1,164,549 results match your criteria Plant Poisoning Glycosides – Cardiac


Single residues in the LRR domain of the wheat PM3A immune receptor can control the strength and the spectrum of the immune response.

Plant J 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

The development of improved plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat immune receptors (NLRs) has mostly been based on random mutagenesis or on structural information available for specific receptors complexed with the recognized pathogen effector. Here, we use a targeted mutagenesis approach based on natural diversity of the Pm3 powdery mildew resistance alleles present in different wheat genotypes. In order to understand the functional importance of the amino acid polymorphisms between the active immune receptor PM3A and the inactive ancestral variant PM3CS, we exchanged polymorphic regions and residues in the LRR domain of PM3A with the corresponding segments of PM3CS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14917DOI Listing

Phenylalanine increases Chrysanthemum flower immunity against Botrytis cinerea attack.

Plant J 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Ornamental Plants and Agricultural Biotechnology, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, 68 HaMaccabim Road, P.O.B 15159, Rishon LeZion, 7505101, Israel.

Flowers are the most vulnerable plant organ to infection by the necrotrophic fungus, Botrytis cinerea. Here we show that pre-treatment of chrysanthemum flowers with phenylalanine (Phe) significantly reduces their susceptibility to B. cinerea. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14919DOI Listing

Melatonin metabolism, signaling, and possible roles in plants.

Authors:
Kyoungwhan Back

Plant J 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea.

Melatonin is a multifunctional biomolecule found in both animals and plants. In this review, the biosynthesis, levels, signaling, and possible roles of melatonin and its metabolites in plants is summarized. Tryptamine 5-hydroxylase (T5H), which catalyzes the conversion of tryptamine into serotonin, has been proposed as a target to create a melatonin knockout mutant showing a lesion mimic phenotype in rice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14915DOI Listing

Developmental programs interact with ABA to coordinate root suberization in Arabidopsis.

Plant J 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

College of Horticulture & College of Life Sciences, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Suberin lamellae, which provide a hydrophobic protective barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses, are widely deposited in various cell types during plant development and in response to stress. However, it remains unclear how developmental programs interact with stress responses to direct the precise spatiotemporal pattern of suberin deposition. In this study, we found that SHORT-ROOT (SHR), together with its downstream factor MYB36, guided suberization specifically in the root endodermis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14920DOI Listing

Molecular Identification Based on Chloroplast Sequences and Anti-complementary Activity Comparison of Juniperus Samples from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Planta Med 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Pharmacy, Institutes of Integrative Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

(Cupressaceae, Pinales) plants are widely distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. The leaves and twigs of at least 8 species ( var var. and var. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1194-0471DOI Listing

Cytotoxic and Anti-inflammatory Terpenoids from the Whole Plant of Vaccinium emarginatum.

Planta Med 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Two new Δ ursene-type triterpenoid coumaroyl esters (1: and 2: ), one new Δ isopimarane-type diterpenoid glycoside (20: ), and two new irido--lactone-type iridoids (21: and 22: ), together with 17 known pentacyclic triterpenoids (3:  - 19: ), were isolated during the phytochemical investigation of a methanol extract of the whole plant of . Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of standard spectroscopic data (MS, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR) and comparison with data of known analogs. The isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against the PC-3 and Du145 prostate cancer cell lines (as assessed by an MTT cell proliferation assay), as well as for their anti-inflammatory activity via the inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced murine macrophage RAW 264. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1192-6225DOI Listing

Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Helianthemum nummularium, a High-Altitude Growing Alpine Plant Overrepresented in Ungulates Diets.

Planta Med 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DPM, Grenoble, France.

is a European shrub growing at high altitude where it copes with a high level of stress. It was found to be overexpressed in ungulates diets compared to more abundant surrounding plants. These elements combined with the fact that from the Alps has never been investigated prompted us to study the phytochemical composition of its aerial parts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1197-2898DOI Listing

Prediction of m5C Modifications in RNA Sequences by Combining Multiple Sequence Features.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2020 Jun 10;21:332-342. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

School of Automotive and Transportation Engineering, Shenzhen Polytechnic, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

5-Methylcytosine (m5C) is a well-known post-transcriptional modification that plays significant roles in biological processes, such as RNA metabolism, tRNA recognition, and stress responses. Traditional high-throughput techniques on identification of m5C sites are usually time consuming and expensive. In addition, the number of RNA sequences shows explosive growth in the post-genomic era. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2020.06.004DOI Listing

The impact of (E/Z)-isomerization and aggregation on the color of rhodoxanthin formulations for food and beverages.

