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    Risk factors and the prognosis of sexual dysfunction in male patients with pituitary adenomas: a multivariate analysis.
    Asian J Androl 2017 Aug 11. Epub 2017 Aug 11.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100050, China.
    The impact of sexual dysfunction (SD) is distressing to many male patients with pituitary adenomas which affect both physical and psychological health. The research explored to identify risk factors affecting sexual function and the prognosis of male patients with pituitary adenomas. Two hundred and fifty-four male patients, who aged between 18 and 60 (mean ± s. Read More

    Long-term treatment outcomes of acromegaly patients presenting biochemically-uncontrolled at a tertiary pituitary center.
    BMC Endocr Disord 2017 Aug 4;17(1):49. Epub 2017 Aug 4.
    Pituitary Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd, Los Angeles, CA, 90048, USA.
    Background: Acromegaly is a rare, slowly progressive disorder resulting from excessive growth hormone (GH) production by a pituitary somatotroph tumor. The objective of this study was to examine acromegaly treatment outcomes during long-term care at a specialized pituitary center in patients presenting with lack of biochemical control.

    Methods: Data came from an acromegaly registry at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Pituitary Center (center). Read More

    Prevalence, Clinical Features, and Natural History of Incidental Clinically Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenomas.
    Horm Metab Res 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Universitario A Coruña, A Coruña, Spain.
    The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence and clinical features of incidentally discovered clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (CNFPA) and to analyze its natural history. A multicenter retrospective study in patients diagnosed with incidental CNFPA periodically followed-up in 3 specialized neuroendocrinology units from 1992 to 2015 was performed. Out of a total of 189 CNFPA patients, 57 cases (30. Read More

    Radiological Growth Patterns of Prolactinomas and Nonfunctioning Adenomas.
    Can J Neurol Sci 2017 Jul 3:1-6. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism,Dalhousie University,Halifax,Nova Scotia,Canada.
    Objectives: To compare growth patterns of nonfunctioning and prolactin-producing pituitary macroadenomas, and to find whether their specific growth patterns are associated with clinically significant effects on vision.

    Materials And Methods: From our comprehensive provincial neuropituitary registry, we retrospectively identified 35 randomly selected patients each with nonfunctioning adenomas and prolactinomas >10 mm in any dimension. MRI scans were analyzed to determine the superior and inferior growth, volume, and maximum craniocaudal height of the adenomas. Read More

    Prolactinomas diagnosed in the postmenopausal period: Clinical phenotype and outcomes.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Jun 19. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Objective: Most prolactinomas in females are diagnosed during the reproductive age, and the majority are microadenomas. Prolactinomas detected in the postmenopausal period are less common with limited published data on their presentation and prognosis. Our objective was to assess the presenting clinical, biochemical and imaging findings, as well as the outcomes of women diagnosed with a prolactinoma in the postmenopausal period. Read More

    Cavernous Sinus Involvement by Pituitary Adenomas: Clinical Implications and Outcomes of Endoscopic Endonasal Resection.
    J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2017 Jun 23;78(3):273-282. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States.
    Background  Parasellar invasion of pituitary adenomas (PAs) into the cavernous sinus (CS) is common. The management of the CS component of PA remains controversial. Objective  The objective of this study was to analyze CS involvement in PA treated with endoscopic endonasal approaches, including incidence, surgical risks, surgical strategies, long-term outcomes, and our treatment algorithm. Read More

    Long term follow-up of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas submitted to endoscopic endonasal surgery.
    Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 May;75(5):301-306
    Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Santa Casa de São Paulo, Departamento de Otorrinolaringologia São Paulo SP, Brasil.
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the endoscopic transsphenoidal technique for growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis based on medical records of 23 acromegalic patients submitted to endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. Biochemical control was defined as basal GH < 1ng/ml, nadir GH < 0. Read More

    Acromegaly: surgical results in 548 patients.
    Pituitary 2017 Jun 6. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Neurosurgery Department, Puerta de Hierro Hospital, Madrid, Spain.
    Purpose: The goal of this study was to quantified the results of microsurgery, in all the patients with acromegaly treated by the same endocrinologist and the same surgeon between 1975 and 2015.

