84 results match your criteria Plant Poisoning Hemlock

Analytical documentation of an Arabian horse fatality related to Oenanthe crocata poisoning.

Toxicon 2022 Apr 18;210:39-43. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

CHU Lille, Unité Fonctionnelle de Toxicologie, F-59037, Lille, France; Univ. Lille, ULR 4483 - IMPECS - IMPact de l'Environnement Chimique sur la Santé humaine, Lille, France. Electronic address:

Analytical detection of Oenanthe crocata toxins in biological samples is challenging because of their instability, the lack of commercially available standards and the exceptionally low detection of these molecules using mass spectrometry. This work aims to report the used analytical methods that allowed identification of the main plant toxins in biological samples from an equid (an Arabian horse) fatality related to hemlock water dropwort (Oenanthe crocata Linnaeus) intake. Using both LC-DAD and LC-HRMS methods allowed identification (i) of oenanthotoxin in roots found on the site, root fragments found in the stomach, stomach content, kidney, and liver, and (ii) of the hydrogenated metabolite of oenanthotoxin (2,3-dihydro-oenanthotoxin) in roots found on the site, root fragments found in the stomach, stomach content, kidney, liver and spleen. Read More

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Poisoning by Plants.

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2022 May 6(Forthcoming). Epub 2022 May 6.

Background: Questions on poisoning by plants are a common reason for inquiries to poison information centers (PIC). Over the years 2011-2020, plant poisoning was the subject of 15% of all inquiries to the joint poison information center in Erfurt, Germany (Gemeinsames Giftinformationszentrum Erfurt, GGIZ) that concerned poisoning in children (2.3% in adults). Read More

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Beware of Neurotoxins in Common Plants: Water Hemlock Poisoning Presenting as Convulsive Status Epilepticus.

Pediatr Neurol 2022 02 29;127:39-40. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Center for Chronically Sick Children, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Pediatric status epilepticus occurs in about 44/100.000 children per year with an unknown cause in about a third of patients. One cause can be the ingestion of plants containing toxins that target the central nervous system. Read More

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February 2022

Evaluation of diazepam as a drug treatment for water hemlock (Cicuta species) poisoning in Spanish goats.

Toxicon 2022 Jan 3;205:79-83. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Logan, UT, USA.

Water hemlocks (Cicuta spp.) are toxic members of the Apiaceae plant family. The best drug treatment for the convulsions associated with acute water hemlock poisoning in livestock and humans has not been determined experimentally. Read More

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January 2022

Mistaken identity: acute respiratory arrest from accidental ingestion of poison hemlock.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 05 17;60(5):659-661. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

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Classification of the mechanisms by which cardiotoxic plant poisons exert their effects.

Postgrad Med J 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

The Royal London, Barts Health NHS Trust, London, UK

Episodes of poisoning due to plant-based toxins are an unusual presentation to the emergency department. Plant poisons may be ingested if the source plant is misidentified as benign (eg, Lily of the Valley being mistaken for wild garlic and water hemlock being mistaken for wild celery), or taken as part of a complementary medicine regime or otherwise for psychotropic effect. Numerous plant poisons demonstrate cardiotoxic effects resulting from action against cardiac myocyte ion channels, or other cardiac receptor targets. Read More

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Genetic identification and subsequent LC-QTOF MS analysis of plant remains (Oenanthe spp.) could prove the cause of an undetermined sudden death.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Jul 27;135(4):1407-1411. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Galician Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Science, IMELGA, Lalín 4, 36209, Vigo, Spain.

In recent years, recorded cases related to forensic botany and, in particular, of plant poisoning have become rare. We report on the medicolegal characteristics of an undetermined sudden death (USD) of a woman in which scene there were remnants of a vegetal peeling. After the autopsy, macroscopic findings reported multiorgan failure and requested the investigation of the cause of death. Read More

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Oenantha Crocata: A Case Report of Multiple Poisoning with Fatal Outcome.

J Emerg Med 2020 Jul 27;59(1):e9-e11. Epub 2020 May 27.

Cardiothoracic and Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit, Laënnec University Hospital, Saint-Herblain, France.

