58 results match your criteria Plant Poisoning Oxalates

Plants Containing Urinary Tract, Gastrointestinal, or Miscellaneous Toxins that Affect Livestock.

Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2020 Nov;36(3):701-713

USDA/ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 East 1400 North, Logan, UT 84341, USA.

Whether exposed by grazing toxic range or pasture plants or by eating contaminated feed, there are plant toxins that produce urinary tract disease, gastroenteritis, and other miscellaneous or multisystemic diseases. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires incorporation of field studies, clinical signs, gross and microscopic pathology, and chemical identification of plants, toxins, and metabolites in animal samples. The objectives of this review are to introduce poisonous plants that commonly poison livestock in North America; describe clinical and pathologic lesions they produce in livestock; and present current technology available to identify poisoning, treat affected animals, and minimize or avoid poisoning additional animals. Read More

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November 2020

Arum palaestinum poisoning: revenge of the witch.

Eur J Pediatr 2020 Oct 15;179(10):1553-1557. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Israel Poison Information Center, Rambam Health Care Campus, The Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology|, Haifa, Israel.

The Arum palaestinum plant is one of the 26 species of the Arum genus of the Araceae family. This plant species is found through the Mediterranean region, Western Asia, and Europe. The leaves and seeds of the plant contain needle-shaped oxalate crystals that can irritate the affected tissue (skin, oral cavity, or GI tract) upon exposure. Read More

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October 2020

Mucosal Injury From Calcium Oxalate Crystals Resembling Anaphylaxis and Angioedema.

J Emerg Med 2018 Nov 24;55(5):666-669. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York; Department of Medical Toxicology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.

Background: There are 215 families of plants that contain insoluble needle-shaped calcium oxalate crystals on the surface of their tissues. Upon mucosal contact, injury can cause extreme pain, soft-tissue swelling, salivation, dysphagia, and even aphonia. This presentation can resemble angioedema or anaphylaxis. Read More

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November 2018

Oral administration of oxalate-enriched spinach extract as an improved methodology for the induction of dietary hyperoxaluric nephrocalcinosis in experimental rats.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2018 Mar 24;28(3):195-204. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

a Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Excellence in Genomics Science, School of Biological Sciences , Madurai Kamaraj University , Madurai , India.

Experimental induction of hyperoxaluria by ethylene glycol (EG) administration is disapproved as it causes metabolic acidosis while the oral administration of chemically synthesized potassium oxalate (KOx) diet does not mimic our natural system. Since existing models comprise limitations, this study is aimed to develop an improved model for the induction of dietary hyperoxaluria, and nephrocalcinosis in experimental rats by administration of naturally available oxalate rich diet. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Read More

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Oxalate nephropathy in a laboratory colony of common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) following the ingestion of Eucalyptus viminalis.

Vet Rec 2011 Jul 4;169(4):100. Epub 2011 Jul 4.

Industry and Investment NSW, Beef Industry Centre, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.

Seven common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) from a laboratory colony of 17 died over a period of eight months. Death of six of these monkeys was attributed to kidney failure from an oxalate-induced nephropathy. The epidemiology of this outbreak suggested an exogenous source and there was strong evidence that the source was bark and leaves from an Eucalyptus viminalis tree. Read More

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Acute oxalate intoxication associated to ingestion of eshnan (Seidlitzia rosmarinus) in sheep.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2011 Aug 5;43(6):1065-8. Epub 2011 Apr 5.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Excellence Center for Ruminant Abortion and Neonatal Mortality, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

An outbreak of acute oxalate intoxication in a sheep flock was associated to Seidlitzia rosmarinus (Chenopodiaceae) with a mortality rate of about 19%. Affected sheep showed marked azotemia and hypocalcemia. Post-mortem findings included congestion and hemorrhage in visceral organs, ruminitis frequently associated with precipitation of birefringent calcium oxalate crystals, and acute nephrosis with numerous birefringent calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Read More

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Common plant toxicology: a comparison of national and southwest Ohio data trends on plant poisonings in the 21st century.

Dan D Petersen

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2011 Jul 27;254(2):148-53. Epub 2010 Oct 27.

EPA Office of Research and Development, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA.

Data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) and the Cincinnati-based Drug and Poison Information Center (DPIC) were analyzed to determine the incidence and trends of human plant poisonings since the year 2000. Approximately 3.4% of the approximately 4. Read More

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Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa.

J S Afr Vet Assoc 2009 Jun;80(2):63-74

Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa.

Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa), Brunfelsia spp. Read More

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Rhubarb and oxalosis (Rheum species).

Dis Mon 2009 Jun;55(6):403-11

Emergency Department, Pomona Valley Hospital Medical Center, Pomona, California, USA.

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[Current researching situation of mucosal irritant compontents in Araceae family plants].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2006 Sep;31(18):1561-3

Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210029, China.

Plants in Acaceae family are often considered as ornamental and medicines. However many of them have irritation properties. As medicinal plants some of them are recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and they are figured as poisonous. Read More

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September 2006

Renal failure in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) following ingestion of oxalate containing plants.

Can Vet J 2006 Aug;47(8):787-9

Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.

A 1-year-old guinea pig presented with anorexia, lethargy, and weight loss, 1 week after ingesting a peace lily leaf. Laboratory findings were suggestive of renal failure and included elevated blood urea nitrogen and creatinine with concurrent isosthenuria. The guinea pig was euthanized 1 month later due to worsening clinical signs. Read More

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Metabolism of dietary ODAP in humans may be responsible for the low incidence of neurolathyrism.

Clin Biochem 2004 Apr;37(4):318-22

Department of Biochemistry, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500007, India.

