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    125 results match your criteria Plant Poisoning Glycosides - Cardiac

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    Fatal cardiac glycoside poisoning due to mistaking foxglove for comfrey.
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Aug 2;55(7):670-673. Epub 2017 May 2.
    b Department of Emergency Medicine , Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou Branch , Taoyuan , Taiwan.
    Context: Accidental ingestion of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) can cause significant cardiac toxicity. We report a patient who ingested foxglove mistaking it for comfrey and developed refractory ventricular arrhythmias. The patient died despite treatment with digoxin-specific antibody fragments (DSFab) and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). Read More

    In the kingdom of "tortelli" (ravioli-like pasta) plant poisoning is still a threat. A case report of near-fatal poisoning from Digitalis Purpurea accidentally confused with Borago Officinalis.
    Acta Biomed 2017 Jan 16;87(3):353-357. Epub 2017 Jan 16.
    University Hospital of Parma, Italy.
    A 58 years healthy old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department (ED) with cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation (VF). Appropriate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), multiple DC shocks and oro-tracheal intubation (OTI) were effective to induce recovery of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). After ROSC was achieved, the electrocardiogram (ECG) showed an idio-ventricular rhythm with atrioventricular dissociation. Read More

    Comfrey herbal remedy causing second-degree heart block: do not be outfoxed by digitalis.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Dec 1;2016. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Department of Accident and Emergency, King's College Hospital, London, UK.
    A previously well woman aged 63 years presents to the emergency department with vomiting, palpitations and 3 presyncopal episodes. She had no previous medical or cardiac history, with the patient stating that she tried a herbal remedy of boiled comfrey leaves for insomnia 18 hours before arrival to the department. Her ECG showed multiple abnormalities, including bradycardia, second-degree atrioventricular node block, Mobitz Type 2, a shortened QT interval, downsloping ST depression and presence of U waves. Read More

    Plant-derived cardiac glycosides: Role in heart ailments and cancer management.
    Biomed Pharmacother 2016 Dec 22;84:1036-1041. Epub 2016 Oct 22.
    Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Dr San Diego, CA 92182, USA. Electronic address:
    Cardiac glycosides, the cardiotonic steroids such as digitalis have been in use as heart ailment remedy since ages. They manipulate the renin-angiotensin axis to improve cardiac output. However; their safety and efficacy have come under scrutiny in recent times, as poisoning and accidental mortalities have been observed. Read More

    Oleander Poisoning as an Example of Self-Medication Attempt.
    Balkan Med J 2016 Sep 1;33(5):559-562. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Institute of Forensic Sciences, İstanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background: There is an increasing interest in herbal products as a self-medication method in recent years. Some plant extracts either turn into drugs over time or are consumed directly without treatment. One of these plants is Nerium oleander L. Read More

    Potential Health Risks Posed by Plant-Derived Cumulative Neurotoxic Bufadienolides in South Africa.
    Molecules 2016 Mar 16;21(3):348. Epub 2016 Mar 16.
    Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa.
    Bufadienolide-type cardiac glycosides have a worldwide distribution and are mainly synthesized by plants, but there are also animal sources. In South Africa, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe) cause a unique chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, predominantly in small stock. This paretic/paralytic condition is referred to as "krimpsiekte", cotyledonosis or "nenta". Read More

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized from Adenium obesum leaf extract induced DNA damage, apoptosis and autophagy via generation of reactive oxygen species.
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2016 May 18;141:158-169. Epub 2016 Jan 18.
    Department of Environment and Forest Resources, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Republic of Korea.
    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial used for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. Adenium obesum is a plant of the family Apocynaceae that is rich in toxic cardiac glycosides; however, there is scarce information on the anticancer potential of its AgNPs. We herein report the novel biosynthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of A. Read More

    A case of Mobitz type II atrioventricular block due to Nerium oleander poisoning successfully managed with digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments.
    Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars 2015 Oct;43(7):648-50
    Department of Cardiology, Istanbul Medipol University Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Nerium oleander is a popular ornamental plant grown in many tropical and subtropical countries and in the Mediterranean region. It is dangerous because it has been shown to contain several types of cardiac glycosides, and hence can cause cardiac arrhythmias resembling digoxin in their toxicologic manifestations. We report a patient presenting to our hospital with Mobitz type II atrioventricular block after drinking herbal tea prepared from oleander leaves. Read More

