1,722 results match your criteria Pneumonia Atypical Bacterial

Changes in diagnostic usefulness of the JRS scoring system in COVID-19 pneumonia by SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

J Infect Chemother 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

First Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Infectious Disease and Allergology, Kansai Medical University, Japan.

Introduction: The Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) scoring system is a useful tool for the rapid presumptive diagnosis of atypical pneumonia in non-elderly (aged <60 years) patients. As SARS-CoV-2 vaccination progresses, COVID-19 in elderly people has markedly reduced. We investigated changes in diagnostic usefulness of the JRS scoring system in COVID-19 pneumonia between the Delta variant group (vaccination period) and non-Delta variant group (before the vaccination period). Read More

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Appropriate prescribing of azithromycin for community-acquired pneumonia.

Intern Med J 2022 Jun 24;52(6):1079-1082. Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, St George Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Azithromycin is prescribed for atypical antimicrobial cover in severe community-acquired pneumonia. Inappropriate azithromycin administration incurs unnecessary financial costs, exacerbates antimicrobial resistance and risks QTc interval prolongation leading to cardiac arrhythmias. The present study demonstrated that a majority of patients were prescribed azithromycin without having electrocardiograms to assess the QTc interval and without meeting criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia based on CURB-65 score. Read More

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Fungal infection mimicking COVID-19 infection - A case report.

Open Med (Wars) 2022 28;17(1):841-846. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Silesia, Medyków 18, 40-752 Katowice, Poland.

For the last 2 years, one of the most frequent causes of respiratory failure is coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The symptoms are not specific. Imaging diagnostics, especially high-resolution computed tomography, is a diagnostic method widely used in the diagnosis of this disease. Read More

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Accuracy of a score predicting the presence of an atypical pathogen in hospitalized patients with moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 May 3;22(1):424. Epub 2022 May 3.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Atypical pathogens (AP), present in some patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are intrinsically resistant to betalactam drugs, the mainstay of empirical antibiotic treatment. Adding antibiotic coverage for AP increases the risk of adverse effects and antimicrobial selection pressure, while withholding such coverage may worsen the prognosis if an AP is causative. A clinical model predicting the presence of AP would allow targeting atypical coverage for patients most likely to benefit. Read More

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Performance of PCR-based syndromic testing compared to bacterial culture in patients with suspected pneumonia applying microscopy for quality assessment.

APMIS 2022 Jul 22;130(7):417-426. Epub 2022 May 22.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Copenhagen University Hospital - Amager and Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Syndromic testing for lower respiratory tract infections with BioFire® FilmArray® Pneumonia Panel Plus (BF) detects 27 pathogens with a turn-around-time of one hour. We compared the performance of BF with culture. Samples from 298 hospitalized patients with suspected pneumonia routinely sent for culture were also analyzed using BF. Read More

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Analysis of national surveillance of respiratory pathogens for community-acquired pneumonia in children and adolescents.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Apr 4;22(1):330. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Pediatrics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

Background: Respiratory infections among children, particularly community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), is a major disease with a high frequency among outpatient and inpatient visits. The causes of CAP vary depending on individual susceptibility, the epidemiological characteristics of the community, and the season. We performed this study to establish a nationwide surveillance network system and identify the causative agents for CAP and antibiotic resistance in Korean children with CAP. Read More

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Community-acquired bacterial meningitis in patients of 80 years and older.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2022 Mar 29. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Advanced age is a risk factor for unfavorable outcome in community-acquired bacterial meningitis, but clinical characteristics and outcome in meningitis patients of 80 years or older have not been defined.

Methods: We compared clinical characteristics and outcome of community-acquired bacterial meningitis patients aged 80 years or older and adults under 80 years old within a prospective nationwide cohort study.

Results: Out of 2140 episodes identified between March 2006 and July 2018, 149 occurred in patients aged 80 years or older (7%). Read More

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Interpretation of Dihydrorhodamine-1,2,3 Flow Cytometry in Chronic Granulomatous Disease: an Atypical Exemplar.

J Clin Immunol 2022 Mar 28. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose: This is a functional characterization of a novel CYBA variant associated with normal DHR flow cytometry. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inborn error of immunity characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and dysregulated inflammatory responses due to defective phagocytic cell function leading to the formation of granulomas. CGD patients have pathogenic variants in any of the five components of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase, which transfers electrons through the phagosomal membrane and produces superoxide upon bacterial uptake. Read More

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Hematogenous dissemination of pulmonary mucormycosis manifested as multiple subcutaneous nodules: a case report and review of the literature.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Mar 4;22(1):220. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, 2 Wanglang Road, Bangkoknoi, Bangkok, 10700, Thailand.