Food Chem 2020 Jun 23;332:127370. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Geisenheim University, Institute of Beverage Research, Analysis and Technology of Plant-based Foods, Von-Lade-Strasse 1, 65366 Geisenheim, Germany. Electronic address:

Rhodoxanthin is a scarcely explored carotenoid with an extraordinarily large chromophore and high potential to function as red pigment. We report broad ranges of color shades accessible with rhodoxanthin across an unprecedented wide range of (E/Z)-ratios by thermal (E/Z)-isomerization, lyotropic aggregation, and two different formulation techniques, covering shares of the (all-E)-configured isomer of 19-91%. At (E/Z)-ratios of 75 and 23%, rhodoxanthin (E/Z)-isomer mixtures in acetone revealed color hues (CIE-h°) ranging from 20-44° to 36-54°. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127370DOI Listing

Green synthesis and environmental application of iron-based nanomaterials and nanocomposite: A review.

Chemosphere 2020 Jun 28;259:127509. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, 781039, India. Electronic address:

Green chemistry has been proven to be an efficient route for nanoparticle synthesis. Plant extract based green synthesis of various nanoparticles is extensively studied since the last decade. This paper "Green synthesis and environmental application of Iron-based nanomaterials and nanocomposite: A review" unveils all the possible greener techniques for the synthesis of iron-based nanoparticles and nanocomposites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127509DOI Listing

PsbHLH1, a novel transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis in tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Jun 12;154:396-408. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation of National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, 100091, China. Electronic address:

Flower color is one of the most important features of ornamental plants. Anthocyanin composition and concentration are usually closely related to flower color formation. The biosynthesis of anthocyanin is regulated by a series of structural genes and regulatory genes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.06.015DOI Listing

Positioning the Root Elongation Zone Is Saltatory and Receives Input from the Shoot.

iScience 2020 Jun 24;23(7):101309. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Centre for Plant Integrative Biology, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, LE12 5RD, UK.

In the root, meristem and elongation zone lengths remain stable, despite growth and division of cells. To gain insight into zone stability, we imaged individual Arabidopsis thaliana roots through a horizontal microscope and used image analysis to obtain velocity profiles. For a root, velocity profiles obtained every 5 min over 3 h coincided closely, implying that zonation is regulated tightly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101309DOI Listing

Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR) treating urban wastewater in mild climates.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Jul 2;314:123763. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

FCC Aqualia, S.A., Avenida Camino de Santiago, 40, 28050 Madrid, Spain.

Feasibility of an AnMBR demonstration plant treating urban wastewater (UWW) at temperatures around 25-30 °C was assessed during a 350-day experimental period. The plant was fed with the effluent from the pre-treatment of a full-scale municipal WWTP, characterized by high COD and sulfate concentrations. Biodegradability of the UWW reached values up to 87%, although a portion of the biodegradable COD was consumed by sulfate reducing organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123763DOI Listing

Cell death associated release of volatile organic sulphur compounds with antioxidant properties in chemical-challenged tobacco BY-2 suspension cultured cells.

J Plant Physiol 2020 Jul 2;251:153223. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Wageningen University & Research, Horticulture and Product Physiology Group, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, P.O. Box 630, 6700AP, Wageningen, the Netherlands; Wageningen Food and Biobased Research, Bornse Weilanden 9, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during programmed cell death (PCD) is still insufficiently studied and their implication in the process is not well understood. The present study demonstrates that the release of VOSCs with presumed antioxidant capacity (methanethiol, dimethylsulfide and dimethyldisulfide) accompanies the cell death in chemical-stressed tobacco BY-2 suspension cultured cells. The cells were exposed to cell death inducers of biotic nature mastoparan (MP, wasp venom) and camptothecin (CPT, alkaloid), and to the abiotic stress agent CdSO. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2020.153223DOI Listing

Long-term impact of fertigation with treated sewage effluent on the physical soil quality.

