22,605 results match your criteria Pneumococcal Infections


Measurement of Typhim Vi IgG as a Diagnostic Tool to Determine Anti-polysaccharide Antibody Production Deficiency in Children.

Front Immunol 2019 2;10:654. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Immunology, IML and IdSSC, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

The assessment of specific polysaccharide antibody production plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of humoral primary immunodeficiencies (PID). The response to 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of polysaccharide antibodies. However, in Spain, the interpretation of pure polysaccharide 23-valent immunization is hampered by the high endemicity of pneumococcal disease and the generalization of the 13-valent adjuvant pneumococcal vaccination. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00654
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455213PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Assessing the causes of under-five mortality and proportion associated with pneumococcal diseases in Cameroon. A case-finding retrospective observational study: 2006-2012.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0212939. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Mother & Child Centre (MCH), Chantal Biya Foundation, Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Background: Vital registration data outlining causes of deaths (CoD) are important for a sustainable health system, targeted interventions and other relevant policies. There is data paucity on vital registration systems in developing countries. We assessed the leading causes and proportions of under-five deaths, and particularly those related to pneumococcal infections in Yaoundé, Cameroon, using hospital registration data. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212939PLOS

Healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitude and acceptance of influenza vaccination in Saudi Arabia: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Apr 15;19(1):229. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

College of Pharmacy, University of Hail, P.O. Box 6166, Hail City, zip code 81442, Saudi Arabia.

Background: All healthcare professionals (HCPs) are at high risk of influenza infection. Therefore, immunization is recommended for all HCPs. Due to safety and effectiveness concerns, HCPs have a low vaccination rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4054-9DOI Listing

Pneumococcal vaccination in celiac disease.

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

e Dipartimento Biomedico di Medicina Interna e Specialistica (DiBiMIS) , University of Palermo , Italy.

Introduction: Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disorder associated with gluten exposure in genetically predisposed subjects. Areas covered: Infectious disease is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality in CD patients. Invasive streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a particularly dangerous morbid condition in both the general population and celiac patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17474124.2019.1607295DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

[Infectious complications after kidney transplantation].

Nephrol Ther 2019 Apr;15 Suppl 1:S37-S42

Service de néphrologie et transplantation adulte, hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, 149, rue de Sèvres, 75015 Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cité, 12, rue de l'École-de-Médecine, 75006 Paris, France.

Infectious complications are one of the leading causes of hospitalization and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. They are more frequent during the year following transplantation, and in the elderly. Community infections, such as pyelonephritis and pneumonia, are from far the most common infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nephro.2019.03.010DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Neutrophil extracellular traps in the central nervous system hinder bacterial clearance during pneumococcal meningitis.

Nat Commun 2019 04 10;10(1):1667. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Division of Infection Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 22184, Lund, Sweden.

Neutrophils are crucial mediators of host defense that are recruited to the central nervous system (CNS) in large numbers during acute bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) during infections to trap and kill bacteria. Intact NETs are fibrous structures composed of decondensed DNA and neutrophil-derived antimicrobial proteins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09040-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458182PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Impact of 10-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Introduction on Pneumococcal Carriage and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns among Children aged <5 Years and Adults with HIV Infection, Kenya 2009-2013.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, USA.

Background: Kenya introduced 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) among children <1 year in 2011 with catch-up vaccination among children 1-4 years in some areas. We assessed changes in pneumococcal carriage and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in children <5 years and adults.

Methods: During 2009-13, we performed annual cross-sectional pneumococcal carriage surveys in two sites: Kibera (children <5 years) and Lwak (children <5 years, adults). Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/cid
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz285DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Indirect Effects of Pneumococcal Childhood Vaccination in Individuals Treated With Immunosuppressive Drugs in Ambulatory Care: A Case-cohort Study.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Apr;68(8):1367-1373

Department of Vaccine Preventable Diseases, Norwegian Institute of Public Health.

Background: The extent to which iatrogenically-immunosuppressed individuals benefit from indirect effects of childhood vaccination with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) is unknown. We determined how the sequential introduction of PCV7 (2006) and PCV13 (2011) in the Norwegian childhood vaccination program has affected the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in individuals treated with immunosuppressants in ambulatory care.

Methods: We conducted a case-cohort study comprising 7926 IPD cases reported to the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases in 2005-2014 and 249998 individuals randomly selected from the National Registry in 2012. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy714DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Epidemiology of invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal infections in hospitalised adult patients in a Lebanese medical centre, 2006-2015.

J Infect Public Health 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Centre for Infectious Diseases Research, American University of Beirut, Riad El-Solh, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Paediatric Infectious Diseases, American University of Beirut, Riad El-Solh, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, American University of Beirut, Riad El-Solh, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

This is a retrospective medical file review of adult inpatients with Streptococcus pneumoniae infections admitted to a Lebanese hospital between 2006 and 2015. We revisited the clinical scenarios of these infections in view of increasing antibiotic resistance in Lebanon. One hundred and three patients were included; 92% were eligible for pneumococcal vaccination, yet none were vaccinated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2019.03.003DOI Listing

The burden of vaccine-preventable diseases among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

a Cochrane South Africa , South African Medical Research Council , Cape Town , South Africa.

There are knowledge gaps regarding evidence-based research on the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-exposed children aged <18 years in sub-Saharan Africa. It is therefore essential to determine the trend and burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. We completed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the incidence, prevalence and case-fatality rates (CFR) attributed to various vaccine-preventable diseases among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1599676DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Molecular characterization and epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 24F in Denmark.

Sci Rep 2019 Apr 2;9(1):5481. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Bacteria, Parasites and Fungi, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Since 2012, have we in Denmark observed an increase of invasive pneumococcal infections (IPD) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 24F. We here present epidemiological data on 24F IPD cases, and characterization of 48 24F clinical isolates based on clonal relationship, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants and virulence factors. IPD surveillance data from (1999-2016) were used to calculate the incidence and age-distribution of serotype 24F IPD and the effect of pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41983-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6445336PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

The Epidemiology and Biostatistics of Pneumococcus.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1968:215-224

Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institute for Infection and Immunity, St. George's, University of London, London, UK.

Invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, such as pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children and older adults worldwide. The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into national childhood immunization programs has led to large and sustained reductions in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease across all age groups. Here we describe the epidemiology and biostatistics of pneumococcal disease as well as the impact of vaccination on the burden of pneumococcal disease globally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9199-0_18DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

The Pneumococcus and Its Critical Role in Public Health.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1968:205-213

Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institute for Infection and Immunity, St. George's, University of London, London, UK.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the commonest bacteria that cause morbidity and mortality in children and the elderly. The two extremes of age and individuals with underlying disease are particularly at risk of developing pneumococcal disease. The pneumococcus is responsible for a wide range of infectious diseases, ranging from mild, non-invasive infections such as otitis media and sinusitis, to more severe infections including pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9199-0_17DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads
2.100 Impact Factor

IVIS Spectrum CT to Image the Progression of Pneumococcal Infections In Vivo.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1968:195-202

Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Bioclinicum, Stockholm, Sweden.

Imaging through the IVIS Spectrum CT system does not provide the resolution at cellular level like the high-resolution or super-resolution microscopy. Rather, it detects bacterial infections in specific anatomical compartments/organs of the animals. The IVIS Spectrum imaging system is a unique imaging technology that allows for real-time monitoring of disease progression in living animals through the use of either bioluminescent or fluorescent probes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9199-0_16DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Two-Photon Intravital Imaging of Leukocytes in the Trachea During Pneumococcal Infection.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1968:183-194

Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Università della Svizzera italiana, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Two-photon intravital imaging (2P-IVM) of the murine trachea is a powerful technique for real-time imaging of immune cell recruitment and trafficking during airborne pathogen infections. Neutrophils are an important component of the innate immune response that are able to rapidly infiltrate the airway mucosa in response to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. Here we describe a protocol to visualize in vivo neutrophil extravasation and cell dynamics in the tracheal tissue of a S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9199-0_15DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Protein Expression Analysis by Western Blot and Protein-Protein Interactions.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1968:101-111

Escuela Superior de Ingeniería y Tecnología (ESIT), Universidad Internacional de La Rioja (UNIR), Logroño, Spain.

Western blot analysis is widely used for detecting protein expression, analysis of protein-protein interactions, and searching for new biomarkers. Also, it is a diagnostic tool used for detection of human diseases and microorganism infections.Some Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins are important virulence factors and a few of them are diagnostic markers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9199-0_9DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Risk of bacterial pneumonia and pneumococcal infection in youths with celiac disease - A population-based study.

Dig Liver Dis 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, Gastroenterology Section, University Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Objective: Assess the risk of hospitalizations for bacterial pneumonia or pneumococcal infections, in a cohort of young individuals with celiac disease (CD) compared to matched references.

Study Design: The cohort consists of 213,635 individuals, born in 1989-2012 and resident in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy). Through pathology reports, hospital discharge records or co-payment exemptions, we identified 1294 CD patients and 6470 reference individuals matched by gender and birth year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Successful Control of Streptococcus pneumoniae 19A Replacement With a Catch-up Primary Vaccination Program in Taiwan.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Centers for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.

Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in Taiwan mostly occur in children aged 2-4 years. Because of a significant increase in the incidence of serotype 19A-related infections, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was initially introduced in the national immunization program for children 2-5 years of age, prior to the national programs for infants. We have assessed the impact of such vaccination programs in reducing the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Taiwanese children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy1127DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Immunity-targeted approaches to the management of chronic and recurrent upper respiratory tract disorders in children.

Clin Otolaryngol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, National Institute of Pediatrics, Cuicuilco, Mexico.

Background/objective Of Review: Summarise the current evidence and address key questions concerning the use of conservative and immunity-targeted approaches to recurrent and chronic upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), with a focus on the paediatric population.

Search Strategy/evaluation Method: Literature searches were conducted in March 2017 and updated in September 2017 using: Academic Search Complete; CENTRAL; Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition; MEDLINE; clinicaltrials.gov and Cochrane databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/coa.13335DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from sputum cultures of human immunodeficiency virus infected patients in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 5;31:16. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon.

Introduction: The susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to commonly used antibiotics is threatened by the emergence of resistance of S. pneumonia strains. So, to improve the management of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients, we assessed the antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae which is the most common bacterial cause of LRTIs in patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.16.11195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430946PMC
April 2019
10 Reads

Morbidity, mortality and antimicrobial resistance of pneumococcal infections in the Jamaican paediatric and adult populations.

Hum Antibodies 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Background: Pneumococcal infections are a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, complicated by the increasing antimicrobial resistance of pneumococcal isolates.

Objective: To evaluate morbidity and mortality associated with both invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and non-IPD in Jamaica in both the paediatric and adult population. Pneumococcal isolates (n= 94) were collected over a 2-year period (2008-2009). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-180361DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Safety and immunogenicity of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in preterm infants.

Expert Opin Drug Saf 2019 Mar 23:1-7. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

a Translational Paediatrics and Infectious Diseases, Department of Paediatrics , Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela , Santiago de Compostela , Spain.

Introduction: The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in the routine immunization program has resulted in a significant decline in invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) around the world. Preterm infants are a special group at a high risk of invasive infection by encapsulated bacteria. However, their slow growth accrual and prolonged hospital stay frequently lead to delays in immunization, which contributes to their risk for severe infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14740338.2019.1597849DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Vaccine Prophylaxis of Pneumococcal Infections in Children under Conditions of Severe Flood in the Amur River Basin.

Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2019 18;2019:5467275. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

The Khabarovsk Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Khabarovsk 680610, Russia.

Background: Pneumococcal infection being one of the dominant causes of acute respiratory diseases and exacerbation of chronic ones is a serious problem for human health and society. The flood in the Amur river basin in the summer of 2013 created a special zone and risk conditions for the formation of respiratory pathology in the Far-Eastern region of Russia. We aimed to give clinical and epidemiological assessment of the effectiveness of vaccination programs of respiratory viral and pneumococcal infections and generalization of regional experience in the organization of a set of measures aimed at their prevention in the postflood period in the Far-Eastern region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/5467275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398015PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Immunogenicity of the currently recommended pneumococcal vaccination schedule in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Centre of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, Location AMC, Meibergdreef AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of invasive pneumococcal infections. Therefore, vaccination with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13) followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) two months later - is recommended. However, the level of immunogenicity induced by this vaccination schedule in IBD patients with and without immunosuppressive medication remains unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz226DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of from North America, Europe, Latin America, and the Asia-Pacific Region: Results From 20 Years of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997-2016).

Open Forum Infect Dis 2019 Mar 15;6(Suppl 1):S14-S23. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, Iowa.

Background: The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program monitors the frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms from various infection types worldwide. In this investigation, we evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected worldwide over 20 years (1997-2016).

Methods: A total of 65 993 isolates were consecutively collected (1 per infection episode) from North America (NA; n = 34 626; 2 nations), Europe (EUR; n = 19 123; 23 nations), the Asia-Pacific region (APAC; n = 7111; 10 nations), and Latin America (LATAM; n = 5133; 7 nations) and tested for susceptibility using reference broth microdilution methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofy263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6419902PMC
March 2019
6 Reads

Molecular studies of meningococcal and pneumococcal meningitis patients in Ethiopia.

