two decades. We present the case of a pair of 16-month old African-American fraternal twins who presented to the emergency room on the same day for symptoms consistent with pneumonia. Read More

    Infections during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis and prevention.
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 2017 May 18. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Infectious Diseases Division, 'San Gerardo de' Tintori' Hospital, via Pergolesi 33, 20900 Monza, Italy.
    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life support technique used in patients with respiratory and/or cardiac failure. The ECMO circuit consists of vascular cannulae, a pump and an artificial lung. Infections are among the most common complications associated with ECMO and have a significant impact on the mortality rate. Read More

    [Cross-cultural adaptation of the community-acquired pneumonia score questionnaire in patients with mild-to-moderate pneumonia in Colombia].
    Biomedica 2017 Jan 24;37(1):104-110. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.
    Introduction: One of the strategies for the rational use of antibiotics is the use of the score for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP Score). This instrument clinically evaluates patients with community-acquired pneumonia, thereby facilitating decision making regarding the early and safe withdrawal of antibiotics.

    Objective: To generate a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire in Spanish. Read More

    Antimicrobial stewardship for hospitalized patients with viral respiratory tract infections.
    Am J Infect Control 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Division of Microbiology and Virology, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Infection Prevention and Control, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Background: The purpose of this study was to implement a targeted antimicrobial stewardship intervention for patients with a viral respiratory tract infection.

    Methods: This was a quasi-experimental before and after audit and feedback intervention of adult inpatients with a positive polymerase chain reaction for a respiratory virus in 2 acute care hospitals in Vancouver, Canada. Audit and feedback was implemented based on 2 criteria: microbiology (no positive bacterial cultures) and chest imaging (absence of pneumonia or consolidation on radiology dictation). Read More

    Myeloid-epithelial crosstalk coordinates synthesis of the tissue protective cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor during pneumonia.
    Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2017 May 18:ajplung.00482.2016. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Boston University School of Medicine
    In bacterial pneumonia, lung damage resulting from epithelial cell injury is a major contributor to the severity of disease, and in some cases, can lead to long-term sequelae, especially in the setting of severe lung injury or ARDS. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a member of the IL-6 cytokine family, is a critical determinant of lung tissue protection during pneumonia, but the cellular sources of LIF and the signaling pathways leading to its production in the infected lung are not known. Here, we demonstrate that lung epithelium, specifically alveolar type II cells, is the predominant site of LIF transcript induction in pneumonic mouse lungs. Read More

    The Alpha-Tocopherol Form of Vitamin E Boosts Elastase Activity of Human PMNs and Their Ability to Kill Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2017 3;7:161. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts UniversityBoston MA, USA.
    Despite the availability of vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a key determinant of disease course, because optimal host defense requires an initial robust pulmonary PMN response to control bacterial numbers followed by modulation of this response later in infection. The elderly, who manifest a general decline in immune function and higher basal levels of inflammation, are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia. Read More

    Bacterial infections and hepatic encephalopathy in liver cirrhosis-prophylaxis and treatment.
    Adv Med Sci 2017 May 14;62(2):345-356. Epub 2017 May 14.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Bytom, Poland.
    Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. Read More

    Regionally compartmentalized resident memory T cells mediate naturally acquired protection against pneumococcal pneumonia.
    Mucosal Immunol 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Massachusetts, USA.
    As children age, they become less susceptible to the diverse microbes causing pneumonia. These microbes are pathobionts that infect the respiratory tract multiple times during childhood, generating immunological memory. To elucidate mechanisms of such naturally acquired immune protection against pneumonia, we modeled a relevant immunological history in mice by infecting their airways with mismatched serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Read More

    Cold-chain-free Storable Hydrogel for Infant-friendly Oral Delivery of Amoxicillin for the Treatment of Pneumococcal Pneumonia.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017 May 17. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Pneumonia is the major cause of death in children under five, particularly in developing countries. Antibiotics such as amoxicillin greatly help in mitigating this problem. However, there is lack of an infant/toddler-friendly formulation for countries with limited clean water and electricity. Read More

    Changing diagnosis coding routines may confound the results of longitudinal childhood pneumonia studies.
    Acta Paediatr 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aim: This Swedish study compared the discharge diagnosis codes used for children up to the age of five hospitalised for acute lower respiratory tract infections before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2007.

