11,273 results match your criteria Plague


Poor vector competence of the human flea, Pulex irritans, to transmit Yersinia pestis.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Jun 10;14(1):317. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Laboratory of Bacteriology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Hamilton, MT, USA.

Background: The human flea, Pulex irritans, is widespread globally and has a long association with humans, one of its principal hosts. Its role in plague transmission is still under discussion, although its high prevalence in plague-endemic regions and the presence of infected fleas of this species during plague outbreaks has led to proposals that it has been a significant vector in human-to-human transmission in some historical and present-day epidemiologic situations. However, based on a limited number of studies, P. Read More

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A decade of plague in Madagascar: a description of two hotspot districts.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 10;21(1):1112. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar.

Background: Human plague cases, mainly in the bubonic form, occur annually in endemic regions of the central highlands of Madagascar. The aim of this study was to compare the dynamics of the epidemiological features of the human plague in two districts of the central highlands region.

Methods: In Madagascar, all clinically suspected plague cases that meet clinical and epidemiological criteria specified in the World Health Organization (WHO) standard case definition are reported to the national surveillance system. Read More

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Influence of Sociospatial determinants on knowledge, attitudes and practices related to the plague in a population living in endemic areas in the central highlands, Madagascar.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jun 9;21(1):1102. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, 101, Antananarivo, Madagascar.

Background: Plague is endemic to the central highlands of Madagascar. Sporadic human cases or outbreaks can occur annually in these areas. In Madagascar, the associations between endemicity and the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the population with regard to this disease remain poorly documented. Read More

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Regarding pandemics: Ibn Jatima from Almería anticipates the physiopathological concept of multi-organ failure in the 14th century.

Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Ex-Jefe del Servicio de Cuidados Intensivos, Hospital Universitario Juan Ramón Jiménez, Huelva, Spain. Electronic address:

In 1348, a pandemic known as Black Death devastated humanity and changed social, economic and geopolitical world order, as is the current case with SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The doctor of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, Ibn-Jatima from Almeria, wrote "Treatise on the Plague", in which it may be found epidemiological and clinical similarities between both plagues. In the context of Greco-Arab medicine, he discovered respiratory and contact contagion of Pestis and attributed its physiopathology to a lack of pulmonary cooling of the innate heat, generated in the heart and carried by the blood humor. Read More

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Aquaporins in insulin resistance and diabetes: More than channels!

Redox Biol 2021 Aug 27;44:102027. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Medical Biology, Medical University of Bialystok, 15-089, Bialystok, Poland. Electronic address:

Aquaporins (AQPs) are part of the family of the integral membrane proteins. Their function is dedicated to the transport of water, glycerol, ammonia, urea, HO, and other small molecules across the biological membranes. Although for many years they were scarcely considered, AQPs have a relevant role in the development of many diseases. Read More

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Microbial dysbiosis reflects disease resistance in diverse coral species.

Commun Biol 2021 Jun 3;4(1):679. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

University of the Virgin Islands, St. Thomas, VI, USA.

Disease outbreaks have caused significant declines of keystone coral species. While forecasting disease outbreaks based on environmental factors has progressed, we still lack a comparative understanding of susceptibility among coral species that would help predict disease impacts on coral communities. The present study compared the phenotypic and microbial responses of seven Caribbean coral species with diverse life-history strategies after exposure to white plague disease. Read More

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Cellular Immune Response of an Endemic Lake Baikal Amphipod to Indigenous Pseudomonas sp.

Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia.

Studies of invertebrates have shown that the internal environment of crustaceans is not always sterile in normal conditions, and in many species, it can be populated by microorganisms even in the absence of any visible pathological processes in the body. This observation raises the question of whether genetically modified indigenous hemolymph microorganisms can be used for biotechnological purposes inside the crustacean either as local producers of some compounds or as sensors to physiological parameters. In this study, we tested the ability of the bacteria isolated from the hemolymph of the amphipod Eulimnogammarus verrucosus to hide from the cellular immune response of the host as the most important feature for their potential long-term application in vivo. Read More

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Recent Developments in Vaccines for Bovine Mycoplasmoses Caused by and subsp. .

