45,583 results match your criteria Pneumonia Bacterial


Health-Related Quality of Life as Measured by the 12-Item Short-Form Survey Among Adults With Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia who Received Either Lefamulin or Moxifloxacin in 2 Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Double-Dummy Clinical Trials.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Jun 3;7(6):ofaa209. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Nabriva Therapeutics US, Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Interest in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as part of benefit-risk assessment for new drug approvals is increasing. Lefamulin is the first intravenous (IV) and oral pleuromutilin antibiotic for treatment of adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was prospectively incorporated in its CABP trials (Lefamulin Evaluation Against Pneumonia [LEAP] 1 and 2) via the 12-Item Short-Form Survey (SF-12), a widely used PRO that measures general health status in 8 domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314585PMC

Fatal Superimposed Bacterial Sepsis in a Healthy Coronavirus (COVID-19) Patient.

Cureus 2020 May 29;12(5):e8350. Epub 2020 May 29.

Internal Medicine, Terna Medical College, Mumbai, IND.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease caused by the newly discovered coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). The novel coronavirus first emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has led to a global pandemic. The virus mainly spreads through respiratory droplets from an infected person, but environmental contamination can also act as a source of infection, making social distancing an important key in containing the spread of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325395PMC

Dried blood spots for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae detection and serotyping among children < 5 years old in rural Mozambique.

BMC Pediatr 2020 Jul 2;20(1):326. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Division of Bacterial Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, 30329, USA.

Background: Dried blood spots (DBS) have been proposed as potentially tool for detecting invasive bacterial diseases.

Methods: We evaluated the use of DBS for S. pneumoniae and H. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02209-3DOI Listing

Fatal outcome in a patient under immunosuppressant therapy infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Strongyloides stercoralis: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jul 2;20(1):470. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Hematology and Rheumatology, Kindai University School of Medicine, 377-2 Oonohigashi, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka, 589-0014, Japan.

Background: Strongyloidiasis is a gastrointestinal parasitic infection caused by percutaneous infection with Strongyloides stercoralis. Digestive symptoms such as diarrhea and abdominal pain are the main manifestation, but serious infections such as septicemia, purulent meningitis, and bacterial pneumonia may occur in individuals harboring human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) or who are immunocompromised. Although coinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis and HTLV-1 can lead to chronic strongyloidiasis and a disseminated form of the disease, there is a high rate of response to the anthelmintic ivermectin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05195-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331000PMC

Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for bacterial pneumonia in children - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2020 Jul 2:1-15. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

The predictive role of procalcitonin for childhood bacterial pneumonia, a leading cause of death, is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for childhood bacterial pneumonia. Major bibliographic databases were searched from inception through September 2019 using pre-defined index terms, including 'procalcitonin,' 'pneumonia' and 'children'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23744235.2020.1788719DOI Listing

Post-mortem histopathology of a pediatric brain after bilateral DBS of GPI for status dystonicus: case report and review of the literature.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Pediatric Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Unit, Children's Hospital A. Meyer-University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Purpose: To investigate the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes on the brain of a dystonic pediatric patient submitted to bilateral DBS of the globus pallidus internus (GPI).

Methods: An 8-year-old male patient underwent bilateral DBS of GPI for status dystonicus. He died 2 months later due to multiorgan failure triggered by bacterial pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04761-wDOI Listing

Haemolacria: a case of pseudomembranous conjunctivitis in a neonate.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jun 30;13(6). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Adolescent and Child Health, Mater Dei Hospital, Msida, Malta.

We report an unusual case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with haemolacria on a background of sticky conjunctival discharge. This was secondary to pseudomembranous conjunctivitis which responded well to systemic erythromycin. Early appropriate treatment is important to prevent progression of the ophthalmic infection, which could lead to blindness, and to prevent other manifestations of neonatal chlamydial infection, particularly pneumonia, which could be fatal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-235110DOI Listing

Endoribonuclease YbeY Is Essential for RNA Processing and Virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

mBio 2020 Jun 30;11(3). Epub 2020 Jun 30.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology and Technology of the Ministry of Education, Department of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin, China

Posttranscriptional regulation plays an essential role in the quick adaptation of pathogenic bacteria to host environments, and RNases play key roles in this process by modifying small RNAs and mRNAs. We find that the endonuclease YbeY is required for rRNA processing and the bacterial virulence in a murine acute pneumonia model. Transcriptomic analyses reveal that knocking out the gene results in downregulation of oxidative stress response genes, including the catalase genes and Consistently, the mutant is more susceptible to HO and neutrophil-mediated killing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00659-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327168PMC

Activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in lung tissue injury during the acute phase of PRRSV-1 infection with the virulent strain Lena.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jul 2;246:108744. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Anatomy and Comparative Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Córdoba, 14014, Córdoba, Spain.

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) plays a key role in porcine respiratory disease complex modulating the host immune response and favouring secondary bacterial infections. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) are the main cells supporting PRRSV replication, with CD163 as the essential receptor for viral infection. Although interstitial pneumonia is by far the representative lung lesion, suppurative bronchopneumonia is described for PRRSV virulent strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265841PMC

Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus Decreased Pasteurella multocida Adherence by Downregulating the Expression of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 on the Surface of Upper Respiratory Epithelial Cells.

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jul 2;246:108748. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Graduate School of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan; Department of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan; Center for Animal Disease Control, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan. Electronic address:

The synergistic infection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) and Pasteurella multocida (PM) may predispose cattle to develop severe pneumonia. Previously, we reported that BRSV infection significantly decreased PM adherence to the upper respiratory epithelial cells. It may allow bacteria to invade into the lower respiratory tract and lead to severe pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7265823PMC

Analysis of Infection Factors and Nerve Conduction Velocity in Patients with Chronic Glomerular Disease Based on Information Health Data and Electromyography.

Neurosci Lett 2020 Jun 27:135216. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Yinzhou People's Hospital, Ningbo, 315040, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:

The paper was to study the infection factors of chronic glomerular disease and peripheral nerve conduction under information health data to deepen the understanding of the disease. By collecting the data of existing patients, the basic situation of infection in patients with chronic glomerular disease was analyzed, and the infection factors of chronic glomerular disease were analyzed. At the same time, the electron microscope was used for assisted observation to understand the situation of different kidney diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135216DOI Listing

Bacterial and fungal coinfection among hospitalised patients with COVID-19: A retrospective cohort study in a UK secondary care setting.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Chelsea and Westminster NHS Foundation Trust, 369 Fulham Road, London, SW10 9NH. UK; North West London Pathology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Fulham Palace Road. London. W6 8RF. UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London. W12 0NN. UK.

Objectives: We investigate the incidence of bacterial and fungal co-infection of hospitalised patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 in this retrospective observational study across two London hospitals during the first UK wave of COVID-19.

Methods: A retrospective case-series of hospitalised patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by PCR was analysed across two acute NHS hospitals (February 20-April 20; each isolate reviewed independently in parallel). This was contrasted to a control group of influenza positive patients admitted during 2019/20 flu season. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.06.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320692PMC

Reasons for readmission after hospital discharge in patients with chronic diseases-Information from an international dataset.

PLoS One 2020 30;15(6):e0233457. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Dr Foster Telstra Health, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Chronic diseases are increasingly prevalent in Western countries. Once hospitalised, the chance for another hospitalisation increases sharply with large impact on well-being of patients and costs. The pattern of readmissions is very complex, but poorly understood for multiple chronic diseases. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233457PLOS

[Surfactant proteins A and D: role in the pathogenesis of community-acquired pneumonia and possible predictive perspectives].

Ter Arkh 2020 Apr 27;92(3):109-115. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Research Institute of Therapy and Preventive Medicine - branch of the Federal Research Center Institute of Cytology and Genetics.

Community-acquired pneumonia is one of the most common infectious diseases and remains one of the leading causes of death in this group of diseases. Studies of community-acquired pneumonia are extremely relevant for modern clinical practice. One of the important role in the pathogenesis of bacterial, viral, fungal invasion in the system of a human lung system belongs to the pulmonary surfactant, in particular, its proteins SP-A and SP-D. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2020.03.000275DOI Listing

[Etiology of severe community - acquired pneumonia in adults: results of the first Russian multicenter study].

Ter Arkh 2020 Jan 15;92(1):36-42. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

M.K. Ammosov Federal North-Eastern University.

Aim: to study the etiology of severe community - acquired pneumonia (SCAP) in adults in Russian Federation. SCAP is distinguished by high mortality and socio - economic burden. Both etiology and antimicrobial resistance are essential for appropriate antibiotic choice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.26442/00403660.2020.01.000491DOI Listing
January 2020

[One case of severely scalded patient with pneumonia and sepsis].

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2020 Jun;36(6):503-505

Pharmacological Research, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao 266011, China.

In February 2018, one 54-year-old male patient with severe scald complicated with pneumonia and sepsis was transferred to Qingdao Municipal Hospital from other hospital. Drugs including cephalosporin, vancomycin, and imipenem/cilastatin combined with ciprofloxacin were used successively for anti-infective treatment, with no obvious effect. Multiple bacterial culture results of sputum, blood, and wound exudate showed infection of extensively drug resistant . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn501120-20190221-00034DOI Listing

Inhibition of miR-497-3p Downregulates the Expression of Procalcitonin and Ameliorates Bacterial Pneumonia in Mice.

Inflammation 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Blood Collection Center, Cangzhou Central Hospital, No.16 Xinhua West Road, Cangzhou, 061001, Hebei, China.

Pneumonia is usually caused by a wide variety of pathogen infection. The underlying mechanism contributing to pneumonia remains elusive. Here, the role of microRNA-497-3p (miR-497-3p) was explored in bacterial pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-020-01279-wDOI Listing

Could there be a link between oral hygiene and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infections?

Br Dent J 2020 Jun;228(12):971-975

Orthodontics, Cambridge University Hospital Trust, Cambridge, CB1 00Q, UK.

On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organisation identified COVID-19, caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2, to be a global emergency. The risk factors already identified for developing complications from a COVID-19 infection are age, gender and comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity and cardiovascular disease. These risk factors, however, do not account for the other 52% of deaths arising from COVID-19 in often seemingly healthy individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41415-020-1747-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319209PMC

Pneumococcal superinfection in COVID-19 patients: A series of 5 cases.

Med Clin (Barc) 2020 Jun 5. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Hospital at Home Unit, Medical and Nurse Direction, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Spain; Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomédiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic the risk of misdiagnosis of other causes of respiratory infection is likely. In this work we aim to describe the clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of pneumococcal infection in COVID-19 patients.

Patients And Methods: Every COVID-19 patient presenting with concomitant pneumococcal pneumonia during March 2020 in a tertiary teaching Hospital In Barcelona, Spain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2020.05.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274636PMC

The rough colony morphotype of exhibits high virulence in human macrophages and mice.

J Med Microbiol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

The incidence of complex (MAC) pulmonary disease (MAC PD), a refractory chronic respiratory tract infection, is increasing worldwide. MAC has three predominant colony morphotypes: smooth opaque (SmO), smooth transparent (SmT) and rough (Rg). To determine whether colony morphotypes can predict the prognosis of MAC PD, we evaluated the virulence of SmO, SmT and Rg in mice and in human macrophages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001224DOI Listing

Rhabdomyolysis as an initial presentation in a patient diagnosed with COVID-19.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jun 24;13(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Pulmonary Medicine, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico City, Mexico.

The presence of rhabdomyolysis secondary to multiple infections has been reported, predominantly viral, but also bacterial and fungal. It is well known that COVID-19 can present a wide variety of complications during the course of infection; however, the presence of rhabdomyolysis as an initial condition has not been reported so far. We report a case of rhabdomyolysis as an initial presentation in a patient diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2) infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2020-236719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319710PMC

Concordance of early and late endpoints for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia trials.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Office of Infectious Diseases, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD.

Background: While there are ongoing regulatory convergence efforts, differences remain in primary endpoints recommended for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) trials. The US Food and Drug Administration recommends assessing CABP symptom resolution at an early time point (3-5 days after randomization). Other regulatory agencies recommend assessing overall clinical response at a later time point (5-10 days after therapy ends). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa860DOI Listing

Understanding Early and Late Endpoints in Registrational Trials of Community-acquired Bacterial Pneumonia.

Authors:
George H Talbot

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Talbot Advisors LLC, Anna Maria, FL USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa853DOI Listing

Achillea spp.: A comprehensive review on its ethnobotany, phytochemistry, phytopharmacology and industrial applications.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2020 Jun 25;66(4):78-103. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Education City, Qatar Foundation, Doha, P.O. Box 24144, Qatar.

The genus Achillea genus houses more than 100 species, a number of them are popularly used in traditional medicine for spasmodic gastrointestinal, gynecological and hepatobiliary disorders, hemorrhages, pneumonia, rheumatic pain, inflammation, wounds healing etc. Members of the genus contain a wide variety of volatile and non-volatile secondary metabolites, including terpenes, polyphenols, flavonoids and others. Multiple studies have assessed the biological effects and other aspects of Achillea spp. Read More

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June 2020
1.234 Impact Factor

Erratum: Clinical Features Predicting Mortality Risk in Patients With Viral Pneumonia: The MuLBSTA Score.

Authors:

Front Microbiol 2020 9;11:1304. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

[This corrects the article on p. 2752 in vol. 10, PMID: 31849894. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296221PMC

Respiratory outcomes of metformin use in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 24;10(1):10298. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No. 201, Sec. 2 Shi-Pai Rd., Chung-Cheng Build. 11F Room522, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan.

Few studies investigated the respiratory outcomes of metformin use in patients with coexistent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We want to compare the long-term respiratory endpoints of metformin use and nonuse in patients with T2DM and COPD. This retrospective cohort study enrolled patients with T2DM and COPD from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Program between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67338-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7314747PMC

A descriptive study of acute outbreaks of respiratory disease in Norwegian fattening pig herds.

Acta Vet Scand 2020 Jun 24;62(1):35. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Biosciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), P.O. Box 8146 Dep, 0033, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Respiratory diseases are major health concerns in the pig production sector worldwide, contributing adversely to morbidity and mortality. Over the past years there was a rise in reported incidents of respiratory disease in pigs in Norway, despite population wide freedom from Aujeszky´s disease, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, porcine respiratory corona virus and enzootic pneumonia. The main objective of this study was to investigate acute outbreaks of respiratory disease in conventional Norwegian fattening pig herds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13028-020-00529-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312110PMC

Interaction of Staphylococcus aureus and host cells upon infection of bronchial epithelium during different stages of regeneration.

ACS Infect Dis 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

The primary barrier that protects our lungs against infection by pathogens is a tightly sealed layer of epithelial cells. When the integrity of this barrier is disrupted as a consequence of chronic pulmonary diseases or viral insults, bacterial pathogens will gain access to underlying tissues. A major pathogen that can take advantage of such conditions is Staphylococcus aureus, thereby causing severe pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00403DOI Listing

Prevalence and clinical significance of common respiratory pathogens in the upper respiratory tract of children with community-acquired pneumonia in Zunyi, China.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University (The First People's Hospital of Zunyi City), Zunyi, Guizhou, P. R. China.

Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of common respiratory pathogens among children with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Zunyi City, Guizhou, China, and to assess whether the presence of common respiratory pathogens in patients is associated with disease severity.