    Methods: A series of 548 patients with acromegaly were operated and followed-up from 6 months to 40 years. Patients were selected according to five criteria: (1) Operated by the same surgeon. Read More

    Korsakoff syndrome from retrochiasmatic suprasellar lesions: rapid reversal after relief of cerebral compression in 4 cases.
    J Neurosurg 2017 Jun 2:1-6. Epub 2017 Jun 2.
    Departments of 1 Neurosurgery and.
    Korsakoff syndrome is a chronic memory disorder caused by a severe deficiency of thiamine that is most commonly observed in alcoholics. However, some have proposed that focal structural lesions disrupting memory circuits-in particular, the mammillary bodies, the mammillothalamic tract, and the anterior thalamus-can give rise to this amnestic syndrome. Here, the authors present 4 patients with reversible Korsakoff syndromes caused by suprasellar retrochiasmatic lesions compressing the mammillary bodies and adjacent caudal hypothalamic structures. Read More

    Loss-of-function mutations in the CABLES1 gene are a novel cause of Cushing's disease.
    Endocr Relat Cancer 2017 Aug 22;24(8):379-392. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Section on Endocrinology and GeneticsEunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    The CABLES1 cell cycle regulator participates in the adrenal-pituitary negative feedback, and its expression is reduced in corticotropinomas, pituitary tumors with a largely unexplained genetic basis. We investigated the presence of CABLES1 mutations/copy number variations (CNVs) and their associated clinical, histopathological and molecular features in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Samples from 146 pediatric (118 germline DNA only/28 germline and tumor DNA) and 35 adult (tumor DNA) CD patients were screened for CABLES1 mutations. Read More

    Perioperative hypothalamic pituitary adrenal function in patients with silent corticotroph adenomas.
    Pituitary 2017 Aug;20(4):471-476
    Division of Clinical and Molecular Endocrinology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.
    Background: Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCAs) are characterized by strong ACTH immunostaining without clinical manifestations of hypercortisolism. Patients with SCAs often present with mechanical symptoms related to tumor growth. This study investigates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) characteristics after adenomectomy in patients with SCAs. Read More

    Preliminary experience with 4K ultra-high definition endoscope: analysis of pros and cons in skull base surgery.
    Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2017 Jun;37(3):237-241
    Institute of Otorhinolaryngology, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy.
    During the last two decades endoscopic skull base surgery observed a continuous technical and technological development 3D endoscopy and ultra High Definition (HD) endoscopy have provided great advances in terms of visualisation and spatial resolution. Ultra-high definition (UHD) 4K systems, recently introduced in the clinical practice, will shape next steps forward especially in skull base surgery field. Patients were operated on through transnasal transsphenoidal endoscopic approaches performed using Olympus NBI 4K UHD endoscope with a 4 mm 0° Ultra Telescope, 300 W xenon lamp (CLV-S400) predisposed for narrow band imaging (NBI) technology connected through a camera head to a high-quality control unit (OTV-S400 - VISERA 4K UHD) (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Read More

    Different patterns of gelatinolytic activity in pituitary macro- and microadenomas.
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017 Jul 4;158:90-92. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki 4, 20-093 Lublin, PL, Poland. Electronic address:
    Objective: Gelatinases, Matrix MetalloProteinase(MMP)-2 and MMP-9, belong to zinc-dependent endopeptidases involved in several physiological and pathological processes including inflammation and tumor development. Because the information about the involvement of gelatinases in pituitary adenoma (PA) development are scant, our objective was the analysis of MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in serum and tumor tissue of PA patients.

