171,645 results match your criteria Pituitary Tumors


Hypercortisolism in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study of 384 Newly Diagnosed Patients.

Horm Metab Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Cross-sectional studies in small and selected populations report a high prevalence of hypercortisolism in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), which could have therapeutic implications, if confirmed. We therefore estimated the prevalence of hypercortisolism in a large and unselected cohort of recently diagnosed T2D patients. Consecutive patients with recently diagnosed T2D first underwent an overnight dexamethasone (1 mg) suppression test (OD). Read More

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December 2018
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Bisphenol F causes disruption of gonadotropin-releasing hormone neural development in zebrafish via an estrogenic mechanism.

Neurotoxicology 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biology, Neuroscience Program, University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, Washington, USA. Electronic address:

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in the brain are the main controllers of reproduction and reproductive behavior in most vertebrates, and are susceptible to endocrine disruption by different bisphenols. While the endocrine disrupting properties of bisphenol A have been well documented, commonly used analogues such as bisphenol F (BPF) are not as well studied. In this study we examined the effects of early, low-dose, chronic BPF exposure on the development of the GnRH neural system in the zebrafish embryo. Read More

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December 2018

GLUT3 expression in cystic change induced by hypoxia in pituitary adenomas.

Endocr Connect 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

S Wang, Neurosurgery, Fuzhou General Hospital, Fuzhou, China., Fuzhou, China.

Tumor cells require large amounts of energy to sustain growth. Through the mediated transport of glucose transporters, the uptake and utilization of glucose by tumor cells are significantly enhanced in the hypoxic microenvironment. Pituitary adenomas are benign tumors with high energy metabolisms. Read More

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December 2018
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Luteal granulosa cells from natural cycles are more capable of maintaining their viability, steroidogenic activity and LH receptor expression than those of stimulated IVF cycles.

Hum Reprod 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Graduate School of Health Sciences, Koc University, Davutpasa, Topkapi, Istanbul, Turkey.

Study Question: Are there any differences in the molecular characteristics of the luteal granulosa cells (GC) obtained from stimulated versus non-stimulated (natural) IVF cycles that may help explain the defective luteal phase in the former?

Summary Answer: Luteal GC of stimulated IVF cycles, particularly those of agonist-triggered antagonist cycles, are less viable ex vivo, express LH receptor and anti-apoptotic genes at lower levels, undergo apoptosis earlier and fail to maintain their estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) production in comparison to natural cycle GC.

What Is Known Already: Luteal function is defective in stimulated IVF cycles, which necessitates P4 and/or hCG administration (known as luteal phase support) in order to improve clinical pregnancy rates and prevent miscarriage. The luteal phase becomes shorter and menstruation begins earlier than a natural cycle if a pregnancy cannot be achieved, indicative of early demise of corpus luteum (premature luteolysis). Read More

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December 2018

Testosterone therapy to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus in at-risk men (T4DM): Design and implementation of a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Medical School, University of Western Australia, and Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Low circulating testosterone is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in overweight men with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).

Aim: To determine in a multi-centre, double-blinded placebo-controlled randomised trial, whether testosterone treatment combined with lifestyle intervention (Weight Watchers®) relative to lifestyle intervention alone, reduces T2DM incidence and improves glucose tolerance at 2 years.

Study Population: Overweight or obese men aged 50-74 years with a serum testosterone of ≤14nmol/L and IGT or newly diagnosed T2DM established by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Read More

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December 2018
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Validation of the Targeted Metabolomic Pathway in the Hippocampus and Comparative Analysis with the Prefrontal Cortex of Social Defeat Model Mice.

J Neurochem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The proportion of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients around the world has increased remarkably. Although many studies of MDD have been conducted based on classic hypotheses, like alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or monoamine neurotransmitters, the mechanisms underlying MDD remain unclear. Aiming to further investigate the mechanisms of MDD, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed to measure target metabolites in the hippocampus (HIPPO) of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model mice. Read More

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December 2018

Two ancient neuropeptides, PACAP and AVP, modulate motivated behavior at synapses in the extrahypothalamic brain: a study in contrast.

