29,392 results match your criteria Pneumococcal Infections


Validation of a Multiplexed Opsonophagocytic Assay for 11 Additional Pneumococcal Serotypes and Its Application to Functional Antibody Evaluation Induced by Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine.

J Korean Med Sci 2018 Dec 12;33(51):e340. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Various pneumococcal vaccines have been evaluated for immunogenicity by opsonophagocytic assay (OPA). A multiplexed OPA (MOPA) for 13 pneumococcal serotypes was developed by Nahm and Burton, and expanded to 26 serotypes in 2012. The development of new conjugate vaccines with increased valence has necessitated expanded MOPAs to include these additional serotypes. Read More

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December 2018

Pneumococcal quorum sensing drives an asymmetric owner-intruder competitive strategy during carriage via the competence regulon.

Nat Microbiol 2019 Jan 10;4(1):198-208. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Microbiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Competition among microorganisms is a key determinant of successful host colonization and persistence. For Streptococcus pneumoniae, lower than predicted rates of co-colonizing strains suggest a competitive advantage for resident bacteria over newcomers. In light of evolutionary theory, we hypothesized that S. Read More

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January 2019

Serotype-Specific IgG Antibody Waning after Pneumococcal Conjugate Primary Series Vaccinations with either the 10-Valent or the 13-Valent Vaccine.

Vaccines (Basel) 2018 Dec 11;6(4). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Center for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

The two currently available ten- and thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10 and PCV13) both induce serotype-specific IgG anti-polysaccharide antibodies and are effective in preventing vaccine serotype induced invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) as well as in reducing overall vaccine-serotype carriage and transmission and thereby inducing herd protection in the whole population. IgG levels decline after vaccination and could become too low to prevent carriage acquisition and/or pneumococcal disease. We compared the levels of 10-valent (PCV10) and 13-valent (PCV13) pneumococcal vaccine induced serum IgG antibodies at multiple time points after primary vaccinations. Read More

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December 2018

The Effect of National Pneumococcal Vaccination Program on Incidence of Postmeningitis Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Current Treatment Modalities.

J Int Adv Otol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Otolaryngology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the national pneumococcal vaccination program on postmeningitis sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL).

Materials And Methods: Overall, 2751 patients (2615 cochlear implantation and 136 auditory brainstem implantation) who underwent cochlear implantation (CI) and auditory brainstem implantation (ABI) at a tertiary referral hospital otolaryngology clinic were retrospectively analyzed. One hundred sixteen patients with a history of meningitis were included in the study. Read More

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December 2018

A Population-Based Descriptive Atlas of Invasive Pneumococcal Strains Recovered Within the U.S. During 2015-2016.

Front Microbiol 2018 19;9:2670. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Respiratory Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has greatly decreased since implementation in the U.S. of the 7 valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2000 and 13 valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in 2010. Read More

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November 2018

Cost-Effectiveness of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (10- or 13-Valent) Versus No Vaccination for a National Immunization Program in Tunisia or Algeria.

Infect Dis Ther 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Pfizer, Collegeville, PA, USA.

Introduction: To evaluate the expected impact of the Algeria national immunization program (NIP) and potential impact for a Tunisia NIP, this study assessed the public health and economic value of vaccination, through a cost-effectiveness analysis, for a PCV13 or PCV10 NIP, compared with no vaccination.

Methods: A decision-analytic model was programmed in Microsoft Excel™ and adapted to evaluate the clinical and economic outcomes of PCV vaccination. Assuming a steady state, the model estimated invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD; bacteremia and meningitis), all-cause pneumonia (inpatient and outpatient), and all-cause otitis media cases as well as the associated costs from a payer perspective. Read More

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December 2018

The Role of Pneumococcal Virulence Factors in Ocular Infectious Diseases.

Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2018 13;2018:2525173. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216, USA.

is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic pathogen that can cause severe infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and middle ear infections. It is also one of the top pathogens contributing to bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis. Though two pneumococcal vaccines exist for the prevention of nonocular diseases, they do little to fully prevent ocular infections. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial resistance of pneumococcal isolates of pediatric invasive pneumococcal disease in China.

Infect Drug Resist 2018 26;11:2461-2469. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China,

Purpose: causes serious infections globally, including invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We analyze clinical features of pediatric IPD cases identified in China and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated pneumococcal strains.

Methods: Confirmed pediatric IPD patients were prospectively recruited to the study. Read More

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November 2018

Pneumococcal vaccination for welders: Global deployment within a multi-national corporation.