    Patients And Methods: Twenty one patients with PA (macroadenoma n=18, microadenoma n=3), qualified to the endoscopic resection of tumors were enrolled. Read More

    Role of High-Resolution Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI with Golden-Angle Radial Sparse Parallel Reconstruction to Identify the Normal Pituitary Gland in Patients with Macroadenomas.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2017 Jun 11;38(6):1117-1121. Epub 2017 May 11.
    From the New York University School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York.
    Background And Purpose: Preoperative localization of the pituitary gland with imaging in patients with macroadenomas has been inadequately explored. The pituitary gland enhancing more avidly than a macroadenoma has been described in the literature. Taking advantage of this differential enhancement pattern, our aim was to evaluate the role of high-resolution dynamic MR imaging with golden-angle radial sparse parallel reconstruction in localizing the pituitary gland in patients undergoing trans-sphenoidal resection of a macroadenoma. Read More

    AIP mutations and gigantism.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2017 Jun 5;78(2):123-130. Epub 2017 May 5.
    Department of Endocrinology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, University of Liège, Domaine Universitaire du Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Electronic address:
    AIP mutations are rare in sporadic acromegaly but they are seen at a higher frequency among certain specific populations of pituitary adenoma patients (pituitary gigantism cases, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindreds, and patients with macroadenomas who are diagnosed ≤30 years). AIP mutations are most prevalent in patients with pituitary gigantism (29% of this group were found to have mutations in AIP gene). These data support targeted genetic screening for AIP mutations/deletions in these groups of pituitary adenoma patients. Read More

    Younger age is a risk factor for regrowth and recurrence of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas: Results from a single Australian centre.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Sep 31;87(3):264-271. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Department of Endocrinology & Diabetes, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Objective: The natural history of nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPMA) after surgical resection is variable, with guidelines unable to define the duration of radiological follow-up. In this first Australian series, we identify risk factors for regrowth/recurrence of NFPMA to assist with guiding recommendations for long-term follow-up.

    Design: Retrospective analysis of all radiotherapy-naïve cases with NFPMA resected between 1995 and 2013. Read More

    Outcome of Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery for Acromegaly.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Aug 29;104:272-278. Epub 2017 Apr 29.
    Pituitary Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:
    Objective: Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has recently been introduced in pituitary surgery. We investigated outcomes and complications of endoscopic surgery in 2 referral centers in Korea.

    Methods: We enrolled 134 patients with acromegaly (microadenomas, n = 15; macroadenomas, n = 119) who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at Seoul National University Hospital (n = 74) and Samsung Medical Center (n = 60) between January 2009 and March 2016. Read More

    Non-functioning pituitary adenoma underwent surgery: A multicenter retrospective study over the last four decades (1977-2015).
    Eur J Intern Med 2017 Jun 25;41:62-67. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Universitario de Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain.
    Objective: To assess clinical features, diagnostic procedures, therapies and outcomes in patients with clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) surgically treated over the last four decades.

    Design And Methods: A multicenter retrospective study in NFPA patients periodically followed up in specialized neuroendocrinology units who underwent surgery in the period 1977-2015 was performed.

    Results: A total of 131 patients were studied [66 women (50. Read More

    Transcriptome Analysis Showed a Differential Signature between Invasive and Non-invasive Corticotrophinomas.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 22;8:55. Epub 2017 Mar 22.
    Laboratory of Hormones and Molecular Genetics LIM-42, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil; Endocrinology Service, AC Cancer Center, São Paulo, Brazil.
    ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism caused by a pituitary adenoma [Cushing's disease (CD)] is the most common cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. CD is often associated with several morbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis/bone fractures, secondary infections, and increased cardiovascular mortality. While the majority (≈80%) of the corticotrophinomas visible on pituitary magnetic resonance imaging are microadenomas (MICs, <10 mm of diameter), some tumors are macroadenomas (MACs, ≥10 mm) with increased growth potential and invasiveness, exceptionally exhibiting malignant demeanor. Read More

    Long-Term Endocrine Outcomes Following Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery for Acromegaly and Associated Prognostic Factors.
    Neurosurgery 2017 Mar 29. Epub 2017 Mar 29.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.
    Background: Long-term remission rates from endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly and their relationship to prognostic indicators of disease aggressiveness are not well documented.

    Objective: To investigate long-term remission rates in patients with acromegaly after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, and correlate this with molecular and radiographic markers of disease aggressiveness.

    Methods: We identified all patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly from 2005 to 2013 at Cedars-Sinai Pituitary Center. Read More

    Operative Strategies to Minimize Complications Following Resection of Pituitary Macroadenomas.
    J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2017 Apr 7;78(2):184-190. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
    Introduction We sought to identify factors associated with increased length of stay (LOS) and morbidity in patients undergoing resection of pituitary macroadenomas. Methods We reviewed records of 203 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal resection of a pituitary macroadenoma (mean age = 55.7 [16-88]) years, volume = 11. Read More

    Efficacy of transsphenoidal surgery in achieving biochemical cure of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas among patients with cavernous sinus invasion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Neurol Res 2017 May 16;39(5):387-398. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    a Department of Pharmaceutical Business and Administrative Sciences , MCPHS University , Boston , MA , USA.
    Objectives: Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas in adults can result in severe craniofacial disfigurement and potentially fatal medical complications. Surgical resection leading to remission of the disease is dependent on complete surgical resection of the tumor. Lesions that invade the cavernous sinus may not be safely accessible via an endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), and the rates of biochemical remission of patients with residual disease vary widely in the literature. Read More

    Surgical outcomes in patients with Cushing's disease: the Cleveland clinic experience.
    Pituitary 2017 Aug;20(4):430-440
    Department of Neurosurgery, the Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.
    Context: Transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) to resect a pituitary adenoma is considered first-line treatment for patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Early, post-operative remission rates >80% are expected for patients with a microadenoma (≤ 10 mm) visible on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.

    Objective: To report surgical outcomes and predictors of remission in a specialist center for patients with CD. Read More

    Does Low-Field Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Improve the Results of Endoscopic Pituitary Surgery? Experience of the Implementation of a New Device in a Referral Center.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Jun 27;102:102-110. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Objective: To assess the contribution of low-field intraoperative magnetic resonance (iMRI) to endoscopic pituitary surgery.

    Methods: We analyzed a prospective series of patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal surgery for pituitary macroadenomas assisted with a low-field iMRI (PoleStarN30, 0.15 T [Medtronic]). Read More

    [Treatment effects analysis of preoperative long-acting somatostatin analogs combined trans-sphenoidal endoscopic surgery for patients with growth hormone secreting pituitary macroadenomas].
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2017 Feb;97(5):375-379
    Department of neurosurgery and Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing 100730, China.
    Objective: To evaluate the treatment effects of preoperative long-acting somatostatin analogue (SSA) combined trans-sphenoidal endoscopic surgery for patients with growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary macroadenomas. Methods: Retrospective analysis was carried out on 20 patients with GH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas who were treated with preoperative SSA and trans-sphenoidal endoscopic surgery in our apartment from January 2010 to January 2016. We also selected 20 patients with only trans-sphenoidal endoscopic surgery treatment and 20 patients with preoperative SSA and non-trans-sphenoidal endoscopic surgery treatment. Read More

    Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism in Non-Functioning Pituitary Adenomas: Impact of Intervention.
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2017 Jun 15;125(6):368-376. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Centro Hospitalar S. João, Faculty of Medicine - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde University of Porto,Portugal.
    To determine the prevalence of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) among patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) and the post-surgery outcome on pituitary gonadotropins secretion (PGS); to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) on male patients with NFPA, to evaluate the impact of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in those with HH. Retrospective evaluation of gonadal function in 109 NFPA patients (45 males), with a mean age of 51.8 years, diagnosed on the last 10 years. Read More

    Endoscopic Endonasal Versus Microscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery for Recurrent and/or Residual Pituitary Adenomas.
    World Neurosurg 2017 May 6;101:186-195. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York, USA; Department of Otolaryngology, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York, USA.
    Objective: Surgery for recurrent/residual pituitary adenomas is increasingly being performed through endoscopic surgery. Whether this new technology has altered the indications and outcomes of surgery is unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to compare the indications and outcomes between microscopic and endoscopic approaches. Read More

    Diagnosis and Treatment of Pituitary Adenomas: A Review.
    JAMA 2017 Feb;317(5):516-524
    Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Molecular Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
    Importance: Pituitary adenomas may hypersecrete hormones or cause mass effects. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important.

    Observations: Prevalence of pituitary adenomas ranges from 1 in 865 adults to 1 in 2688 adults. Read More

    Efficacy of Microsurgical Sublabial Approach (MSA) Versus Endoscopic Endonasal Approach (EEA) for the Treatment of Pituitary Adenomas Based on Radiological and Hormonal Outcome.
    Acta Neurochir Suppl 2017 ;124:101-106
    Institute of Neurosurgery, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy.
    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical efficacy of the microsurgical sublabial approach (MSA) versus the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for the treatment of pituitary adenomas, based on short-term (12 months) radiological and endocrinological follow-up.

    Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients affected by pituitary adenoma were enrolled at our Unit between January 2007 and February 2012; 72 were treated with MSA, and 42 with EEA. The preoperative parameters considered were: type of lesion (secreting or nonsecreting), lesion size, presence of intralesional hemorrhage, lesion perimeter (nodular vs. Read More

    Clinical Features, Management Considerations and Outcomes in Case Series of Patients with Parasellar Intracranial Aneurysms Undergoing Anterior Skull Base Surgery.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Mar 10;99:424-432. Epub 2016 Dec 10.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
    Background: The coincidence of parasellar aneurysms (IAs) and anterior skull base (ASB) lesions, while rare, presents a management challenge. IAs embedded within, or adjacent to, ASB lesions are at risk in the perioperative period and may have unique presentations, natural histories, and outcomes. The objective of this study was to outline management options and nuances in patients with coexisting IAs and ASB lesions. Read More

    Prevalence and Predictors of Overweight and Obesity in Patients with Pituitary Dysfunctions.
    Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2016 ;16(4):249-253
    University of Luebeck, Department of Medicine I, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Luebeck, Germany.
    Background: Patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders (HPD) may be of increased risk to develop overweight and obesity, thereby fostering cardiovascular events. However, it remains unclear if patients with pituitary dysfunctions per se have an increased risk of becoming obese.

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate prevalence and to identify possible predictors of overweight and obesity in patients with pituitary dysfunctions. Read More

    Vanishing Pituitary Macroadenoma: A Case Report.
    Cureus 2016 Oct 20;8(10):e838. Epub 2016 Oct 20.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center.
    Pituitary macroadenomas are the most common suprasellar lesions in adults and are typically managed surgically through transsphenoidal resection when symptomatic. Due to their close proximity to the optic chiasm, pituitary macroadenomas often present with signs of bitemporal hemianopsia. Alternatively, these tumors can cause mass effect, thus presenting with signs of elevated intracranial pressure or can present with signs and symptoms of endocrine dysfunction. Read More

    The identification of human pituitary adenoma-initiating cells.
    Acta Neuropathol Commun 2016 Nov 28;4(1):125. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    McMaster Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada.
    Classified as benign central nervous system (CNS) tumors, pituitary adenomas account for 10% of diagnosed intracranial neoplasms. Although surgery is often curative, patients with invasive macroadenomas continue to experience significant morbidity and are prone to tumor recurrence. Given the identification of human brain tumor-initiating cells (TICs) that initiate and maintain tumor growth while promoting disease progression and relapse in multiple CNS tumors, we investigated whether TICs also drive the growth of human pituitary adenomas. Read More

    Characteristics and outcome of surgically treated pituitary tumours in South Africa: a single-centre experience.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Apr 14;86(4):534-540. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Nelson R Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.
    Aims: To describe the clinical, biochemical, radiological and histological features and to determine the outcome of all patients with pituitary tumours treated surgically at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital (ILACH) in Durban over a 5-year period.