Patients And Methods: This retrospective study assessed the prevalence of common respiratory viruses and bacteria in the upper respiratory tract of among infants and children aged 1 month to 5 years hospitalized with radiologically confirmed CAP between April 2017 and March 2018. Direct immunofluorescence assay and bacterial culture were used to identify viruses and bacteria in the upper airway specimens, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24922DOI Listing

Is there any supportive evidence for low dose radiotherapy for COVID-19 pneumonia?

Int J Radiat Biol 2020 Jun 24:1-19. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Radiation Safety Research Center, Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), 2-11-1 Iwado-kita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511, Japan.

Since early April 2020, there has been intense debate over proposed clinical use of ionizing radiation to treat life-threatening pneumonia in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. At least twelve relevant papers appeared by 20 May 2020. The radiation dose proposed for clinical trials are a single dose (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553002.2020.1786609DOI Listing

Clinical response to antibiotics in indigenous versus non-indigenous children under 5 years old with community-acquired pneumonia in Otavalo, Ecuador.

Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 2020 22;53:e20200038. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil.

Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study compares the clinical response to antimicrobials between indigenous and non-indigenous Kichwa children under 5 years old with CAP in Otavalo, Ecuador.

Methods: All children with CAP who met the inclusion criteria and were admitted at the San Luis de Otavalo Hospital between March 2017 and June 2018 were evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0037-8682-0038-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310356PMC

The rapid photoresponsive bacteria-killing of Cu-doped MoS.

Biomater Sci 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

The Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology by the Ministry of Education of China, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Bacterial infection is a serious public health issue because this may cause bacterial pneumonia and bacteria-infected sepsis. The conventional antibiotic therapy can cause bacterial resistance and other adverse effects. Herein, we designed a novel photoresponsive hybrid, in which MoS2 nanosheets were doped with copper ions (MoS2@Cu2+). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm00872aDOI Listing

An amphipathic peptide with antibiotic activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 23;11(1):3184. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Centre for Superbug Solutions, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, The University of Queensland, Queensland, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Peptide antibiotics are an abundant and synthetically tractable source of molecular diversity, but they are often cationic and can be cytotoxic, nephrotoxic and/or ototoxic, which has limited their clinical development. Here we report structure-guided optimization of an amphipathic peptide, arenicin-3, originally isolated from the marine lugworm Arenicola marina. The peptide induces bacterial membrane permeability and ATP release, with serial passaging resulting in a mutation in mlaC, a phospholipid transport gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16950-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311426PMC

The Response of to Hydrogen Sulfide Reveals Two Independent Persulfide-Sensing Systems and a Connection to Biofilm Regulation.

mBio 2020 Jun 23;11(3). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Chemistry, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA

is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that is the causative agent of several serious infections in humans, including pneumonia, sepsis, and wound and burn infections. is also capable of forming proteinaceous biofilms on both abiotic and epithelial cell surfaces. Here, we investigate the response of toward sodium sulfide (NaS), known to be associated with some biofilms at oxic/anoxic interfaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01254-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315123PMC

Development of a DNA microarray assay for rapid detection of fifteen bacterial pathogens in pneumonia.

BMC Microbiol 2020 Jun 23;20(1):177. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: The rapid identification of pathogenic bacteria is important for determining an appropriate antimicrobial therapy for pneumonia, but traditional bacterial culture is time-consuming and labourious. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a DNA microarray assay for the simultaneous detection of fifteen bacterial species directly from respiratory tract specimens in patients with pneumonia. These species included Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterobacter cloacae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cepacia, Legionella pneumophila and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-01842-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310556PMC

Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Patients With Coronavirus Disease-2019 in Shiyan City, China.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 22;10:284. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Department of Respiratory, Renmin Hospital, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, China.

