48,193 results match your criteria Pneumonia Bacterial

Improvement of pneumococcal pneumonia diagnosis using quantitative real-time PCR targeting lytA in adult patients: A prospective cohort study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Infectious Diseases Unit, Hospital Universitari Mútua de Terrassa, Barcelona; Universitat Internacional de Catalunya. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the performance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the lytA gene (rtPCR-lytA) in plasma, urine and nasopharyngeal (NP) samples for the diagnosis of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (P-CAP).

Methods: Prospective observational study including all consecutive adult CAP patients from November 2015 to May 2017. P-CAP was defined if pneumococcus was identified using conventional methods (CM) and/or a positive rtPCR-lytA was detected in blood, urine or NP samples (NP cut-off ≥8000 copies/mL). Read More

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Prophylaxis and treatment of influenza: options, antiviral susceptibility, and existing recommendations.

GMS Infect Dis 2021 30;9:Doc02. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Section Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Jena University Hospital, Germany.

Influenza viruses of types A and B attack 5-10% of adults and 20-30% of children, thereby causing millions of acute respiratory infections in Germany annually. A significant number of these infections are associated with complications such as pneumonia and bacterial superinfections that need hospitalization and might lead to death. In addition to vaccines, drugs were developed that might support influenza prevention and that can be used to treat influenza patients. Read More

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Factors associated with the referral of children with severe illnesses at primary care level in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 Jun 10;11(6):e047640. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London, UK.

Context And Objective: Ethiopia's primary care has a weak referral system for sick children. We aimed to identify health post and child factors associated with referrals of sick children 0-59 months of age and evaluate the healthcare providers' adherence to referral guidelines.

Design: A cross-sectional facility-based survey. Read More

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Differential diagnosis of the association of gastrointestinal symptoms and ST segment elevation, in the absence of chest pain.

Oscar M P Jolobe

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Jun 4;49:137-141. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

British Medical Association, Flat 6 Souchay Court, 1 Clothorn Road, Manchester M20 6BR, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

This is a review of the underlying causes of the association of ST segment elevation and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia, in patients who do not have chest pain. The review was based on anecdotal reports in Googlescholar and Pubmed using the search terms, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, ST elevation, myocardial infarction, and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Those patients who did not have acute myocardial infarction as the cause of the association of ST segment elevation and gastrointestinal symptoms were compared with counterparts with similar symptoms who had well authenticated acute myocardial infarction or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy as the underlying cause of ST segment elevation. Read More

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Talaromyces marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients in mainland China.

Mycoses 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Dermatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Talaromyces marneffei, formerly known as Penicillium marneffei, is a significant emerging pathogenic fungus in Southeast Asia which can generate life-threatening systemic infections. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is considered as the most underlying disease among systemic infections. However, infections due to T. Read More

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Case Report: A Severe and Multi-Site Infection Rapidly and Precisely Identified by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:669552. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

genus is an aerobic, gram-positive, and opportunistic pathogen, which mainly affects cell-mediated immunosuppressed patients. Early diagnosis and treatment greatly improve prognosis. However, the limitation of golden standard-bacterial culture exists. Read More

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Identification of genes required for the fitness of Rhodococcus equi during the infection of mice via signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis.

J Vet Med Sci 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Animal Hygiene, School of Veterinary Medicine, Kitasato University.

Rhodococcus equi is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium that causes pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised people. In the present study, signature-tagged transposon mutagenesis was applied for the negative selection of R. equi mutants that cannot survive in vivo. Read More

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Early Laboratory Preparedness of the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency and Response to Unknown Pneumonia Outbreak from Wuhan, China, in January 2020.

Ann Lab Med 2021 Nov;41(6):532-539

Division of High-Risk Pathogens, Bureau of Infectious Diseases Diagnosis Control, Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency, Cheongju, Korea.

We report the response process of the Laboratory Analysis Task Force (LATF) for Unknown Disease Outbreaks (UDOs) at the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA) during January 2020 to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which developed as a UDO in Korea. The advanced preparedness offered by the laboratory diagnostic algorithm for UDOs related to respiratory syndromes was critical for the rapid identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and enabled us to establish and expand the diagnostic capacity for COVID-19 on a national scale in a timely manner. Read More

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November 2021

Management of urinary tract infections and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jun 9:e14475. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Near East University Northern Cyprus, Nicosia.

Aim Of Study: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections affecting individuals of different ages worldwide. Antimicrobial agents are usually the first-line treatment for UTIs, and the use of the prescribed antibiotic is escalating, resulting in increased rates of bacterial resistance and UTI recurrence. The current study aimed to identify the causative bacteria in Jordan, to explore their resistance pattern to antibiotics, and to describe drug-related problems associated with UTI management. Read More

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COVID-19 Infection and Acute Kidney Injury: Cause or Complication?

Blood Purif 2021 Jun 9:1-4. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

San Carlo Borromeo Hospital, ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, Milan, Italy.

Management of COVID-19 infection is the trend topic in the scientific community and case identification is a key step to contain the pandemic. While pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome represent the typical severe manifestations of the disease, atypical presentations pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for physicians, especially when diagnostic tests are repeatedly negative. Clinical picture of COVID-19 patients is often complicated by bacterial infections or thrombotic events. Read More

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[Reentry High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema in Pediatric Patients].