Environ Pollut 2020 Jul 2;266(Pt 1):115007. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Rio Verde University (UniRV), Fazenda Fontes do Saber CP 104 CEP, 75901-970, Rio Verde, Goiás, Brazil. Electronic address:

In agriculture, wastewater is used as an alternative source to meet the water and nutritional requirements of plants. However, long-term application of wastewater may degrade soil attributes. This study aimed to evaluate the soil physical quality of Oxisol fertigated with treated sewage effluent (TSE). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115007DOI Listing

Assessing population exposure to phthalate plasticizers in thirteen Spanish cities through the analysis of wastewater.

J Hazard Mater 2020 Jun 22;401:123272. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Research on Chemical and Biological Analysis (IAQBUS), Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Phthalates are widely used plasticizers that produce endocrine-disrupting disorders. Quantifying exposure is crucial to perform risk assessments and to develop proper health measures. Herein, a wastewater-based epidemiology approach has been applied to estimate human exposure to six of the mostly used phthalates within the Spanish population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123272DOI Listing

Ecological damage of submerged macrophytes by fresh cyanobacteria (FC) and cyanobacterial decomposition solution (CDS).

J Hazard Mater 2020 Jul 2;401:123372. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

To investigate the deleterious ecological effects of cyanobacteria on submerged macrophytes, this study investigated the effects of different concentrations of fresh cyanobacteria (FC) and cyanobacteria decomposition solution (CDS) on an experimental group of submerged macrophytes (Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara and Myriophyllum verticillatum Linn.). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123372DOI Listing

Remediation of organophosphorus pesticide polluted soil using persulfate oxidation activated by microwave.

J Hazard Mater 2020 Jul 1;401:123361. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, PR China.

Contaminated sites from pesticide industry have attracted global concern due to the characteristics of organic pollution with high concentrations and complete loss of habitat conditions. Remediation of organophosphorus pesticide polluted soil using microwave-activated persulfate (MW/PS) oxidation was investigated in this study, with parathion as the representative pesticide. Approximately 90 % of parathion was degraded after 90 min of MW/PS oxidation treatment, which was superior to those by single PS or MW treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123361DOI Listing

A glucose binding lectin from Leucaena leucocephala seeds and its mitogenic activity against human lymphocytes.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biotechnology, University of Calicut, Kerala 673635, India.

Lectins are a specialized group of proteins with immense biological properties and applications. This study describes the purification and characterization of a lectin from Leucaena leucocephala seeds, a plant belonging to the Fabaceae family. Leucaena leucocephala lectin (LLL) was purified by a two-step purification method involving DEAE-cellulose anion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-75 size exclusion chromatography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.07.025DOI Listing

Phylogenomics reveals convergent evolution of red-violet coloration in land plants and the origins of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2020 Jul 6:106904. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708.

The flavonoids, one of the largest classes of plant secondary metabolites, are found in lineages that span the land plant phylogeny and play important roles in stress responses and as pigments. Perhaps the most well-studied flavonoids are the anthocyanins that have human health benefits and help plants attract pollinators, regulate hormone production, and confer resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. The canonical biochemical pathway responsible for the production of these pigments is well-characterized for flowering plants yet its conservation across deep divergences in land plants remains debated and poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2020.106904DOI Listing

Combining environmental isotopes with Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) to characterise wastewater derived impacts on groundwater quality.

Water Res 2020 Jun 12;182:116036. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

School of Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, VIC, 3001, Australia; Water: Effective Technologies & Tools Research Centre, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, VIC, 3001, Australia. Electronic address:

The potential for Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) to cause adverse impacts to groundwater quality is a major global environmental challenge. Robust and sensitive techniques are required to characterise these impacts, particularly in settings with multiple potential contaminant sources (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116036DOI Listing

Neuroprotective effects of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. bark extract against Alzheimer's disease.