To investigate the early epidemic of COVID-19, a total of 176 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Shiyan city, Hubei province, China were surveyed. Our data indicated that the rate of emergence of early confirmed COVID-19 cases in Hubei province outside Wuhan was dependent on migration population, and the second-generation of patients were family clusters originating from Wuhan travelers. Epidemiological investigation indicated that the reproductive number (R) under containment strategies was 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.00284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256435PMC

Guideline Recommendations for Empirical Antimicrobial Therapy: An Appraisal of Research Evidence for Clinical Decision-Making in Ethiopia.

Infect Dis Ther 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Debere Markos University, College of Health Science, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Introduction: The rapid spread of drug resistance is forcing standard treatment guidelines (STGs) to become more appropriate with due consideration of the evidence on the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) situation in Ethiopia. Therefore, we aimed to assess the local AMR recommendations in the STGs for empirical antibacterial prescriptions for the five common infectious syndromes. We also determined the quality of AMR reviews conducted in the country. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-020-00308-3DOI Listing

Molecular Targets in the Chemotherapy of Coronavirus Infection.

Authors:
O P Zhirnov

Biochemistry (Mosc) 2020 May;85(5):523-530

The Russian-German Academy of Medical and Biotechnological Sciences, Moscow, 121205, Skolkovo, Russia.

In the pathogenesis of the infectious process in the respiratory tract by SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 coronaviruses, two stages can be distinguished: early (etiotropic) and late (pathogenetic) ones. In the first stage, when the virus multiplication and accumulation are prevalent under insufficient host immune response, the use of chemotherapeutic agents blocking the reproduction of the virus is reasonable to suppress the development of the disease. This article considers six major chemotherapeutic classes aimed at certain viral targets: inhibitors of viral RNA polymerase, inhibitors of viral protease Mpro, inhibitors of proteolytic activation of viral protein S allowing virus entry into the target cell, inhibitors of virus uncoating in cellular endosomes, compounds of exogenous interferons, and compounds of natural and recombinant virus-neutralizing antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0006297920050016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232917PMC

Profiling COVID-19 pneumonia progressing into the cytokine storm syndrome: Results from a single Italian Centre study on tocilizumab versus standard of care.

J Clin Virol 2020 May 15;129:104444. Epub 2020 May 15.

Infectious Diseases Unit, ASUFC, Udine, Italy.

Objective: Approximately 5% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop a life-threatening pneumonia that often occurs in the setting of increased inflammation or "cytokine storm". Anti-cytokine treatments are being evaluated but optimal patient selection remains unclear, and the aim of our study is to address this point.

Methods: Between February 29 to April 6, 2020, 111 consecutive hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated in a single centre retrospective study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104444DOI Listing

Outcomes among HIV-positive patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

New York University Grossman School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York, NY.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preliminary data on SARS-CoV-2 infection suggests that some immunocompromised hosts experience worse outcomes. We performed a retrospective matched cohort study to characterize outcomes in HIV-positive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000002423DOI Listing

Diagnostic markers for community-acquired pneumonia.

Ann Transl Med 2020 May;8(9):609

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ohara Healthcare Foundation, Kurashiki Central Hospital, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan.

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the respiratory infectious diseases caused by not only bacteria, but also viruses. Antibiotic agents are needed to treat only bacterial but not viral CAP. In addition, there are some non-infectious respiratory diseases in the differential diagnosis of CAP, such as malignant diseases, interstitial lung diseases, pulmonary edema, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.02.182DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7290537PMC

Nationwide surveillance of bacterial respiratory pathogens conducted by the surveillance committee of japanese society of chemotherapy, the japanese association for infectious diseases, and the japanese society for clinical microbiology in 2016: General view of the pathogens' antibacterial susceptibility.

J Infect Chemother 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, Kumamoto, Japan.