Andes Pediatr 2021 Apr;92(2):257-262

Departamento de Pediatría, Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Colombia.

Introduction: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) occurs when a person without adequate pulmonary adap tation ascends above 2500 meters above sea level. Usually, it is more frequent among those living at low altitudes, however, it can occur in people who live at high altitudes and descend to lower ones for a short time, which is called re-entry HAPE.

Objective: To describe the clinical course, diagnosis, and management of re-entry HAPE in pediatric patients, and to achieve an early approach to reduce complications. Read More

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Heparin-based blood purification attenuates organ injury in baboons with S. pneumoniae pneumonia.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, grid.414179.eDuke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the use of antibiotics, and novel therapies are urgently needed. Building on previous work, we aimed to 1) develop a baboon model of severe pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis with organ dysfunction; and 2) test the safety and efficacy of a novel extracorporeal blood filter to remove pro-inflammatory molecules and improve organ function.

Methods: After a dose-finding pilot study, twelve animals were inoculated with S. Read More

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Secretory Phospholipase A Enzymes in Acute Lung Injury.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

The secretory phospholipase A (sPLA) group of secreted enzymes hydrolyze phospholipids and lead to the production of multiple biologically active lipid mediators. sPLAs and their products (e.g. Read More

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Dual attention multiple instance learning with unsupervised complementary loss for COVID-19 screening.

Med Image Anal 2021 May 24;72:102105. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, South Korea. Electronic address:

Chest computed tomography (CT) based analysis and diagnosis of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) plays a key role in combating the outbreak of the pandemic that has rapidly spread worldwide. To date, the disease has infected more than 18 million people with over 690k deaths reported. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the current gold standard for clinical diagnosis but may produce false positives; thus, chest CT based diagnosis is considered more viable. Read More

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Airway Administration of Flagellin Regulates the Inflammatory Response to .

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

INRAE, 27057, Infectiologie et Santé Publique, Nouzilly, France;

Excessive lung inflammation and airway epithelium damage are hallmarks of human inflammatory lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Enhancement of innate immunity provides protection against pathogens while reducing lung-damaging inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying innate immunity-mediated protection in the lung remain mysterious, in part because of the lack of appropriate animal models for these human diseases. Read More

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Growth and Stress Tolerance Comprise Independent Metabolic Strategies Critical for Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

mBio 2021 Jun 8:e0081421. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that leads to high morbidity and mortality. Although S. aureus produces many factors important for pathogenesis, few have been validated as playing a role in the pathogenesis of S. Read More

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Impact and barriers of a pharmacist-led practice with computerized reminders on intravenous to oral antibiotic conversion for community-acquired pneumonia inpatients.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

What Is Known And Objective: Intravenous to oral (IV-PO) antibiotic conversion, one of the critical elements in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS), is not well implemented in China. Studies on the strategy to apply the IV-PO conversion are needed. Our objective was to evaluate the impact and its barriers of a pharmacist-led practice with computerized reminders on IV-PO antibiotic conversion for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) inpatients. Read More

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An AI-based auxiliary empirical antibiotic therapy model for children with bacterial pneumonia using low-dose chest CT images.

Jpn J Radiol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Guizhou University, School of Medicine, Guiyang, 550000, Guizhou Province, China.

Purpose: To construct an auxiliary empirical antibiotic therapy (EAT) multi-class classification model for children with bacterial pneumonia using radiomics features based on artificial intelligence and low-dose chest CT images.

Materials And Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from children with pathogen-confirmed bacterial pneumonia including Gram-positive bacterial pneumonia (122/389, 31%), Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia (159/389, 41%) and atypical bacterial pneumonia (108/389, 28%) from January 1 to June 30, 2019. Nine machine-learning models were separately evaluated based on radiomics features extracted from CT images; three optimal submodels were constructed and integrated to form a multi-class classification model. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 and coinfection: A case of unusual bronchoesophageal fistula.

J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis 2021 Aug 27;24:100247. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Pathology, Cayenne Hospital Center Andrée Rosemon, F-97300 Cayenne, French Guiana.

Tuberculosis is a treatable and curable bacterial disease caused by that most often affects the lung. Since 2018, it has become the leading cause of death from infectious diseases. Tuberculosis is a public health problem in French Guiana. Read More

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Effect of treatment of pneumonia and otitis media with tildipirosin or florfenicol + flunixin meglumine on health and upper respiratory tract microbiota of preweaned Holstein dairy heifers.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6401. Electronic address:

The objective of this randomized clinical study was to compare the effect of 2 antimicrobial interventions, tildipirosin or florfenicol + flunixin meglumine, used for treatment of pneumonia and extralabel treatment for otitis on health parameters and upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota of preweaned Holstein calves. Housed preweaned Holstein heifers diagnosed with either otitis or pneumonia were assigned into 1 of 2 treatment groups, receiving a single subcutaneous injection of either 4 mg/kg of tildipirosin (TLD; n = 444) or 40 mg/kg of florfenicol combined with 2.2 mg/kg of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, flunixin meglumine (FLF; n = 442). Read More

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Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with COVID-19: clinical features and potential inference with lung dysbiosis.