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Section on Molecular Neuroscience, Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Regulation, NIMH-IRP, Building 49, Room 5A-32, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA.

We examine evolutionary aspects of two primordial neuropeptides, arginine vasopressin (AVP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP); the distribution of AVP and PACAP and their receptors in mammals; AVP and PACAP release patterns relevant to their roles in neuroendocrine control in brain and periphery; and finally the intricate interlocking of homeostatic and allostatic regulation created by extrahypothalamic AVP and PACAP projections to brain circuit nodes important in controlling appetitive, avoidance and aggressive motor responses. A cardinal feature of peptide neurotransmission important in regulatory control of organismic responses and emphasized in this review, is that neuropeptides are released from large dense-core vesicles docked not only within axonal varicosities and dendrites but also at presynaptic nerve terminal sites, along with small clear synaptic vesicles, at active zones. Peptide transmitter nerve terminals, from hypothalamic and other projections, are distributed widely to multiple brain areas important in integrative control of behavior. Read More

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December 2018

Cortisol Impacted on Explicit Learning Encoding, but Not on Storage and Retrieval, and Was Not Associated With Sleep Patterns-Results From the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C) Among 9-Years Old Children.

Front Psychol 2018 21;9:2240. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Psychiatric Services Solothurn, Solothurn, Switzerland.

Learning is the relatively permanent change of behavior as a result of experience and tightly related to memory and cognition. Learning is particularly important for children. Further, restoring sleep is associated both with improved learning performance and lower cortisol levels as a proxy of the so-called hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity (HPA-AA). Read More

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November 2018
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Serotonin receptors of 5-HT2 type in the hypothalamic arcuate nuclei (ARC) positively regulate liver cytochrome P450 via stimulation of the growth hormone-releasing hormone - growth hormone (GHRH-GH) hormonal pathway.

Drug Metab Dispos 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences

Our recent study carried out after local injection of the serotonergic neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the arcuate nuclei (ARC) of the hypothalamus suggested a positive influence of the serotonergic innervation of the ARC on growth hormone secretion and growth hormone-dependent expression of cytochrome P450. The aim of our present study was to determine the effect of the activation of the 5-HT1 or 5-HT2 type receptors in the ARC on the expression and activity of cytochrome P450 in the liver of male rats. The serotonergic agonists 5-CT (5-carboxyamidotryptamine, a 5-HT1 type receptor agonist) or DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine, a 5-HT2 type receptor agonist) were injected into the ARC for 5 days. Read More

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December 2018
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Giant prolactinoma, germline BRCA1 mutation, and depression: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2018 Dec 6;12(1):360. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, E.P.E., Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319, Porto, Portugal.

Background: Giant prolactinomas are very rare pituitary tumors that may exhibit an aggressive behavior and present with a life-threatening condition.

Case Presentation: A 25-year-old white woman was admitted to our hospital with a headache, psychomotor retardation, reduced vision, and loss of autonomy in daily activities. Her past medical history was significant for having oligomenorrhea and a depressive syndrome since her mother's death. Read More

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December 2018
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[New Diagnostic Standard in Diabetes Insipidus].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2018 Dec 3;143(24):1739-1744. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Medizinische Klinik III, Klinik für Endokrinologie und Nephrologie, Universitätsklinikum Leipzig.

2018 brings new insights into the differential diagnosis of patients with hypotonic polyuria syndrome. Exact localization of the antidiuretic defect in patients with hypotonic polyuria can be challenging, especially the distinction of primary polydipsia from partial pituitary or renal forms of diabetes insipidus. However, diagnostic precision is vital since therapeutic management differs substantially and false treatment may result in serious consequences. Read More

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December 2018

Preliminary Clinical Microneurosurgical Experience With the 4K3-Dimensional Microvideoscope (ORBEYE) System for Microneurological Surgery: Observation Study.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The exoscope has been reported as a novel neurosurgical instrumentation in clinical practice.