Innate Immun 2019 Apr;25(3):158-167

3 Department of Clinical Chemistry, Oslo University Hospital, Norway.

Neisseria meningitidis infections in sub-Saharan Africa usually present with distinct symptoms of meningitis but very rarely as fulminant septicemia when reaching hospitals. In Europe, development of persistent meningococcal shock and multiple organ failure occurs in up to 30% of patients and is associated with a bacterial load of >10/ml plasma or serum. We have prospectively studied 27 Ethiopian patients with meningococcal infection as diagnosed and quantified with real-time PCR in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753425918806363DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads
3.271 Impact Factor

Refining the pneumococcal competence regulon by RNA-sequencing.

J Bacteriol 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Molecular Genetics Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, Centre for Synthetic Biology, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, the Netherlands.

Competence for genetic transformation allows the opportunistic human pathogen to take up exogenous DNA for incorporation into its own genome. This ability may account for the extraordinary genomic plasticity of this bacterium, leading to antigenic variation, vaccine escape, and the spread of antibiotic resistance. The competence system has been thoroughly studied and its regulation is well-understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00780-18DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Endophthalmitis following Suture Removal - Clinical Outcomes and Microbiological Profile.

Semin Ophthalmol 2019 16;34(2):115-123. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

b Smt Kanuri Santhamma Center for Vitreo- Retina diseases , Hyderabad , India.

Aims: To review the clinical profile and report the microbiology and treatment outcomes of endophthalmitis following suture removal.

Methods: In this multi-center, retrospective interventional case series, 11 eyes of 11 patients who developed endophthalmitis following suture removal from January 2006 to December 2017 were reviewed.

Results: Nine of the 11 patients developed a culture-proven, acute onset endophthalmitis [5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820538.2019.1590605DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
1.196 Impact Factor

: Invasion and Inflammation.

Microbiol Spectr 2019 03;7(2)

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumoccus) is the leading cause of otitis media, community-acquired pneumonia, and bacterial meningitis. The success of the pneumococcus stems from its ability to persist in the population as a commensal and avoid killing by immune system. This chapter first reviews the molecular mechanisms that allow the pneumococcus to colonize and spread from one anatomical site to the next. Read More

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http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.GPP3-0004-2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6422050PMC
March 2019
6 Reads

Invasive pneumococcal disease in hospitalised children from Lima, Peru before and after introduction of the 7-valent conjugated vaccine.

Epidemiol Infect 2019 Jan;147:e91

Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia,Lima,Peru.

The objective of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strains in children from Lima, Peru, before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), which was introduced in the national immunisation program on 2009. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, passive surveillance IPD study during 2006-2008 and 2009-2011, before and right after the introduction of PCV7 in Peru. The study was performed in 11 hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients <18 years old, with sterile site cultures yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268819000037DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

An alarmingly high nasal carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19F non-susceptible to multiple beta-lactam antimicrobials among Vietnamese children.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Mar 11;19(1):241. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, Japan.

Background: Understanding the relationship between serotype epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae is essential for the effective introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) and control of antimicrobial-resistant pneumococci.

Methods: We conducted a community-based study in Nha Trang, central Vietnam, to clarify the serotype distribution and pattern of S. pneumoniae antimicrobial susceptibility in children under 5 years of age and to identify risk factors for carrying antimicrobial-resistant strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3861-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6416861PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Structure-Function Relationships of C-Reactive Protein in Bacterial Infection.

Front Immunol 2019 26;10:166. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, James H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, United States.

One host defense function of C-reactive protein (CRP) is to protect against infection as shown by experiments employing murine models of pneumococcal infection. The protective effect of CRP is due to reduction in bacteremia. There is a distinct relationship between the structure of CRP and its anti-pneumococcal function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6400226PMC
February 2019
1 Read

The Efficacy of Aminomethyl Spectinomycins against Complex Upper Respiratory Tract Bacterial Infections.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN 38105

The most frequent ailment for which antibiotics are prescribed is otitis media (ear infections), which is most commonly caused by , , and Treatment of otitis media is complicated by the fact that the bacteria in the middle ear typically form biofilms, which can be recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, bacterial respiratory infections can be greatly exacerbated by viral co-infection, particularly evidenced by the synergy between influenza and In this study we sought to ascertain the efficacy of aminomethyl spectinomycin lead 1950, an effective antibacterial agent both and against in the context of complex respiratory infections and acute otitis media. A single dose of 1950 significantly reduced bacterial burden in the respiratory tract for all three pathogens, even when species were present in a co-infection model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.02096-18DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

[Features of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent hospitalized adults according to the causal agent].

Rev Med Chil 2018 Dec;146(12):1371-1383

Departamento de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Molecular biological techniques allow the identification of more pathogens associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

Aim: To compare clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with CAP caused by different groups of pathogens.

Material And Methods: In a prospective study, immunocompetent adult patients hospitalized with CAP were tested for the presence of a broad range of possible respiratory pathogens using bacterial cultures, polymerase chain reaction, urinary antigen testing and serology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/s0034-98872018001201371DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Optimization and Characterization of a Larval Infection Model for Virulence Studies and the Evaluation of Therapeutics Against .

Front Microbiol 2019 21;10:311. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.

is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia. Infection is linked to high morbidity and mortality rates and antibiotic resistance within this pathogen is on the rise. Therefore, there is a need for novel antimicrobial therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394149PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Herd immunity alters the conditions for performing dose schedule comparisons: an individual-based model of pneumococcal carriage.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Mar 5;19(1):227. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Kresge Building, Room 506G, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: There is great interest in the use of reduced dosing schedules for pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, a strategy premised on maintaining an acceptable level of protection against disease and carriage of the organism. We asked about the practicality of measuring differential effectiveness against carriage in a population with and without widespread use of the vaccine for infants.

Methods: We adapted an existing transmission-dynamic, individual-based stochastic model fitted to the prevaccine epidemiology of pneumococcal carriage in the United States, and compared the observed vaccine-type carriage prevalence in different arms of a simulated trial with one, two, or three infant doses plus a 12-month booster. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3833-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6402138PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Oculomotor Nerve Palsy After Influenza Vaccine in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Cureus 2018 Dec 21;10(12):e3759. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Internal Medicine, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, USA.

Influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are recommended in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Several neurologic complications have been reported after influenza vaccines, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; however, rarely, oculomotor palsy will occur. We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a past medical history of ulcerative colitis on sulfasalazine who presented to the hospital with a complaint of blurry vision five days after an influenza vaccine. Read More

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https://www.cureus.com/articles/16667-oculomotor-nerve-palsy
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6389033PMC
December 2018
6 Reads

Pneumococcal Vaccines: Challenges and Prospects.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Feb 27;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Immunobiology and Vaccinology Research Laboratory, First Department of Paediatrics, Aghia Sofia Children's Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 111527 Athens, Greece.

Infections with the bacterium are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in children less than five years of age worldwide, mostly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) [... Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466156PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Parasitic infections during pregnancy need not affect infant antibody responses to early vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae, diphtheria, or Haemophilus influenzae type B.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 02 28;13(2):e0007172. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Lucille Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Background: Globally, vaccine-preventable diseases remain a significant cause of early childhood mortality despite concerted efforts to improve vaccine coverage. One reason for impaired protection may be the influence of prenatal exposure to parasitic antigens on the developing immune system. Prior research had shown a decrease in infant vaccine response after in utero parasite exposure among a maternal cohort without aggressive preventive treatment. Read More

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http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007172
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413956PMC
February 2019
10 Reads

Influence of Obesity on Pneumococcus Infection Risk in the Elderly.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019 13;10:71. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Health Sciences North Research Institute, Sudbury, ON, Canada.

Obesity negatively affects immune function and host defense mechanisms. Obesity is associated with chronic activation of the innate immune system and consequent local and systemic inflammation which contribute to pathologic conditions such as type-2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Individuals with obesity have increased susceptibility to contract viral, bacterial, and fungal infections and respond sub-optimally to vaccination. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fendo.2019.00071
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381016PMC
February 2019
6 Reads

Changes in the Pneumococcal Vaccine Serotypes in Adult Noninvasive Pneumonia after the Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination for Children.

J Glob Infect Dis 2019 Jan-Mar;11(1):30-35

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yamagata Saisei Hospital, Yamagata, Japan.

Context: Although the incidence of invasive pneumococcal infections in children has decreased since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs), the appearance of serotype replacements has continued to increase.

Aims: We examined the frequency of serotype replacements in adult cases of pneumococcal pneumonia. Furthermore, the transition in the coverage of vaccine serotypes (VTs) to non-VTs (NVTs) was also examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jgid.jgid_167_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380097PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

Prophage Excision in Serotype 19A ST320 Promote Colonization: Insight Into Its Evolution From the Ancestral Clone Taiwan 19F-14 (ST236).