    Hypoglycemia associated with oleander toxicity in a dog.
    J Med Toxicol 2015 Mar;11(1):141-3
    Department of Internal Medicine, VCA All-Care Animal Referral Center, 18440 Amistad Street, Fountain Valley, CA, 92708, USA,
    Oleander poisoning typically results in cardiac arrhythmias, hyperkalemia, and gastrointestinal irritation, and can be fatal. Oleander extracts have also been studied experimentally as hypoglycemic agents. Here, we describe a dog with confirmed oleander toxicosis presenting with classical symptoms and also hypoglycemia. Read More

    Rapid detection of convallatoxin using five digoxin immunoassays.
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2014 Aug 1;52(7):659-63. Epub 2014 Jul 1.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Yale School of Medicine , New Haven, CT , USA.
    Context: Cardiac glycosides of plant origin are implicated in toxic ingestions that may result in hospitalization and are potentially lethal. The utility of commonly available digoxin serum assays for detecting foxglove and oleander ingestion has been demonstrated, but no studies have evaluated the structurally similar convallatoxin found in Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley) for rapid laboratory screening, nor has digoxin immune Fab been tested as an antidote for this ingestion.

    Objective: We aimed to (1) evaluate multiple digoxin assays for cross-reactivity to convallatoxin, (2) identify whether convallatoxin could be detected in vivo at clinically significant doses, and (3) determine whether digoxin immune Fab could be an effective antidote to convallatoxin. Read More

    Toxicology of some important medicinal plants in southern Africa.
    Food Chem Toxicol 2013 Dec 27;62:609-21. Epub 2013 Sep 27.
    Research Centre for Plant Growth and Development, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermaritzburg, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3201, South Africa.
    Africa is home to two major floral kingdoms: the Paleotropical kingdom of central Africa and the Capensis kingdom of the Western Cape province of South Africa, the latter of which consists of approximately 10,000 species, representing about 20% of Africa's floral 'gold mine', better known as the Cape herbal medicine. Needless to say, such rich flora comes with numerous plants with a potential to cause poisoning to humans. This review document reports important toxic medicinal plants and their toxic ingredients for plant species resident in the southern African region. Read More

    A mass cyanide poisoning from pickling bamboo shoots.
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2011 Nov 5;49(9):834-9. Epub 2011 Oct 5.
    Department of Medicine, Ratchaburi Hospital, Ratchaburi Province, Thailand.
    Context: Bamboo shoots contain cyanogenic glycosides named taxiphyllin. Cyanide poisoning from cyanogenic glycosides commonly occurs following ingestion. However, toxicity caused by inhalation of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN) produced from pickled shoots has never been reported. Read More

    Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.
    Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2012 Mar;33(1):93-7
    Department of Legal Medicine, University of Pisa, Italy, USA.
    Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Read More

    Lily toxicity in the cat.
    Top Companion Anim Med 2010 Nov;25(4):213-7
    VCA Alameda East Veterinary Hospital, Denver, CO 80247, USA.
    Lilies are commonly kept flowering ornamental plants that are used in holiday celebrations, weddings, and funerals, and in various floral arrangements. Lilies of genera Lilium and Hemerocallis (day lilies) have been shown to cause nephrotoxicity in cats. Confusion arises because so many different plants are called lilies. Read More

    Evaluation of activated charcoal as treatment for Yellow tulp (Moraea pallida) poisoning in cattle.
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 2009 Dec;80(4):274-5
    ARC-Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Private Bag X05, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa.
    The efficacy of activated charcoal as a treatment for cattle (n = 57) poisoned by Yellow tulp (Moraea pallida) was investigated. Treatment with activated charcoal resulted in full recovery, irrespective of the degree of posterior paresis, provided that this clinical sign did not develop within the first 12 hours after initial exposure to Yellow tulp-infested grazing. For instance, despite treatment, 1 of 7 cattle succumbed after manifesting mild posterior paresis 6 to 8 h after initial exposure and 3 of 3 treated cattle died after developing severe posterior paresis within 6 to 12 h. Read More