Am J Ind Med 2019 Jan 10;62(1):69-73. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Alcoa Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: Lobar pneumonia is an occupational disease of welders. This is the first report of global deployment of a pneumococcal vaccination program for welders within a multi-national corporation.

Methods: Global webinars were conducted to introduce the program. Read More

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January 2019

Measuring quantity and function of pneumococcal antibodies in immunoglobulin products.

Transfusion 2018 Dec;58 Suppl 3:3114-3120

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Background: Immunoglobulin replacement therapy is a cornerstone of the treatment of primary immunodeficiencies. Preparations used for replacement therapy are processed by purifying immunoglobulins from large pools of plasma, which were obtained from healthy donors. The constituent antibodies in these products depend on the immune history of the donor pool as well as manufacturing processes that differ among manufacturers. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Overview of antibody-mediated immunity to S. pneumoniae: pneumococcal infections, pneumococcal immunity assessment, and recommendations for IG product evaluation.

Transfusion 2018 Dec;58 Suppl 3:3106-3113

Regional Immunology Service, The Royal Hospitals, Belfast Health & Social Care Trust and Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) strains colonize the nasopharynx and can cause mucosal infections in the upper airway and middle ear, pneumonias, and invasive infections like bacteremia, sepsis, and meningitis. Over 90 serotypes, defined by the structure of their capsular polysaccharides, are known. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

[Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia in adults admitted to a general hospital. Experience in 60 cases].

Rev Med Chil 2018 Jul;146(7):839-845

Facultad de Medicina, Universidad San Sebastián, Patagonia, Chile.

Background: Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) is a preventable disease with high morbimortality.

Aim: To evaluate clinical aspects and mortality on BPP patients admitted to a Chilean regional hospital.

Patients And Methods: We looked for adult patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from blood cultures between 2010 and 2014 years and reviewed clinical records of those who were admitted with pneumonia. Read More

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Improving vaccines against using synthetic glycans.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biomolecular Systems, Max-Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14476 Potsdam, Germany;

remains a deadly disease in small children and the elderly even though conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines based on isolated capsular polysaccharides (CPS) are successful. The most common serotypes that cause infection are used in vaccines around the world, but differences in geographic and demographic serotype distribution compromises protection by leading vaccines. The medicinal chemistry approach to glycoconjugate vaccine development has helped to improve the stability and immunogenicity of synthetic vaccine candidates for several serotypes leading to the induction of higher levels of specific protective antibodies. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

A novel, multiple-antigen pneumococcal vaccine protects against lethal challenge.

Infect Immun 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Centre for Inflammation and Tissue Repair, UCL Respiratory, Division of Medicine, University College Medical School, Rayne Institute, London, United Kingdom

Current vaccination against uses vaccines based on capsular polysaccharides from selected serotypes, and has led to non-vaccine serotype replacement disease. We have investigated an alternative serotype-independent approach, using multiple-antigen vaccines (MAV) prepared from TIGR4 lysates enriched for surface proteins by a chromatography step after culture under conditions that induce expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp, thought to be immune adjuvants). Proteomics and immunoblots demonstrated that compared to standard bacterial lysates, MAV was enriched with Hsps and contained several recognised protective protein antigens, including pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) and pneumolysin (Ply). Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Clinical respiratory infections and pneumonia during the Hajj pilgrimage: A systematic review.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Aix Marseille Univ, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), Service de Santé des Armées (SSA), Microbes Vecteurs Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire-Méditerranée Infection (IHU-Méditerranée Infection), Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Background: The Islamic Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca is one of the world's largest annual mass gatherings. Inevitable overcrowding during the pilgrims' stay greatly increases the risk of acquiring and spreading infectious diseases, especially respiratory diseases.

Method: The MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for all relevant papers published prior to February 2018 that evaluated the prevalence of clinical symptoms of respiratory infections, including pneumonia, among Hajj pilgrims, as well as their influenza and pneumococcal vaccination status. Read More

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December 2018

Cost-effectiveness of adult vaccinations: A systematic review.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Berry Technology Solutions, USA.

Background: Coverage levels for many recommended adult vaccinations are low. The cost-effectiveness research literature on adult vaccinations has not been synthesized in recent years, which may contribute to low awareness of the value of adult vaccinations and to their under-utilization. We assessed research literature since 1980 to summarize economic evidence for adult vaccinations included on the adult immunization schedule. Read More

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December 2018

The role of pneumonia and secondary bacterial infection in fatal and serious outcomes of pandemic influenza a(H1N1)pdm09.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 7;18(1):637. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Medicine, the University of New South Wales, Samuels Building, Room 209, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.

Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of pneumonia and secondary bacterial infections during the pandemic of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant literature in which clinical outcomes of pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection were described. Published studies (between 01/01/2009 and 05/07/2012) describing cases of fatal or hospitalised A(H1N1)pdm09 and including data on bacterial testing or co-infection. Read More

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December 2018

Serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance pattern and multilocus sequence types of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in two tertiary pediatric hospitals in Beijing prior to PCV13 availability.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

a Beijing Key Laboratory of Pediatric Respiratory Infection Diseases, Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases , National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health , Beijing , China.

Background: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a serious threat to children worldwide. This study reported the serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance pattern and multilocus sequence types of 111 IPD strains isolated from children less than 14 years old in two tertiary pediatric centers in Beijing during years 2012-2017. Methods Serotypes were determined using Quellung reaction. Read More

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December 2018

Effectiveness of influenza and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines against influenza-related outcomes including pneumonia and acute exacerbation of cardiopulmonary diseases: Analysis by dominant viral subtype and vaccine matching.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207918. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Influenza and pneumonia are leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the elderly. Although vaccination is a main strategy to prevent these infectious diseases, concerns remain with respect to vaccine effectiveness.

Methods: During three influenza seasons (2014-2015, 2015-2016 and 2016-2017), we evaluated the effectiveness of the influenza and pneumococcal vaccines against pneumonia and acute exacerbation of cardiopulmonary diseases among the elderly aged ≥65 years with influenza-like illness (ILI). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Immunogenicity and safety of a tetanus-diphtheria vaccine and a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine after concomitant vaccination in ≥ 50-year-old adults.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 5;18(1):628. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: When two or more vaccines are administered concurrently, there is concern about safety and immunogenicity from vaccine interaction.

Methods: Subjects aged ≥50 years were randomized 1:1:1 to receive tetanus-diphtheria (Td) + 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13; Group 1), PCV13 alone (Group 2), or Td alone (Group 3). After single or concomitant vaccination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) were performed to compare immunogenicity for Td and PCV13, respectively. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Epidemiology of lower respiratory tract infections in adults.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

b Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences , University of the Witwatersrand , Johannesburg , South Africa .

Introduction: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are the leading infectious disease cause of death in the world and the fifth overall cause of death. From an epidemiological point of view, most consider pneumonia, influenza, bronchitis (including acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [AECOPD]), and bronchiolitis to be the most important LRTIs. Areas covered: This review will describe the epidemiology of LRTIs in adults focusing on community-acquired pneumonia, influenza, and AECOPD, utilizing data from the more recent literature. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Global, regional, and national burden of meningitis, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.

Authors:

Lancet Neurol 2018 Dec 13;17(12):1061-1082. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Background: Acute meningitis has a high case-fatality rate and survivors can have severe lifelong disability. We aimed to provide a comprehensive assessment of the levels and trends of global meningitis burden that could help to guide introduction, continuation, and ongoing development of vaccines and treatment programmes.

Methods: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) 2016 study estimated meningitis burden due to one of four types of cause: pneumococcal, meningococcal, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a residual category of other causes. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Paediatric community-acquired bacteraemia, pneumococcal invasive disease and antibiotic resistance fell after the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit of Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel Aviv, affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Aim: This study examined the impact of the routine pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) on childhood community-acquired bacteraemia (CAB) and antibiotic resistance patterns in Israeli children.

Methods: Israel added the PCV vaccine to its national immunisation programme in July 2009. We retrospectively analysed the medical records of all patients with CAB under 18 years at three children's hospitals in Tel Aviv and Jerusalem from 2007-2015. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

White Paper: Pathways to Progress in Newborn Screening for Sickle Cell Disease in Sub-Saharan Africa.

J Trop Dis Public Health 2018 10;6(2):260. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, USA.

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is among the most common single-gene diseases in the world but evidence-based comprehensive health care has not been implemented where the highest prevalence of SCD occurs, in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It represents an urgent health burden, both in terms of mortality and morbidity with an estimated mortality of 8-16% in children under 5 years in SSA. Addressing the high mortality of SCD in SSA and for effective management of SCD, newborn screening (NBS) should be incorporated with prevention of infections (including pneumococcal septicaemia and malaria), parental education and support at all levels of healthcare provision to enable timely recognition. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

A cross-sectional study to assess the awareness and practices related to adult immunization among nursing students in a metropolitan city.