Objective: To investigate the possibility that ORBEYE (OE), a novel instrument that excludes eyepiece lenses and allows for microsurgery by observation of the 4K3D monitor, could replace microscopes.

Methods: We report 22 clinical cases by 5 experienced neurosurgeons and the comparative results of training 10 residents. Read More

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December 2018

Obesity increases the risk of chronic pain development following motor vehicle collision.

Pain 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Institute for Trauma Recovery, Department of Anesthesiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Obesity has been found to increase the risk of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in other settings, but to our knowledge the influence of increased body mass index on pain outcomes after common trauma exposures such as motor vehicle collision (MVC) has not been assessed. In addition, obesity results in biomechanical changes, as well as physiologic changes including reduced hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback inhibition, but mechanisms by which obesity may result in worse post-traumatic outcomes remain poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated the influence of body mass index (BMI) on axial and overall MSP severity (0-10 numeric rating scale) 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after MVC among 917 European Americans who presented to the emergency department for initial evaluation. Read More

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November 2018
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Resveratrol improves sperm parameter and testicular apoptosis in cisplatin-treated rats: Effects on ERK1/2, JNK, and Akt pathways.

Authors:
Ali A Shati

Syst Biol Reprod Med 2018 Dec 3:1-14. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

a Department of Biology , College of Science, King Khalid University , Abha , Saudi Arabia.

This study aimed to investigate the protective role of resveratrol (RES) against cisplatin (Cis)-induced testicular damage and reproductive dysfunction in rats and to examine the underlying mechanisms of protection including its effect on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, P53, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1/2, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK), and Protein kinase B (Akt) signaling. Eight-week-old Rats were divided into four groups (n = 12 each) of 1) control group: received normal saline (i.p. Read More

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December 2018

Oxytocin therapy in hypopituitarism: challenges and opportunities.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Schools of Medicine (RB, DAR) and Psychology (KLD), Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, UK.

Patients with hypopituitarism display impaired quality of life and excess morbidity and mortality, despite apparently optimal pituitary hormone replacement. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide synthesised in the anterior hypothalamus which plays an important role in controlling social and emotional behaviour, body weight and metabolism. Recent studies have suggested that a deficiency of oxytocin may be evident in patients with hypopituitarism and craniopharyngioma, and that this may be associated with deficits in cognitive empathy. Read More

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December 2018

In situ localization of vasotocin receptor gene transcripts in the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: a morpho-functional study.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, 682022, India.

In the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis, three vasotocin (VT) receptor subtype genes, v1a1, v1a2, and v2a, were cloned and characterized previously. In the present study, using RNA probes, we localized the distribution of the gene transcripts in the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis. The V1a-type receptor, v1a1 and v1a2, genes showed similar and overlapping distribution in the brain. Read More

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December 2018

A small 3D-printing model of macroadenomas for endoscopic endonasal surgery.

Pituitary 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, Hubei, China.

Purpose: This paper examines the application of 3D printing technology in the endoscopic endonasal approach for the treatment of macroadenomas.

Methods: We have retrospectively analysed 20 patients who diagnosed with macroadenoma underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery in Wuhan Union hospital from January 2017 to May 2017. Among the 20 patients, 10 patients received the service of 3D printing technology preoperatively. Read More

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November 2018
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Predicting response to somatostatin analogues in acromegaly: machine learning-based high-dimensional quantitative texture analysis on T2-weighted MRI.

Eur Radiol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate the value of machine learning (ML)-based high-dimensional quantitative texture analysis (qTA) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting response to somatostatin analogues (SA) in acromegaly patients with growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary macroadenoma, and to compare the qTA with quantitative and qualitative T2-weighted relative signal intensity (rSI) and immunohistochemical evaluation.

Methods: Forty-seven patients (24 responsive; 23 resistant patients to SA) were eligible for this retrospective study. Coronal T2-weighted images were used for qTA and rSI evaluation. Read More

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November 2018

Unilateral Biportal Endoscopic Spinal Surgery Using a 30° Arthroscope for L5-S1 Foraminal Decompression.

