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    40712 results match your criteria Pneumonia Bacterial

    1 OF 815

    Recurrent wheezing in neonatal pneumonia is associated with combined infection with Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
    Sci Rep 2018 Jan 17;8(1):995. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing, 400014, China.
    Both viral and bacterial infections can be associated with wheezing episodes in children; however, information regarding combined infections with both viral and bacterial pathogens in full term neonates is limited. We sought to investigate the effects of viral-bacterial codetection on pneumonia severity and recurrent wheezing. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on neonates admitted to our hospital with pneumonia from 2009 to 2015. Read More

    [Report of antimicrobial resistance surveillance program in Chinese children in 2016].
    Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Jan;56(1):29-33
    Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Clinical Laboratory, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 201102, China.
    Objective: To analyze the antimicrobial resistance profile in Chinese children. Methods: This was a prevalence survey. From January 1 through December 31, 2016, the isolates were collected from 10 tertiary children hospitals in China. Read More

    Pneumococcal Community-Acquired Pneumonia Detected by Serotype-Specific Urinary Antigen Detection Assays.
    Clin Infect Dis 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.
    Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is considered the leading bacterial cause of pneumonia in adults. Yet, it was not commonly detected by traditional culture-based and conventional urinary testing in a recent multicenter etiology study of adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We used novel serotype-specific urinary antigen detection (SSUAD) assays to determine whether pneumococcal cases were missed by traditional testing. Read More

    Prevalence of Rhodococcus equi from the nasal cavity of 1,010 apparently healthy horses.
    Equine Vet J 2018 Jan 17. Epub 2018 Jan 17.
    Laboratory of Bacteriology, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Av. Roraima nº 1000, Cidade Universitária, Bairro Camobi, Santa Maria - RS, CEP, 97105-900, Brazil.
    Background: Rhodococcus equi is an important cause of foal pneumonia. While its isolation from different sources has been widely evaluated, there is a need to better understand the R. equi epidemiology from samples of the nasal cavity of healthy horses. Read More

    Identification of In-Vitro Red Fluorescent Protein with Antipathogenic Activity from the Midgut of the Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L.).
    Protein Pept Lett 2018 Jan 15. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    University of Agricultural Sciences - Department of Plant Biotechnology Bangalore, Karnataka. India.
    Biotic stress affects all organisms, including the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) which also has a plethora of defense mechanisms against the infecting pathogens. The midgut plays an important role as a natural barrier and source of innate immunity. Read More

    Pediatric Community Acquired Pneumonia.
    S D Med 2017 Dec;70(12):557-561
    Sanford Children's Hospital, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.
    Pediatric community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently encountered by medical providers and is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission. CAP is known to cause significant morbidity and mortality, causing greater than 2 million deaths annually worldwide in children younger than five years old. The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) released guidelines in 2011 with recommendations regarding appropriate diagnosis and management of community acquired pneumonia for children greater than 3 months age, with the goal of assisting providers in clinical decision making. Read More

    The Added Value of the Lateral Chest Radiograph for Diagnosing Community Acquired Pneumonia in the Pediatric Emergency Department.
    Isr Med Assoc J 2018 Jan;1(20):5-8
    Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Safra Children's Hospital, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.
    Background: Opinions differ as to the need of a lateral radiograph for diagnosing community acquired pneumonia in children referred to the emergency department. A lateral radiograph increases the ionizing radiation burden but at the same time may improve specificity and sensitivity in this population.

    Objectives: To determine the value of the frontal and lateral chest radiographs compared to frontal view stand-alone images for the management of children with suspected community acquired pneumonia seen in a pediatric emergency department. Read More

    Preparation and evaluation of antibacterial potential of Pithecellobium dulce root extract against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
    Microb Pathog 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Laboratory of Organic Synthesis, Department of Chemistry, Govt. Degree College for Women Baramulla, Jammu & Kashmir 193101, India. Electronic address:
    In the present study hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of Pithecellobium dulce root were prepared using soxhlet extractor. The extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activity against one Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and three Gram negative (Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter aceti, Klebsiella pneumoniae) strains. Disc diffusion method revealed promising antibacterial activity of the extracts prepared in polar solvents (ethyl acetate and ethanol) compared to non-polar solvents (hexane and benzene). Read More