    Research Design: Retrospective chart review from 2008 to 2012. Clinical, biochemical and radiological data were collected before and 1 year after surgery. Read More

    Cabergoline and prolactinomas: lack of association between DRD2 polymorphisms and response to treatment.
    Pituitary 2017 Jun;20(3):295-300
    Neuroendocrine Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hospital das Clínicas & Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Endocrinology LIM-25, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: About 80% of prolactinomas respond to dopamine agonists (DA) with hormonal normalization and tumor shrinkage. Mechanisms of DA resistance include reduction of dopamine receptor subtype 2 (DRD2) expression, short and long isoform ratio and post-receptor mechanisms. It was suggested that polymorphisms in the gene encoding dopamine receptor subtype 2 gene (DRD2) could be associated with variable effectiveness of cabergoline (CAB). Read More

    Parasellar Extension Grades and Surgical Extent in Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery for Pituitary Adenomas : A Single Surgeon's Consecutive Series with the Aspects of Reliability and Clinical Validity.
    J Korean Neurosurg Soc 2016 Nov 24;59(6):577-583. Epub 2016 Oct 24.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.
    Objective: The inter-rater reliability of the modified Knosp's classification was measured before the analysis. The clinical validity of the parasellar extension grading system was evaluated by investigating the extents of resection and complication rates among the grades in the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) for pituitary adenomas.

    Methods: From November 2008 to August 2015, of the 286 patients who underwent EETS by the senior author, 208 were pituitary adenoma cases (146 non-functioning pituitary adenomas, 10 adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting adenomas, 31 growth hormone-secreting adenomas, 17 prolactin-secreting adenomas, and 4 thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting adenomas; 23 microadenomas, 174 macroadenomas, and 11 giant adenomas). Read More

    A novel truncating AIP mutation, p.W279*, in a familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindred.
    Hormones (Athens) 2016 07;15(3):441-444
    Section on Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
    Familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) constitute 2-3% of pituitary tumours. AIP is the most commonly mutated gene in FIPA. We herein report a novel germline mutation of the AIP gene in a family with FIPA. Read More

    Long-term complete remission of Crooke's corticotropinoma after temozolomide treatment.
    Endokrynol Pol 2016 ;67(5):526-533
    Department of Endocrinology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland.
    Introduction: Crooke's corticotropinomas are the unique cause of Cushing's disease. The majority of them are aggressive macroadenomas, refractory to conventional therapy, with a high recurrence rate. The aim of the study was the presentation, in relation to data from the literature, of a case of a patient with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome caused by recurrent Crooke's cells corticotropinoma, who achieved 33-month complete remission after treatment with temozolomide (TMZ). Read More

    Paradoxical and atypical responses to pasireotide in aggressive ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors.
    Pituitary 2016 Dec;19(6):605-611
    Institute of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Hypertension, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, 6 Weizmann Street, 64239, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Purpose: Pasireotide is the only pituitary targeted medication registered for the treatment of Cushing's disease. Drug efficacy data are largely based on a major prospective study in which the vast majority of patients had microadenomas. The purpose of this study was to summarize results of pasireotide treatment of ACTH secreting macroadenomas from our center. Read More

    Endoscopic Endonasal versus Microsurgical Transsphenoidal Approach for Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas-Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Jan 15;97:398-406. Epub 2016 Oct 15.
    Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; Department of Neurosurgery, Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: The pituitary adenoma causing acromegaly is typically resected through a transsphenoidal approach and visualized with an operating microscope or endoscope. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the clinical efficacy of endoscopic and microsurgical approaches.

    Methods: Relevant studies using either endoscopic or microscopic transsphenoidal approaches for growth hormone pituitary adenomas were identified until February 2016. Read More

    Epidemiology of acromegaly: review of population studies.
    Pituitary 2017 Feb;20(1):4-9
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, IBR Tower, Level 2, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.
    Acromegaly is a rare condition necessitating large population studies for the generation of reliable epidemiological data. In this review, we systematically analysed the epidemiological profile of this condition based on recently published population studies from various geographical areas. The total prevalence ranges between 2. Read More

    Quantitative analysis of anatomical relationship between cavernous segment internal carotid artery and pituitary macroadenoma.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Oct;95(41):e5027
    aDepartment of Neurological Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital bDepartment of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital Songshan Branch cGraduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
    Cavernous segment internal carotid artery (CSICA) injury during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary tumor is rare but fatal. The aim of this study is to investigate anatomical relationship between pituitary macroadenoma and corresponding CSICA using quantitative means with a sense to improve safety of surgery.In this retrospective study, a total of 98 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries were enrolled from 2005 to 2014. Read More

