1,037,955 results match your criteria Plant Poisoning Alkaloids – Quinolizidine and Isoquinoline


The survival of pathogenic bacteria and plant growth promoting bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion in full-scale biogas plants.

Anim Sci J 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Graduate School of Animal and Food Hygiene, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan.

The introduction of biogas plants is a promising way to recycle organic wastes with renewable energy production and reducing greenhouse gas. Application of anaerobic digestate as a fertilizer reduces the consumption of chemical fertilizers. In this study, the survival of pathogenic bacteria and plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) in two full-scale biogas plants operated at mesophilic condition were investigated. Read More

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December 2018

SOG1-dependent NAC103 modulates the DNA damage response as a transcriptional regulator in Arabidopsis.

Plant J 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup-si, Jeollabuk-do, 56212, Republic of Korea.

The plant-specific transcription factor (TF) NAC103 was previously reported to modulate the unfolded protein response in Arabidopsis under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Alternatively, we here report that the NAC103 is involved in the downstream signaling of SOG1, a master regulator for expression of DNA damage response (DDR) genes induced by genotoxic stress. Arabidopsis NAC103 expression was strongly induced by genotoxic stress and nac103 mutants displayed substantial inhibition of DDR gene expression after gamma radiation or radiomimetic zeocin treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Overcompensation for insect herbivory: a review and meta-analysis of the evidence.

Ecology 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Texas A&M University, Department of Entomology, 2475 TAMU College Station, TX, 77840.

Not all herbivory is detrimental to plants. In some cases, plants can compensate for herbivory and maintain growth and fitness following damage or even overcompensate for herbivory and perform better than if left undamaged. Examples of overcompensation to vertebrate herbivory are well known, but here we review the literature for examples of reproductive overcompensation (i. Read More

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December 2018

Advances in understanding obligate biotrophy in rust fungi.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

UMR 1136 INRA/Université de Lorraine Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes, INRA Centre Grand Est - Nancy, 54280, Champenoux, France.

Rust fungi (Pucciniales) are the largest group of plant pathogens and represent one of the most devastating threats to agricultural crops worldwide. Despite the economic importance of these highly specialized pathogens, many aspects of their biology remain obscure largely because rust fungi are obligate biotrophs. The rise of genomics and advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have presented new options for identifying candidate effector genes involved in pathogenicity mechanisms of rust fungi. Read More

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December 2018

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi possess a CLAVATA3/Endosperm surrounding region-related gene that positively regulates symbiosis.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences Végétales, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, France.

The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is a beneficial association established between land plants and the members of a subphylum of fungi, the Glomeromycotina. How the two symbiotic partners regulate their association is still enigmatic. Secreted fungal peptides are candidates for regulating this interaction. Read More

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December 2018

Influences of coal mines, metallurgical plants, urbanization and lithology on the elemental composition of street dust.

Authors:
Gorazd Žibret

Environ Geochem Health 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Geological Survey of Slovenia, Dimičeva ulica 14, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Street dust (SD) acts as a sink and a source of atmospheric particulate matter, which is especially significant in urban environments. World studies of natural and anthropogenic impacts on the elemental composition of SD are generally limited to specific areas or case studies. The objectives of this study are to determine the impacts of different anthropogenic atmospheric dust emitters and natural factors on the chemical composition of SD, and to define sources of variance in elemental composition of SD, temporal variations and geochemical associations of elements on large number of samples, collected in different time periods, anthropogenic environments and geological settings. Read More

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December 2018

Autonomous self-fertilization in Linum sulcatum, a native annual with a previously unknown mating system.

J Plant Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Biology, University of Minnesota Duluth, 207A Swenson Science Building, Duluth, MN, 55812, USA.

The mating systems of wild plant populations have profound effects on their genetic structure and evolution, yet remain unknown or incompletely described for many species. One such species, the herbaceous native annual Linum sulcatum Riddell (Linaceae), is thought to be self-compatible, but there has been no experimental evidence to date to support this claim. To assess the breeding system of this species, seeds were collected from wild populations and reared in a controlled environment. Read More

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December 2018

Development of a model for food waste composting.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Faculty of Food Engineering, Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava, 13 Universitatii Street, 720229, Suceava, Romania.

Worldwide, large amounts of food are wasted every year. Reducing of food waste at European level is taken very seriously and it has been adopted even a target of reducing the amount of food waste in half until 2030. In many countries of the European Union, food wastes are composted, while in countries like Romania, the composting is too little used or not at all, but efforts are being made to apply this process. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of biochar and dicyandiamide combination on nitrous oxide emissions from Camellia oleifera field soil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Ministry of Education and Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, 330045, China.

Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils contribute substantially to global atmospheric composition. Nitrous oxide (NO) is one important greenhouse gas induces global warming. Nitrification inhibitors (NI) or biochar can be effective soil NO emission mitigation strategies for agricultural soils. Read More

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December 2018

Novel flourescent spiroborate esters: potential therapeutic agents in in vitro cancer models.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

The current treatment system in cancer therapy, which includes chemotherapy/radiotherapy is expensive and often deleterious to surrounding healthy tissue. Presently, several medicinal plants and their constituents are in use to manage the development and progression of these diseases.They have been found effective, safe, and less expensive. Read More

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December 2018
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High accumulation of tilianin in in-vitro cultures of Agastache mexicana and its potential vasorelaxant action.

Mol Biol Rep 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Centro de Investigación en Biotecnología, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca, MOR, México.

Agastache mexicana has gained importance during the last decade as a natural source of bioactive compounds, mainly due to the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and vasorelaxant effects derived from its flavonoids, particularly tilianin. The goal of this work was to evaluate the production of tilianin during the in-vitro process of morphogenesis leading to plant regeneration and to investigate the vasorelaxant activity of its methanolic extracts. The cultures were established from nodal segments and leaf explants, inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with various concentrations of benzyl aminopurine (BAP) alone or in combination with 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Read More

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December 2018

Synthesis, structure activity relationship and in vitro anti-influenza virus activity of novel polyphenol-pentacyclic triterpene conjugates.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Dec 7;163:560-568. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China; State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China. Electronic address:

It is urgently necessary to develop more effective anti-influenza agents due to the continuous emergence of drug-resistant strains of influenza virus. Our earlier studies have identified that certain pentacyclic triterpene derivatives are effective inhibitors of influenza virus infection. In the present study, a series of C-28 modified pentacyclic triterpene derivatives via conjugation with a series of polyphenols were synthesized, and their antiviral activities against influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus in MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) cells were evaluated. Read More

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December 2018

Seasonal changes in amino acids and phenolic compounds in fruits from hybrid cross populations of American grapes differing in disease resistance.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 3;135:182-193. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Plant Biology and Horticulture Sections, School of Integrative Plant Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA. Electronic address:

The production of wine grapes in upstate New York (USA) is limited by diseases that are promoted by the cool and sometimes rainy climate. A breeding program has been introducing disease resistance from related species into the cultivated stock. Previous work has indicated that such resistance may be based on biochemical reactions rather than on a hypersensitive reaction. Read More

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December 2018

Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in soils and crops. A field study in legume plants (Vicia faba L.) grown under different watering regimes.

Environ Res 2018 Dec 6;170:16-25. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, 08034 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Social concern has raised during the last years due to the development of antibiotic resistance hotspots in different environmental compartments, including the edible parts of crops. To assess the influence of the water quality used for watering, we collected samples from soil, roots, leaves and beans from the legume plant Vicia faba (broad beans) in three agricultural peri-urban plots (Barcelona, NE Spain), irrigated with either groundwater, river water, or reclaimed water. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) sul1, tetM, qnrS1, blabla, mecA, and bla were quantified by real-time PCR, along with 16S rDNA and intl1 sequences, as proxies for bacterial abundance and integron prevalence, respectively. Read More

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December 2018

Engineered nanomaterials inhibit Podosphaera pannosa infection on rose leaves by regulating phytohormones.

Environ Res 2018 Dec 6;170:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003, United States.

In the present study, we investigated the antifungal effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) against Podosphaera pannosa (P. pannosa), a fungal pathogen that causes powdery mildew on plants in the rose family. Four commercial ENMs, including multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) and titanium dioxide (TiO) NPs, were used to prepare 50 or 200 mg/L NP suspensions in deionized water. Read More

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December 2018

Chemical and odor characterization of gas emissions released during composting of solid wastes and digestates.

J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 13;233:39-53. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Irstea, UR OPAALE, 17 Avenue de Cucillé, CS 64427, F-35044, Rennes, France. Electronic address:

Hazardous and odorous gas emissions from composting and methanization plants are an issue of public concern. Odor and chemical monitoring are thus critical steps in providing suitable strategies for air pollution control at waste treatment units. In this study, 141 gas samples were extensively analyzed to characterize the odor and chemical emissions released upon the aerobic treatment of 10 raw substrates and five digestates. Read More

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December 2018

Five financial incentives to revive the Gulf of Mexico dead zone and Mississippi basin soils.

J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 13;233:30-38. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, USA.

A central challenge in the Mississippi River Basin is how to continue to support profitable agricultural production, provide water supply, flood control, transportation, and other benefits, while reducing the current burden of environmental degradation. Several practices have been shown to reduce nutrient runoff and water pollution, and improve soil fertility, while often yielding profits for farmers. Yet many of these beneficial practices remain underutilized. Read More

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December 2018

Linoleic and linolenic acid hydroperoxides interact differentially with biomimetic plant membranes in a lipid specific manner.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 7;175:384-391. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics at Interfaces, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liege, 2, Passage des Déportés, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.

Linoleic and linolenic acid hydroperoxides (HPOs) constitute key intermediate oxylipins playing an important role as signaling molecules during plant defense processes in response to biotic or abiotic stress. They have also been demonstrated in vitro as antimicrobial agents against plant fungi and bacteria. To reach the phytopathogens in vivo, the HPOs biosynthesized in the plant cells must cross the plant plasma membrane (PPM) where they can also interact with plasma membrane lipids and have an effect on their organization. Read More

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December 2018

DNA variants in Helicobacter pylori infected patients with chronic gastritis, dysplasia and gastric cancer.

Adv Med Sci 2018 Dec 13;64(1):79-84. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan, Poland; Institute of Human Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Poland. Electronic address:

Purpose: The main scope of this study was to evaluate the importance of selected DNA variants for developing inflammation of gastric mucosa and carcinogenesis in gastrointestinal diseases in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori.

Patients And Methods: Patients subjected to analysis constituted a group of 131 consecutive cases, with control groups consisting of 100 healthy volunteers and 13 dyspeptic patients. Molecular analysis included the following genes: TP53 (c. Read More

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December 2018

Lipidomic analysis reveals the efficiency of Eclipta prostrata on diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Nov 30;165:224-232. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Therapeutic Chemistry, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a leading cause of chronic liver disease in western countries. The current study aimed to detect and evaluate lipidomic biomarkers for early detection of NAFLD as well as the potential efficiency of methanolic extract of Eclipta prostrata (E. prostrata) on disease management. Read More

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November 2018

The change in microstructure of petioles and peduncles and transporter gene expression by potassium influences the distribution of nutrients and sugars in pear leaves and fruit.

J Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 29;232:320-333. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization, National Engineering Research Center for Organic-based Fertilizers, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center for Solid Organic Waste Resource Utilization, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China. Electronic address:

Potassium (K) is one of the most important mineral nutrients required for fruit growth and development and is known as a 'quality element'. To investigate the role of K in more detail, we performed experiments in which seven-year-old pot-grown 'Huangguan' pear trees were treated with three levels of K (0, 0.4, or 0. Read More

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November 2018

Development and benefit evaluation of fermentation strategies for poly(malic acid) production from malt syrup by Aureobasidium melanogenum GXZ-6.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Dec 10;274:479-487. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China; College of Life Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, Guangxi, China. Electronic address:

Malt syrup, as a low-cost substrate without any pretreatment, was proved to be able to replace maltose for ploymalic acid (PMA) production by Aureobasidium melanogenum GXZ-6. The PMA titer of 55.53 ± 1. Read More

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December 2018

Occurrence, diversity, and persistence of antibiotic resistant enterococci in full-scale constructed wetlands treating urban wastewater in Sicily.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Dec 8;274:468-478. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment (Di3A), University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 100, Catania 95123, Italy.

Enterococci isolated from different sites of an urban wastewater treatment plant (consisting of three horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands) were investigated. One-hundred-thirty isolates were identified at species level and tested for resistance to eleven antibiotics, by microdilution method, and their clonal relatedness was established by SmaI-PFGE analysis. Results highlighted the persistence of enterococcal population in all effluents and the dominance of E. Read More

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December 2018

The response of maize protoplasts to cadmium stress mitigated by silicon.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 13;170:488-494. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Glycobiotechnology, Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 845 38 Bratislava, Slovakia.

The aim of this article was to evaluate the viability of maize protoplasts, cell wall regeneration, Cd uptake by protoplasts, and the impact of silicon under cadmium cations (Cd) stress in two maize hybrids with contrasting tolerances to Cd toxicity. The differences in protoplast viability between the sensitive (Novania) and tolerant (Almansa) hybrids were noticeable even at the beginning of culture. The percentage of living protoplasts in the presence of Cd was higher in the tolerant hybrid. Read More

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December 2018

Influence of application of manganese ore in constructed wetlands on the mechanisms and improvement of nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 13;170:446-452. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

College of Geography and Environment, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250100, China.

Vertical up-flow constructed wetlands (CWs) with manganese ore (Mn ore) as media (M-CWs) were developed to treat simulated polluted river water. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies for NH-N, NO-N, TN and TP were 91.74%, 83. Read More

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December 2018

Trichoderma harzianum mitigates salt stress in cucumber via multiple responses.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 13;170:436-445. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Life Science and Agronomy, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou, Henan 466001, PR China.

Trichoderma harzianum T-soybean plays an important role in controlling soybean root rot disease. However, the mechanism by which it improves plant tolerance to salt stress is not clear. In this study, we investigated the possible mechanism of T-soybean in mitigating the damage caused by salt stress in Cucumis sativus L plants. Read More

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December 2018

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Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, School of Advanced Agriculture Sciences and School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Rice is a major cereal crop for China. The development of the "three-line" hybrid rice system based on cytoplasmic male sterility in the 1970s (first-generation) and the "two-line" hybrid rice system based on photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile lines (second-generation) in the 1980s has contributed significantly to rice yield increase and food security in China. Here we describe the development and implementation of the "third-generation" hybrid rice breeding system that is based on a transgenic approach to propagate and utilize stable recessive nuclear male sterile lines, and as such, the male sterile line and hybrid rice produced using such a system is non-transgenic. Read More

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December 2018

Food restriction, but not seasonality, modulates the acute phase response of a neotropical bat.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências Universidade Estadual Paulista Julho de Mesquita Filho, Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil.

Season and food intake are known to affect immune response of vertebrates yet their effects on metabolic rate have been rarely explored. We tested the effect of season and acute food restriction and their interaction on the energetic cost of immune response activation of a tropical vertebrate, the Seba's short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). We specifically stimulated the acute phase response (APR) with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to measure metabolic changes along with changes in body temperature (T), body mass (M), white blood cell counts and the Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ratio (N/L). Read More

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December 2018

Molecular characterization and juvenile hormone-regulated transcription of the vitellogenin receptor in the cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) is highly expressed in the ovaries where it is responsible for vitellogenin (Vg) deposition during oogenesis in insects. Therefore, identifying the VgR of insect pests, and understanding the mechanism regulating its expression, could lead to the development of pest management strategies based on disrupting reproduction. We cloned and identified VgR in the cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi, which is a serious pest of cruciferous vegetables in Asia. Read More

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December 2018

Δ-Tetrahydrocannabinol upregulates fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) via PPARα induction: A possible evidence for the cancellation of PPARβ/δ-mediated inhibition of PPARα in MDA-MB-231 cells.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Molecular Biology, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, 22-1 Tamagawa-cho, Minami-ku, Fukuoka, 815-8511, Japan.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, with three characterized subtypes: PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. The biological correlation between the two PPAR subtypes PPARα and γ and carcinogenesis is well-characterized; however, substantially less is known about the biological functions of PPARβ/δ. PPARβ/δ has been reported to repress transcription when PPARβ/δ and PPARα or PPARγ are simultaneously expressed in some cells, and MDA-MB-231 cells express functional levels of PPARβ/δ. Read More

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December 2018

New insights into the role of melatonin in plants and animals.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA. Electronic address:

Melatonin is a hormone produced in animals by the pineal gland and in plants under stress. Melatonin research has expanded rapidly, affecting an impressive enhancement in the understanding of its functions in plants and animals. However, far less focus has been directed to clarifying the nature of melatonin dose-response relationships. Read More

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December 2018

Neonicotinoids: molecular mechanisms of action, insights into resistance and impact on pollinators.

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Dec 27;30:86-92. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kindai University, 3327-204 Nakamachi, Nara 631-8505, Japan; Agricultural Technology and Innovation Research Institute, Kindai University, 3327-204 Nakamachi, Nara 631-8505, Japan. Electronic address:

Neonicotinoids are insecticides that target insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), exhibiting high selective toxicity to insects over vertebrates and good systemic activity in crop plants. For these reasons, neonicotinoids currently make up ∼30% of insecticide sales worldwide. However, due to their adverse impact on pollinators such as honey bees and bumble bees, neonicotinoids are being banned from the EU, and other countries may follow. Read More

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December 2018

Okaramines and other plant fungal products as new insecticide leads.

Authors:
Kazuhiko Matsuda

Curr Opin Insect Sci 2018 Dec 27;30:67-72. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kindai University, 3327-204 Nakamachi, Nara 631-8505, Japan. Electronic address:

Okaramine were indole alkaloids discovered from products of Penicillium simplicissimum AK-40 in soy bean pulp 'okara'. Okaramines exhibit insecticidal activity on a broad range of insects. Hence, more insecticide leads were explored by fermenting the other fungi with okara, resulting in the isolations of meroterpenes and cyclic peptides as well as indole alkaloids with distinct skeletons. Read More

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December 2018

The group I GH3 family genes encoding JA-Ile synthetase act as positive regulator in the resistance of rice to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Center of Plant Gene Research (Wuhan), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China. Electronic address:

Plant GH3 genes are key components of the hormonal mechanism regulating growth and development, responding to biotic and abiotic stress. GH3 proteins are involved in hormonal homeostasis through conjugation to amino acids of the free form of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid (JA) or indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Our previous work has uncovered that two GH3 genes encoding IAA-amido synthetase play important roles in the resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Read More

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December 2018

Highly efficient hydrolysis of plant hemicelluloses by mixed-addenda Keggin-type (Mo-V-P)-heteropolyacids in diluted aqueous solution.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 31;206:80-85. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

University of Lisbon, School of Agriculture, Forest Research Center (CEF), Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017, Lisbon, Portugal. Electronic address:

Polyoxometalate (POM) catalyzed hydrolysis of wood and agro-crop hemicelluloses by mixed-addenda molybdic α-Keggin-type heteropolyacids (HPAs), such as molybdovanadophosphate heteropolyacids (Mo-V-P)-HPAs of series H[PMoVO] with n = 3 and 4 (so-called HPA-3 and HPA-4), have been assessed in comparison with conventional sulfuric acid catalysis. In very diluted (20 mM) aqueous solutions of (Mo-V-P)-HPAs, up to 90% of total biomass xylan was readily converted into soluble sugars (mono and oligosaccharides) after 60 min hydrolysis reaction at 130 °C, vs only ca. 25% conversion (as a max. Read More

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February 2019

Ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Camptotheca acuminata fruits and its antitumor activity.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 10;206:557-564. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China. Electronic address:

In the present study, an efficient ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE) procedure for the polysaccharides from the fruit of Camptotheca acuminata (CAFP) was investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions (ratio of liquid to raw material 30 mL/g, microwave irradiation time of 20 min, microwave irradiation power of 570 W and a fixed ultrasonic power of 50 W obtained by the response surface analysis with Box-Behnken design, satisfactory yields of CAFP (6.81 ± 0. Read More

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February 2019

Evolution of flax cell wall ultrastructure and mechanical properties during the retting step.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 28;206:48-56. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

IRDL, Université Européenne Bretagne, CNRS, UMR 6027, Lorient, France.

Flax retting is a major bioprocess in the cultivation and extraction cycle of flax fibres. The aim of the present study is to improve the understanding of the evolution of fibre properties and ultrastructure caused by this process at the plant cell wall scale. Initially, investigations of the mechanical performances of the flax cell walls by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in Peak Force mode revealed a significant increase (+33%) in the cell wall indentation modulus with retting time. Read More

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February 2019

Optical activity anisotropy of chitosan-based films.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 13;206:476-486. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Institute of Chemistry, Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov, Russian Federation; Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saratov, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

The optical activity [α] of films of chitosan and chitosan acetate was studied. [α] depended on the orientation angle θ of the film sample around the light beam. The angular dependences [α] = f(θ) (indicatrices) were processed to extract the constant term [α]and four harmonics ([α], Fourier's series) determined by structure elements with the corresponding symmetry: the amorphous (isotropic) phase of chitosan ([α]), irregular-shaped structures ([α]), rod-shaped ones in the film plane ([α]), helical ones located perpendicular to the film surface ([α]), and crystalline structures ([α]). Read More

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February 2019

Scaffolds based on alginate-PEG methyl ether methacrylate-Moringa oleifera-Aloe vera for wound healing applications.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 12;206:455-467. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Departamento de Innovación Biomédica, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Carretera Ensenada-Tijuana No. 3918, Zona Playitas, C.P. 22860, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico; CONACYT-Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica (CIDETEQ), Parque Tecnológico Querétaro - Sanfandila, C.P. 76703, Pedro Escobedo, Querétaro, Mexico. Electronic address:

This study sought to improve the handling, stability to aqueous medium and healing properties of alginate-based three-dimensional structures to be applied as wound scaffolds. Thus, Ca-alginate was plasticized with PEG-methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) and blended with the freeze-dried gel of A. vera and aqueous leaves extracts of M. Read More

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February 2019

Soluble xyloglucan generates bigger bacterial community shifts than pectic polymers during in vitro fecal fermentation.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 10;206:389-395. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research and Department of Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA. Electronic address:

Xyloglucans and pectic polymers can be obtained from a variety of plants ubiquitous in the human diet, however, their fermentability in the colon and consequent nutritional benefits are poorly understood. Here, we evaluated metabolite profiles and bacterial shifts during in vitro fecal fermentations of two isolated pectic polymers and a xyloglucan. Depending on their chemical structure, pectic polymers were more acetogenic or propiogenic. Read More

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February 2019

Influence of acid depolymerization parameters on levan molar mass distribution and its utilization by bacteria.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 13;206:371-379. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Fermentation and Biosynthesis, Institute of Food Technology of Plant Origin, Poznań University of Life Sciences, ul. Wojska Polskiego 31, 60-624 Poznań, Poland. Electronic address:

Levan is a fructan composed of β -(2, 6) linkages in its main chain. Its health properties, especially its prebiotic potential can be partially modified by changing its molar mass distribution. Given that native levan is rarely fermented by probiotic bacteria, especially lactic acid bacteria (LAB), levanoligosaccharides (LOS) were produced by mild acid hydrolysis. Read More

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February 2019

Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide regionally regulates intestinal mucosal barrier function and intestinal microbiota in mice.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 6;206:149-162. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009, China. Electronic address:

The present study investigated the effects of a homogeneous Dendrobium huoshanense polysaccharide (GXG) on mucosal barrier function and microbiota composition in different intestinal regions of mice. Results exhibited, besides changing the intestinal physiological status, orally administrated GXG could improve the intestinal physical barrier function by modulating mucosal structures and up-regulating the expression of tight junction proteins, reinforce the intestinal biochemical barrier function by elevating the expression and secretion of mucin-2, β-defensins and sIgA, and regulate the intestinal immunological barrier function by stimulating the production of cytokines and the functional development of immune cells. Simultaneously, GXG could differentially impact the composition and metabolism of microbiota along intestinal tract. Read More

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February 2019

Host-Microbe Interactions: Fungi Vol 46.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2018 Dec;46:iii-v

Research Director, UMR BIOGER, INRA, AgroParisTech, Paris-Saclay University, Thiverval-Grignon, France. Electronic address:

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December 2018

An approach to identifying the relative importance of different radionuclides in ecological radiological risk assessment: Application to nuclear power plant releases.

J Environ Radioact 2018 Dec 12;197:116-126. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

IRSN, PSE-ENV, Fontenay aux Roses, France.

There is a need to prioritise the requirements for data to assess the radiological risk for fauna and flora, as inevitable large data gaps occur due to the large number of combinations of radionuclides and organisms for which doses need to be assessed. The potentially most important dose-forming radionuclide-pathways combinations need to be identified to optimize filling these gaps. Few attempts have been made to classify the importance of isotopes with regard to radiation protection of the environment. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Effects of biochar on growth, and heavy metals accumulation of moso bamboo (Phyllostachy pubescens), soil physical properties, and heavy metals solubility in soil.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 26;219:510-516. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Key Laboratory of Soil Contamination Bioremediation of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang A & F University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 311300, PR China.

Pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of wood biochar (5%), bamboo biochar (5%), rice straw biochar (5%) and Chinese walnut shell biochar (5%) on growth, accumulation of heavy metals in moso bamboo, soil physical properties, and solubility of heavy metals in soil. The results revealed that dry weight of moso bamboo was significantly increased in treatments of wood biochar (5%), rice straw biochar (5%) and Chinese walnut shell biochar (5%) except bamboo biochar (5%). Application of straw biochar (5%) was most effective in enhancing plants biomass, with increase of 157%, 113% and 111% in leaves, roots and stems of moso bamboo. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Detection of norovirus epidemic genotypes in raw sewage using next generation sequencing.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 12;123:282-291. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Noroviruses are a leading cause of epidemic and pandemic acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, and contaminated food and water are important routes for its transmission. Raw sewage has been used for viral surveillance to monitor the emergence of new norovirus strains with the potential to cause epidemics. In this study, we investigated norovirus occurrence and norovirus RNA levels in 156 samples collected from May 2013 to May 2014, across three different stages (52 samples each) of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Proteomic analysis for phenanthrene-elicited wheat chloroplast deformation.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 11;123:273-281. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

The exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause wheat leaf chlorosis. Thus, we hypothesize that chloroplast inner structure damage is the reason for leaf chlorosis. This study was conducted with the wheat seedlings exposed to Hoagland nutrient solution containing 1. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Excess copper promotes photoinhibition and modulates the expression of antioxidant-related genes in Zostera muelleri.

Aquat Toxicol 2018 Dec 5;207:91-100. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Climate Change Cluster, University of Technology Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plants and as such is vital to many metabolic processes. Nevertheless, when present at elevated concentrations, Cu can exert toxic effects on plants by disrupting protein functions and promoting oxidative stress. Due to their proximity to the urbanised estuaries, seagrasses are vulnerable to chemical contamination via industrial runoff, waste discharges and leachates. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Polyphenolic profiling of roots (Vitis spp.) under grape phylloxera (D. vitifoliae Fitch) attack.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 4;135:174-181. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Viticulture and Pomology, Department of Crop Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, Konrad Lorenz Str. 24, 3430, Tulln, Austria.

Many plants respond to herbivore attacks by the formation of secondary metabolites, such as polyphenols. Grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliaeFitch) induces organoid root galls on fibrous root tips of tolerant Vitis spp. rootstocks. Read More

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December 2018
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Overexpression of maize MYB-IF35 increases chilling tolerance in Arabidopsis.

Authors:
Chen Meng Na Sui

Plant Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 7;135:167-173. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Stress, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Jinan, 250014, China. Electronic address:

Chilling stress is a critical environmental factor that limits plant growth, yield and distribution. Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important food and forage crop, and industrial raw material, in China. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read
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