The nationwide surveillance on antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial respiratory pathogens from the patients in Japan was conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy, the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases, and the Japanese Society for Clinical Microbiology in 2016. The isolates were collected from clinical specimens obtained from well-diagnosed adult patients with respiratory tract infections during the period between February 2016 and August 2016 by three societies. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted at the central reference laboratory according to the method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiac.2020.05.006DOI Listing

Performance and impact of a multiplex PCR in ICU patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia or ventilated hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Crit Care 2020 06 19;24(1):366. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Université de Paris, IAME, INSERM, Paris, F-75018, France.

Background: Early appropriate antibiotic therapy reduces morbidity and mortality of severe pneumonia. However, the emergence of bacterial resistance requires the earliest use of antibiotics with the narrowest possible spectrum. The Unyvero Hospitalized Pneumonia (HPN, Curetis) test is a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) system detecting 21 bacteria and 19 resistance genes on respiratory samples within 5 h. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-020-03067-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303941PMC

Beta galactosidase mediated bio-enzymatically synthesized nano-gold with aggrandized cytotoxic potential against pathogenic bacteria and cancer cells.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jun 3;209:111923. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P., India. Electronic address:

The current investigation reports bactericidal and cytotoxicity evaluation of bio-enzymatically formulated nano‑gold (AuNPs) using physiologically significant enzyme β galactosidase. The AuNPs were characterized using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The anti-pathogenic efficacy of AuNPs as a potential drug was observed against five contagious bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, group B Streptococcus, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumonia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2020.111923DOI Listing

Rationale for Evaluating PDE4 Inhibition for Mitigating against Severe Inflammation in COVID-19 Pneumonia and Beyond.

Isr Med Assoc J 2020 Jun;22(6):335-339

Department of Musculoskeletal Disease, Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Background: In the absence of definitive anti-viral therapy, there is considerable interest in mitigating against severe inflammatory reactions in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia to improve survival. These reactions are sometimes termed cytokine storm. PDE4 inhibitors (PDE4i) have anti-inflammatory properties with approved indications in inflammatory skin and joint diseases as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Read More

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Regulating drugs, medical devices, and diagnostic tests in the European Union: early lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic?

Eur Heart J 2020 06;41(23):2140-2144

Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa506DOI Listing

COVID-19: therapeutic approaches description and discussion.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2020 15;92(2):e20200466. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

University of Brasília, Department of Pharmacy, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology. Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Asa Norte, 70910-900 Brasília, DF, Brazil.

COVID-19 emerged in December 2019 in China, and since then, has disrupted global public health and changed economic paradigms. In dealing with the new Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the world has not faced such extreme global fragility since the "Spanish flu" pandemic in 1918. Researchers globally are dedicating efforts to the search for an effective treatment for COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202020200466DOI Listing

Protection against COVID-19 injury by qingfei paidu decoction via anti-viral, anti-inflammatory activity and metabolic programming.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 May 25;129:110281. Epub 2020 May 25.

Shanghai TCM-Integrated Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200082, China; Institute of Vascular Anomalies, Shanghai Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 200082, China. Electronic address:

Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPD), a multi-component herbal formula, has been widely used to treat COVID-19 in China. However, its active compounds and mechanisms of action are still unknown. Firstly, we divided QFPD into five functional units (FUs) according to the compatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247521PMC

Successful treatment of patients severely ill with COVID-19.

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2020 Jun;24(6):650-653

The Fifth People's Hospital of Suzhou, Infectious Disease Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.20.0232DOI Listing

Evaluating the use of a 22-pathogen TaqMan array card for rapid diagnosis of respiratory pathogens in intensive care.

J Med Microbiol 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

NHS GGC, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Department of Clinical Microbiology, New Lister Building, Alexandra Parade, Glasgow, UK.

Pneumonia is highly prevalent in intensive care units (ICUs), with high associated mortality. Empirical treatment prioritizes breadth of coverage while awaiting laboratory diagnosis, often at the expense of antimicrobial stewardship. Microarrays use multiple parallel polymerase chain reactions to enable a rapid syndromic approach to laboratory diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001218DOI Listing