    Lack of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products leads to less severe staphylococcal skin infection but more skin abscesses and prolonged wound healing.
    J Infect Dis 2018 Jan 10. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Background: Lack of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) ameliorates several infections including Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) pneumonia. We sought to investigate the role of RAGE in staphylococcal skin infection in mice. Read More

    Pathophysiology of Escherichia coli pneumonia: Respective contribution of pathogenicity islands to virulence.
    Int J Med Microbiol 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    IAME, UMR 1137, INSERM, Paris Diderot University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France; AP-HP, Louis Mourier Hospital, Intensive Care Unit, Colombes, France. Electronic address:
    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains the most frequent life-threatening nosocomial infection. Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli are increasingly involved. If a cumulative effect of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) has been shown for E. Read More

    Respiratory comorbidities and risk of mortality in hospitalized patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
    Respir Investig 2018 Jan 23;56(1):64-71. Epub 2017 Dec 23.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1, Iseigaoka, Yahatanishiku, Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka 807-8555, Japan; Second Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 1-7-1 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8501, Japan.
    Background: Respiratory comorbidities are frequently associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, little is known about their prognostic impact in hospitalized patients with IPF. We examined the impact of respiratory comorbidities on the mortality rates of hospitalized patients with IPF using a Japanese nationwide database. Read More

    Neutrophil infiltration to the brain is platelet-dependent, and is reversed by blockade of platelet GPIbα.
    Immunology 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.
    Neutrophils are key components of the innate immune response, providing host defence against infection and being recruited to non-microbial injury sites. Platelets act as a trigger for neutrophil extravasation to inflammatory sites but mechanisms and tissue-specific aspects of these interactions are currently unclear. Here, we use bacterial endotoxin in mice to trigger an innate inflammatory response in different tissues and measure neutrophil invasion with or without platelet reduction. Read More

    A Collaborative Approach to Improve Consistent Use of Procalcitonin in Lower-Respiratory-Tract Infections.
    Ann Pharmacother 2018 Jan 1:1060028017753411. Epub 2018 Jan 1.
    2 Saint Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA.
    Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a biomarker that can help differentiate bacterial from viral infections and has been extensively studied in patients with sepsis and pneumonia to guide antibiotic therapy. However, there is poor adherence to prescribed algorithms when used to discontinue antibiotics in the real world. A quality improvement project was implemented to increase consistent use of PCT. Read More

    Factors associated with hospital mortality in renal transplant patients admitted to the intensive care unit with acute respiratory failure.
    J Bras Nefrol 2017 Oct-Dec;39(4):433-440
    Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Enfermagem, São Paulo - SP, Brazil.
    Introduction: The lungs are often involved in a variety of complications after kidney transplantation. Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is one of the most serious manifestations of pulmonary involvement.

    Objective: To describe the main causes of ARF in kidney transplant patients who require intensive care and identify the factors associated with mortality. Read More

    The Infectious and Non-Infectious Etiology, Clinical Picture and Outcome of Neutropenia in Immunocompetent Hospitalized Children.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Department, Public Health Department, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
    Background: Acquired neutropenia in immunocompetent children is common and its differential diagnosis ranges from benign causes to life-threatening diseases. We described the etiology, clinical picture and outcome of new onset neutropenia in immunocompetent children assessed in the emergency department and hospitalized at our medical center.

    Patients And Methods: Previously healthy children admitted with neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] <1. Read More

    An antibiotic stewardship exercise in the ICU: building a treatment algorithm for the management of ventilator-associated pneumonia based on local epidemiology and the 2016 Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines.
    Infect Drug Resist 2018 22;11:17-28. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Faculty of Medicine, Beirut Arab University.
    Introduction: Management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most common infection in patients on mechanical ventilation, should be tailored to local microbiological data. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility patterns of organisms causing VAP to develop a treatment algorithm based on these findings and evidence from the literature.

    Materials And Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the microbiological etiology of VAP in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a Lebanese tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to July 2016. Read More

    Pneumolysin induced mitochondrial dysfunction leads to release of mitochondrial DNA.
    Sci Rep 2018 Jan 9;8(1):182. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases and Respiratory Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.pn.) is the most common bacterial pathogen causing community acquired pneumonia. Read More

    Streptococcus pneumoniae Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Dispersion and the Transition from Colonization to Invasive Disease.
    MBio 2018 Jan 9;9(1). Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA
    Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are ubiquitous upper respiratory opportunistic pathogens. Individually, these Gram-positive microbes are two of the most common causative agents of secondary bacterial pneumonia following influenza A virus infection, and they constitute a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, rates of cocolonization with both of these bacterial species have increased, despite the traditional view that they are antagonistic and mutually exclusive. Read More

    Intestinal Dysbiosis Secondary to Proton-Pump Inhibitor Use.
    Digestion 2018 Jan 6;97(2):195-204. Epub 2018 Jan 6.
    Department of Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
    Background: Gut dysbiosis associated with the use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) has been found to lead to the occurrence of infectious and inflammatory adverse events. A longitudinal observational cohort study has demonstrated the heightened risk of death associated with PPI use.

    Summary: We evaluated meta-analyses to determine the association between PPI use and infectious and inflammatory diseases. Read More

    Synthesized Heparan Sulfate Competitors Attenuate Pseudomonas aeruginosa Lung Infection.
    Int J Mol Sci 2018 Jan 9;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Diseases, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano 20132, Italy.
    Several chronic respiratory diseases are characterized by recurrent and/or persistent infections, chronic inflammatory responses and tissue remodeling, including increased levels of glycosaminoglycans which are known structural components of the airways. Among glycosaminoglycans, heparan sulfate (HS) has been suggested to contribute to excessive inflammatory responses. Here, we aim at (i) investigating whether long-term infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the most worrisome threat in chronic respiratory diseases, may impact HS levels, and (ii) exploring HS competitors as potential anti-inflammatory drugs during P. Read More

    Ethyl 3-oxo-2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-3-yl)butanoate Derivatives: Anthelmintic and Cytotoxic Potentials, Antimicrobial, and Docking Studies.
    Front Chem 2017 12;5:119. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Department of Pharmacy, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Pakistan.
    Development of multidrug resistance (MDR) to antimicrobial, antiparasitic and chemotherapeutic agents is a global challenge for the scientific community. Despite of the emergence of MDR pathogens, the development of novel and more effective drugs is slow and scientist even speculate that we are going back the pre-antibiotic era. This work aims to study and evaluate the preliminary antibacterial, anthelmintic and cytotoxic potentials of ethyl 3-oxo-2-(2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-3-yl)butanoates. Read More

    Port d'Entrée for Respiratory Infections - Does the Influenza A Virus Pave the Way for Bacteria?
    Front Microbiol 2017 21;8:2602. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Infection Biology, Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Bacterial and viral co-infections of the respiratory tract are life-threatening and present a global burden to the global community. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes are frequent colonizers of the upper respiratory tract. Imbalances through acquisition of seasonal viruses, e. Read More

    Intrapulmonary Pharmacokinetics of Relebactam, a Novel β-lactamase Inhibitor, Dosed in Combination with Imipenem/Cilastatin in Healthy Subjects.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.
    This Phase I study assessed the intrapulmonary pharmacokinetic profiles of relebactam (MK-7655), a novel ß-lactamase inhibitor, and imipenem. Sixteen healthy subjects received 250 mg relebactam with 500 mg imipenem/cilastatin, given IV every 6 hours for 5 doses, and were randomized to bronchoscopy/broncho-alveolar lavage at 0.5, 1, 1. Read More

    Antimicrobial Activity of Ibuprofen Against Cystic Fibrosis Associated Gram-Negative Pathogens.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Department of Microbial Pathogenesis and Immunology, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, College Station, Texas, USA
    Clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of ibuprofen therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, an effect that is currently attributed to ibuprofen's anti-inflammatory properties. Yet, a few previous reports demonstrate an antimicrobial activity of ibuprofen as well, although none investigate its direct effects on the pathogens found in the CF lung, which is the focus of this work. Determination of ibuprofen's in vitro antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia spp. Read More

    Necrotising pneumonia: A pneumonia that may need surgical intervention.
    Med J Malaysia 2017 Dec;72(6):367-369
    Hospital Langkawi, Department of Medicine, Kedah, Malaysia.
    Pneumonia is primarily a disease that is usually managed medically with antibiotics. However, in rare cases it may progress to necrotising pneumonia, which is an uncommon but severe complication of bacterial pneumonia. This case illustrates a typical case of necrotising pneumonia complicated with parenchymal and pleural complication such as empyema, pneumothorax with possible bronchopleural fistula. Read More

    Monotherapy versus Combination Therapy against Nonbacteremic Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative Infections: A Retrospective Observational Study.
    Indian J Crit Care Med 2017 Dec;21(12):825-829
    Department of Medical Oncology, Apollo Cancer Institute, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Background: Superiority of colistin-carbapenem combination therapy (CCCT) over colistin monotherapy (CMT) against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial (CRGNB) infections is not conclusively proven.

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to analyze the effectiveness of both strategies against CRGNB nonbacteremic infections.

    Design: This was a retrospective observational cohort study. Read More

    Increased Variance in Oral and Gastric Microbiome Correlates With Esophagectomy Anastomotic Leak.
    Ann Thorac Surg 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Division of Periodontology, Department of Orofacial Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.
    Background: Anastomotic leak after esophagectomy remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome has been found to play a significant role in tumor oncogenesis and postoperative bowel anastomotic leak. We hypothesized that the GI microbiome could differentiate between esophageal cancer histologies and predict postoperative anastomotic leak. Read More

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia and pneumonia at a tertiary-care oncology center: a review of 16 years.
    Support Care Cancer 2018 Jan 7. Epub 2018 Jan 7.
    Departamento de Infectología, INCan, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Del. Tlalpan, 14000, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and antimicrobial patterns of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bloodstream infections (BSI) and pneumonia episodes in patients with cancer.

    Methods: Patients with S. maltophilia BSI or pneumonia admitted from 1 Jan. Read More

    Naso- and oropharyngeal bacterial carriage in nursing home residents: Impact of multimorbidity and functional impairment.
    PLoS One 2018 5;13(1):e0190716. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Institute of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Thuringia, Germany.
    Objective: From April 2013 to February 2014 we performed a multicentre prospective cross-sectional study in 541 German nursing home residents. We determined pharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae (primary objective) and other bacteria (secondary objective) in naso- and oropharyngeal swabs by culture-based standard procedures and explored the influence of multimorbidity and functional status on bacterial carriage.

    Methods: Socio-demographic data, vaccination status, multimorbidity, nutrition and functional status defined by Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment were evaluated. Read More

    The Legionella pneumophila effector Ceg4 is a phosphotyrosine phosphatase that attenuates activation of eukaryotic MAPK pathways.
    J Biol Chem 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    University of Calgary, Canada
    Host colonization by Gram negative pathogens often involves delivery of bacterial proteins called ″effectors″ into the host cell. The pneumonia-causing pathogen Legionella pneumophila delivers more than 330 effectors into the host cell via its type IVB Dot/Icm secretion system. The collective functions of these proteins is the establishment of a replicative niche from which Legionella can recruit cellular materials to grow while evading lysosomal fusion inhibiting its growth. Read More

    ERS/ATS workshop report on respiratory health effects of household air pollution.
    Eur Respir J 2018 Jan 4;51(1). Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    University of California School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion affects almost half of the world population. Adverse respiratory outcomes such as respiratory infections, impaired lung growth and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have been linked to HAP exposure. Solid fuel smoke is a heterogeneous mixture of various gases and particulates. Read More

    Sphingosine Kinase 1 Regulates Inflammation and Contributes to Acute Lung Injury in Pneumococcal Pneumonia via the Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 2.
    Crit Care Med 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Pulmonary Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.
    Objectives: Severe pneumonia may evoke acute lung injury, and sphingosine-1-phosphate is involved in the regulation of vascular permeability and immune responses. However, the role of sphingosine-1-phosphate and the sphingosine-1-phosphate producing sphingosine kinase 1 in pneumonia remains elusive. We examined the role of the sphingosine-1-phosphate system in regulating pulmonary vascular barrier function in bacterial pneumonia. Read More

    Role of Streptococcus pneumoniae OM001 operon in capsular polysaccharide production, virulence and survival in human saliva.
    PLoS One 2018 2;13(1):e0190402. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, Department of Molecular & Cellular Biology, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia in all ages worldwide, and with ever-increasing antibiotic resistance, the understanding of its pathogenesis and spread is as important as ever. Recently, we reported the presence of a Low Molecular Weight Tyrosine Phosphatase (LMWPTP) Spd1837 in the pneumococcus. This protein is encoded in an operon, OM001 with two other genes, with previous work implicating this operon as important for pneumococcal virulence. Read More

    Quorum-sensing molecules N-acyl homoserine lactones inhibit Trueperella pyogenes infection in mouse model.
    Vet Microbiol 2018 Jan 22;213:89-94. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment (Ministry of Education), College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:
    Trueperella pyogenes is a gram-positive opportunistic pathogen normally causes mastitis, liver abscesses and pneumonia of economically important livestock. It has been suggested that gram-negative bacteria can suppress the growth and virulence of T. pyogenes in vitro by using the quorum-sensing (QS) signal molecules and cause the transition of predominant species. Read More

    [Uncommon non-fermenting Gram-negative rods as pathogens of lower respiratory tract infection].
    Orv Hetil 2018 Jan;159(1):23-30
    Laboratóriumi Medicina Intézet, Klinikai Mikrobiológiai Diagnosztikai Laboratórium, Semmelweis Egyetem Budapest, Üllői út 78/B, I. emelet, 1082.
    Introduction: Glucose non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria are ubiquitous environmental organisms. Most of them are identified as opportunistic, nosocomial pathogens in patients. Uncommon species are identified accurately, mainly due to the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in clinical microbiology practice. Read More

    Mutant selection window of four quinolone antibiotics against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis.
    J Infect Chemother 2018 Feb 29;24(2):83-87. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Division of Clinical Infection Diseases & Chemotherapy, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sendai, Japan; Research Division for Development of Anti-infective Agents, Institute of Development Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. Electronic address:
    Community-acquired pneumonia and otitis media are caused by several bacterial species, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. For the treatment of these diseases, various quinolones are frequently used. We determined the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of four quinolones, levofloxacin, sitafloxacin, tosufloxacin, and garenoxacin, using 92 clinical isolates and evaluated each mutant selection window (MSW). Read More

    Antibiotic treatment of lower respiratory tract infections.
    Arch Pediatr 2017 Dec;24(12S):S17-S21
    Groupe de Pathologie Infectieuse Pédiatrique de la Société Française de Pédiatrie, Saint-Maur des Fossés, France; Urgences de Pédiatrie, HFME Lyon, France.
    Lower respiratory tract infections, i.e., bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, are the second leading cause of antibiotic prescriptions. Read More

    Presepsin as a novel diagnostic biomarker for differentiating active pulmonary tuberculosis from bacterial community acquired pneumonia.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 Dec 29;478:152-156. Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Emergency Department of Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, China. Electronic address:
    Background: The expression of presepsin in active pulmonary tuberculosis (APTB) is unknown. We observed the expression of presepsin in APTB, and to evaluate the value for discriminating between APTB and bacterial community acquired pneumonia (BCAP).

    Methods: Consecutive APTB patients who were accurately diagnosed by sputum culture and BCAP patients were enrolled from August 2013 to July 2015. Read More

    Evolution and Virulence of Influenza A Virus Protein PB1-F2.
    Int J Mol Sci 2017 Dec 29;19(1). Epub 2017 Dec 29.
    Influenza Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
    PB1-F2 is an accessory protein of most human, avian, swine, equine, and canine influenza A viruses (IAVs). Although it is dispensable for virus replication and growth, it plays significant roles in pathogenesis by interfering with the host innate immune response, inducing death in immune and epithelial cells, altering inflammatory responses, and promoting secondary bacterial pneumonia. The effects of PB1-F2 differ between virus strains and host species. Read More

    Phage Therapy against Streptococcus pneumoniae: Modern Tool to Control Pneumonia.
    Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2017 ;27(4):289-295
    Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan Pakistan.
    Phage therapy is important for treatment of drug-resistant pathogens as compared to antibiotics in this modern era. Since 1966, bacteriophages have been used as antibacterial agents and played a very crucial role in the expansion of molecular biology. Bacteriophages have been used to treat infection in Western medicine along with antibiotics. Read More

    Causes of Mortality in Older People With Intellectual Disability: Results From the HA-ID Study.
    Am J Intellect Dev Disabil 2018 Jan;123(1):61-71
    Alyt Oppewal, Josje D. Schoufour, Hanne J.K. van der Maarl, Heleen M. Evenhuis, Thessa I.M. Hilgenkamp, and Dederieke A. Festen, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    We aim to provide insight into the cause-specific mortality of older adults with intellectual disability (ID), with and without Down syndrome (DS), and compare this to the general population. Immediate and primary cause of death were collected through medical files of 1,050 older adults with ID, 5 years after the start of the Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities (HA-ID) study. During the follow-up period, 207 (19. Read More

    A Combined Syndromic Approach to Examine Viral, Bacterial, and Parasitic Agents among Febrile Patients: A Pilot Study in Kilombero, Tanzania.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Dec 26. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Global Disease Detection Branch, Division of Global Health Protection, Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Kenya.
    The use of fever syndromic surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa is an effective approach to determine the prevalence of both malarial and nonmalarial infectious agents. We collected both blood and naso/oro-pharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs from consecutive consenting patients ≥ 1 year of age, with an axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C, and symptom onset of ≤ 5 days. Read More

    Subtractive genome analysis for in silico identification and characterization of novel drug targets in Streptococcus pneumonia strain JJA.
    Microb Pathog 2017 Dec 24;115:194-198. Epub 2017 Dec 24.
    Department of Bioinformatics, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a Gram-positive bacterium. Humans are the major target for the pneumococcus. The pneumococcus is a common etiological agent of many different diseases such as bacterial meningitis, pneumonia, otitis media (OM), sinusitis, and conjunctivitis. Read More

    Low incidence of opportunistic Infections in Lupus Patients treated with Cyclophosphamide and Steroids in a Tertiary care setting.
    Med Res Arch 2017 Mar 15;5(3). Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    National Institutes of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Background: Infection is common cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our objective was to determine incidence and types of infections, particularly opportunistic infections, in SLE patients receiving cyclophosphamide, and to identify contribution of variables like demographics, steroid, other immunosuppressives, white blood cell and absolute neutrophil count to infection risk.

    Patients And Methods: We did retrospective chart review of SLE patients in our institute over last 10 years, who received minimum six cyclophosphamide infusions. Read More

    A novel host-protein assay outperforms routine parameters for distinguishing between bacterial and viral lower respiratory tract infections.
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Pediatrics, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel.
    Bacterial and viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are often clinically indistinguishable, leading to antibiotic overuse. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of a new assay that combines 3 host-biomarkers (TRAIL, IP-10, CRP) with parameters in routine use to distinguish bacterial from viral LRTIs. Study cohort included 184 potentially eligible pediatric and adult patients. Read More

    Hemodialysis Patients Treated for Hepatitis C Using a Sofosbuvir-based Regimen.
    Kidney Int Rep 2017 Sep 26;2(5):831-835. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    Department of Nephrology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Introduction: There is paucity of data on sofosubvir (SOF)-based therapy in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). The objective of this report is to describe our experience using SOF-based direct antiviral agent (DAA) therapy in MHD patients in India.

    Methods: All patients on MHD and treated with SOF-based therapy were included in this study. Read More

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