J Chem Neuroanat 2020 Jul 6:101848. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Laboratoire de Biochimie Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Université de Bejaia, 06000, Bejaia, Algeria.

Alzheimer disease's (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease induced by amyloid-β aggregation and accumulation of neurotoxic metals in the brain. Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. (Oleaceae) is a Mediterranean plant traditionally used to treat several human problems as nervous system problems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2020.101848DOI Listing

Phosphate starvation causes different stress responses in the lipid metabolism of tomato leaves and roots.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2020 Jul 6:158763. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-2: Plant Science), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Wilhelm-Johnen-Straße, D-52428 Jülich, Germany.

Plants have evolved various acclimation responses to cope with phosphate depletion, including several changes in lipid metabolism. Thereby membrane phospholipids are dephosphorylated and can be used as an internal phosphate source, while galactolipids are incorporated into the membrane to maintain membrane functionality. Still little is known about the lipidomic and transcriptomic response of plants other than Arabidopsis thaliana upon phosphate starvation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2020.158763DOI Listing

Systematic Discovery of Short Linear Motifs Decodes Calcineurin Phosphatase Signaling.

Mol Cell 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Short linear motifs (SLiMs) drive dynamic protein-protein interactions essential for signaling, but sequence degeneracy and low binding affinities make them difficult to identify. We harnessed unbiased systematic approaches for SLiM discovery to elucidate the regulatory network of calcineurin (CN)/PP2B, the Ca-activated phosphatase that recognizes LxVP and PxIxIT motifs. In vitro proteome-wide detection of CN-binding peptides, in vivo SLiM-dependent proximity labeling, and in silico modeling of motif determinants uncovered unanticipated CN interactors, including NOTCH1, which we establish as a CN substrate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.06.029DOI Listing

A scoutRNA Is Required for Some Type V CRISPR-Cas Systems.

Mol Cell 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Innovative Genomics Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Molecular Biophysics & Integrated Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Gladstone Institutes, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94114, USA. Electronic address:

CRISPR-Cas12c/d proteins share limited homology with Cas12a and Cas9 bacterial CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided nucleases used widely for genome editing and DNA detection. However, Cas12c (C2c3)- and Cas12d (CasY)-catalyzed DNA cleavage and genome editing activities have not been directly observed. We show here that a short-complementarity untranslated RNA (scoutRNA), together with crRNA, is required for Cas12d-catalyzed DNA cutting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.06.022DOI Listing

Glycosylated-Imidazole Aldoximes as Reactivators of Pesticides Inhibited AChE: Synthesis and In-vitro Reactivation Study.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Jul 6:103454. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

University of Hradec Kralove, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Rokitanskeho 62, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; University Hospital, Biomedical Research Center, Sokolska 581, 50005, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

The present armamentarium of commercially available antidotes provides limited protection against the neurological effects of organophosphate exposure. Hence, there is an urgent need to design and develop molecules that can protect and reactivate inhibited-AChE in the central nervous system. Some natural compounds like glucose and certain amino acids (glutamate, the anion of glutamic acid) can easily cross the blood brain barrier although they are highly polar. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2020.103454DOI Listing

JAcked Responses Go Viral: Hormonal Regulation of Antiviral RNAi.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 Jul;28(1):7-9

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92721, USA. Electronic address:

Little is known about the mechanism that regulates the core steps of antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in plants and animals. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Yang et al. (2020) provide compelling evidence for the regulation of antiviral RNAi by the jasmonate hormone signaling in plants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.007DOI Listing

Genome Editing Enables Next-Generation Hybrid Seed Production Technology.

Mol Plant 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, Beijing 100081, China. Electronic address:

The next-generation hybrid seed technology enables the successful production of sortable hybrid seeds from genic male sterile (GMS) lines and maintainers; however, it requires multiple laborious and complicated steps. Here, we designed a simple next-generation hybrid seed production strategy that takes advantage of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology to create a Manipulated GMS Maintainer (MGM) system via a single transformation. Under this schema, the maize male fertility gene ZmMS26 was nullified by removal of its fifth exon using the CRISPR/Cas9 system on a vector, and a second vector carrying a functional ZmMS26 cDNA was co-transformed to restore fertility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2020.06.003DOI Listing

Effects of interstocks on growth and photosynthetic characteristics in 'Yuanxiaochun' Citrus seedlings.

Funct Plant Biol 2020 Jul 10. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

To obtain the compatibility of interstocks crossing with 'Yuanxiaochun', we performed a comparative analysis with five interstocks. From the 60th to 240th day after grafting, there was a significant difference between different treatments. All the new shoot/interstock diameter ratios were <1, indicating that there was no obvious phenomenon of small feet in 'Yuanxiaochun' seedlings of five kinds of interstocks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP20079DOI Listing

Neighborhood effects on the tannin-related foraging decisions of two rodent species under semi-natural conditions.

Integr Zool 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Institute of Ecology and Geobotany, College of Ecology and Environmental Science, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091, China.

Neighborhood effects on seed predation and dispersal processes are usually seed-characteristic-dependent; however, how seeds with certain characteristics affect the foraging behavior of rodents in relation to other seeds nearby is unclear. Because large differences in seed characteristics between neighboring seeds may lead to significant differences in rodent foraging preferences, we hypothesized that neighborhood effects were more likely to be detected when paired seeds differed in seed characteristics. We investigated the foraging decisions of two rodent species, the red spiny rat Maxomys surifer and the Chinese white-bellied rat Niviventer confucianus, in semi-natural enclosures by presenting them with artificial seeds containing different levels of tannin (0, 3% and 6% tannin). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12473DOI Listing

t-SNAREs Bind the Rhg1 α-SNAP and Mediate Soybean Cyst Nematode Resistance.

Plant J 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Department of Crop Sciences, Champaign, Illinois, United States.

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines) is the largest pathogenic cause of soybean yield loss. The Rhg1 locus is the most used and best characterized SCN resistance locus, and contains three genes including one encoding an α-SNAP protein. Although the Rhg1 α-SNAP is known to play an important role in vesicle trafficking and SCN resistance, the protein's binding partners and the molecular mechanisms underpinning SCN resistance remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14923DOI Listing

Half a century of Scots pine forest ecosystem monitoring reveals long-term effects of atmospheric deposition and climate change.

Glob Chang Biol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Bavarian State Institute of Forestry, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 1, 85354, Freising, Germany.

At two forest sites in Germany (Pfaffenwinkel, Pustert) stocked with mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), we investigated changes of topsoil chemistry during the recent forty years by soil inventories conducted on replicated control plots of fertilization experiments, allowing a statistical analysis. Additionally, we monitored the nutritional status of both stands from 1964 until 2019 and quantified stand growth during the monitoring period by repeated stand inventories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15265DOI Listing

Fouling of membranes in MBRs for wastewater treatment: planktonic bacteria can have a significant contribution.

Water Environ Res 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7H, DK-9220, Aalborg, Denmark.

Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment show great potentials in the sustainable development of urban environments. However, fouling of membranes remains the largest challenge of MBR technology. Dissolved extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are often assumed be the main foulant in MBRs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.1392DOI Listing

Root anatomical traits determined leaf-level physiology and responses to precipitation change of herbaceous species in a temperate steppe.

New Phytol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.

lRoot anatomy plays important roles in control of leaf water relations. However, few studies have evaluated whether and how anatomical traits of absorptive roots influence leaf physiology of herbaceous species in a temperate grassland. lWe measured absorptive root anatomical traits and leaf physiological traits of 15 herbaceous species in a temperate steppe and monitored their responses to increased precipitation in a field stimulating experiment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.16797DOI Listing

CsSWEET1a and CsSWEET17 Mediate Growth and Freezing Tolerance by Promoting Sugar Transport across the Plasma Membrane.

Plant Cell Physiol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

National Center for Tea Plant Improvement, Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Hangzhou, China.

Sugars will eventually be exported transporters (SWEETs) are important in plant biological processes. Expression levels of CsSWEET1a and CsSWEET17 are induced by cold acclimation (CA) and cold stress in Camellia sinensis. Here, we found that CsSWEET17 was alternatively spliced, and its exclusion (Ex) transcript was associated with CA process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcaa091DOI Listing

Complete Replacement of the Galactolipid Biosynthesis Pathway with Plant-Type Pathway in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

Plant Cell Physiol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Japan.

Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) are the major components of thylakoid membranes and well-conserved from cyanobacteria to chloroplasts. However, cyanobacteria and chloroplasts synthesize these galactolipids using different pathways and enzymes, but they are believed to share a common ancestor. This fact implies that there was a replacement of the cyanobacterial galactolipid biosynthesis pathway during the evolution of a chloroplast. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcaa090DOI Listing

Evolution of mutation rate in astronomically large phytoplankton populations.

Genome Biol Evol 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, United Kingdom.

Genetic diversity is expected to be proportional to population size, yet, there is a well-known, but unexplained lack of genetic diversity in large populations - the "Lewontin's paradox". Larger populations are expected to evolve lower mutation rates, which may help to explain this paradox. Here we test this conjecture by measuring the spontaneous mutation rate in a ubiquitous unicellular marine phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) that has modest genetic diversity despite an astronomically large population size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evaa131DOI Listing

Green fabricated zinc oxide nanoformulated media enhanced callus induction and regeneration dynamics of Panicum virgatum L.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0230464. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

The current study focuses on the usage of bio synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles to increase the tissue culture efficiency of important forage grass Panicum virgatum. Zinc being a micronutrient enhanced the callogenesis and regeneration efficiency of Panicum virgatum at different concentrations. Here, we synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles through Cymbopogon citratus leaves extract to evaluate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on plant regeneration ability in switchgrass. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0230464PLOS

Flashes of UV-C light: An innovative method for stimulating plant defences.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0235918. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

UMR Qualisud, Avignon Université, Avignon, France.

Leaves of lettuce, pepper, tomato and grapevine plants grown in greenhouse conditions were exposed to UV-C light for either 60 s or 1 s, using a specific LEDs-based device, and wavelengths and energy were the same among different light treatments. Doses of UV-C light that both effectively stimulated plant defences and were innocuous were determined beforehand. Tomato plants and lettuce plants were inoculated with Botrytis cinerea, pepper plants with Phytophthora capsici, and grapevine with Plasmopara viticola. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235918PLOS

Influence of soil moisture levels on the growth and reproductive behaviour of Avena fatua and Avena ludoviciana.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0234648. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation (QAAFI), The University of Queensland, Gatton, Australia.

Adaptation of weeds to water stress could result in the broader distribution, and make weed control task increasingly difficult. Therefore, a clear understanding of the biology of weeds under water stress could assist in the development of sustainable weed management strategies. Avena fatua (wild oat) and A. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234648PLOS

Variation in crop zinc concentration influences estimates of dietary Zn inadequacy.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0234770. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Soil and Crop Sciences, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America.

Background: Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Accurate estimates of Zn intake would facilitate the design and implementation of effective nutritional interventions.

Objective: We sought to improve estimates of dietary Zn intake by evaluating staple crop Zn content and dietary Zn consumption by children under the age of 5 in 9 rural districts of Uganda. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234770PLOS

Seed biopriming with P- and K-solubilizing Enterobacter hormaechei sp. improves the early vegetative growth and the P and K uptake of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seedling.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(7):e0232860. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Limited information is available that seed biopriming with plant growth-promoting Enterobacter spp. play a prominent role to enhance vegetative growth of plants. Contrary to Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei is a less-studied counterpart despite its vast potential in plant growth-promotion mainly through the inorganic phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) solubilization abilities. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232860PLOS

High-fidelity SaCas9 identified by directional screening in human cells.

PLoS Biol 2020 Jul 9;18(7):e3000747. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, State Key Laboratory and Key Laboratory of Vision Science, Ministry of Health and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

CRISPR-Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (CRISPR-SaCas9) has been harnessed as an effective in vivo genome-editing tool to manipulate genomes. However, off-target effects remain a major bottleneck that precludes safe and reliable applications in genome editing. Here, we characterize the off-target effects of wild-type (WT) SaCas9 at single-nucleotide (single-nt) resolution and describe a directional screening system to identify novel SaCas9 variants with desired properties in human cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000747DOI Listing

Genetic and metabolomic architecture of variation in diet restriction-mediated lifespan extension in Drosophila.

PLoS Genet 2020 Jul 9;16(7):e1008835. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

In most organisms, dietary restriction (DR) increases lifespan. However, several studies have found that genotypes within the same species vary widely in how they respond to DR. To explore the mechanisms underlying this variation, we exposed 178 inbred Drosophila melanogaster lines to a DR or ad libitum (AL) diet, and measured a panel of 105 metabolites under both diets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008835DOI Listing

PARAFAC model as an innovative tool for monitoring natural organic matter removal in water treatment plants.

Water Sci Technol 2020 Apr;81(8):1786-1796

Nanotechnology and Water Sustainability Research Unit, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Florida Campus, 1709, Johannesburg, South Africa E-mail:

The increase of fluorescent natural organic matter (fNOM) fractions during drinking water treatment might lead to an increased coagulant dose and filter clogging, and can be a precursor for disinfection by-products. Consequently, efficient fNOM removal is essential, for which characterisation of fNOM fractions is crucial. This study aims to develop a robust monitoring tool for assessing fNOM fractions across water treatment processes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.136DOI Listing

Implementation of an environmental decision support system for controlling the pre-oxidation step at a full-scale drinking water treatment plant.

Water Sci Technol 2020 Apr;81(8):1778-1785

LEQUIA, Institute of the Environment, University of Girona, E-17003, Girona, Catalonia, Spain E-mail:

Drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) face changes in raw water quality, and treatment needs to be adjusted to produce the best water quality at the minimum environmental cost. An environmental decision support system (EDSS) was developed for aiding DWTP operators in choosing the adequate permanganate dosing rate in the pre-oxidation step. To this end, multiple linear regression (MLR) and multi-layer perceptron (MLP) models are compared for choosing the best predictive model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.142DOI Listing

Integrated model predictive control of water resource recovery facilities and sewer systems in a smart grid: example of full-scale implementation in Kolding.

Water Sci Technol 2020 Apr;81(8):1766-1777

Krüger A/S, Veolia Water Technologies, Søborg, Denmark E-mail: § Current address: Lobster, Folevadsvej 18, 2400 København.

An integrated model predictive control (MPC) strategy to control the power consumption and the effluent quality of a water resource recovery facility (WRRF) by utilizing the storage capacity from the sewer system was implemented and put into operation for a 7-day trial period. This price-based MPC reacted to electricity prices and forecasted pollutant loads 24 hours ahead. The large storage capacity available in the sewer system directly upstream from the plant was used to control the incoming loads and, indirectly, the power consumption of the WRRF during dry weather operations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.266DOI Listing

A cost-effective IoT strategy for remote deployment of soft sensors - a case study on implementing a soft sensor in a multistage MBBR plant.

Water Sci Technol 2020 Apr;81(8):1733-1739

Faculty of Science and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Ås, Norway E-mail:

Model-based soft sensors can enhance online monitoring in wastewater treatment processes. These soft sensor scripts are executed either locally on a programmable logic controller (PLC) or remotely on a system with data-access over the internet. This work presents a cost-effective, flexible, open source IoT solution for remote deployment of a soft sensing algorithm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.067DOI Listing

Plant-wide modelling in wastewater treatment: showcasing experiences using the Biological Nutrient Removal Model.

Water Sci Technol 2020 Apr;81(8):1700-1714

CALAGUA Unidad Mixta UV-UPV, Research Institute of Water and Environmental Engineering, IIAMA, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain.

Plant-wide modelling can be considered an appropriate approach to represent the current complexity in water resource recovery facilities, reproducing all known phenomena in the different process units. Nonetheless, novel processes and new treatment schemes are still being developed and need to be fully incorporated in these models. This work presents a short chronological overview of some of the most relevant plant-wide models for wastewater treatment, as well as the authors' experience in plant-wide modelling using the general model BNRM (Biological Nutrient Removal Model), illustrating the key role of general models (also known as supermodels) in the field of wastewater treatment, both for engineering and research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2020.056DOI Listing
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