    A review of the natural history, toxinology, diagnosis and clinical management of Nerium oleander (common oleander) and Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) poisoning.
    Toxicon 2010 Sep 8;56(3):273-81. Epub 2010 May 8.
    Department of Toxinology, Women's and Children's Hospital, 72 King William Road, North Adelaide, SA 5006, Australia.
    Nerium oleander (common oleander) and Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) are potentially lethal plants after ingestion. Poisoning by these plants is a common toxicological emergency in tropical and subtropical parts of the world and intentional self-harm using T. peruviana is prevalent in South Asian countries, especially India and Sri Lanka. Read More

    An outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning.
    J Chin Med Assoc 2010 Feb;73(2):97-100
    Department of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University Hospital, I-Lan, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
    Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged "comfrey" herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Read More

    Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa.
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 2009 Jun;80(2):63-74
    Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa.
    Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa), Brunfelsia spp. Read More

    Toxic effects of prolonged administration of leaves of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) to goats.
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 2010 Jul 25;62(4):361-6. Epub 2009 Jun 25.
    Departamento de Ciências Animais, Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Arido (UFERSA), Mossoró, RN, Brazil.
    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for humans and domestic animals in many tropical countries. However, consumption of cassava is limited by its characteristic content of cyanogenic glycosides. The present work aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of ingestion of cassava leaves by goats for 30 consecutive days, and to compare the results with the toxic effects of cyanide in goats, which have been described previously. Read More

    Digitalis must be banished from the table: a rare case of acute accidental Digitalis intoxication of a whole family.
    J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 2009 Sep;10(9):727-32
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Emergency, SS Trinità Borgomanero Hospital, ASL No-Novara, Novara, Italy.
    Advanced Digitalis intoxication is a rare event, mainly associated with overdose in patients with Digitalis therapy. We report an unusual case of acute 'familiar' digitalis poisoning in three patients who had eaten potato dumplings flavoured with leaves of Borago officinalis L. unconsciously mixed with leaves of Digitalis purpurea L. Read More

    Management of yellow oleander poisoning.
    Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2009 Mar;47(3):206-12
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo 8, Sri Lanka.
    Background: Poisoning due to deliberate self-harm with the seeds of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) results in significant morbidity and mortality each year in South Asia. Yellow oleander seeds contain highly toxic cardiac glycosides including thevetins A and B and neriifolin. A wide variety of bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias occur following ingestion. Read More

    A fatal case of oleandrin poisoning.
    Forensic Sci Int 2008 Aug 7;179(2-3):e31-6. Epub 2008 Jul 7.
    Department of Forensic Evidence, Forensic Science Laboratory, Abu Dhabi, PO Box 253, United Arab Emirates.
    The study presents a case of fatal poisoning with oleander leaves in an adult diabetic male. After repeated vomiting, and gastrointestinal distress the patient was admitted at the hospital with cardiac symptoms 1h after the ingestion. Urine samples were assayed immunochemically and by GC-MS for drugs of abuse and for general toxicological screen. Read More

    A potential krimpsiekte vaccine.
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2007 Dec;74(4):307-14
    Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort, 0110 South Africa.
    Krimpsiekte, a chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, is an important plant-induced intoxication of small stock in South Africa. It is caused by cumulative, neurotoxic bufadienolides, such as cotyledoside. A cotyledoside-bovine serum albumin conjugate was synthesized to immunize animals. Read More

    It could have happened to Van Gogh: a case of fatal purple foxglove poisoning and review of the literature.
    Eur J Emerg Med 2007 Dec;14(6):356-9
    Emergency Department, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield S5 7AU, UK.
    Although death owing to the toxic effects of the therapeutic Digitalis lanata extract, digoxin has been reported, there are no reported cases of fatal Digitalis purpurea (digitoxin) plant intoxication in humans in the literature. We describe a case of ingestion of Digitalis purpurea in a 64-year-old man, which was fatal despite administration of Digibind. A review of the literature and aspects of management of plant digitalis poisoning are discussed. Read More

    Cleistanthus collinus poisoning.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2006 Sep;54:742-4
    Departments of Medicine and Nephrology, CSI Kalyani Multispeciality Hospital, Mylapore, Chennai.
    Cleistanthus collinus is an extremely toxic plant poison. Cleistanthin A and B, the toxins of Cleistanthus collinus, are diphyllin glycosides which produce cardiac arrhythmias, urinary potassium wasting, hypoxia, metabolic acidosis and hypotension. We report ARDS, distal renal tubular acidosis and distributive shock secondary to inappropriate vasodilatation in a case following ingestion of its leaves. Read More

    Antidotes for acute cardenolide (cardiac glycoside) poisoning.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006 Oct 18(4):CD005490. Epub 2006 Oct 18.
    Medical School, Australian National University, South Asian Clinical Toxicology Research Collaboration, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.
    Background: Cardenolides are naturally occurring plant toxins which act primarily on the heart. While poisoning with the digitalis cardenolides (digoxin and digitoxin) are reported worldwide, cardiotoxicity from other cardenolides such as the yellow oleander are also a major problem, with tens of thousands of cases of poisoning each year in South Asia. Because cardenolides from these plants are structurally similar, acute poisonings are managed using similar treatments. Read More

    Successful treatment of oleander intoxication (cardiac glycosides) with digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments in a 7-year-old child: case report and review of literature.
    Z Kardiol 2005 Dec;94(12):817-23
    The Prince Charles Hospital, Rode Road, Chermside 4065, Australien.
    Unlabelled: A 7-year-old girl presented six hours after ingestion of a yellow oleander seed (Thevetia peruviana) with severe emesis, change in colour vision and complete heart block. Initial treatment with phenytoin and isoprenalin infusion led to intermittent supraventricular and ventricular tachycardia. The patient was then treated with two intravenous doses of 190 mg of digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments (Digibind). Read More

    The role of fluorescence polarization immuno-assay in the diagnosis of plant-induced cardiac glycoside poisoning livestock in South Africa.
    Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2005 Sep;72(3):189-201
    Division of Toxicology, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, South Africa.
    Poisoning with cardiac glycoside-containing plants is collectively the most important plant-associated poisoning of livestock in southern Africa. As a diagnosis of this significant poisoning is currently based on circumstantial evidence, a practical chemical procedure indicating the presence of cardiac glycosides in plants and animal specimens would be of considerable benefit. The fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method, used to determine digoxin plasma levels in humans and dogs, was adapted to estimate cardiac glycoside levels in known cardiac-glycoside-containing plants as well as in the rumen and organs of dosed sheep. Read More

    [Cardiotoxic plants].
    Przegl Lek 2005 ;62(6):621-3
    Katedra Toksykologii Klinicznej i Srodowiskowej, Collegium Medicum Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, Krakowie.
    In statistics from Poison Information Center in Kraków plant poisonings comprise 2% of the total registered poisonings. In toxicology cardiac glycosides poisonings existing in common foxglove plant, lilies of the valley, oleander are essential. Species of cardiotoxic plants which may cause a danger in Poland are presented in the research. Read More

    Rapid detection of oleander poisoning using digoxin immunoassays: comparison of five assays.
    Ther Drug Monit 2004 Dec;26(6):658-63
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas-Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.
    Oleander is an ornamental shrub that grows in the United States, Australia, India, Sri Lanka, China, and other parts of the world. All parts of the plant are poisonous because the presence of cardiac glycoside oleandrin. Despite its toxicity, oleander extract is used in folk medicines. Read More

    A clinical and laboratory profile of Cleistanthus collinus poisoning.
    J Assoc Physicians India 2003 Nov;51:1052-4
    Department of Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research.
    Aims: 1. To study the clinical features in patients with Cleistanthus collinus poisoning, 2. To study in them the effect of Cleistanthus collinus poisoning on the various organ systems and metabolic parameters using standard laboratory investigations. Read More

    Summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis) poisoning in three horses.
    Vet Pathol 2004 May;41(3):215-20
    California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, PO Box 1770, Davis, CA 95617-1770, USA.
    Three horses died as a result of eating grass hay containing summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis L.), a plant containing cardenolides similar to oleander and foxglove. A 9-year-old thoroughbred gelding, a 20-year-old appaloosa gelding, and a 5-year-old quarter horse gelding initially presented with signs of colic 24-48 hours after first exposure to the hay. Read More

    [Bigeminy--the result of interaction between digoxin and St. John's wort].
    Vojnosanit Pregl 2003 May-Jun;60(3):361-4
    Gradski zavod za hitnu medicinsku pomoć, Beograd.
    A case of an by digoxin under unusual circumstances is reported. An 80-year-old man, previously on long-term digoxin treatment, started consuming St John's wort herbal tea (2,000 ml/daily) because of frequent episodes of depression. After the cessation of consuming herbal tea containing Hypericum perforatum, digoxin poisoning developed in our patient. Read More

    An unusual case of death: suffocation caused by leaves of common ivy (Hedera helix). Detection of hederacoside C, alpha-hederin, and hederagenin by LC-EI/MS-MS.
    J Anal Toxicol 2003 May-Jun;27(4):257-62
    Laboratoire d'Expertises TOXLAB, 7 rue Jacques Cartier, 75018 Paris, France.
    We report one fatal case of asphyxia caused by leaves of common ivy. Macroscopic examination of the corpse during the autopsy disclosed an incredible quantity of leaves of Hedera helix in the mouth and throat of the decedent. In order to rule out the possibility of poisoning by the toxic saponins contained in the plant, we have developed an efficient LC-EI/MS-MS assay of hederacoside C, alppha-hederin, and hederagenin in biological fluids and plant material. Read More

    Acute plant poisoning and antitoxin antibodies.
    J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2003 ;41(3):309-15
    Centre for Tropical Medicine, Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plant poisonings are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Read More

    Toad venom poisoning: resemblance to digoxin toxicity and therapeutic implications.
    Heart 2003 Apr;89(4):e14
    Division of Cardiology, Woodhull Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA.
    A healthy man developed gastrointestinal symptoms after ingesting purported aphrodisiac pills. He had severe unrelenting bradycardia, hyperkalaemia, and acidosis. He rapidly developed severe life threatening cardiac arrhythmias and died after a few hours. Read More

    Cardioactive steroid poisoning from an herbal cleansing preparation.
    Ann Emerg Med 2003 Mar;41(3):396-9
    Department of Emergency Medicine, New York University School of Medicine and the New York City Poison Control Center, 455 First Avenue, Room 123, New York, NY 10016, USA.
    We describe a case of unintentional poisoning from a cardioactive steroid and the subsequent analytic investigation. A 36-year-old woman with no past medical history and taking no conventional medications ingested an herbal preparation marketed for "internal cleansing." Its ingredients were neither known to the patient nor listed on the accompanying literature. Read More

    Cardiovascular glycoside-like intoxication following ingestion of Thevetia nereifolia/peruviana seeds: a case report.
    Ital Heart J 2002 Feb;3(2):137-40
    Division of Cardiology Paolo Borsellino, G.F. Ingrassia Hospital, Via Val Platani, 3 90144 Palermo.
    Some plants contain glycoside compounds which determine cardiovascular symptoms similar to those observed after acute toxic digoxin administration. The present case report involves a patient who showed important cardiovascular symptoms following the ingestion of Thevetia nereifolia/peruviana seeds. About 30 min after ingestion, a 65-year-old man presented with dizziness, giddiness, numbness and a burning sensation, diarrhea, sweating, vomiting and ECG changes. Read More

    A krimpsiekte-like syndrome in small stock poisoned by Ornithogalum toxicarium Archer & Archer.
    J S Afr Vet Assoc 2000 Mar;71(1):6-9
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa.
    Krimpsiekte (the syndrome associated with chronic cardiac glycoside poisoning) was purportedly induced by Ornithlogalum toxicarium in the Karas mountains area of Keetmanshoop, Namibia. This chinkerinchee species was previously linked to a condition known as 'kwylbek' krimpsiekte in small stock in the Beaufort West district of the Western Cape Province, South Africa. In a dosing trial, respiratory distress, tachycardia and sternal recumbency were observed in 2 sheep drenched with fresh plant material. Read More

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