Background: Plant poisonings are uncommon in adults, and rarely fatal. Oenantha crocata is a toxic plant growing in the humid grasslands of North America and Western Europe.

Case Report: We report here two adults who ingested Oenantha crocata roots, having mistaken them for edible tuberous radish. Read More

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[Rhabdomyolysis: have you considered food poisoning from quails?]

Carlo Basile

G Ital Nefrol 2020 Apr 9;37(2). Epub 2020 Apr 9.

Divisione di Nefrologia, Ospedale Miulli, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Bari, Italia; Associazione Nefrologica Gabriella Sebastio, Martina Franca, Taranto, Italia.

Rhabdomyolysis (R) is a complex condition involving the rapid dissolution of damaged or injured skeletal muscle. This leads to the direct release of intracellular components, including myoglobin, creatine kinase, aldolase, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as electrolytes, into the bloodstream and extracellular space. Clinically, R shows a triad of symptoms: myalgia, limb weakness, and myoglobinuria without hematuria, while myoglobin has been recognized as playing a part in the development of acute kidney injury. Read More

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The acute toxicity of water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) in a goat model.

Toxicon 2020 Mar 11;176:55-58. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, Logan, UT, 84341, USA.

Water hemlock (Cicuta douglasii) is one of the most toxic plants to livestock and humans. Little is known regarding the amount of plant required to cause death. The objective of this study was to determine a lethal dose of water hemlock in a goat model. Read More

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Conium maculatum intoxication: Literature review and case report on hemlock poisoning.

Forensic Sci Rev 2019 Jan;31(1):23-36

Laboratory of Forensic Sciences, School of Medicine, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

The aim of this paper is to highlight the symptomatology in three Conium maculatum intoxication incidents, one of which was fatal. A number of studies were reviewed in order to update and summarize the relevant literature on the incidence, sociodemographic variables, method of poisoning, pathophysiology, diagnosis, variables associated with survival and fatality, management, and treatment of C. maculatum intoxication as well as the biosynthesis and biological effects of poison hemlock alkaloids. Read More

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January 2019

Intravenous Poison Hemlock Injection Resulting in Prolonged Respiratory Failure and Encephalopathy.

J Med Toxicol 2017 06 6;13(2):180-182. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Meads Hall 1 Medical Center Blvd, Winston Salem, NC, 27103, USA.

Background: Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a common plant with a significant toxicity. Data on this toxicity is sparse as there have been few case reports and never a documented poisoning after intravenous injection.

Objectives: We present a case of intravenous poison hemlock injection encountered in the emergency department. Read More

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Rapid respiratory arrest after ingestion of poison hemlock mistaken for wild celery.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Feb 7;55(2):155-156. Epub 2016 Nov 7.

f San Francisco Division , California Poison Control System , San Francisco , CA , USA.

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February 2017

Alkaloid-Containing Plants Poisonous to Cattle and Horses in Europe.

Toxins (Basel) 2015 Dec 8;7(12):5301-7. Epub 2015 Dec 8.

Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety (VESPA), Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 10, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Alkaloids, nitrogen-containing secondary plant metabolites, are of major interest to veterinary toxicology because of their occurrence in plant species commonly involved in animal poisoning. Based on epidemiological data, the poisoning of cattle and horses by alkaloid-containing plants is a relatively common occurrence in Europe. Poisoning may occur when the plants contaminate hay or silage or when forage alternatives are unavailable. Read More

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December 2015

Hemlock (Conium Maculatum) Poisoning In A Child.

Turk J Emerg Med 2014 Mar 26;14(1):34-6. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Department of Pediatrics, Gaziantep Children Health and Diseases Hospital, Gaziantep.

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is a plant that is poisonous for humans and animals. Accidental ingestion of the plant may result in central nervous system depression, respiratory failure, acute rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure and even death. The main treatment of hemlock poisoning is supportive care. Read More

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Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.

Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today 2013 Dec;99(4):223-34

USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 East 1400 North, Logan, Utah, 84341.

Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Read More

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December 2013

Poisonous plants in New Zealand: a review of those that are most commonly enquired about to the National Poisons Centre.