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 24;9(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

The Oaks, Nutshell Lane, Farnham, Surrey GU9 0HG, UK.

Two of the most important diseases of cattle are caused by mycoplasmas. is a world-wide bovine pathogen that can cause pneumonia, mastitis and arthritis. It has now spread to most, if not all, cattle-rearing countries. Read More

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Rodent-Related Zoonotic Pathogens at the Human-Animal-Environment Interface in Qatar: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 31;18(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering & Science, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa.

Rodents are one of the most diversified terrestrial mammals, and they perform several beneficial activities in nature. These animals are also important as carriers of many pathogens with public health importance. The current systematic review was conducted to formulate a true depiction of rodent-related zoonoses in Qatar. Read More

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The Discovery of Naringenin as Endolysosomal Two-Pore Channel Inhibitor and Its Emerging Role in SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Cells 2021 05 7;10(5). Epub 2021 May 7.

Unit of Histology and Medical Embryology, Department of Anatomy, Histology, Forensic Medicine and Orthopaedics, Sapienza University of Rome, 16 Via A. Scarpa, 00161 Rome, Italy.

The flavonoid naringenin (Nar), present in citrus fruits and tomatoes, has been identified as a blocker of an emerging class of human intracellular channels, namely the two-pore channel (TPC) family, whose role has been established in several diseases. Indeed, Nar was shown to be effective against neoangiogenesis, a process essential for solid tumor progression, by specifically impairing TPC activity. The goal of the present review is to illustrate the rationale that links TPC channels to the mechanism of coronavirus infection, and how their inhibition by Nar could be an efficient pharmacological strategy to fight the current pandemic plague COVID-19. Read More

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Obtaining Specific Sequence Tags for and Visually Detecting Them Using the CRISPR-Cas12a System.

Pathogens 2021 May 6;10(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogens and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, 20 Dongdajie Street, Fengtai District, Beijng 100071, China.

Three worldwide historical plague pandemics resulted in millions of deaths. , the etiologic agent of plague, is also a potential bioterrorist weapon. Simple, rapid, and specific detection of is important to prevent and control plague. Read More

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Antibiotic Therapy of Plague: A Review.

Biomolecules 2021 May 12;11(5). Epub 2021 May 12.

Univ. Lille, Inserm, CNRS, Institut Pasteur Lille, U1019-UMR 9017-CIIL-Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, F-59000 Lille, France.

Plague-a deadly disease caused by the bacterium -is still an international public health concern. There are three main clinical forms: bubonic plague, septicemic plague, and pulmonary plague. In all three forms, the symptoms appear suddenly and progress very rapidly. Read More

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PsaF is a membrane-localized pH sensor that regulates expression in .

J Bacteriol 2021 Jun 1:JB0016521. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599.

The pH 6 antigen (PsaA) forms fimbria-like structures and is required for full virulence during bubonic plague. High temperature and low pH regulate PsaA production and while recent work has uncovered the molecular aspects of temperature control, the mechanisms underlying the unusual regulation by pH are poorly understood. Using defined growth conditions, we recently showed that high levels of PsaE and PsaF (two regulatory proteins required for expression of ) are present at mildly acidic pH, but these levels are greatly reduced at neutral pH, resulting in low expression. Read More

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Genome Scale Analysis Reveals IscR Directly and Indirectly Regulates Virulence Factor Genes in Pathogenic .

mBio 2021 Jun 1:e0063321. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, USA.

The iron-sulfur cluster coordinating transcription factor IscR is important for the virulence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and a number of other bacterial pathogens. However, the IscR regulon has not yet been defined in any organism. To determine the IscR regulon and identify IscR-dependent functions important for virulence, we employed chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of Y. Read More

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A Comprehensive Review on Crustaceans' Immune System With a Focus on Freshwater Crayfish in Relation to Crayfish Plague Disease.

Front Immunol 2021 13;12:667787. Epub 2021 May 13.

LR01ES14 Laboratory of Environmental Biomonitoring, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage, Bizerte, Tunisia.

Freshwater crayfish immunity has received great attention due to the need for urgent conservation. This concern has increased the understanding of the cellular and humoral defense systems, although the regulatory mechanisms involved in these processes need updating. There are, however, aspects of the immune response that require clarification and integration. Read More

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Lessons from the 1656 Neapolitan Plague: Something to learn for the current coronavirus Pandemic?