Background: Disseminated mucormycosis presenting with multiple subcutaneous nodules is a rare condition with a poor prognosis, and delayed diagnosis and treatment is common.

Case Presentation: We report a case of 64-year-old Thai woman with colorectal cancer who initially presented with Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia and respiratory failure. Following 10 days after her admission to the intensive care unit, she developed hospital-acquired pneumonia. Read More

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Seasonal predominance of atypical agents in adult community-acquired pneumonia in India's northeastern region: Is it the time to look again at empirical therapy guidelines?

Trop Doct 2022 Apr 28;52(2):304-306. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

75143Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India.

Atypical agents such as Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia species, and Coxiella burnetii (Q-fever agent) are responsible for some adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Insufficient studies on this topic can be blamed for the failure to include atypical pathogens in empirical management. We followed adult CAP cases for two years, and samples (respiratory and serum) were tested by culture, ELISA (IgM, IgG, and IgA), and PCR. Read More

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Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion associated with systemic Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in North America: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2022 Feb 20;16(1):74. Epub 2022 Feb 20.

Department of Neurology, Memorial Hermann Hospital, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 6410 Fannin St, Ste 1014, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion is a clinical-radiological entity found to occur in the setting of an acute systemic inflammatory state with isolated lesions of the splenium of the corpus callosum and mild encephalopathy. Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion is commonly found to occur in children in the setting of viral infections. It has rarely been associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae in the United States, unlike in Eastern and Southern Asia where this is much more prominent. Read More

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February 2022

Childhood Respiratory Conditions: Lower Respiratory Tract Infection.

Merlin Chan Lowe

FP Essent 2022 Feb;513:20-24

Division of Hospital Medicine in the Department of Pediatrics at University of Arizona College of Medicine, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724.

Bronchiolitis, a lower respiratory tract infection, commonly affects infants and children younger than 2 years. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common cause. Nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and mild fever occur in the first 1 to 3 days. Read More

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February 2022

Prevalence of Infectious Diseases Among 6078 Individuals With Down Syndrome in the United States.

J Patient Cent Res Rev 2022 17;9(1):64-69. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Advocate Aurora Health, Downers Grove, IL.

A recent disease prevalence study of the largest documented Down syndrome (DS) cohort in the United States strongly suggested significant disparity in general infectious disease conditions among individuals with DS versus those without DS. In this follow-up retrospective analysis, we explored these differences in greater detail by calculating prevalence of 52 infectious diseases, across 28 years of data among 6078 individuals with DS and 30,326 age- and sex-matched controls, abstracted from electronic medical records within a large Midwestern health system. We found that the DS cohort had higher prevalence of pneumonias (including aspiration, viral, bacterial, pneumococcal, and unspecified/atypical); otitis externa; and the skin infections impetigo, abscess, and cellulitis. Read More

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January 2022

Induced sputum as an adequate clinical specimen for the etiological diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children and adolescents.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 Mar 19;116:348-354. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Grupo Investigador de Problemas en Enfermedades Infecciosas (GRIPE), Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín, Colombia; Sección enfermedades infecciosas, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Medellín, Colombia.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the utility of induced sputum (IS) for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in pediatric population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included pediatric population aged between 1 month and 17 years who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of CAP in 13 hospitals in Colombia, in whom an IS sample was obtained. Gram staining, aerobic bacterial and mycobacterial culture tests, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for 6 atypical bacteria and 15 respiratory viruses were performed. Read More

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[Clarithromycin consumption at the University Hospital of Liege in 2019. Retrospective study].

Rev Med Liege 2022 Jan;77(1):32-38

Service des Soins intensifs, CHU Liège, Belgique.

Macrolides are one of the treatments of choice in community-acquired pneumonia, either when the clinical and/or biological elements suggest an infection by an intracellular bacteria (so-called atypical), or when the severity of the clinical picture justifies their empirical use. This work is a retrospective monocentric study carried out at the University Hospital of Liege on 25 consecutive patients hospitalized during the year 2019. It aims to specify whether the use of a particular macrolide, clarithromycin, actually meets the national recommendations both in terms of indication, dosage or duration. Read More

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January 2022

Implications of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the clinical, hematological, and inflammatory parameters in COVID-19 patients: A retrospective cross-sectional study.

J Infect Public Health 2022 Feb 6;15(2):214-221. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The current coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is characterized by atypical pneumonia, mild colds, and more severe illnesses, such as severe acute respiratory distress, thrombosis, organ failure, and various secondary bacterial and fungal infections. Notably, the severity of COVID-19 in different age groups is not well known, and the validity of clinical laboratory data remains unclear. Read More

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February 2022

Lefamulin in Patients with Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia Caused by Atypical Respiratory Pathogens: Pooled Results from Two Phase 3 Trials.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Dec 4;10(12). Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Summa Health, Akron, OH 44304, USA.

Lefamulin was the first systemic pleuromutilin antibiotic approved for intravenous and oral use in adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia based on two phase 3 trials (Lefamulin Evaluation Against Pneumonia [LEAP]-1 and LEAP-2). This pooled analysis evaluated lefamulin efficacy and safety in adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia caused by atypical pathogens (, , and ). In LEAP-1, participants received intravenous lefamulin 150 mg every 12 h for 5-7 days or moxifloxacin 400 mg every 24 h for 7 days, with optional intravenous-to-oral switch. Read More

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December 2021

Delafloxacin for the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2022 05 28;20(5):649-656. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Introduction: Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with peculiar characteristics such as a weak acid character, frequent activity against methicillin-resistant (MRSA), and a low potential for resistance selection compared with other fluoroquinolones.

Areas Covered: The present narrative review summarizes the available data on the use of delafloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP).

Expert Opinion: Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with a unique profile and some interesting characteristics for the treatment of CABP, such as its marked activity against gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA, the possible use as monotherapy (owing to anti-Gram-negative and anti-atypical bacteria activity), the retained activity against many Gram-positive organisms resistant to other fluoroquinolones, and the availability of both oral and intravenous formulations. Read More

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Detection of bacteria via multiplex PCR in respiratory samples of critically ill COVID-19 patients with suspected HAP/VAP in the ICU.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2022 May 9;134(9-10):385-390. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Department for Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine and Intensive Care Unit, Klinik Favoriten, Kundratstraße 3, 1100, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Critically ill Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have high rates of bacterial superinfection. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction panels may be able to provide useful information about the incidence and spectrum of bacteria causing superinfections.

Methods: In this retrospective observational study we included all COVID-19 positive patients admitted to our intensive care unit with suspected hospital-acquired pneumonia/ventilator-associated pneumonia (HAP/VAP) in whom the BioFire® Pneumonia Panel (PP) was performed from tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for diagnostic purposes. Read More

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C5a and C5aR1 are key drivers of microvascular platelet aggregation in clinical entities spanning from aHUS to COVID-19.

Blood Adv 2022 01;6(3):866-881

Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Bergamo, Italy; and.

Unrestrained activation of the complement system till the terminal products, C5a and C5b-9, plays a pathogenetic role in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. In endothelial cells, complement hyperactivation may translate into cell dysfunction, favoring thrombus formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the C5a/C5aR1 axis as opposed to C5b-9 in inducing endothelial dysfunction and loss of antithrombogenic properties. Read More

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January 2022

Cystic fibrosis: a diagnosis in an adolescent.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Nov 29;14(11). Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Pediatric, Centro Hospitalar e Universitario de Coimbra EPE, Coimbra, Portugal.

Most patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) develop multisystemic clinical manifestations, the minority having mild or atypical symptoms. We describe an adolescent with chronic cough and purulent rhinorrhoea since the first year of life, with diagnoses of asthma, allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Under therapy with long-acting bronchodilators, antihistamines, inhaled corticosteroids, antileukotrienes and several courses of empirical oral antibiotic therapy, there was no clinical improvement. Read More

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November 2021

[Advances of using microfluidic chips for research and diagnosis of pulmonary inflammatory diseases].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Nov;37(11):3905-3914

Clinical Research Institute of Stem Cells, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011, Liaoning, China.

Microfluidic chip technology integrates the sample preparation, reaction, separation and detection on a chip. It consists a network of microchannels, which controls the whole system through fluid. With the advantages of portability, high throughput, and the ability to simulate the microenvironment in vivo, it has a broad application prospect in the research of disease diagnosis, pathogenesis and drug screening. Read More

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November 2021

An Elderly COVID-19 Patient with Community-Acquired and Coinfections: A Rare Case Report.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Nov 21;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 21.

Medical Laboratories Technology Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munwarah 42353, Saudi Arabia.