    Methods: The International Classification of Diseases - 10(th) revision codes were used. We compared the discharge diagnosis codes at the Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital from 1 July 2005 to 30 June 2007 (n=1,127) and 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2013 (n=1,240) in relation to the diagnostic methods used. Read More

    Description of Chryseobacterium timonianum sp. nov., isolated from a patient with pneumonia.
    Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, Inserm 1095, AP-HM, URMITE, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.
    Using a polyphasic taxonomic strategy, an aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, yellow pigmented rod isolated from a sputum sample of a patient with pneumonia was characterised. This bacterial strain, designated G972(T), could not be identified by our systematic MALDI-TOF screening on a MicroFlex. This led to the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, which shows 98. Read More

    Efficacy and tolerability of chemotherapy in Chinese patients with AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: An observational study.
    Sci Rep 2017 May 15;7(1):1905. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Clinical and Research Center of Infectious Diseases, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100015, China.
    We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of chemotherapy in HIV-infected patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving CHOP ± R (n = 17) or Burkitt lymphoma (BL) receiving CODOX-M/IVAC ± R (n = 15). The study was conducted in Beijing Ditan Hospital from January 2009 to August 2015. The following grade 4 adverse effects were observed in BL and DLBCL patients, respectively: neutropenia (80% versus 47. Read More

    Enhancing Comparative Effectiveness Research With Automated Pediatric Pneumonia Detection in a Multi-Institutional Clinical Repository: A PHIS+ Pilot Study.
    J Med Internet Res 2017 May 15;19(5):e162. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States.
    Background: Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity. Administrative data are often used to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) with sufficient sample sizes to enhance detection of important outcomes. However, such studies are prone to misclassification errors because of the variable accuracy of discharge diagnosis codes. Read More

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Germany from 2004-2005 to 2014-2015.
    Int J Med Microbiol 2017 Apr 19. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Institute of Medical Microbiology, National Reference Center for Streptococci, University Hospital (RWTH), Aachen, Germany.
    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis worldwide. Prevalence of levofloxacin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates in Germany and associated mutations in the quinolone resistance determining regions (QRDRs), as well as serotype distribution and multi locus sequence types (MLST) are shown. Read More

    Biomarkers kinetics in the assessment of ventilator-associated pneumonia response to antibiotics - results from the BioVAP study.
    J Crit Care 2017 May 8;41:91-97. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Critical Care Center, Sabadell Hospital, Corporación Sanitaria Universitaria Parc Taulí, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Sabadell, Spain; CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), Spain. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Our aim was to evaluate the role of biomarker kinetics in the assessment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) response to antibiotics.

    Materials And Methods: We performed a prospective, multicenter, observational study to evaluate in 37 microbiologically documented VAP, the kinetics of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), mid-region fragment of pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM). The kinetics of each variable, from day 1 to 6 of therapy, was assessed with a time dependent analysis comparing survivors and non-survivors. Read More

    Quality of Case Management for Pneumonia and Diarrhea Among Children Seen at Health Facilities in Southern Malawi.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 May;96(5):1107-1116
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    AbstractPneumonia and diarrhea are leading causes of child deaths in Malawi. Guidelines to manage childhood illnesses in resource-poor settings exist, but studies have reported low health-care worker (HCW) adherence to guidelines. We conducted a health facility survey from January to March 2015 to assess HCW management of pneumonia and diarrhea in children < 5 years of age in southern Malawi, and to determine factors associated with case management quality. Read More

    Bacterial Nucleoid Occlusion: Multiple Mechanisms for Preventing Chromosome Bisection During Cell Division.
    Subcell Biochem 2017 ;84:267-298
    Department of Biochemistry, Duke University School of Medicine, 243 Nanaline H. Duke, Durham, NC, 27710, USA.
    In most bacteria cell division is driven by the prokaryotic tubulin homolog, FtsZ, which forms the cytokinetic Z ring. Cell survival demands both the spatial and temporal accuracy of this process to ensure that equal progeny are produced with intact genomes. While mechanisms preventing septum formation at the cell poles have been known for decades, the means by which the bacterial nucleoid is spared from bisection during cell division, called nucleoid exclusion (NO), have only recently been deduced. Read More