Vaccine 2021 06 21;39(27):3641-3643. Epub 2021 May 21.

CNR-ISEM (Institute of History of Mediterranean Europe), Cagliari-Rome-Milan, Italy.

In the spring of 1656, an epidemic of bubonic plague suddenly fell on Naples, the capital of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The epidemic had put a strain on the government authorities, forcing them to take sometimes drastic measures but, in most cases, scarcely decisive. The current health emergency caused by Covid-19 disease has many similarities with the epidemics of the past. Read More

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Nuestra Ciencia: Transforming microbiology for Spanish-speaking elementary and college students.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Undergraduate Research Assistant, Department of Biological Sciences, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA.

This forward-looking perspective describes the university-elementary bilingual partnership program Nuestra Ciencia. This program aims to simultaneously tackle two parallel sets of challenges, the first related to recruitment and retention of Latinx into STEM fields, and the second related to generalized microbiology misconceptions. Latinxs are severely underrepresented in STEM fields, in part because they face systemic barriers and typically arrive at college with a weaker science foundation from their K-12 education and thus are less likely to be drawn to STEM majors. Read More

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Plague rampant: two sides of the coin.

Br J Ophthalmol 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Ophthalmology, Centre Hospitalier National d'Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, Paris, France.

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Feasibility and acceptability of "active" classroom workstations among French university students and lecturers: a pilot study.

BMC Public Health 2021 05 27;21(1):1001. Epub 2021 May 27.

Université Clermont Auvergne, CRNH, AME2P, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Background: Sedentary lifestyles plague today's society in terms of physical, psychosocial and cognitive health. Students are particularly at risk because they spend most of their daily time sitting and inactive. The current pedagogical model must be rethought in order to promote students' health, well-being and therefore their success. Read More

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Quantum Machine Learning Algorithms for Drug Discovery Applications.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Collaborations Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 840 Main Campus Drive, Lab 3510, Raleigh, North Carolina 27606, United States.

The growing quantity of public and private data sets focused on small molecules screened against biological targets or whole organisms provides a wealth of drug discovery relevant data. This is matched by the availability of machine learning algorithms such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Deep Neural Networks (DNN) that are computationally expensive to perform on very large data sets with thousands of molecular descriptors. Quantum computer (QC) algorithms have been proposed to offer an approach to accelerate quantum machine learning over classical computer (CC) algorithms, however with significant limitations. Read More

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The Role of Vegan Diets in Lipotoxicity-induced Beta-cell Dysfunction in Type-2-Diabetes: A Narrative Review.

J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol 2020 3;27(S Pt 2):e22-e38. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Independent Author, Tübingen, Germany;

Type-2-diabetes is considered the new plague of the current century and its incidence and prevalence are rapidly increasing. Chronic insulin resistance and a progressive decline in beta-cell function are discussed as the root causes of type-2-diabetes. Both are associated with obesity and prolonged exposure to pathologically elevated concentrations of circulating free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the blood. Read More

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October 2020

Using hair cortisol analysis to understand the biological factors that affect black-footed ferret () stress physiology.

Conserv Physiol 2021 11;9(1):coab033. Epub 2021 May 11.

Prairie Wildlife Research, PO Box 308, Wellington, CO 80549, USA.

The black-footed ferret () was driven to near extinction due to habitat loss and an introduced disease, sylvatic plague (). After 35 years of breeding in facilities, the black-footed ferret has been experiencing infertility with seminal traits declining in males and only about a third of breeding-aged females are whelping. Our goal was to use hair cortisol analysis to determine if the population was experiencing chronic stress that was affecting reproduction by comparing captive ferrets to wild individuals. Read More

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Development of a PCR-lateral flow assay for rapid detection of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague.

Acta Trop 2021 May 15;220:105958. Epub 2021 May 15.

Bioprocess Technology Division, Defence Research and Development Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474002, India.