    Apparent diffusion coefficient and pituitary macroadenomas: pre-operative assessment of tumor atypia.
    Pituitary 2017 Apr;20(2):195-200
    Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, M-391, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0628, USA.
    Rationale And Objectives: Pituitary macroadenomas are predominantly benign intracranial neoplasms that can be locally aggressive with invasion of adjacent structures. Biomarkers of aggressive behavior have been identified in the pathology literature, including the proliferative marker MIB-1. In the radiology literature, diffusion weighted imaging and low ADC values provide similar markers of aggressive behavior in brain tumors. Read More

    Predictive role of dynamic contrast enhanced T1-weighted MR sequences in pre-surgical evaluation of macroadenomas consistency.
    Pituitary 2017 Apr;20(2):201-209
    Department of Neuroradiology, S. Andrea Hospital, University Sapienza, Rome, Italy.
    Purpose: Our hypothesis was that pituitary macroadenomas show different areas of consistency detectable by enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Dynamic study during gadolinium administration.

    Materials And Methods: We analysed 21 patients with pituitary macroadenomas between June 2013 and June 2015. All patients underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery and neurosurgeon described macroadenomas consistency. Read More

    The epidemiology of pituitary adenomas in a community-based hospital: a retrospective single center study in Saudi Arabia.
    Ann Saudi Med 2016 Sep-Oct;36(5):341-345
    Khalid S. Aljabri, MD, FRCPC, Department of Endocrinology,, King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital,, PO Box 6572, Jeddah 24361,, Saudi Arabia, T: 966555544919, F: 966-22-576-0665, ORCID:
    Background: Data on pituitary adenoma (PA) prevalence in Saudi Arabia are scarce.

    Objective: To estimate the epidemiology of PA in a well-defined population.

    Design: Retrospective analysis. Read More

    Landscape of Genomic Alterations in Pituitary Adenomas.
    Clin Cancer Res 2017 Apr 5;23(7):1841-1851. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
    Purpose: Pituitary adenomas are the second most common primary brain tumor, yet their genetic profiles are incompletely understood.Experimental Design: We performed whole-exome sequencing of 42 pituitary macroadenomas and matched normal DNA. These adenomas included hormonally active and inactive tumors, ones with typical or atypical histology, and ones that were primary or recurrent. Read More

    Progressive loss of vision caused by asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma: role of OCT.
    Int Med Case Rep J 2016 16;9:291-293. Epub 2016 Sep 16.
    Ophthalmology Department, Clinical University Hospital of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
    Introduction: Most pituitary adenomas are clinically inactive. In patients with long-standing compression of the optic chiasm, ganglion cells may undergo axonal degeneration. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is able to identify retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell loss in the retina. Read More

    Time Course of Resolution of Hyperprolactinemia After Transsphenoidal Surgery Among Patients Presenting with Pituitary Stalk Compression.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Jan 23;97:2-7. Epub 2016 Sep 23.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Background: Primary lactotroph disinhibition, or stalk effect, occurs when mechanical compression of the pituitary stalk disrupts the tonic inhibition by dopamine released by the hypothalamus. The resolution of pituitary stalk effect-related hyperprolactinemia postoperatively has not been studied in a large cohort of patients. We performed a retrospective review to investigate the time course of recovery of lactotroph disinhibition after transsphenoidal surgery. Read More

    [Hyperprolactinemia: unusual association between peripheral hypothyroidism and microprolactinoma].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 10;24:41. Epub 2016 May 10.
    Service d'Endocrinologie Diabétologie et Maladies Métaboliques, Hopital Arrazi, CHU Mohamed VI, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Université Cadi Ayad, Marrakech, Maroc.
    We report a rare case of hyperprolactinemia revealing the association between peripheral hypothyroidism and prolactin pituitary macroadenomas. The patient was a 43-year old woman, presenting with spontaneous bilateral galactorrhea over a period of 1 year. Hyperprolactinemia was confirmed and etiologic investigation revealed peripheral hypothyroidism secondary to autoimmune thyroiditis. Read More

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