    Quantification of Pasteurella multocida in experimentally infected pigs using a real-time PCR assay.
    Res Vet Sci 2017 Apr 27;112:177-184. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
    French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES), Mycoplasmology & Bacteriology Unit, Ploufragan, France; University of Bretagne Loire, Ploufragan, France. Electronic address:
    The aim of the study was to quantify Pasteurella multocida in experimentally infected pigs using a new qPCR assay based on the sodA gene and validated with 35 P. multocida strains, including strains isolated from pigs with pneumonia, clinically healthy pigs (nasal cavities), and human infections. The specificity of the test was verified with a collection of 60 strains of bacterial species other than P. Read More

    Vital Signs: Deficiencies in Environmental Control Identified in Outbreaks of Legionnaires' Disease-North America, 2000-2014.
    Am J Transplant 2016 Oct;16(10):3049-3058
    Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA.
    Background: The number of reported cases of Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia caused by the bacterium Legionella, is increasing in the United States. During 2000-2014, the rate of reported legionellosis cases increased from 0.42 to 1. Read More

    Determining the Possible Etiology of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia Using a Clone Library Analysis in Japan.
    Tohoku J Exp Med 2017 05;242(1):9-17
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Unit of Translational Medicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences.
    Obtaining precise etiological information regarding causative bacteria is important for the proper use of antimicrobials in hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), which is associated with a high rate of mortality. The aim of this study was to comparatively investigate the bacterial diversity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in Japanese patients with HAP by the clone library method using the 16S rRNA gene. This study included Japanese patients with HAP who were treated at our hospital and referring hospitals. Read More

    Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma bovis Strain 08M.
    Genome Announc 2017 May 11;5(19). Epub 2017 May 11.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, People's Republic of China
    Mycoplasma bovis is a major bacterial pathogen that can cause respiratory disease, mastitis, and arthritis in cattle. We report here the complete and annotated genome sequence of M. bovis strain 08M, isolated from a calf lung with pneumonia in China. Read More

    Risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia among patients undergoing major oncological surgery for head and neck cancer.
    Front Med 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Department of Oral Surgery, Dental Hospital, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, 650031, China.
    Patients undergoing major oncological surgery for head and neck cancer (SHNC) have a particularly high risk of nosocomial infections. We aimed to identify risk factors for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients undergoing SHNC. The study included 465 patients who underwent SHNC between June 2011 and June 2014. Read More

    Coagulation factor XI improves host defence during murine pneumonia-derived sepsis independent of factor XII activation.
    Thromb Haemost 2017 May 11. Epub 2017 May 11.
    Ingrid Stroo, Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, G2-1051105 AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Tel.: +31 20 5666034, E-mail:
    Bacterial pneumonia, the most common cause of sepsis, is associated with activation of coagulation. Factor XI (FXI), the key component of the intrinsic pathway, can be activated via factor XII (FXII), part of the contact system, or via thrombin. To determine whether intrinsic coagulation is involved in host defence during pneumonia and whether this is dependent on FXII activation, we infected in parallel wild-type (WT), FXI knockout (KO) and FXII KO mice with two different clinically relevant pathogens, the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae and the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, via the airways. Read More

    Coinfection by Streptococcus phocae and cetacean morbillivirus in a short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis.
    Dis Aquat Organ 2017 May;124(3):247-252
    Veterinary Histology and Pathology, Institute of Animal Health, Veterinary College, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Trasmontana s/n, Arucas 35413, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.
    We describe gross, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of Streptococcus phocae and cetacean morbillivirus coinfection in a short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis. Major gross findings were cutaneous purulent nodules in the tail fluke, vegetative mitral valve endocarditis, and presumed postpartum pyometra. Histologic examination revealed bacterial septicemia characterized by widespread intravascular coccoid bacterial emboli. Read More

    Solithromycin (CEM-101): A New Fluoroketolide Antibiotic and Its Role in the Treatment of Gonorrhea.
    J Pharm Pract 2017 Jan 1:897190017708073. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 St John Fisher College Wegmans School of Pharmacy, Rochester, NY, USA.
    Solithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has undergone review for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Solithromycin is also being investigated and has shown promise for the treatment of gonorrhea. With increasing antibiotic resistance, the development of novel antibiotics to combat infections is essential. Read More

    Acute amiodarone toxicity causing respiratory failure.
    Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 2017 Mar;63(3):210-212
    Department of Chest Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey.
    A 66-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic with severe pneumonia. Bronchoscopy was performed due to clinical worsening despite antibiotics and diuretic therapy, respiratory failure and radiographic progression. Because bacterial cultures of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were negative and after using amiodarone for almost one month, we eliminated amiodarone from his medication regimen due to suspicion of amiodarone toxicity. Read More

    Short-course versus long-course oral antibiotic treatment for infections treated in outpatient settings: a review of systematic reviews.
    Fam Pract 2017 May 9. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Purpose.: To summarize the evidence comparing the effectiveness of short and long courses of oral antibiotics for infections treated in outpatient settings.

    Methods. Read More

    Epidemiological typing of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, which causes paediatric ventilator-associated pneumonia in Egypt.
    J Med Microbiol 2017 May 9;66(5):628-634. Epub 2017 May 9.
    4​Department of Pediatric Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Egypt.
    Purpose: Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common nosocomial pathogen that plays an important role in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This study aimed to define the clonal relatedness of K. pneumoniae strains isolated from paediatric VAP in addition to those isolated from environmental samples. Read More

    Aerosolized Amikacin as Adjunctive Therapy of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Caused by Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative Bacteria: A Single-center Randomized Controlled Trial.
    Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 May;130(10):1196-1201
    Department of Intensive Care Unit, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, China.
    Background: Aerosolized amikacin (AA) is a current option for the management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB), as it is reported that AA could increase the alveolar level of the drug without increasing systemic toxicity. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AA as an adjunctive therapy for VAP caused by MDR-GNB.

    Methods: In this single-center, double-blind study conducted in a 36-bed general Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in a tertiary hospital from June 2014 to June 2016, 52 ICU patients with confirmed MDR-GNB VAP were randomized to two groups (AA group, n = 27 and placebo group, n = 25). Read More

    Lipid testing in infectious diseases: possible role in diagnosis and prognosis.
    Infection 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ioannina School of Health Sciences-Faculty of Medicine, 45 110, Ioannina, Greece.
    Introduction: Acute infections lead to significant alterations in metabolic regulation including lipids and lipoproteins, which play a central role in the host immune response. In this regard, several studies have investigated the role of lipid levels as a marker of infection severity and prognosis.

    Scope Of Review: We review here the role of lipids in immune response and the potential mechanisms underneath. Read More

    Rapidly progressive hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia occurring early after bone marrow transplantation in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome.
    Rinsho Ketsueki 2017 ;58(4):323-325
    Department of Hematology, Kokura Memorial Hospital.
    A 44-year-old woman had repeated bacterial infections because of hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome; therefore, she underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Broad spectrum antibiotics were administered because she had bacterial infection and pneumonia 2 weeks before undergoing transplantation. On day19 after transplantation, she suddenly presented with hemoptysis. Read More

    [A multicenter randomized controlled study of Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in infants and young children].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 May;55(5):349-354
    West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in infants and young children. Method: From November 2012 to September 2013, ten research units of large teaching hospitals or children's hospitals participated in this multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial. Hospitalized young children aged between 1 month and 3 years (nongastrointestinal infection and antibiotic therapy required)were involved in our study. Read More

    High Prevalence of Humoral and Cellular Immunity to Influenza Viruses in Preschool Children Living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 11;4(1):ofx026. Epub 2017 Feb 11.
    Departments of Immunology and.
    Background: Influenza in children who reside in tropical and subtropical regions has until recently been regarded as insignificant. However, new evidence suggests that it significantly impacts hospitalization and promotes secondary bacterial coinfections. Ethiopia is situated in a subtropical area where influenza viruses are likely to circulate year round. Read More

    Influence of Antibiotics on the Detection of Bacteria by Culture-Based and Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 10;4(1):ofx014. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background: Specimens collected after antibiotic exposure may reduce culture-based bacterial detections. The impact on culture-independent diagnostic tests is unclear. We assessed the effect of antibiotic exposure on both of these test results among patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Read More