J Educ Health Promot 2018 29;7:129. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Community Medicine, Seth G. S. Medical College and KEM Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: Immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases in adults is the need of the hour. The student nurses by virtue of training are the frontline health workers dealing with patient care. They are exposed to maximum risk of contracting the diseases. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Long-term pneumococcal vaccine immunogenicity following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Vaccine 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center of Tropical Medicine and Travel Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Division of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is a life-threatening, but vaccine preventable complication in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The international consensus on post allo-HSCT immunization schedules, starting 3-6 months after HSCT, focuses on short-term immunogenicity while long-term immunogenicity is not well characterized. The current Dutch immunization schedule, which starts at 12 months post allo-HSCT, was developed as a result of concerns on the coverage of long-term immunogenicity in international guidelines. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Pneumococcal carriage in vaccine-eligible children and unvaccinated infants in Lao PDR two years following the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

Vaccine 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Pneumococcal Research, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Royal Children's Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville, Australia; Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia; Centre for International Child Health, Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.

Pneumococcal carriage is a prerequisite for disease, and underpins herd protection provided by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). There are few data on the impact of PCVs in lower income settings, particularly in Asia. In 2013, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) introduced 13-valent PCV (PCV13) as a 3 + 0 schedule (doses at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age) with limited catch-up vaccination. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

[A multicenter clinical study on 1 138 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in children from 2012 to 2017].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2018 Dec;56(12):915-922

Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563003, China.

To explore the clinical features, the serotype distribution and drug resistance of the isolates in patient with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). By retrieving the laboratory information system in 18 children's hospitals from 2012 to 2017, the children with IPD were enrolled. (Spn) must be isolated from the sterile sites (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, hydrothorax and joint effusion etc. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

The impact of pneumococcal vaccine in reducing pneumonia hospitalizations in children under 5 years old, in Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2006 a 2014.

Epidemiol Serv Saude 2018 Nov 29;27(4):e2017378. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Saúde Pública, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil.

Objective: to analyze the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) on pneumonia hospital admissions among children in Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2006-2014.

Methods: this was an ecological study using data obtained from Brazilian National Health System Information Technology Department (Datasus) for 2006-2009 (pre-vaccination period) and 2010-2014 (post-vaccination period); time trends were evaluated using the Poisson regression coefficient.

Results: in the comparison between pre- and post-vaccination periods, the percentage difference in the hospitalization rate for children under 1 year old ranged from -44. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in indigenous and non-indigenous adults in northwestern Ontario, Canada, 2006-2015.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 4;18(1):621. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada.

Background: Despite the use of pneumococcal vaccines, indigenous populations are consistently disproportionately affected by invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). With recent changes in Ontario's provincial pneumococcal vaccination program, we sought to evaluate the epidemiology and burden of IPD in northwestern Ontario (NWO) Canada - a region that contains a substantial (19.2%) indigenous population. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children

Rev Prat 2017 12;67(10):1056-1058

Association clinique et thérapeutique infantile du Val-de-Marne, ACTIV, Saint-Maurdes- Fossés, France.

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December 2017

Human monoclonal antibodies isolated from a primary pneumococcal conjugate Vaccinee demonstrates the expansion of an antigen-driven Hypermutated memory B cell response.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Dec 4;18(1):613. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Vaccines Research, Merck & Co., Inc, Kenilworth, NJ, USA.

Background: Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of hospitalization. A few vaccines exist to prevent pneumococcal disease in adults, including a pneumococcal polysaccharide unconjugated vaccine and a protein conjugated polysaccharide vaccine. Previous studies on the human immune response to the unconjugated vaccine showed that the vaccine boosted the existing memory B cells. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Serotypes With Low Invasive Potential Are Associated With an Impaired Antibody Response in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease.

Front Microbiol 2018 15;9:2746. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Clinical Microbiology, Department of Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines may elicit a hyporesponse under certain conditions. There is limited knowledge, however, on the type of specific antibody response in individuals with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the functional antibody response in patients with IPD caused by different serotypes. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Studying PCV impact on clinical presentation of otitis media helps to understand its pathogenesis.

Vaccine 2019 Jan 26;37(1):1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: Complex otitis media (OM) may present with intact tympanic membrane or spontaneous otorrhea. We compared dynamics of intact tympanic membrane and spontaneous otorrhea OM following 7- and 13-valent conjugated vaccines (PCV7, PCV13) implementation, since differences in dynamics may imply different underlying mechanisms.