Crit Care 2021 06 7;25(1):197. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Dipartimento Di Scienze Biotecnologiche Di Base, Cliniche Intensivologiche E Perioperatorie, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Background: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and requiring mechanical ventilation are at risk of ventilator-associated bacterial infections secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study aimed to investigate clinical features of Staphylococcus aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (SA-VAP) and, if bronchoalveolar lavage samples were available, lung bacterial community features in ICU patients with or without COVID-19.

Methods: We prospectively included hospitalized patients with COVID-19 across two medical ICUs of the Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Read More

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Outcomes of Adult Patients in the Intensive Care Unit with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia Who Received an Active Anti-Pseudomonal β-Lactam: Does "S" Equal Success in the Presence of Resistance to other Anti-Pseudomonal β-Lactams?

Pharmacotherapy 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Kaiser Permanente Southern California Department of Research & Evaluation, Pasadena, CA, USA.

Background: The most commonly prescribed antibiotics for patients with hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP) due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the conventional anti-pseudomonal β-lactams (APBLs) (i.e., ceftazidime, cefepime, meropenem, or piperacillin-tazobactam). Read More

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Population Pharmacokinetics of Meropenem and Vaborbactam Based on Data from Non-Infected Subjects and Infected Patients.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Jun 7:AAC0260620. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute for Clinical Pharmacodynamics, Inc. Schenectady, NY.

Meropenem-vaborbactam is a broad-spectrum carbapenem-beta-lactamase inhibitor combination approved in the USA and Europe to treat patients with complicated urinary tract infections and in Europe, other serious bacterial infections, including hospital- acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Population pharmacokinetic (PK) models were developed to characterize the time-course of meropenem and vaborbactam using pooled data from two Phase 1 and two Phase 3 studies. Multi-compartment disposition model structures with linear elimination processes were fit to the data using NONMEM 7. Read More

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Comparative in vivo activity of human-simulated plasma and epithelial lining fluid exposures of WCK 5222 (cefepime/zidebactam) against KPC- and OXA-48-like-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the neutropenic murine pneumonia model.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, CT, USA.

Objectives: This was a comparative assessment of WCK 5222 (cefepime/zidebactam 2/1 g as a 1 h infusion every 8 h) efficacy using human-simulated plasma and ELF exposures against serine-carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the neutropenic murine pneumonia model.

Methods: Ten clinical isolates were utilized: eight were serine-carbapenemase-producing (KPC, n = 4; OXA-48-like, n = 4) Enterobacterales with WCK 5222 MICs (1:1) ranging from 1 to 4 mg/L; and two were previously studied MDR isolates serving as quality controls. Lungs of mice were inoculated with 50 μL of 107 cfu/mL. Read More

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Human Q Fever on the Guiana Shield and Brazil: Recent Findings and Remaining Questions.

Curr Trop Med Rep 2021 Jun 1:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Departamento de Tuberculosis, Instituto de Biomedicina, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.

Purpose Of Review: In this review, we report on the state of knowledge about human Q fever in Brazil and on the Guiana Shield, an Amazonian region located in northeastern South America. There is a contrast between French Guiana, where the incidence of this disease is the highest in the world, and other countries where this disease is practically non-existent.

Recent Findings: Recent findings are essentially in French Guiana where a unique strain MST17 has been identified; it is probably more virulent than those usually found with a particularly marked pulmonary tropism, a mysterious animal reservoir, a geographical distribution that raises questions. Read More

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Management of infectious complications associated with coronavirus infection in severe patients admitted to ICU.

Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Valencia, España.

Infections have become one of the main complications of patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia admitted in ICU. Poor immune status, frequent development of organic failure requiring invasive supportive treatments, and prolonged ICU length of stay in saturated structural areas of patients are risk factors for infection development. The Working Group on Infectious Diseases and Sepsis GTEIS of the Spanish Society of Intensive Medicine and Coronary Units SEMICYUC emphasizes the importance of infection prevention measures related to health care, the detection and early treatment of major infections in the patient with SARS-CoV-2 infections. Read More

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Legionnaires' disease arising with hirsutism: case report of an extremely confusing event.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 6;21(1):532. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine, Occupational Health Division, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Background: Legionella bacteria is a common cause of pneumonia, but the infection may affect several organs in the most serious cases. A systemic involvement ab initio could be non-specific, leading to a diagnostic misinterpretation.

Case Presentation: A 33-year-old woman had been complaining of mental confusion, restlessness, aggressiveness, and, subsequently, hirsutism. Read More

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Evaluation of five Legionella urinary antigen detection kits including new Ribotest Legionella for simultaneous detection of ribosomal protein L7/L12.

J Infect Chemother 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Care, Tenri Health Care University, Tenri, Japan.

Urinary antigen tests are a widely used rapid diagnostic method for Legionella pneumonia. However, conventional urinary antigen tests are unable to detect anything other than Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. The Ribotest Legionella (Ribotest) can detect all serogroups by using antibodies recognizing L. Read More

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