1,072,796 results match your criteria Plant Poisoning Alkaloids – Tropane


Effect of plant-based diets with varying ratios of ω6 to ω3 fatty acids on growth performance, tissue composition, fatty acid biosynthesis and lipid-related gene expression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics 2019 Mar 16;30:290-304. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's A1C 5S7, NL. Canada. Electronic address:

Little is known about how variation in omega-6 to omega-3 (ω6:ω3) fatty acid (FA) ratios affects lipid metabolism and eicosanoid synthesis in salmon, and the potential underlying molecular mechanisms. The current study examined the impact of five plant-based diets (12-week exposure) with varying ω6:ω3 (0.3-2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Nontuberculous mycobacteria in drinking water systems - the challenges of characterization and risk mitigation.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2019 Apr 16;57:127-136. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary infections are a growing concern worldwide, with a disproportionate incidence in persons with pre-existing health conditions. NTM have frequently been found in municipally-treated drinking water and building plumbing, leading to the hypothesis that an important source of NTM exposure is drinking water. The identification and quantification of NTM in environmental samples are complicated by genetic variability among NTM species, making it challenging to determine if clinically relevant NTM are present. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09581669183023
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2019.03.010DOI Listing
April 2019
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Comparative study of Cu uptake and early transcriptome responses in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii.

Environ Pollut 2019 Apr 10;250:331-337. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department F.-A. Forel for Environmental and Aquatic Sciences, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Geneva, 66, Boulevard Carl-Vogt, CH-1211, Geneva 4, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Microalgae are widely used as representative primary producers in ecotoxicology, while macrophytes are much less studied. Here we compared the bioavailability and cellular toxicity pathways of 2 h-exposure to 10 mol L Cu in the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii and the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Uptake rate was similar but faster in the algae than in the macrophyte, while RNA-Sequencing revealed a similar number of regulated genes. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02697491183557
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.032DOI Listing
April 2019
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Wax esters of uropygial gland secretion as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in birds exposed to treated sewage water.

Environ Pollut 2019 Apr 10;250:323-330. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo 12, 13005, Ciudad Real, Spain. Electronic address:

The chemical composition of the uropygial gland secretion of birds shows seasonal, sex and age-related variations following sex hormones fluctuations. We explore the use of the composition of the uropygial gland secretion as a non-invasive biomarker of endocrine disruption in 137 common moorhens (Gallinula chloropus) from Navaseca Pond, which receives the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, and from the more pristine Tablas de Daimiel National Park in Spain. Wax ester and fatty acid compositions were measured by means gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the uropygial gland secretion of moorhens from both wetlands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.039DOI Listing

Cultivation of C4 perennial energy grasses on heavy metal contaminated arable land: Impact on soil, biomass, and photosynthetic traits.

Environ Pollut 2019 Apr 11;250:300-311. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, 6 Kossutha Street, 40-844, Katowice, Poland. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of three C4 perennial grasses (Miscanthus x giganteus, Panicum virgatum and Spartina pectinata) for biomass production on arable land unsuitable for food crop cultivation due to Pb, Cd and Zn contamination. We assessed soil properties, biomass yield, metal concentrations, and the photosynthetic performance of each species. Physico-chemical and elemental analyses were performed on soil samples before plantation establishment (2014) and after three years of cultivation (2016), when leaf area index, plant height, yield and heavy metal content of biomass were also determined. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02697491193047
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.048DOI Listing
April 2019
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The variation of metal fractions and potential environmental risk in phytoremediating multiple metal polluted soils using Noccaea caerulescens assisted by LED lights.

Chemosphere 2019 Apr 12;227:462-469. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Victoria, Australia.

Different light combinations can improve phytoremediation efficiency by increasing the biomass yield and metal concentrations of plants. However, there has been rare research of using hyperaccumulators to change metal fractions and its possible leaching risk during phytoremediation. It was investigated in this study the impacts of different intensities of blue and red light mixed on the biomass production and metal uptake of Noccaea caerulescens and the changes of water soluble and exchangeable metal fractions in soil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.04.083DOI Listing

Stability and toxicity studies for duloxetine and econazole on Spirodela polyrhiza using chiral capillary electrophoresis.