Plague is a zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis, a Gram-negative, rod shaped coccobacillus, which is primarily found in rodents and can be transmitted to humans through flea bite. The disease has three major clinical forms bubonic (by flea bite), pneumonic (by respiratory droplets) and septicemic plague. Y. Read More

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Analysis of genomic DNA from medieval plague victims suggests long-term effect of Yersinia pestis on human immunity genes.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena, Germany.

Pathogens and associated outbreaks of infectious disease exert selective pressure on human populations, and any changes in allele frequencies that result may be especially evident for genes involved in immunity. In this regard, the 1346-1353 Yersinia pestis-caused Black Death pandemic, with continued plague outbreaks spanning several hundred years, is one of the most devastating recorded in human history. To investigate the potential impact of Y. Read More

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Critical Comparison between Large and Mini Vertical Flow Immunoassay Platforms for Detection.

Anal Chem 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Center for Applied NanoBioscience and Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona 85004, United States.

is a Gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of plague and is widely recognized as a potential biological weapon. Due to the high fatality rate of plague when diagnosis is delayed, the development of rapid, sensitive, specific, and cost-effective methods is needed for its diagnosis. The low calcium response V (LcrV) protein has been identified as a potential microbial biomarker for the diagnosis of plague. Read More

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Creating supportive learning environments: The role of the medical educator.

Clin Teach 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Medicine and Center for Health Professions Education, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Systemic problems of discrimination plague diversity and inclusion efforts in medical education globally. Medical educators need to acknowledge that learners are dealing with considerable emotional and perhaps social and economic stress and that this stress is likely worse for minoritized learners. In this milieu, what is the role of the medical educator? This article takes an inclusive approach to supporting students and explores various threads in the medical education literature to provide a roadmap for medical educators. Read More

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No particular genomic features underpin the dramatic economic consequences of 17 century plague epidemics in Italy.

iScience 2021 Apr 31;24(4):102383. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Centre for Anthropobiology and Genomics of Toulouse CAGT, UMR 5288, CNRS, Université Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, Faculté de Médecine Purpan, Bâtiment A, 37 allées Jules Guesde, 31000 Toulouse, France.

The 17 century plague epidemic had a particularly strong demographic toll in Southern Europe, especially Italy, where it caused long-lasting economical damage. Whether this resulted from ineffective sanitation measures or more pathogenic strains remains unknown. DNA screening of 26 skeletons from the 1629-1630 plague cemetery of Lariey (French Alps) identified two teeth rich in plague genetic material. Read More

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Improved selective BIN agar for a better rate of isolation from primary clinical specimens in suspected Madagascar's plague cases.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness-Ziona, Israel.

According to the WHO, 75% of the world's plague cases are found in Madagascar, with an average of 200-700 suspected cases annually (mainly bubonic plague). In 2017, a pneumonic plague epidemic of unusual proportions occurred, which raised several challenges for laboratory confirmation of cases, pointing to the need for the development of isolation procedures, especially those that can be performed in remote areas. As the WHO gold standard for plague diagnosis is bacterial culture, we sought to develop a simple method to prepare a highly selective medium, fit for use in remote endemic areas. Read More

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The temperature-dependent conformational ensemble of SARS-CoV-2 main protease (M ).

bioRxiv 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

The COVID-19 pandemic, instigated by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, continues to plague the globe. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease, or M , is a promising target for development of novel antiviral therapeutics. Previous X-ray crystal structures of M were obtained at cryogenic temperature or room temperature only. Read More

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Pandemics throughout the centuries.

Clin Dermatol 2021 Jan-Feb;39(1):5-8. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Departments of Dermatology, Pathology, and Pediatrics, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Infectious Diseases, Newark, New Jersey, USA. Electronic address:

Pandemics have ravished the globe periodically, often associated with war, at times commencing as fever and rash, beginning in recorded history in the crowded walled city of Athens during the Peloponnesian War as described in great detail by the Athenian historian and military general Thucydides in 430 BCE. As the world now faces the first major pandemic of the 21st century, we focus on the "plague" commencing in Athens in 430 BCE and the 2 pandemics of the more recent century, which killed more than one million, the Spanish flu of 1918 and the Asian flu of 1957. The latter linked with successful vaccine development thanks to the heroic efforts of microbiologist Maurice Hilleman. Read More

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