Front Microbiol 2019 8;10:205. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Children's Hospital, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

19A ST320, a multidrug-resistant strain with high disease severity that notoriously spread before the use of expanded pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, was derived from a capsular switching event between an international strain Taiwan 19F-14 (ST236) and a serotype 19A strain. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive evolution of 19F ST236 to 19A ST320 are unknown. In this study, we compared 19A ST320 to its ancestral clone, 19F ST236, in terms of adherence to respiratory epithelial cells, whole transcriptome, and ability to colonize a young mouse model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6375853PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Protective potency of recombinant meningococcal IgA1 protease and its structural derivatives upon animal invasion with meningococcal and pneumococcal infections.

Microbes Infect 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Miklukho-Maklaya 16/10, Moscow, 117997, Russia.

Immunization of mice with recombinant IgA1 protease of Neisseria meningitidis or several structural derivatives thereof protects the animals infected with a variety of deadly pathogens, including N. meningitidis serogroups A, B, and C and 3 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumonia. In sera of rabbits immunized with inactivated pneumococcal cultures, antibodies binding IgA1-protease from N. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from invasive pneumococcal infections in Iran.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2019 Mar 20;16:260-261. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Pediatric Infectious Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2019.02.009DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Etiology of acute otitis media and phenotypic-molecular characterization of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children in Liuzhou, China.

BMC Infect Dis 2019 Feb 15;19(1):168. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USA.

Background: The etiology and epidemiology of acute otitis media (AOM) are poorly understood in China. This study aimed to describe the etiology of AOM and the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of AOM-causing Streptococcus pneumoniae (S.pneumoniae) recovered from Chinese children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3795-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6377742PMC
February 2019
1 Read

Complementary Role of CD4+ T Cells in Response to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccines in Humans.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Feb 11;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Mucosal and Vaccine Research Program Colorado (MAVRC), Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Bacterial pathogens expressing capsular polysaccharides are common causes of mucosal infections (pneumonia, intestinal), as well as often fatal, invasive infections (meningitis, bloodstream infections) in children and adults worldwide. These chemically simple but structurally complex carbohydrate structures on the bacterial surface confer resistance to recognition and clearance by the immune system through a range of mechanisms. Such recognition of capsular polysaccharides may be reduced by their limited ability to directly stimulate B cells and the T cells that may facilitate these humoral responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466080PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Utility of MALDI-TOF MS as a new tool for Streptococcus pneumoniae serotyping.

PLoS One 2019 12;14(2):e0212022. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Hospital Universitario Donostia-Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Biodonostia, San Sebastián, Spain.

Nowadays, more than 95 different Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes are known, being less than one third responsible for the majority of severe pneumococcal infections. After the introduction of conjugate vaccines, a change in the epidemiology of the serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease has been observed making the surveillance of circulating serotypes especially relevant. Some recent studies have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technology to identify the most frequent pneumococcal serotypes that cause invasive disease. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212022PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372175PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Nasopharyngeal Microbiota in Children With Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: Identification of Bacteria With Potential Disease-Promoting and Protective Effects.

Front Microbiol 2019 28;10:11. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain.

The risk of suffering from some infectious diseases can be related to specific microbiota profiles. Specifically, the nasopharyngeal microbiota could play a role as a risk or protective factor in the development of invasive disease caused by . We analyzed the nasopharyngeal microbiota of children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and that of healthy controls matched by age, sex, and seasonality from Catalonia, Spain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6360994PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Immunogenicity and Immune Memory after a Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Booster in a High-Risk Population Primed with 10-Valent or 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Papua New Guinean Children.

Vaccines (Basel) 2019 Feb 4;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Wesfarmers Centre of Vaccines and Infectious Diseases, Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia.

We investigated the immunogenicity, seroprotection rates and persistence of immune memory in young children at high risk of pneumococcal disease in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Children were primed with 10-valent (PCV10) or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV13) at 1, 2 and 3 months of age and randomized at 9 months to receive PPV (PCV10/PPV-vaccinated, n = 51; PCV13/PPV-vaccinated, n = 52) or no PPV (PCV10/PPV-naive, n = 57; PCV13/PPV-naive, n = 48). All children received a micro-dose of PPV at 23 months of age to study the capacity to respond to a pneumococcal challenge. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2076-393X/7/1/17
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466212PMC
February 2019
9 Reads