J Hazard Mater 2019 Apr 5;374:203-210. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Departamento de Química Analítica, Química Física e Ingeniería Química, Universidad de Alcalá, Ctra. Madrid-Barcelona Km. 33.600, 28871, Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain; Instituto de Investigación Química Andrés M. del Río, Universidad de Alcalá, Ctra, Madrid-Barcelona Km. 33.600, 28871, Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain. Electronic address:

Stability and toxicity studies for duloxetine and econazole were achieved using individual solutions and their mixtures. Stability of drugs racemates and enantiomers was investigated under abiotic and biotic conditions. Toxicity was evaluated for the first time on Spirodela polyrhiza. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.04.027DOI Listing

How to organize bidirectional tissue production?

Curr Opin Plant Biol 2019 Apr 16;51:15-21. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Centre for Organismal Studies, Heidelberg University, Germany. Electronic address:

The cambium is a plant-borne stem cell system producing wood and bast, two distinct types of vascular tissues, in strictly opposite directions. Thereby, the cambium contributes substantially to terrestrial biomass accumulation and represents the basis for the formation of large plant bodies. Although the bidirectional mode of tissue production by a common stem cell pool holds interesting implications for developmental biology, functional domains of the cambium, and their interaction remained poorly defined for decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Differences in concentration and source apportionment of PM between 2006 and 2015 over the PRD region in southern China.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 4;673:708-718. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Division of Environment and Sustainability, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China; Institute for the Environment, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China; Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong, China.

During China's 11th Five Year Plan (FYP) and 12th FYP (2006-2015), a series of air pollution control measures was implemented in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Therefore, it is vital to determine how the concentration and sources of fine particulate matter (PM) in this region changed between 2006 and 2015. In this work, using 2006 and 2015 emission inventories, the concentration and source apportionment of PM were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecast - Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (WRF-CAMx) for January, April, July and October in the PRD region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.452DOI Listing

Connecting experts in the agricultural and meteorological sciences to advance knowledge of pest management in a changing climate.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 10;673:694-698. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Experimental Allergy Laboratory, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

There has been considerable progress in elucidating the physical aspects of climate change that directly impact food, feed, and fiber production. However, these impact assessments rarely account for climate induced changes associated with biological pests. The lack of collaboration between the pest management and climate science disciplines could be contributing to the problem. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00489697193165
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.126DOI Listing
April 2019
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Removal efficiency and mass balance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, ethoxylated alkylphenols and alkylphenols in a mixed textile-domestic wastewater treatment plant.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 10;674:36-48. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence, Italy. Electronic address:

In this work the occurrence and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalic acid esters (PAEs), mono and diethoxylate alkylphenols (APEOs) and alkylphenols (APs) have been investigated during a two-weeks period in a facility treating mixed textile-domestic wastewater (Prato, Italy). The wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) consists of primary sedimentation, activated sludge biological oxidation, secondary sedimentation, clariflocculation and ozonation. The sludge is treated within the facility by thickening, dewatering and final incineration, thus providing the almost quantitative removal of the adsorbed micropollutants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.096DOI Listing

Phenotypic variations alter the ecological impact of invasive alien species: Lessons from Parthenium hysterophorus.

J Environ Manage 2019 Apr 16;241:187-197. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160 014, India; Central University of Punjab, Mansa Road, Bathinda, 151 001, India.

Invasive plant species constantly adjust their behavior with ecological shifts by virtue of phenotypic plasticity and/or local adaptations. Changes in the phenotype of an invasive species may also trigger variations in its community level impacts, which is an acceptable, yet unexplored aspect of invasion biology. Our study attempts to fill important knowledge gaps on the basic behavior and ecological interactions of invasive species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.03.129DOI Listing

Two RING-finger ubiquitin E3 ligases regulate the degradation of SPX4, the internal phosphate sensor, for phosphate homeostasis and signaling in rice.

Mol Plant 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China. Electronic address:

SPX-domain containing proteins play an important role in inorganic phosphate (Pi) sensing, signaling and transport in eukaryotes. In plants, the only SPX-domain containing proteins (SPXs) are known to integrate cellular Pi status and negatively regulate the activity of Pi central regulators, PHOSPATE STARVATION RESPONSE proteins (PHRs). The stability of SPX proteins, such as SPX4 was reduced under Pi-deficient condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Natural Variations at TIG1 Encoding a TCP Transcription Factor Contribute to Plant Architecture Domestication in Rice.

Mol Plant 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China. Electronic address:

The modification of plant architecture was a crucial target in rice domestication and modern genetic improvement. Although a fraction of genes regulating rice plant architecture have been characterized, the molecular mechanisms underlying rice plant architecture domestication has not been elucidated. Here we show that the phenotype of inclined growth tiller in wild rice is controlled by a single dominant gene, TILLER INCLINED GROWTH 1 (TIG1), which is on chromosome 8 and encodes a TCP transcriptional activator. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2019.04.005DOI Listing

Sustainable Agriculture: From Sweet Sorghum Planting, Ensiling to Ruminant Feeding.

Authors:
Qi Xie Zhihong Xu

Mol Plant 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

School of Advanced Agricultural Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2019.04.001DOI Listing

A newly developed means of HPLC-fluorescence analysis for predicting the skin sensitization potential of multi-constituent substances using ADRA.

Toxicol In Vitro 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Safety Evaluation Centre, Ecology & Quality Management Division, CSR Division, FUJIFILM Corporation, 210 Nakanuma, Minamiashigara-shi, Kanagawa, Japan.

The Amino acid Derivative Reactivity Assay (ADRA) is an in chemico alternative to animal testing for skin sensitization potential, in which measurements of multi-constituent solutions were sometimes affected by co-elution with nucleophilic reagents. So, we established a means of using fluorescence detection and verified the utility of a newly developed ADRA-fluorescence detection (ADRA-FL) test method. We tested three types of plant extracts-aloe, green tea, and licorice-and although unable to quantify nucleophilic reagents using ultraviolet detection due to co-elution of multiple components, the use of fluorescence detection enabled us to detect nucleophilic reagents selectively and predict each of the extract solutions to be sensitizers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2019.04.014DOI Listing

Comparison of radiation risk perception and knowledge of radiation between Indonesian and Japanese dental students.

J Environ Radioact 2019 Apr 16;204:104-110. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Tokushima University Graduate School, Japan. Electronic address:

The purpose of the study was to obtain basic data to identify problems in radiation education in a situation where confidence in nuclear power has fluctuated over time and fear of nuclear power has increased globally due to nuclear power plant disasters at Chernobyl and Fukushima. We conducted a questionnaire survey on understanding and risk perception of radiation and atomic power, before and after lectures, for 107 Japanese and 137 Indonesian dental students. Thirty-six phrases were extracted from two supplementary texts about radiation created by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and 30 events commonly used in research on risk perception were used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2019.04.005DOI Listing

A proteomic and biochemical investigation on the effects of sulfadiazine in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Apr 16;178:146-158. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

DAFNAE, University of Padova, Viale Università 16, 30520 Legnaro, PD, Italy.

Animal manure or bio-solids used as fertilizers are the main routes of antibiotic exposure in the agricultural land, which can have immense detrimental effects on plants. Sulfadiazine (SDZ), belonging to the class of sulfonamides, is one of the most detected antibiotics in the agricultural soil. In this study, the effect of SDZ on the growth, changes in antioxidant metabolite content and enzyme activities related to oxidative stress were analysed. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01476513193042
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.04.008DOI Listing
April 2019
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Honokiol for cancer therapeutics: A traditional medicine that can modulate multiple oncogenic targets.

Pharmacol Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Cancer Biology Laboratory and DBT-AIST International Laboratory for Advanced Biomedicine (DAILAB) Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam, 781039, India. Electronic address:

In spite of billions of dollars expended on cancer research every year, the incidence rate and the mortality rate due to this widespread disease has increased drastically over the last few decades. Recent reports from the World Health Organization advocate that overall global cancer burden and deaths due to cancer are expected to double by the next decade. Synthetic drugs developed as chemotherapeutics have repeatedly shown adverse side effects and development of chemoresistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2019.04.004DOI Listing

Benidipine, an anti-hypertensive drug, relaxes mouse airway smooth muscle.

Life Sci 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Institute For Medical Biology and Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory for Protection and Application of Special Plants in Wuling Area of China, College of Life Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Benidipine is a dihydropyridine (DHP) derived Ca antagonist, can block triple Ca channels (L, N, and T). It has been used as an safety anti-hypertensive drug because of its long-acting relaxant effect on vascular smooth muscle (VSM). However, whether benidipine has similar pharmacological actions in airway smooth muscle (ASM) is unknown. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00243205193029
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.04.036DOI Listing
April 2019
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Precise editing of plant genomes - prospects and challenges.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200032, China. Electronic address:

The past decade has witnessed unprecedented development in genome engineering, a process that enables targeted modification of genomes. The identification of sequence-specific nucleases such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the CRISPR/Cas system, in particular, has led to precise and efficient introduction of genetic variations into genomes of various organisms. Since the CRISPR/Cas system is highly versatile, cost-effective and much superior to ZFNs and TALENs, its widespread adoption by the research community has been inevitable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.04.010DOI Listing

Biogenesis, quality control and structural dynamics of proteins as explored in living cells via site-directed photo-crosslinking.

Protein Sci 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Center for Protein Science, Beijing 100871, China.

Protein biogenesis and quality control are essential for maintaining a functional pool of proteins and involve numerous protein factors that dynamically and transiently interact with each other and with the substrate proteins in living cells. Conventional methods are hardly effective for studying such dynamic, transient, and weak protein-protein interactions as occur in cells. Herein we review how the site-directed photo-crosslinking approach, which relies on the genetic incorporation of a photo-reactive unnatural amino acid into a protein of interest at selected individual amino acid residue position and the covalent trapping of the interacting proteins upon ultraviolent (UV) irradiation, has become a highly efficient way to explore these aspects of protein contacts in living cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pro.3627DOI Listing

Water influences how seed production responds to conspecific and heterospecific pollen.

Am J Bot 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California Irvine, 321 Steinhaus Hall, Irvine, California, 92697-2525, USA.

Premise: Outcrossing species depend on pollen from conspecific individuals that may not be exposed to the same abiotic conditions as maternal plants. Additionally, many flowers receive heterospecific pollen, which can also influence seed production. Studies aimed to understand how abiotic conditions influence seed production tend to focus on maternal conditions and leave unexplored the effect of abiotic conditions experienced by pollen donors. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajb2.1273
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1273DOI Listing
April 2019
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Niche-specific metabolic adaptation in biotrophic and necrotrophic oomycetes is manifested in differential use of nutrients, variation in gene content, and enzyme evolution.

PLoS Pathog 2019 Apr 19;15(4):e1007729. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside United States of America.

The use of host nutrients to support pathogen growth is central to disease. We addressed the relationship between metabolism and trophic behavior by comparing metabolic gene expression during potato tuber colonization by two oomycetes, the hemibiotroph Phytophthora infestans and the necrotroph Pythium ultimum. Genes for several pathways including amino acid, nucleotide, and cofactor biosynthesis were expressed more by Ph. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007729DOI Listing

Epidemiology of tuberculous lymphadenitis in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215647. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Armauer Hansen Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most frequent form of extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) and accounts for a considerable proportion of all EPTB cases. We conducted a systematic review of articles that described the epidemiological features of TBLN in Africa.

Methods: Any article that characterized TBLN cases with respect to demographic, exposure and clinical features were included. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215647PLOS

Evaluating and using existing models to map probable suitable habitat for rare plants to inform management of multiple-use public lands in the California desert.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0214099. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

California State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Sacramento, California, United States of America.

Multiple-use public lands require balancing diverse resource uses and values across landscapes. In the California desert, there is strong interest in renewable energy development and important conservation concerns. The Bureau of Land Management recently completed a land-use plan for the area that provides protection for modeled suitable habitat for multiple rare plants. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214099PLOS

Coupling Langmuir with Michaelis-Menten-A practical alternative to estimate Se content in rice?

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0214219. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Technical University of Berlin (TUB), Institute of Applied Geosciences, Berlin, Germany.

Selenium plays an important, but vastly neglected role in human nutrition with a narrow gap between dietary deficiency and toxicity. For a potential biofortification of food with Se, as well as for toxicity-risk assessment in sites contaminated by Se, modelling of local and global Se cycling is essential. As bioavailability of Se for rice plants depends on the speciation of Se and the resulting interactions with mineral surfaces as well as the interaction with Se uptake mechanisms in plants, resulting plant Se content is complex to model. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214219PLOS

Identification of cotton MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 homologs, GhMFT1 and GhMFT2, involved in seed germination.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215771. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Special Plant Genomics Laboratory, College of Life Sciences, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, China.

Plant phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) is comprised of three clades: FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) and MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT). FT/TFL1-like clades regulate identities of the determinate and indeterminate meristems, and ultimately affect flowering time and plant architecture. MFT is generally considered to be the ancestor of FT/TFL1, but its function is not well understood. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215771PLOS

A critique of general allometry-inspired models for estimating forest carbon density from airborne LiDAR.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0215238. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

There is currently much interest in developing general approaches for mapping forest aboveground carbon density using structural information contained in airborne LiDAR data. The most widely utilized model in tropical forests assumes that aboveground carbon density is a compound power function of top of canopy height (a metric easily derived from LiDAR), basal area and wood density. Here we derive the model in terms of the geometry of individual tree crowns within forest stands, showing how scaling exponents in the aboveground carbon density model arise from the height-diameter (H-D) and projected crown area-diameter (C-D) allometries of individual trees. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215238PLOS

Survival of Mycobacterium bovis BCG oral vaccine during transit through a dynamic in vitro model simulating the upper gastrointestinal tract of badgers.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(4):e0214859. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Bacteriology, Animal and Plant Health Agency, New Haw, Addlestone, United Kingdom.

In developing an oral bait BCG vaccine against tuberculosis in badgers we wanted to understand the conditions of the gastrointestinal tract and their impact on vaccine viability. Conditions mimicking stomach and small-intestine caused substantial reduction in BCG viability. We performed in vivo experiments using a telemetric pH monitoring system and used the data to parameterise a dynamic in vitro system (TIM-1) of the stomach and small intestine. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214859PLOS

Cultivation of Medicinal Mushrooms on Spruce Sawdust Fermented with a Liquid Digestate from Biogas Stations.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2019 ;21(3):215-223

Department of Agroenvironmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.

The aim of this work was to prepare a softwood substrate on which to grow edible and medicinal mushrooms. Liquid digestate from a biogas station was successfully used in spruce sawdust fermentation. Pleurotus ostreatus, P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2019030022DOI Listing
January 2019

Relationship of GUN1 to FUG1 in chloroplast protein homeostasis.

Plant J 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Plant Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, D-82152, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

GUN1 integrates retrograde signals in chloroplasts but the underlying mechanism is elusive. FUG1, a chloroplast translation initiation factor, and GUN1 are co-expressed at the transcriptional level, and FUG1 co-immunoprecipitates with GUN1. We used mutants of GUN1 (gun1-103) and FUG1 (fug1-3) to analyse their functional relationship at the physiological and systems-wide level, the latter including transcriptome and proteome analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14342DOI Listing

Responses of soil carbon sequestration to climate smart agriculture practices: A meta-analysis.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40546, USA.

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) management practices (e.g., conservation tillage, cover crops, and biochar applications) have been widely adopted to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while ensuring crop productivity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14658DOI Listing

Biological monitoring of o-toluidine in urine pretreated by an enzymatic deconjugation method.

J Occup Health 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: To establish an enzymatic deconjugation method to separately quantify urinary o-toluidine (OT), its six metabolites, another six chemicals present in an OT-processing plant, and one metabolite of p-toluidine, and to propose optimal urinary biological monitoring items of OT exposure.

Methods: Thirty-six urine samples of an OT-processing plant's workers were obtained and pretreated by an enzymatic deconjugation method employing β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase for 3 hours at 37°C and measured by liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). An alkaline hydrolytic pretreatment and 1-chlorobutane extraction procedure was also examined as a widely used urinary OT measurement method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1348-9585.12058DOI Listing

The Cystathionine beta-lyase is crucial for embryo patterning and the maintenance of root stem cell niche in Arabidopsis.

Plant J 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

The growth and development of roots in plants depends on the specification and maintenance of the root apical meristem. Here, we report the identification of CBL, a gene required for embryo and root development in Arabidopsis, and encodes cystathionine beta-lyase (CBL) that catalyzes the penultimate step in methionine (Met) biosynthesis, which also led to the elucidation of a previous unknown but crucial metabolic contribution by the Met biosynthesis pathway. CBL is expressed in embryos and showing quiescent center (QC)-enriched expression pattern in the root. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14343DOI Listing

Enzymatic basis for C-lignin monomer biosynthesis in the seed coat of Cleome hassleriana.

Plant J 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

BioDiscovery Institute, University of North Texas, Denton, TX.

C-lignin is a linear polymer of caffeyl alcohol, found in the seed coats of several exotic plant species, with promising properties for generation of carbon fibers and high value chemicals. In the ornamental plant Cleome hassleriana, guaiacyl (G) lignin is deposited in the seed coat for the first 6-12 days after pollination, after which G lignin deposition ceases and C-lignin accumulates, providing an excellent model system to study C-lignin biosynthesis. We performed RNA sequencing of seed coats harvested at 2-day intervals throughout development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14340DOI Listing

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated functional recovery of the recessive rc allele to develop red rice.

Plant Biotechnol J 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Biotechnology Research Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou, 350003, China.

Red rice contains high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, which have been recognized as health-promoting nutrients. The red colouration of rice grains is controlled by two complementary genes, Rc and Rd. The RcRd genotype produces red pericarp in wild species Oryza rufipogon, whereas most cultivated rice varieties produce white grains resulted from a 14-bp frame-shift deletion in the seventh exon of the Rc gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13125DOI Listing

LIDAR explains diversity of plants, fungi, lichens and bryophytes across multiple habitats and large geographic extent.

Ecol Appl 2019 Apr 19:e01907. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Section for Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 114, DK, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Effective planning and nature management require spatially accurate and comprehensive measures of the factors important for biodiversity. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) can provide exactly this, and is therefore a promising technology to support future nature management and related applications. However, until now studies evaluating the potential of LIDAR for this field have been highly limited in scope. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.1907DOI Listing

Nitrogen utilization and metabolism in maize (Zea mays L.) plants under different rates of biochar addition and nitrogen input conditions.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

Biochar (BC) application could improve plant nitrogen (N) utilization and potentially reduce N fertilizer requirements. However, the fate of N in crop-soil systems and the metabolic responses of crops under the condition of BC coapplied with reduced N are not well understood. The urea- N isotope and pot experiments with three BC rates (0%, 5% and 15%; w/w) combined with three N fertilizer levels (100%-N, 85%-N and 55%-N) were conducted for maize. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/plb.12997DOI Listing

Molecular mechanisms of adaptive evolution revealed by global selection for glyphosate resistance.

New Phytol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Rothamsted Research, West Common, Harpenden, Hertfordshire, AL5 2JQ, UK.

The human-directed, global selection for glyphosate resistance in weeds has revealed a fascinating diversity of evolved resistance mechanisms, including herbicide sequestration in the vacuole, a rapid cell death response, nucleotide polymorphisms in the herbicide target (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, EPSPS) and increased gene copy number of EPSPS. For this latter mechanism, two distinct molecular genetic mechanisms have been observed, a tandem duplication mechanism and a large extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) that is tethered to the chromosomes and passed to gametes at meiosis. These divergent mechanisms have a range of consequences for the spread, fitness, and inheritance of resistance traits, and, particularly in the case of the eccDNA, demonstrate how evolved herbicide resistance can generate new insights in plant adaptation to contemporary environmental stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.15858DOI Listing

Meta-analysis of the role of entomopathogenic and unspecialised fungal endophytes as plant bodyguards.

New Phytol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Crop Protection, Agricultural Entomology, Georg-August University Goettingen, Grisebachstrasse 6, 37077, Goettingen, Germany.

Herbaceous plants harbour species-rich communities of asymptomatic endophytic fungi. While some of these endophytes are entomopathogenic, many are not, and remarkably little is known about how the presence of these fungi in plant tissues affects phytophagous insects. Here we show through a meta-analysis that both entomopathogenic and non-entomopathogenic endophytes have a negative effect on insect herbivores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.15859DOI Listing

Deposition of Plant Lipids after Single Application of a Lip Care Product Determined by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy, Corneometry, and Transepidermal Water-Loss.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Research& Development and Regulatory Affairs, Kneipp GmbH, 97084, Würzburg, Germany.

Objective: Lip treatment products often incorporate oils and waxes in their formulations, and a desired outcome of their use is to prevent lip dryness and roughness as well as help to repair this condition. The objective of this study was to combine confocal Raman spectroscopy with skin capacitance (corneometry) and transepidermal water loss (closed chamber Aquaflux system) measurements, in the evaluation of the degree of moisturization and lip skin penetration of a fruit wax (Rhus vernicula peel cera) and natural oil-based (Cocos nucifera fruit oil and Olea europea oil) lip care product, following a single application.

Methods: The study was conducted on a total of 15 healthy female volunteers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ics.12533DOI Listing

Genetic Control of Facultative Parthenocarpy in Nicotiana tabacum L.

J Hered 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

North Carolina State University, Department of Crop and Soil Science, Raleigh, NC, USA.

Investigation of parthenocarpy, the production of fruit without fertilization, in multiple plant species could result in development of technologies for conferring seedless fruits and increased stability of fruit formation in economically important plants. We studied parthenocarpy in the model species Nicotiana tabacum L., and observed variability for expression of the trait amongst diverse genetic materials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esz025DOI Listing

The use of aminoglycosides in animals within the EU: development of resistance in animals and possible impact on human and animal health: a review.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Veterinary Medicines Directorate, Addlestone, UK.

Aminoglycosides (AGs) are important antibacterial agents for the treatment of various infections in humans and animals. Following extensive use of AGs in humans, food-producing animals and companion animals, acquired resistance among human and animal pathogens and commensal bacteria has emerged. Acquired resistance occurs through several mechanisms, but enzymatic inactivation of AGs is the most common one. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkz161DOI Listing

Tomato fruit ripening factor NOR controls leaf senescence.

J Exp Bot 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Am Mühlenberg, Potsdam-Golm, Germany.

NAC transcription factors (TFs) are important regulators of expressional reprogramming during plant development, stress responses, and leaf senescence. NAC TFs also play important roles in fruit ripening. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), one of the best characterized NACs involved in fruit ripening is NON-RIPENING (NOR), and the non-ripening (nor) mutation has been widely used to extend fruit shelf life in elite varieties. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jxb/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jxb
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erz098DOI Listing
April 2019
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Asymmetrical, Symmetrical, Divalent, and Y-Shaped (Bola)amphiphiles: The Relationship between the Molecular Structure and Self-Assembly in Amino Derivatives of Sophorolipid Biosurfactants.

J Phys Chem B 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Laboratory for Chemical Technology (LCT), Department of Materials, Textiles and Chemical Engineering , Ghent University , Technologiepark 125 , 9052 Ghent , Belgium.

Conventional head-chain but also more exotic divalent, Gemini, or bolaform amphiphiles have in common well-defined hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks with often a predictable self-assembly behavior. However, new categories of amphiphiles, such as microbial biosurfactants, challenge such conventional understanding because of the poorly defined boundaries between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions. Microbial glycolipids, such as sophorolipids, rhamnolipids, or cellobioselipids, interesting biodegradable, nontoxic, alternatives to synthetic surfactants, all represent interesting examples of atypical amphiphiles with partially predictable self-assembly properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.9b01013DOI Listing

Biodegradation Profiles of Proanthocyanidin-Accumulating Alfalfa Plants Coexpressing Lc- bHLH and C1-MYB Transcriptive Flavanoid Regulatory Genes.

J Agric Food Chem 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Animal and Poultry Science, College of Agriculture and Bioresources , University of Saskatchewan , 51 Campus Drive , Saskatoon , SK Canada , S7N5A8.

The utilization of the nutrient potential of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) cannot be maximized because of its rapidly degradable protein content in the rumen, leading to waste and various digestive disorders. This might be alleviated if protein-binding proanthocyanidins are present in aerial parts of alfalfa forage in adequate amounts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b00495DOI Listing

How do richness and composition of diet shape trace metal exposure in a free-living generalist rodent, Apodemus sylvaticus.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Exposure of terrestrial mammals to chemical contaminants like trace metals (TMs) is considered to be mainly based on trophic transfer. Although relationships between TM transfer to animals and identity of contaminated food have been studied, the variation of the TM transfer with respect to diet diversity has been poorly documented. In this study, the oral exposure to TMs of wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus was investigated with respect to both the number of different items, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b07194DOI Listing

Population genomics reveals a fine-scale recombination landscape for genetic improvement of cotton.

Plant J 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, College of Plant Science & Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, China.

Recombination breaks up ancestral linkage disequilibrium, creates combinations of alleles, affects the efficiency of natural selection, and plays a major role in crop domestication and improvement. However, there is little knowledge regarding variation in the population-scaled recombination rate in cotton. We constructed recombination maps and characterized the difference in the genomic landscape of the population-scaled recombination rate between Gossypium hirsutum and G. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.14339DOI Listing

Latitudinal variation in soil nematode communities under climate warming-related range-expanding and native plants.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Netherlands Institute of Ecology, PO Box 50, 6700 AB, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Current climate change has led to latitudinal and altitudinal range expansions of numerous species. During such range expansions, plant species are expected to experience changes in interactions with other organisms, especially with belowground biota that have a limited dispersal capacity. Nematodes form a key component of the belowground food web as they include bacterivores, fungivores, omnivores and root herbivores. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14657DOI Listing
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