N Z Med J 2012 Dec 14;125(1367):87-118. Epub 2012 Dec 14.

National Poisons Centre, University of Otago, PO Box 913, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Introduction: New Zealand has a number of plants, both native and introduced, contact with which can lead to poisoning. The New Zealand National Poisons Centre (NZNPC) frequently receives enquiries regarding exposures to poisonous plants. Poisonous plants can cause harm following inadvertent ingestion, via skin contact, eye exposures or inhalation of sawdust or smoked plant matter. Read More

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December 2012

Water hemlock poisoning in cattle: Ingestion of immature Cicuta maculata seed as the probable cause.

Toxicon 2011 Jan 20;57(1):157-61. Epub 2010 Nov 20.

USDA ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400 N., Logan, UT 84341, USA.

It is well understood that water hemlock tubers are highly toxic to animals and to humans. However, this is the first time that immature seed from (Cicuta maculata) has been implicated in livestock poisoning. Nine mature Hereford cows from a herd of 81 died in northwestern Utah after ingesting immature seed heads of water hemlock (Cicuta maculata) in late summer. Read More

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January 2011

Poison hemlock-induced respiratory failure in a toddler.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2009 Nov;25(11):761-3

Oregon Health and Science University, Oregon Poison Center, Legacy Emmanuel Hospital, Mail Code CB 550, Portland, OR 97239, USA.

The ingestion of poison hemlock, or Conium maculatum, is described in a 2-year-old boy. He had the onset of abdominal pain and weakness after being fed C. maculatum picked by his sister from the roadside 2 hours earlier. Read More

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November 2009

Poisoning due to water hemlock.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2009 Apr;47(4):270-8

Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, National Poisons Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Introduction: Water hemlock, which encompasses a range of species divided across two genera (Cicuta and Oenanthe), are regarded as being among the most poisonous plants both in North America and in the United Kingdom. Despite their toxicity, the literature consists almost entirely of case reports.

Aim: The aim of this review is to summarize this literature by covering all aspects of taxonomy and botanical characterization, principal toxins, basic pharmacology including mechanisms of toxicity, and the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of poisoning. Read More

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What killed Socrates? Toxicological considerations and questions.

A D Dayan

Postgrad Med J 2009 Jan;85(999):34-7

The death of Socrates in 399 BCE, as reported by Plato in the Phaedo, is usually attributed to poisoning with common hemlock. His progressive centripetal paralysis is characteristic of that poison. Socrates is said to have had a prominent loss of sensation extending centrally from his legs, which is not a feature of hemlock poisoning, and he seems not to have had the unpleasant taste or common gastrointestinal effects of that poison. Read More

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January 2009

[Child poisoning after ingestion of a wild apiaceae: a case report].

Arch Pediatr 2008 Feb;15(2):139-41

Service de pédiatrie, centre hospitalier d'Alès, 811 avenue Docteur-Jean-Goubert, 30103 Alès cedex, France.

Apiaceae family (formerly Umbelliferae) contains several highly toxic species, including Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum), Water Hemlock (Cicuta virosa) and Hemlock Water Dropwort (Oenanthe crocata) which are the three main poisonous Apiaceae species growing in France. Thinking he was identifying wild carrots, an 11-year-old boy without previous history ingested the root from a wild Apiaceae. One hour later, he was confused, had drowsiness, headache as well as abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Read More

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February 2008

Water hemlock poisoning.

Julie Short

Emerg Nurse 2006 Nov;14(7):18-9

Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust Emergency Department.

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November 2006

Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

Tom Reynolds

Phytochemistry 2005 Jun;66(12):1399-1406

Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Surrey, UK.

Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. Read More

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Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).

J Vetter

Food Chem Toxicol 2004 Sep;42(9):1373-82

Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Botany, Szent István University, 1400 Budapest, Pf. 2. Hungary.

One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. Read More

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September 2004

A hemlock water dropwort curry: a case of multiple poisoning.

Emerg Med J 2002 Sep;19(5):472-3

The Mid Argyll Hospital, Lochgilphead, Argyll PA31 8LU, UK.

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September 2002