Objectives: The reasons for the very low incidence of the disease neurolathyrism in humans even after excessive consumption of the pulse, Lathyrus sativus, under severe drought and famine conditions, and its continued consumption by large populations during normal periods without any deleterious effects have been examined in the context of a possible metabolism or detoxification of beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha, beta-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP), the major neurotoxic amino acid of L. sativus.

Design And Methods: ODAP in urine samples from 54 subjects habitually consuming the pulse and in three volunteers on an L. Read More

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[Hypocalcemia in a four-week-old foal].

Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 2000 Mar;125(6):185-7

Hoofdafdeling Gezondheidszorg Paard, Faculteit der Diergeneeskunde, Universiteit Utrecht.

Intake of Rumex, a plant genus of the Polygonaceae family, probably led through the assimilation of oxalic acid, to hypocalcaemia in a four-week old foal. This foal was presented with muscle rigidity and a stiff gait. Both the total and ionized calcium concentrations were low, 1. Read More

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Halogeton poisoning in livestock.

L F James

J Nat Toxins 1999 Oct;8(3):395-403

Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, ARS, USDA, Logan, UT 84341, USA.

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October 1999

Calcium oxalate is the main toxic component in clinical presentations of alocasis macrorrhiza (L) Schott and Endl poisonings.

Vet Hum Toxicol 1998 Apr;40(2):93-5

Department of Emergency Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan, Republic of China.

Alocasia macrorrhiza (L) Schott and Endl is called Hai Yu, Tien Ho, Shan Yu, Kuan Yin Lien, Tu Chiao lien, Lao Hu Yu and Lang Du in Chinese. Its common English name is Giant Elephant's Ear. The toxic effects of A macrorrhiza arise from sapotoxin and include gastroenteritis and paralysis of the nerve centers. Read More

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Intoxication due to Achyrantes aspera L.

Vet Hum Toxicol 1995 Dec;37(6):582

Pharmacology and Toxicology Department Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA). San Jose de Las Lajas, La Abana Cuba.

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December 1995

Endogenous toxins and mycotoxins in forage grasses and their effects on livestock.

P R Cheeke

J Anim Sci 1995 Mar;73(3):909-18

Department of Animal Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis 97331-6702, USA.

Plant toxins are the chemical defenses of plants against herbivory. Grasses have relatively few intrinsic toxins, relying more on growth habit to survive defoliation and endophytic fungal toxins as chemical defenses. Forage grasses that contain intrinsic toxins include Phalaris spp. Read More

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Injury to the oral mucous membranes caused by the common houseplant, dieffenbachia. A review.

D G Gardner

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1994 Nov;78(5):631-3

Division of Oral Pathology and Oncology, University of Colorado School of Dentistry, Denver.

The common houseplant, dieffenbachia, causes painful edematous swelling of the oral mucous membranes when chewed. This property, which is well known to the staffs of poison control centers, can be dangerous to the unwary or to victims of practical jokes. The microscopic features of the injury are those of acute inflammation, but the nature of the plant's toxicity remains controversial. Read More

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November 1994

The poisonous plant Oxalis cernua.

J Rekhis

Vet Hum Toxicol 1994 Feb;36(1):23

Animal Production Department, Veterinary School, Sidi Thabet, Tunisia.

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February 1994

Allelochemicals in plant foods and feedingstuffs: 1. Nutritional, biochemical and physiopathological aspects in animal production.

V A Aletor

Vet Hum Toxicol 1993 Feb;35(1):57-67

International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Alleppo, Syria.

Several allelochemicals (anti-nutritional/anti-quality factors) contained in some plant foods and feedingstuffs are outlined. These include the trypsin and amylase inhibitors, hemagglutinins, gossypol, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins, oxalates, phytin, saponins, glucosinolates, estrogens, coumarins, alkaloids and aflatoxins. The nutritional, biochemical and physiopathological implications of their ingestion in a wide range of animals are reviewed. Read More

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February 1993

Clinical and pathological findings in fatal plant oxalosis. A review.

P Sanz R Reig

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1992 Dec;13(4):342-5

Unit of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Spain.

Poisoning by ingestion of oxalate-containing plants, such as raw rhubarb, is infrequent, and such deaths are rare. We present a review of the most important clinical and pathological aspects of oxalate poisoning and recommend that the public be educated about the dangers of eating unknown plants with potentially adverse effects. Read More

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December 1992

Acute oxalate poisoning attributable to ingestion of curly dock (Rumex crispus) in sheep.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990 Jun;196(12):1981-4

Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater 74078.

Ten of 100 mature ewes were afflicted with acute oxalate toxicosis within 40 hours after being temporarily penned in a lot that contained considerable growing Rumex crispus (curly dock). Clinical signs of toxicosis included excess salivation, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency. Affected ewes were markedly hypocalcemic and azotemic. Read More

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Acute oxalate toxicity of sheep associated with slender iceplant (Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum).

R H Jacob R L Peet

Aust Vet J 1989 Mar;66(3):91-2

Dryland Research Institute, Merredin, Western Australia.

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Acute oxalate poisoning of sheep by buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris).

Aust Vet J 1988 Jan;65(1):26

Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Animal Research Institute, Yeerongpilly.

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January 1988

Toxicity of Kalanchoe spp to chicks.

Am J Vet Res 1984 Mar;45(3):543-6

Leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K tubiflora, K fedtschenkoi, K tomentosa, K tomentosa X K beharensis, and 4 cultivars of K blossfeldiana were tested for toxicity to 2-week-old Leghorn chicks. These species were analyzed for percentage of alkaloids, aliphatic nitro compounds, soluble oxalates, and nitrates and were examined qualitatively for cyanogenic glycosides. The solubility of the toxic principle in K daigremontiana was determined. Read More

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