Methods: A prospective, population-based, active surveillance. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

Improving immunization capacity in Ethiopia through continuous quality improvement interventions: a prospective quasi-experimental study.

Infect Dis Poverty 2018 Nov 30;7(1):119. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Ethiopian Public Health Association, P.O. Box 7117, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Background: Strong scientific evidence is needed to support low-income countries in building effective and sustainable immunization programs and proactively engaging in global vaccine development and implementation initiatives. This study aimed to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of system-wide continuous quality improvement (CQI) interventions to improve national immunization programme performance in Ethiopia.

Methods: The study used a prospective, quasi-experimental design with an interrupted time-series analysis to collect data from 781 government health sectors (556 healthcare facilities, 196 district health offices, and 29 zonal health departments) selected from developing and emerging regions in Ethiopia. Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Vancomycin Should Be Part of Empiric Therapy for Suspected Bacterial Meningitis.

Authors:
Liset Olarte

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri.

The use of empiric vancomycin plus a third-generation cephalosporin for suspected bacterial meningitis has been recommended since 1997. Although the prevalence of ceftriaxone-nonsusceptible pneumococcal meningitis has decreased, vancomycin should still be included as empiric therapy for bacterial meningitis. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Expansion of the multidrug-resistant clonal complex 320 among invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A after the introduction of a ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Brazil.

PLoS One 2018 29;13(11):e0208211. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

National Laboratory for Meningitis and Pneumococcal Infections, Center of Bacteriology, Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: In 2010, a ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced in the routine infant national immunization program in Brazil. Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by serotype 19A (Spn19A) increased after the introduction of PCVs in several countries. We compared the frequency, antimicrobial resistance and molecular patterns of invasive Spn19A strains before and after PCV10 introduction in Brazil using data from the national laboratory-based surveillance. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Effect of periodic health exam on provider management of preventive services.

J Eval Clin Pract 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

The Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University, 415 South St, Waltham, MA, 02453, USA.

Rationale And Objective: To evaluate the relationship between receipt of annual physicals and the receipt of provider recommendation for preventive services, during a period when Medicare did not cover annual physicals (before 2011).

Methods: Electronic medical records of patients aged 65 years and older from a US health care system were extracted for the 2001 to 2007 period. A fixed-effects logistic model was used to assess the relationship between receipt of periodic health examination (PHE) and receipt of provider recommendation for mammogram screening for 6466 female Medicare beneficiaries. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Antibiotic-Induced Cell Chaining Triggers Pneumococcal Competence by Reshaping Quorum Sensing to Autocrine-Like Signaling.

Cell Rep 2018 Nov;25(9):2390-2400.e3

Department of Fundamental Microbiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Biophore Building, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland; Molecular Genetics Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, Centre for Synthetic Biology, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Streptococcus pneumoniae can acquire antibiotic resistance by activation of competence and subsequent DNA uptake. Here, we demonstrate that aztreonam (ATM) and clavulanic acid (CLA) promote competence. We show that both compounds induce cell chain formation by targeting the d,d-carboxypeptidase PBP3. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Vaccination for influenza and pneumococcus in patients with gastrointestinal cancer or inflammatory bowel disease: A prospective cohort study of methods for improving coverage.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 Jan 28;49(1):84-90. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Gastroenterology and NGERE Unit, Inserm, University Hospital of Nancy, Lorraine University, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Background: Although influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations for high-risk populations are recommended by current guidelines, vaccination coverage is low in patients with gastrointestinal cancer (GC) or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Aim: To evaluate the impact of a specialised infectious disease consultation on vaccination coverage rates in these patients.

Methods: Between December 2016 and April 2017, all patients with GC or IBD followed in the outpatient clinic of the Gastroenterology department at the Nancy University Hospital enrolled in a 3-phase vaccination programme. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

Paediatric and adult bronchiectasis: Vaccination in prevention and management.

Respirology 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia.

Bronchiectasis has received increased attention recently, including an emphasis on preventing infective exacerbations that are associated with disease progression and lung function decline. While there are several bacteria and viruses associated with bronchiectasis, licensed vaccines are only currently available for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae protein D as a conjugate in a pneumococcal vaccine), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bordetella pertussis and influenza virus. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Global emergence and population dynamics of divergent serotype 3 CC180 pneumococci.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Nov 26;14(11):e1007438. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Department of Epidemiology, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, despite inclusion in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Serotype 3 increased in carriage since the implementation of PCV13 in the USA, while invasive disease rates remain unchanged. We investigated the persistence of serotype 3 in carriage and disease, through genomic analyses of a global sample of 301 serotype 3 isolates of the Netherlands3-31 (PMEN31) clone CC180, combined with associated patient data and PCV utilization among countries of isolate collection. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Microbiological testing of adults hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia: an international study.

ERJ Open Res 2018 Oct 8;4(4). Epub 2018 Oct 8.

South Texas Veterans Health Care System and University of Texas Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

This study aimed to describe real-life microbiological testing of adults hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to assess concordance with the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS) and 2011 European Respiratory Society (ERS) CAP guidelines. This was a cohort study based on the Global Initiative for Methicillin-resistant Pneumonia (GLIMP) database, which contains point-prevalence data on adults hospitalised with CAP across 54 countries during 2015. In total, 3702 patients were included. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

The changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease after PCV13 vaccination in a country with intermediate vaccination coverage.

Vaccine 2018 Nov 30;36(50):7744-7752. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Agència de Salut Pública de Catalunya, Generalitat de Catalunya, Roc Boronat 81-95, 08005 Barcelona, Spain; CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Monforte de Lemos, 3-5, 28029 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: We studied the impact of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and serotype distribution in a region with intermediate levels of vaccination (around 64% in children aged <2 years).

Methods: Surveillance data on IPD cases reported by microbiologists participating in the Microbiological Reporting System of Catalonia during 2006-2014 were analysed. We compared estimated incidence rate (IR) ratios for serotypes included in PCV7, PCV10non7, PCV13non10 and non-PCV13 between the PCV7 (2006-2009) and PCV13 periods (2010-2014). Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Impact of implementing a technology platform in community pharmacies to increase adult immunizations rates.

Vaccine 2019 Jan 22;37(1):56-60. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.

Over the course of this project, we utilized pharmacists at 159 community pharmacies in Nebraska and Iowa to administer vaccinations to adults 19 years of age or older with the objective of improving immunization rates in both states. We implemented a pharmacy-based technology platform and partnered with public health via the state immunization registries of both states to ensure that immunizations provided at the pharmacy were transmitted to the statewide registry, for which reporting is currently voluntary for health care providers. After using the technology platform for one year, an increase of immunization rates for influenza, herpes zoster, and pertussis vaccination rates by 37%, 12%, and 74%, respectively, was recorded in comparison to the prior year numbers. Read More

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January 2019
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Effect of Combined β-Lactam / Macrolide Therapy on Mortality According to the Microbial Aetiology and Inflammatory Status of Patients with Community - Acquired Pneumonia.

Chest 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Pneumology Department, Respiratory Institute (ICR), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona - Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) - University of Barcelona (UB), SGR 911 - Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES), ICREA Academia, Villarroel 170 (08036) Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Antibiotic combinations that include macrolides have shown lower mortality rates than β-lactams in monotherapy or combined with fluoroquinolones in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, this effect has not been studied according to the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in CAP with identified microbial cause.

Objectives: In patients with CAP and known microbial cause we aimed to evaluate 30 day mortality of a β-lactam plus macrolide (BL+M) compared to a fluoroquinolone alone with or without a β-lactam (FQ±BL) METHODS: We analysed a prospective observational cohort of patients with CAP admitted to Hospital Clinic of Barcelona between 1996 to 2016. Read More

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November 2018
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Vaccine-driven serotype-rearrangement is seen with latency in clinical isolates: Comparison of carried and clinical pneumococcal isolates from the same time period in Hungary.

Vaccine 2019 Jan 22;37(1):99-108. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, Semmelweis University, Nagyvárad tér 4, H-1089 Budapest, Hungary. Electronic address:

Young children - the main asymptomatic carriers of pneumococcus - are often the source of pneumococcal infections. PCV13 replaced PCV7 in 2010 in Hungary and it became a mandatory vaccine in 2014. In this work we surveyed the effect of vaccination in three groups: in healthy children under 7 years; in children of the same age but infected with pneumococcus (P1); in older patients (P2) who were very likely not vaccinated. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

Inter-laboratory variability in multiplexed pneumococcal antibody testing.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA; Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. Electronic address:

This pragmatic, updated assessment of variability among pneumococcal antibody assays suggests that variability may now be greater than previously reported, and potentially influential in clinical decision making. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads