24,362 results match your criteria Pneumococcal Infections

Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage Among Adult Populations -United States, 2018.

MMWR Surveill Summ 2021 May 14;70(3):1-26. Epub 2021 May 14.

Problem/condition: Adults are at risk for illness, hospitalization, disability and, in some cases, death from vaccine-preventable diseases, particularly influenza and pneumococcal disease. CDC recommends vaccinations for adults on the basis of age, health conditions, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U. Read More

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Polyvalent Bacterial Lysate Protects Against Pneumonia Independently of Neutrophils, IL-17A or Caspase-1 Activation.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:562244. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Laboratory for Vaccine Research, Departamento de Desarrollo Biotecnológico, Facultad de Medicina, Instituto de Higiene, Montevideo, Uruguay.

Polyvalent bacterial lysates have been in use for decades for prevention and treatment of respiratory infections with reported clinical benefits. However, besides claims of broad immune activation, the mode of action is still a matter of debate. The lysates, formulated with the main bacterial species involved in respiratory infections, are commonly prepared by chemical or mechanical disruption of bacterial cells, what is believed influences the biological activity of the product. Read More

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Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Colonization Density is Associated with Severe Pneumonia in Young Children in the Lao PDR.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: No studies have explored the association between pneumococcal nasopharyngeal density and severe pneumonia using the WHO 2013 definition. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), we determine the association between nasopharyngeal pneumococcal density and severe pneumonia in children.

Method: A prospective observational study was undertaken at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane from 2014 to mid-2018. Read More

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Control of Streptococcal Infections: Is a Common Vaccine Target Achievable Against and .

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:658824. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

West African Centre for Cell Biology of Infectious Pathogens, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Both [group B streptococcus (GBS)] and (pneumococcus) remain significant pathogens as they cause life threatening infections mostly in children and the elderly. The control of diseases caused by these pathogens is dependent on antibiotics use and appropriate vaccination. The introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) against some serotypes has led to reduction in pneumococcal infections, however, the subsequent serotype switching, and replacement has been a serious challenge. Read More

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Pneumococcal septic shock after neonatal respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: A case report and literature review.

Acta Biomed 2021 Apr 30;92(S1):e2021111. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

UO di Terapia Intensiva Neonatale, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche Materno-Infantili e dell'Adulto, AOU Policlinico di Modena, Modena.

Background: Bronchiolitis is a common cause of hospitalisation of infants less than a year old, with most infants recovering without complications. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of bronchiolitis. Antimicrobial stewardship programmes do not recommend antibiotics for viral infections in neonates unless documented evidence of secondary bacterial infection is present. Read More

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D-Dimer as Biomarker for Early Prediction of Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Severe Invasive Infections Due to and .

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 15;8:627830. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Infectious Disease Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.

Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection; no current clinical measure adequately reflects the concept of dysregulated response. Coagulation plays a pivotal role in the normal response to pathogens (immunothrombosis), thus the evolution toward sepsis-induced coagulopathy could be individuate through coagulation/fibrinolysis-related biomarkers. We focused on the role of D-dimer assessed within 24 h after admission in predicting clinical outcomes in a cohort of 270 patients hospitalized in a 79 months period for meningitis and/or bloodstream infections due to ( = 162) or ( = 108). Read More

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Barriers to Vaccination Among People with Parkinson's Disease and Implications for COVID-19.

J Parkinsons Dis 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Section of Movement Disorders, Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at higher risk of vaccine-preventable respiratory infections. However, advanced, homebound individuals may have less access to vaccinations. In light of COVID-19, understanding barriers to vaccination in PD may inform strategies to increase vaccine uptake. Read More

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Impact of HIV-1 Infection and Antigen Class on T Follicular Helper Cell Responses to Pneumococcal Polysaccharide-Protein Conjugate Vaccine-13.