Clin Orthop Surg 2018 Dec 21;10(4):508-512. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Spine Surgery, Barun Hospital, Jinju, Korea.

Foraminal decompression using a minimally invasive technique to preserve facet joint stability and function without fusion reportedly improves the radicular symptoms in approximately 80% of patients and is considered one of the good surgical treatment choices for lumbar foraminal or extraforaminal stenosis. However, proper decompression was not possible because of the inability to access the foramen at the L5-S1 level due to prominence of the iliac crest. To overcome this challenge, endoscopy-based minimally invasive spine surgery has recently gained attention. Read More

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December 2018
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Role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of acromegaly.

J Pak Med Assoc 2018 Dec;68(12):1843-1845

Department of Surgery, Section of Neurosurgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Pakistan.

Acromegaly is a rare, indolent disease due to overproduction of growth hormone. Surgery is identified as primary treatment, but has its limitation, thus frequently requiring alternate treatment options as adjunct to surgery. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been used as adjuvant and alternate therapy in patients with inoperable or residual disease; or those not fit for surgery. Read More

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December 2018
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Pons ratio as a potential diagnostic biomarker for the detection of growth hormone deficiency in children.

Neurol India 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1680-1684

Department of Radiology, Adnan Menderes University School of Medicine, Aydin, Turkey.

Introduction: Pituitary insufficiency (PI) needs further research to optimize treatment. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a subtype of PI. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the possible relationship between GHD and the anatomical position of the pons as revealed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the pediatric age group. Read More

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December 2018
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Genome-wide identification of lncRNAs and mRNAs differentially expressed in non-functioning pituitary adenoma and construction of a lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network.

Biol Open 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215000, People's Republic of China

The involvement of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) during tumorigenesis is a recent, emerging theme. Yet, no systematic evaluation of lncRNAs has been previously reported for non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), a fairly common type of intracranial tumor. Here, we report the first genome-wide expression profile for lncRNAs and mRNAs in NFPA, using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. Read More

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November 2018

The benign-malignant paradigm in pituitary neuroendocrine tumors and the metaphor of the semaphore: Reflections of a pathologist.

Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Instituto de Anatomía Patológica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal; Departamento de Medicina/Endocrinología, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, IIB-Sant Pau, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona, España. Electronic address:

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November 2018
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Investigating associations between momentary stress and cortisol in daily life: What have we learned so far?

Authors:
Wolff Schlotz

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Max Planck Institute for Empirical Aesthetics, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Institute of Psychology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address:

Since cortisol measurement in saliva has been established, it has been used as an indicator of stress-related hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis activity. Concurrent development of methodological frameworks such as ambulatory assessment, ecological momentary assessment, and experience sampling have provided opportunities to combine both approaches in daily life research. The current review provides a summary of basic methodological principles and recommendations, as well as abstracts of findings of studies investigating momentary associations between stress and cortisol in daily life with an emphasis on within-subject associations (i. Read More

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November 2018

Comparative study of stress and immune-related transcript outcomes triggered by Vibrio anguillarum bacterin and air exposure stress in liver and spleen of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), zebrafish (Danio rerio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

The stress and immune-related effects of short-term (1, 6 and 24 h) air exposure stress (1 min), bath vaccination with Vibrio anguillarum bacterin, and both stressors combined were evaluated in liver and spleen of Sparus aurata, Danio rerio and Onchorhynchus mykiss. Expression profiles of immune (interleukin 1 beta: il1β; tumor necrosis factor alpha: tnfα; interleukin 10: il10; tumor growth factor beta: tgfβ1; immunoglobulin M: igm; lysozyme: lys; complement protein c3: c3) and stress-related genes (glucocorticoid receptor: gr; heat shock protein 70: hsp70; and enolase) were analysed by RT-qPCR. Cortisol level was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Read More

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November 2018

Neuroendocrinological treatment targets for posttraumatic stress disorder.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent, disabling, and frequently becomes chronic. Despite this, only two selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors have been approved to date for its treatment by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and treatment results are often disappointing, with a remission rate of <30%. Certain neuroendocrinological systems are currently gaining attention with respect to their use for PTSD prevention and treatment as standalone options or medication-enhanced psychotherapy due to their involvement in physiological stress reactions, memory consolidation and extinction, cognitive appraisal to stress, and attachment and resilient coping strategies, which are important in the pathogenesis of PTSD. Read More

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November 2018

Accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging-magnetic resonance in differentiating functional from non-functional pituitary macro-adenoma and classification of tumor consistency.

Neuroradiol J 2018 Dec 3:1971400918809825. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

4 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Khomein University of Medical Sciences, Markazi Province, Iran.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of selected first or second-order histogram features in differentiation of functional types of pituitary macro-adenomas.

Materials And Methods: Diffusion-weighted imaging magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 32 patients (age mean±standard deviation = 43.09 ± 11. Read More

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December 2018

Endometrial but not Ovarian Response is Associated With Clinical Outcomes and can be Improved by Prolonged Pituitary Downregulation in Patients With Thin and Medium Endometrium.

Reprod Sci 2018 Dec 3:1933719118816835. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

1 Reproductive Medicine Centre, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medicine College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ovarian and endometrial response on live birth rates (LBRs) in young normal and high responders and prolonged pituitary downregulation on endometrial receptivity and clinical outcomes in patients with different endometrial thickness. Between January 2013 and December 2017, 9511 patients underwent first in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with age ≤35 years, follicle stimulating hormone < 10 IU/l, and ≥4 retrieved oocytes were conducted. The estradiol (E) levels on the human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) day were classified into 4 groups: group 1 (<3000 pg/mL); group 2 (3000-5000 pg/mL); group 3 (5000-7000 pg/mL), and group 4 (≥7000 pg/mL). Read More

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December 2018

GnRH - a key regulator of FSH.

Endocrinology 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.

The hypothalamic decapeptide, GnRH, is the gatekeeper of mammalian reproductive development and function. Activation of specific, high affinity cell surface receptors (GnRHR) on gonadotropes by GnRH triggers signal transduction cascades to stimulate the coordinated synthesis and secretion of the pituitary gonadotropins, FSH and LH. These hormones direct gonadal steroidogenesis and gametogenesis, making their tightly regulated production and secretion essential for normal sexual maturation and reproductive health. Read More

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December 2018
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Cardiovascular Manifestations of Erdheim-Chester's Disease: A Case Series.

Arq Bras Cardiol 2018 Dec;111(6):852-855

Instituto do Câncer do Estado de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP - Brazil.

Erdheim-Chester Disease is a rare entity, classified as an inflammatory myeloid neoplasm, with an unknown incidence, occurring preferentially in men after 50 years of age. Classically, it has a multisystemic presentation, with the skeletal system being the most frequently affected (90% of the patients), followed by genitourinary involvement in 60% of cases and central nervous system in the pituitary and diabetes insipidus in 25% of the cases. Cardiovascular manifestations are present in more than half of the patients, with aortic infiltration and atrial pseudotumor being the most common forms. Read More

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December 2018
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Short-Term Sleep Loss Alters Cytokine Gene Expression in Brain and Peripheral Tissues and Increases Plasma Corticosterone of Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

Physiol Biochem Zool 2019 Jan/Feb;92(1):80-91

Lack of sleep incurs physiological costs that include increased inflammation and alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Specifically, sleep restriction or deprivation leads to increased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and elevated glucocorticoids in rodent models, but whether birds exact similar costs is unknown. In this study, we examined whether zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), an avian model species, exhibits physiological costs of sleep loss by using a novel automated sleep fragmentation/deprivation method, wherein a horizontal wire sweeps across a test cage to disrupt sleep every 120 s. Read More

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December 2018
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Hair cortisol concentration in a population without hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis disorders.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Poland.