    Serial Procalcitonin as a Predictor of Bacteremia and Need for Intensive Care Unit Care in Adults With Pneumonia, Including Those With Highest Severity: A Prospective Cohort Study.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 4;4(1):ofw238. Epub 2017 Jan 4.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a prohormone that rises in bacterial pneumonia and has promise in reducing antibiotic use. Despite these attributes, there are inconclusive data on its use for clinical prognostication. We hypothesize that serial PCT measurements can predict mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and bacteremia. Read More

    Early Radiographic and Tomographic Manifestations of Legionnaires' Disease.
    Can Assoc Radiol J 2017 May 4. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Centre de recherche, Centre de pneumologie, Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:
    Purpose: Legionnaires' disease (LD) may occur sporadically or in the course of outbreaks, where the typical radiological manifestations of the disease may better be delineated. We took advantage of a rare community-based epidemic of LD (181 patients) that occurred in 2012 in Quebec City, Canada, to describe the radiographic features of LD and compare the its tomographic presentation with that of community-acquired pneumonia caused by common bacteria other than Legionella pneumophila.

    Methods: From the 181 individuals affected in the outbreak, we obtained the chest radiographs of 159 individuals (mean 63 ± 15 years of age) for detailed analysis; 33 patients had a computed tomography (CT) scan performed during the course of their illness. Read More

    Bacterial Pneumonia in Patients with Cancer: Novel Risk Factors and Management.
    Clin Chest Med 2017 Jun 1;38(2):263-277. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Unit 1100, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:
    Bacterial pneumonias exact unacceptable morbidity on patients with cancer. Although the risk is often most pronounced among patients with treatment-induced cytopenias, the numerous contributors to life-threatening pneumonias in cancer populations range from derangements of lung architecture and swallow function to complex immune defects associated with cytotoxic therapies and graft-versus-host disease. These structural and immunologic abnormalities often make the diagnosis of pneumonia challenging in patients with cancer and impact the composition and duration of therapy. Read More

    A three-step diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia at the emergency department using clinical predictors, C-reactive protein, and pneumococcal PCR.
    Eur J Pediatr 2017 Jun 4;176(6):815-824. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Recommendations for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) advocate that, in the absence of the clinical and laboratory findings typical of bacterial CAP, antibiotics are not required. However, the true value of the clinical and laboratory predictors of pediatric CAP still needs to be assessed. This prospective cohort study in three emergency departments enrolled 142 children with radiological pneumonia. Read More

    Validity of somatic cell count as indicator of pathogen-specific intramammary infections.
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 2017 Apr 13;88(0):e1-e10. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Department of Production Animal Studies, University of Pretoria.
    The objective of this study was to determine whether somatic cell count (SCC) was an effective test, with a sensitivity exceeding 85%, to determine species-specific bacterial infections. In addition, the relation between the SCC and various udder pathogen groups was investigated. SCC thresholds of greater than 200 000 cells/mL were used in quarter and greater than 150 000 cells/mL in composite milk samples. Read More

    Fis Regulates Type III Secretion System by Influencing the Transcription of exsA in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain PA14.
    Front Microbiol 2017 19;8:669. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology of the Ministry of Education, Department of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai UniversityTianjin, China.
    Fis is a versatile DNA binding protein in bacteria. It has been demonstrated in multiple bacteria that Fis plays crucial roles in regulating bacterial virulence factors and optimizing bacterial adaptation to various environments. However, the role of Fis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence as well as gene regulation remains largely unknown. Read More

    Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Costus afer Leaf Extract: Synthesis, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Electrochemical Properties.
    Molecules 2017 Apr 29;22(5). Epub 2017 Apr 29.
    Material Science Innovation and Modelling (MaSIM) Research Focus Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology, North-West University, Mafikeng Campus, Private Bag X2046, Mmabatho 2735, South Africa.
    Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical routes has been extensively reported. However, green synthesized metal nanoparticles are currently in the limelight due to the simplicity, cost-effectiveness and eco-friendliness of their synthesis. This study explored the use of aqueous leaf extract of Costus afer in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (CA-AgNPs). Read More

    Pulmonary strongyloidiasis: assessment between manifestation and radiological findings in 16 severe strongyloidiasis cases.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 May 2;17(1):320. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Respiratory, and Digestive Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa, 903-0215, Japan.
    Background: Strongyloidiasis is a chronic parasitic infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. Severe cases such as, hyperinfection syndrome (HS) and disseminated strongyloidiasis (DS), can involve pulmonary manifestations. These manifestations frequently aid the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis. Read More

    Predictive value of clinical and laboratory features for the main febrile diseases in children living in Tanzania: A prospective observational study.
    PLoS One 2017 2;12(5):e0173314. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Ambulatory Care and Community Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Background: To construct evidence-based guidelines for management of febrile illness, it is essential to identify clinical predictors for the main causes of fever, either to diagnose the disease when no laboratory test is available or to better target testing when a test is available. The objective was to investigate clinical predictors of several diseases in a cohort of febrile children attending outpatient clinics in Tanzania, whose diagnoses have been established after extensive clinical and laboratory workup.

    Method: From April to December 2008, 1005 consecutive children aged 2 months to 10 years with temperature ≥38°C attending two outpatient clinics in Dar es Salaam were included. Read More

    Advancing Homogeneous Antimicrobial Glycoconjugate Vaccines.
    Acc Chem Res 2017 May 2;50(5):1270-1279. Epub 2017 May 2.
    GSK Vaccines , Via Fiorentina 1, 53100 Siena, Italy.
    Since 2004, when the first synthetic glycoconjugate vaccine against the pneumonia and meningitis causing bacterium Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) approved for human use in Cuba was reported, 34 million doses of the synthetic vaccine have been already distributed in several countries under the commercial name of Quimi-Hib. However, despite the success of this product, no other synthetic glycoconjugate vaccine has been licensed in the following 13 years. As well as avoiding the need to handle pathogens, synthetic glycoconjugates offer clear advantages in terms of product characterization and the possibility to understand the parameters influencing immunogenicity. Read More

    Animal models of hospital-acquired pneumonia: current practices and future perspectives.
    Ann Transl Med 2017 Mar;5(6):132
    Molecular Pathology Group, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.
    Lower respiratory tract infections are amongst the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Especially in hospital settings and more particularly in critically ill ventilated patients, nosocomial pneumonia is one of the most serious infectious complications frequently caused by opportunistic pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most important causes of ventilator-associated pneumonia as well as the major cause of chronic pneumonia in cystic fibrosis patients. Read More

    The mask of acute bacterial pneumonia may disguise the face of tuberculosis.
    Electron Physician 2017 Mar 25;9(3):3943-3949. Epub 2017 Mar 25.
    Assistant Professor in Statistics, Department of Statistics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
    Introduction: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can present as acute pneumonia. Differentiation of tuberculous from non-tuberculous community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important challenge in endemic areas. The purpose of this study was the comparison between characteristics of tuberculous and non-tuberculous CAP patients. Read More

    [Correlation factor analysis on constipation in long-term ventilated patients in intensive care unit: a prospective observational cohort study].
    Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2017 Jan;29(1):75-80
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266003, Shandong, China. Corresponding author: Yu Bangxu, Email:
    Objective: To explore the factors associated with delayed defecation in long-term ventilated patients in intensive care unit (ICU) and their potential effect on prognosis.

    Methods: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted. The patients admitted to general ICU of the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from October 1st in 2013 to September 30th in 2015 who underwent mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥6 days were enrolled, and they were divided into early defecation group (< 6 days) and late defecation group (≥6 days). Read More

    [Efficiency of novel splash-proof ventilator circuit component on VAP and the colonization of multiple-drug resistant bacteria prevention in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation: a prospective randomized controlled intervention study with 318 patients].
    Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2017 Jan;29(1):16-20
    Department of Emergency Intensive Care Unit, the First Hospital of Jiaxing, Jiaxing 314000, Zhejiang, China. Corresponding author: Yu Huijie, Email:
    Objective: To investigate the efficiency of closed tracheal suction system (CTSS) using novel splash-proof ventilator circuit component on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the colonization of multiple-drug resistant bacteria (MDR) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) prevention.

    Methods: A prospective single-blinded randomized parallel controlled intervention study was conducted. 330 severe patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the First Hospital of Jiaxing from January 2014 to May 2016 were enrolled, and they were divided into open tracheal suction group, closed tracheal suction group, and splash-proof suction group on average by random number table. Read More

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