J Immunol 2021 May 30;206(10):2402-2411. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Mucosal and Vaccine Research Program Colorado, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO

Pneumococcal infections are common and serious complications of HIV-1 disease. Prevention has been compromised by the limited magnitude and quality of Ab responses to T cell-independent type 2 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PPS). The pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine-13 (PCV-13) contains PPS conjugated to the T cell-dependent protein (diphtheria toxoid [DT] [CRM197]). Read More

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Socioeconomic costs of children <5 years hospitalised with acute respiratory infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia.

Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Malaysian children < 5 years. Knowledge of associated economic costs is important for policymakers to determine cost-effectiveness of interventions, such as pneumococcal or influenza vaccines, which are underused in Malaysia.

Methods: Children < 5 years admitted with ARI to a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur were prospectively recruited between July 2013 and July 2015. Read More

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Polymeric Caffeic Acid Acts as a Nasal Vaccine Formulation against Infections in Mice.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 20;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Drug Delivery and Molecular Biopharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan.

Infectious diseases are the second leading cause of death worldwide, highlighting the importance of the development of a novel and improved strategy for fighting pathogenic microbes. is a highly pathogenic bacteria that causes pneumonia with high mortality rates, especially in children and elderly individuals. To solve these issues, a mucosal vaccine system would be the best solution for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. Read More

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Etiology of Clinical Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Swedish Children Aged 1-59 Months with High Pneumococcal Vaccine Coverage-The TREND Study.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Pediatric Emergency Department, Sachs' Children and Youth Hospital, S-118 83 Stockholm, Sweden.

(1) Immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines has decreased the burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children and likely led to a shift in CAP etiology. (2) The Trial of Respiratory infections in children for ENhanced Diagnostics (TREND) enrolled children 1-59 months with clinical CAP according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria at Sachs' Children and Youth Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Children with rhonchi and indrawing underwent "bronchodilator challenge". Read More

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Global Landscape Review of Serotype-Specific Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Surveillance among Countries Using PCV10/13: The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) Project.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 2;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

National Public Health Organisation, 15123 Athens, Greece.

Serotype-specific surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is essential for assessing the impact of 10- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV10/13). The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project aimed to evaluate the global evidence to estimate the impact of PCV10/13 by age, product, schedule, and syndrome. Here we systematically characterize and summarize the global landscape of routine serotype-specific IPD surveillance in PCV10/13-using countries and describe the subset that are included in PSERENADE. Read More

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Serotype Distribution of Remaining Pneumococcal Meningitis in the Mature PCV10/13 Period: Findings from the PSERENADE Project.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 1;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Clinical Microbiology, Landspitali-The National University Hospital, Hringbraut, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) introduction has reduced pneumococcal meningitis incidence. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project described the serotype distribution of remaining pneumococcal meningitis in countries using PCV10/13 for least 5-7 years with primary series uptake above 70%. The distribution was estimated using a multinomial Dirichlet regression model, stratified by PCV product and age. Read More

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Serotype-Switch Variant of Multidrug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Sequence Type 271.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Apr 29;27(6). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

We discovered 3 invasive, multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates of vaccine-refractory capsular serotype 3 that recently arose within the successful sequence type 271 complex through a serotype switch recombination event. Mapping genomic recombination sites within the serotype 3/sequence type 271 progeny revealed a 55.9-kb donated fragment that encompassed cps3, pbp1a, and additional virulence factors. Read More

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Role of Pneumococcal NanC in the Severe Disease of Superinfection with Influenza.

Immunohorizons 2021 Apr 28;5(4):210-218. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Guishan, Taoyuan City, Taiwan;

Bacterial superinfection aggravates the disease of influenza. is the most common bacterial pathogen. Synergistic virulence has been demonstrated between influenza neuraminidase and pneumococcal NanA and NanB. Read More

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COVID-19 vaccine coverage in health-care workers in England and effectiveness of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine against infection (SIREN): a prospective, multicentre, cohort study.

Lancet 2021 05 23;397(10286):1725-1735. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Public Health England Colindale, London, UK; The National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research (NIHR) Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance at the University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background: BNT162b2 mRNA and ChAdOx1 nCOV-19 adenoviral vector vaccines have been rapidly rolled out in the UK from December, 2020. We aimed to determine the factors associated with vaccine coverage for both vaccines and documented the vaccine effectiveness of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in a cohort of health-care workers undergoing regular asymptomatic testing.

Methods: The SIREN study is a prospective cohort study among staff (aged ≥18 years) working in publicly-funded hospitals in the UK. Read More

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Mortality, neurodevelopmental impairments, and economic outcomes after invasive group B streptococcal disease in early infancy in Denmark and the Netherlands: a national matched cohort study.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Maternal, Adolescent, Reproductive & Child Health Centre and Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease is a leading cause of neonatal death, but its long-term effects have not been studied after early childhood. The aim of this study was to assess long-term mortality, neurodevelopmental impairments (NDIs), and economic outcomes after infant invasive GBS (iGBS) disease up to adolescence in Denmark and the Netherlands.

Methods: For this cohort study, children with iGBS disease were identified in Denmark and the Netherlands using national medical and administrative databases and culture results that confirmed their diagnoses. Read More

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Antimicrobial resistance profile and multidrug resistance patterns of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from patients suspected of pneumococcal infections in Ethiopia.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2021 Apr 20;20(1):26. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Antimicrobial-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae have become one of the greatest challenges to global public health today and inappropriate use of antibiotics and high level of antibiotic use is probably the main factor driving the emergence of resistance worldwide. The aim of this study is, therefore, to assess the antimicrobial resistance profiles and multidrug resistance patterns of S. pneumoniae isolates from patients suspected of pneumococcal infections in Ethiopia. Read More

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The clinical relevance of IgM and IgA anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide ELISA assays in patients with suspected antibody deficiency.

Clin Exp Immunol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Tranzo, Tilburg University, Tilburg, the Netherlands.

Unlike IgG pneumococcal polysaccharide(PnPS)-antibodies, PnPS IgA and IgM-antibodies are not routinely determined for the assessment of immunocompetence. It is not yet known whether an isolated inability to mount a normal IgM or IgA-PnPS response should be considered a relevant primary antibody deficiency (PAD). We studied the clinical relevance of anti-PnPS IgM and IgA-assays in patients with suspected primary immunodeficiency in a large teaching hospital in 's-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands. Read More

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Dynamic pneumococcal genetic adaptations support bacterial growth and inflammation during coinfection with influenza.

Infect Immun 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA

(pneumococcus) is one of the primary bacterial pathogens that complicates influenza virus infections. These bacterial coinfections increase influenza-associated morbidity and mortality through a number of immunological and viral-mediated mechanisms, but the specific bacterial genes that contribute to post-influenza pathogenicity are not known. Here, we used genome-wide transposon mutagenesis (Tn-Seq) to reveal bacterial genes that confer improved fitness in influenza-infected hosts. Read More

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Effects of nasopharyngeal microbiota in respiratory infections and allergies.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Departments of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

The human microbiome, which consists of a collective cluster of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms living in the human body, plays a key role in host health and immunity. The human nasal cavity harbors commensal bacteria that suppress the colonization of opportunistic pathogens. However, dysbiosis of the nasal microbial community is associated with many diseases, such as acute respiratory infections including otitis media, sinusitis and bronchitis and allergic respiratory diseases including asthma. Read More

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Pneumococcal vaccine coverage in Japan among patients with a history of splenectomy: Results of a retrospective administrative database study.

Vaccine 2021 May 14;39(19):2692-2697. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

MSD K.K., Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Splenectomy results in immune deficiency and increases the risk of clinically significant infections, termed overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). In Japan, vaccination with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) is covered by the Japanese National Health Insurance (NHI) for post-splenectomy patients, but there are limited data about whether these patients receive PPSV23 vaccination.

Methods: We performed retrospective analyses of the JMDC Claims Database comprising employees (including some retired individuals) and their families in Japan. Read More

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Invasive pneumococcal diseases in adults admitted to the Na Bulovce Hospital: Serotype replacement after the implementation of general childhood pneumococcal vaccination.

Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2021 ;70(1):10-17

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse epidemiological and clinical characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in adults before and after the introduction of the general childhood conjugate pneumococcal vaccination programme in the Czech Republic.

Material And Methods: The retrospective observational sentinel study included adults with IPD admitted to the Na Bulovce Hospital in Prague from 1/2000 through 12/2019. A case of IPD was defined as isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from a primarily sterile site. Read More

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[Vaccination in adult patients: shingles vaccines and vaccination in case of anatomical or functional asplenia].

Rev Med Suisse 2021 Apr;17(734):744-749

Unité d'infectiologie pédiatrique et vaccinologie, Service de pédiatrie, Département femme-mère-enfant, CHUV, 1011 Lausanne.

Shingles vaccination and pneumococcal vaccination of patients with celiac disease are among the most recent updates for the vaccination of vulnerable adults, in Switzerland. Shingles and especially post-herpes zoster pain remain an unresolved public health issue. The only vaccine available in Switzerland is very little administered because it is not reimbursed by health insurance companies. Read More

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European data sources for computing burden of (potential) vaccine-preventable diseases in ageing adults.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Apr 13;21(1):345. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, 3720 BA, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Background: To guide decision-making on immunisation programmes for ageing adults in Europe, one of the aims of the Vaccines and InfecTious diseases in the Ageing popuLation (IMI2-VITAL) project is to assess the burden of disease (BoD) of (potentially) vaccine-preventable diseases ((P)VPD). We aimed to identify the available data sources to calculate the BoD of (P)VPD in participating VITAL countries and to pinpoint data gaps. Based on epidemiological criteria and vaccine availability, we prioritized (P) VPD caused by Extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC), norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, Staphylococcus aureus, and pneumococcal pneumonia. Read More

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[Clustering and influencing factors of carriage among kindergarten children].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2021 Apr;23(4):363-368

School of Public Health, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510310, China.

Objective: To study the clustering and influencing factors of carriage among kindergarten children, and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention of pneumococcal diseases.

Methods: The multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used to collect nasal swabs via the nasal vestibule at both sides from 1 702 kindergarten children in Liuzhou, China. A questionnaire survey was performed on their parents. Read More

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Are patients with rheumatic diseases on immunosuppressive therapies protected against preventable infections? A cross-sectional cohort study.

RMD Open 2021 04;7(1)

Rheumatology, Rheumazentrum Ruhrgebiet, Herne, Germany.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of infections, prevalence of hospitalisation due to infections, the vaccination status and perceived screening of infections prior to the start of biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) of a patient cohort with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (CIRD).

Methods: Consecutive CIRD patients reporting to our specialised centre were prospectively included (n=975) in this cross-sectional study. Data on comorbidities including infections, treatment, vaccination status, screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and hepatitis B (HepB) were collected. Read More

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The impact and cost-effectiveness of introducing the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into the paediatric immunisation programme in Iceland-A population-based time series analysis.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249497. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Introduction: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a cause of infections that range in severity from acute otitis media (AOM) to pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) was introduced into the Icelandic paediatric immunisation programme in 2011. The aim was to estimate the population impact and cost-effectiveness of PHiD-CV10 introduction. Read More

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Virus-Induced Changes of the Respiratory Tract Environment Promote Secondary Infections With .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 22;11:643326. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Secondary bacterial infections enhance the disease burden of influenza infections substantially. (the pneumococcus) plays a major role in the synergism between bacterial and viral pathogens, which is based on complex interactions between the pathogen and the host immune response. Here, we discuss mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of a secondary pneumococcal infection after an influenza infection with a focus on how pneumococci senses and adapts to the influenza-modified environment. Read More

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Cardiovascular complications of bacteraemia.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 7;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Heart Center, department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

The incidence of bacteraemia has risen due to a worldwide increase in immunocompromised patients and antibiotic resistance. We describe three patients who experienced severe, including cardiovascular, complications of pneumococcal bacteraemia. Cardiovascular complications related to pneumococci may run a fulminant course. Read More

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