The combination of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and other respiratory pathogens is a real challenge for health care systems in terms of diagnosis, treatment, and management. Most of the reported bacterial coinfections among SARS-CoV-2 patients are hospital-acquired infections that occurred after several days of hospitalization. Little is known about the incidence of community-acquired atypical bacterial coinfections with SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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November 2021

Antimicrobial prescribing and outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia in Australian hospitalized patients: a cross-sectional study.

J Int Med Res 2021 Nov;49(11):3000605211058366

Faculty of Medicine, 1974The University of Queensland, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia.

Objective: We aimed to assess prescribing practices, compliance with guidelines, and outcomes for patients who were admitted to the authors' institution with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective cross-sectional study of adults with CAP presenting during the 2019 influenza season. CAP severity was assessed using the CURB-65 risk score. Read More

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November 2021

Atypical response to bacterial coinfection and persistent neutrophilic bronchoalveolar inflammation distinguish critical COVID-19 from influenza.

JCI Insight 2022 01 11;7(1). Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Neutrophils are recognized as important circulating effector cells in the pathophysiology of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, their role within the inflamed lungs is incompletely understood. Here, we collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids and parallel blood samples of critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and compared BAL fluid parameters with those of mechanically ventilated patients with influenza, as a non-COVID-19 viral pneumonia cohort. Read More

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January 2022

Pooled microbiological findings and efficacy outcomes by pathogen in adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia from the Lefamulin Evaluation Against Pneumonia (LEAP) 1 and LEAP 2 phase 3 trials of lefamulin versus moxifloxacin.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2022 Jun 14;29:434-443. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Nabriva Therapeutics US, Inc., Fort Washington, PA, USA.

Objectives: Lefamulin, a pleuromutilin antibiotic approved for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), was evaluated for microbiological efficacy in a prespecified pooled analysis of LEAP 1 and 2 phase 3 clinical trial data in patients with CABP.

Methods: In LEAP 1, adults (PORT risk class III‒V) received intravenous (IV) lefamulin 150 mg every 12 h (q12h) for 5‒7 days or moxifloxacin 400 mg every 24 h (q24h) for 7 days, with optional IV-to-oral switch. In LEAP 2, adults (PORT II‒IV) received oral lefamulin 600 mg q12h for 5 days or moxifloxacin 400 mg q24h for 7 days. Read More

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A case of Methicillin-sensitive infective endocarditis that rapidly changed prognosis in a patient with cirrhosis: An atypical case with literature review.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2021 6;9:2050313X211055292. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Gastroenterology, University of Utah Health, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Bacterial infections represent a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with cirrhosis that can alter the clinical course of compensated cirrhosis. The most common infections are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis by gram-negative organisms, urinary-tract infection, and pneumonia. In this case report, we raise the question of considering infections in the prognosis scoring in this patient group. Read More

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November 2021

Atypical pneumonia: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

Respir Investig 2022 Jan 5;60(1):56-67. Epub 2021 Nov 5.

First Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Infectious Disease and Allergology, Kansai Medical University, 2-3-1 Shin-machi, Hirakata, Osaka, 573-1191, Japan. Electronic address:

Atypical pneumonia is caused by atypical pathogens that are not detectable with Gram stain and cannot be cultured using standard methods. The most common causative organisms of atypical pneumonia are Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella species. The therapeutic approach for atypical pneumonias is different than that for typical pneumonia. Read More

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January 2022

“Dum spiro spero”: clinicopathologic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection

Orv Hetil 2021 11 7;162(45):1791-1802. Epub 2021 Nov 7.

1 Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Patológiai Intézet, Szeged, Állomás u. 1., 6725.

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A kórboncolás hozzájárul a súlyos akut légzőszervi szindrómát okozó koronavírus-2 (SARS-CoV-2-) fertőzés klinikopatológiai vonatkozásainak megismeréséhez. Célkitűzés: A SARS-CoV-2-fertőzöttek boncolása során gyűjtött tapasztalatok bemutatása. Read More

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November 2021

Clinical features of atypical tuberculosis mimicking bacterial pneumonia.

Open Med (Wars) 2021 27;16(1):1608-1615. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate clinical features of atypical pulmonary tuberculosis (aPTB) mimicking bacterial pneumonia, determine imaging features with the highest degree of correlation, and identify predictors for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) positivity.

Methods: The clinical data of 259 patients considered as aPTB were retrospectively analyzed. The correlation of CT patterns was evaluated with Spearman analysis, and the predictors for AFB positivity were assessed with the multivariate analysis. Read More

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October 2021