Background: Measuring hair cortisol seems to be a good alternative to laboratory tests used thus far in routine endocrine diagnostics, primarily because it is independent of the circadian rhythm of cortisol. Due to the average hair growth of 1 cm per month, the results are related to the average blood cortisol levels over the previous weeks, months or years (depending on the length of the hair sample).

Objectives: The aim of this study is an attempt to apply hair cortisol concentration (HCC) measurements to clinical endocrine diagnostics, based on reference cortisol concentrations in the blood in a population without disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Read More

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December 2018

Transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas: early results from a single center.

Hormones (Athens) 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Endocrinology, Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Via Solaroli 17, 28100, Novara, Italy.

Objective: To evaluate early results of transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas.

Design: Retrospective evaluation of 90 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic pituitary adenoma surgery (2007-2016) at "Maggiore della Carità" Hospital in Novara, Italy. Age at diagnosis, sex, symptoms at presentation, hormonal and radiological data, complications of surgery, and short-term follow-up information were collected. Read More

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December 2018

Pediatric Adrenal Insufficiency: Diagnosis, Management, and New Therapies.

Int J Pediatr 2018 1;2018:1739831. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital/The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Adrenal insufficiency may result from a wide variety of congenital or acquired disorders of hypothalamus, pituitary, or adrenal cortex. Destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex is the cause of primary adrenal insufficiency, while secondary adrenal insufficiency is a result of pituitary or hypothalamic disease. Timely diagnosis and clinical management of adrenal insufficiency are critical to prevent morbidity and mortality. Read More

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November 2018
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Depletion of Tissue-Specific Ion Transporters Causes Differential Expression of PRL Targets in Response to Increased Levels of Endogenous PRL.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 20;9:683. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Prolactin (PRL) has been considered a key regulator of ion uptake in zebrafish. The genes and , which are Na and chloride Cl co-transporters, have been reported to be regulated by PRL in freshwater fish. The integrative network of PRL signaling dissected from the knockout of tissue-specific downstream PRL ion transporters remains poor. Read More

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November 2018
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Age related signal changes of the pituitary stalk on thin-slice magnetic resonance imaging in infants.

Brain Dev 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Isehara 259-1193, Japan.

Purpose: Signals of some brain regions change along with development in T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) in infants. This study aimed to assess the association of the signal intensity of the pituitary stalk on thin-slice T1WI with infant age.

Methods: This retrospective study was performed in 89 infants (gestational age [GA], 25-41 weeks; postmenstrual age [PMA], 36-46 weeks; chronological age [CA], 4-141 days) without intracranial abnormalities. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) on sex-dependent alterations of thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Nov 30;170:25-32. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been widely used as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers for fire prevention. OPFRs are suspected of causing potential thyroid disruption in humans. In fish, their thyroid hormone modulation is reported but the mechanisms of this modulation are less understood. Read More

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November 2018

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Elicits Neuroprotection Against Acute Ischemic Neuronal Cell Death Associated with NMDA Receptors.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 4;51(4):1982-1995. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair, Department of Neurosurgery and Brain Repair, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida,

Background/aims: The endogenous neurotrophic peptides pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAP-27/38) protect against stroke, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown.

Methods: Primary rat neural cells were exposed to PACAP-27 or PACAP-38 before induction of experimental acute ischemic stroke via oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD/R) injury. To reveal PACAP's role in neuroprotection, we employed fluorescent live/dead cell viability and caspase 3 assays, optical densitometry of mitochondrial dehydrogenase and cell growth, glutathione disulfide luciferase activity, ELISA for high mobility group box1 extracellular concentration, ATP bioluminescence, Western blot analysis of PACAP, NMDA subunits, apoptosis regulator Bcl-2, social interaction hormone oxytocin, and trophic factor BDNF, and immunocytochemical analysis of PACAP. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Childhood urbanicity and hair steroid hormone levels in ten-year-old children.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Nov 29;102:53-57. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University, Montessorilaan 3, 6525 HR, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Research suggests that it may be more stressful for children to grow up in an urban area than in a rural area. Urbanicity may affect physiological stress system functioning as well as the timing of sexual maturation. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether moderate urbanicity (current and childhood, ranging from rural areas to small cities) was associated with indices of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis functioning (cortisol, cortisone, dehydroepiandrosterone and progesterone levels) and whether sex moderated any associations. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

The association of potential stressors with hair steroids in parents with small children: The Ulm SPATZ health study.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 Nov 23;102:37-43. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

Previous studies have reported weak associations between questionnaire-based stress measurements and hair steroids. A stronger relationship may exist in highly stressed subpopulations or with stress brought up by novel or unpredictable situations. In the Ulm SPATZ Health Study, conducted in Ulm, Germany, baseline recruitment 04/2012 to 05/2013, we analyzed data of families enrolled shortly after childbirth. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Research on establishment of chronic stress-induced premature ovarian failure rat model and effects of Chinese medicine Munziqi treatment.

Mol Reprod Dev 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Biology, school of medicine, Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

The purposes of this study were to establish and to explore the biological basis of the chronic stress induced premature ovarian failure (POF) model, also to explore the therapeutic effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Munziq. Sexually matured female SD rats were fed with spinach and cilantro in cold and wet conditions for about 20 weeks, until a chronic stress (CS) model was established. CS rats were divided into POF stress model group and stress model group according to weekly biological characteristics and hormone level detection (LH, FSF and E2). Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Demographic Characterization of Patients Enrolled in the China Pituitary Disease Register Network.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Dec;131(23):2871-2873

Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.

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December 2018
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress transdifferentiation of gonadotrophs to prolactin cells and proliferation of prolactin cells induced by diethylstilbestrol in male mouse pituitary.

Histochem Cell Biol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, 852-8523, Japan.

Diethylstilbestrol (DES), an estrogen agonist, increases prolactin (PRL) cells through transdifferentiation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) cells to PRL cells as well as proliferation of PRL cells in adult male mouse pituitary. Since hyperacetylation of histone H3 is implicated in the regulation of activation of various genes, we examined the effect of DES on the state of histone H3 acetylation. DES significantly reduced the immunohistochemical signal for acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) in PRL, LH and FSH cells, but not for H3K18ac or H3K23ac. Read More

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December 2018

Suprasellar Epidermoid Cyst Originating from the Infundibulum: Case Report and Literature Review.

Cureus 2018 Aug 29;10(8):e3226. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Neurological Surgery, George Washington University, Washington DC, USA.

Epidermoid cysts account for a small fraction of intracranial brain tumors, most commonly found in the cerebellopontine angle and parasellar cisterns. Here we present a rare case of an epidermoid cyst located in the suprasellar region, specifically originating from the infundibulum. Only one additional case with an epidermoid cyst originating within the pituitary stalk has been previously reported in the literature. Read More

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Decreased Pituitary Height and Stunted Linear Growth After Radiotherapy in Survivors of Childhood Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cases.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 19;9:643. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Department of Cancer Prevention, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China.

To examine the morphological changes of the pituitary glands and linear growth of childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cases who accepted radiotherapy. A total of 90 children (i.e. Read More

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November 2018
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Immunohistochemical Study of the Laminin α5 Chain and Its Specific Receptor, Basal Cell Adhesion Molecule (BCAM), in both Fetal and Adult Rat Pituitary Glands.

Acta Histochem Cytochem 2018 Oct 13;51(5):145-152. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Division of Histology and Cell Biology, Department of Anatomy, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Tochigi, Japan.

Laminin, a major basement membrane protein, comprises three subunit chains: α, β, and γ chains. Among these chains, only the laminin α chain is capable of signaling via laminin receptors. Although laminin isoforms containing the α5 chain were reported to be the first laminin produced during rat anterior pituitary gland development, the functions of these isoforms are unknown. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads