79,893 results match your criteria Pituitary Gland


Cushing's disease in children: unique features and update on genetics.

Pituitary 2022 Jun 24. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Human Genetics & Precision Medicine, FORTH & ELPEN Research Institute, Heraklion & Athens, Greece.

In this brief report, we review the unique characteristics of Cushing disease (CD) in children, as well as the most important new genetic discoveries associated with childhood CD. We often forget it, but CD refers to Cushing syndrome caused by pituitary corticotroph adenomas only. Thus, here we only refer to the new discoveries associated with pituitary tumors. Read More

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Ectopic TSH-secreting Pituitary Adenoma in Nasopharyngeal Region.

Acta Endocrinol (Buchar) 2021 Oct-Dec;17(4):521-527

Department of Radiology, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Meram, Konya, "Pamukkale" University, Faculty of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey.

Objective: TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSH-omas) are very rare disorders. This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of a thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting ectopic pituitary adenoma in the nasopharyngeal region.

Subjects And Methods: We report a 37-year-old male patient with thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting ectopic pituitary adenoma in nasopharyngeal region. Read More

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Screening of Differentially Expressed Genes and miRNAs in Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland of Sheep under Different Photoperiods.

Genes (Basel) 2022 Jun 19;13(6). Epub 2022 Jun 19.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China.

The reproduction of sheep is affected by many factors such as light, nutrition and genetics. The Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is an important pathway for sheep reproduction, and changes in HPG axis-related gene expression can affect sheep reproduction. In this study, a model of bilateral ovarian removal and estrogen supplementation (OVX + E) was applied to screen differentially expressed genes and miRNAs under different photoperiods using whole transcriptome sequencing and reveal the regulatory effects of the photoperiod on the upstream tissues of the HPG axis in sheep. Read More

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Identification and Regulatory Network Analysis of Genes Related to Reproductive Performance in the Hypothalamus and Pituitary of Angus Cattle.

Genes (Basel) 2022 May 27;13(6). Epub 2022 May 27.

Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Avenue, Changchun 130062, China.

In this study, we explored the gene expression patterns of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus of Angus cows at different growth and developmental stages by deep sequencing and we identified genes that affect bovine reproductive performance to provide new ideas for improving bovine fertility in production practice. We selected three 6-month-old (weaning period), three 18-month-old (first mating period), and three 30-month-old (early postpartum) Angus cattle. The physiological status of the cows in each group was the same, and their body conformations were similar. Read More

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Characterization of the Interrenal Gland and Sexual Traits Development in -Deficient Zebrafish.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 6;13:910639. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

State key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

Unlike the Cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, member 1 (Cyp17a1), which possesses both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities involved in the steroidogenic pathway that produces androgens and estrogens, Cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, polypeptide 2 (Cyp17a2) possesses only 17α-hydroxylase activity and is known essential for the synthesis of cortisol. Besides with expressed in testes and ovaries, where the is mainly expressed, is also expressed in the interrenal gland in fish. Until now, the roles of in fish, especially in sexual traits development and hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis, are poorly studied. Read More

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Usefulness of subtraction images for accurate diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

Acta Radiol 2022 Jun 22:2841851221107344. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Gynecology and Obstetrics Department,Tehran University of Medical Science, 213474Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex Imam Hospital, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas; however, it may be associated with a relatively high false-negative rate, especially in small lesions.

Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of subtraction images for enhancing the visual detection of pituitary microadenomas.

Material And Methods: In total, 50 patients with clinically established diagnosis hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, and Cushing's disease were enrolled. Read More

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Progesterone in gender-affirming therapy of trans women.

World J Biol Chem 2022 May;13(3):66-71

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Elena Venizelou Hospital, Athens GR-11521, Greece.

Progesterone is an endogenous steroid hormone with an important role for the physiology of the female reproductive system and the mammary gland. It has additional significant actions in other tissues, such as the cardiovascular system, the central nervous system, and bones. The present article explores potential clinical implications from the addition of bioidentical progesterone to gender-affirming treatment of trans women. Read More

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Effects of Huolisu Oral Solution on Depression-Like Behavior in Rats: Neurotransmitter and HPA Axis.

Front Pharmacol 2022 2;13:893283. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Key Laboratory of Drug-Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry and Sichuan Province, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chongqing, China.

Depression is a common mental disorder, and its morbidity rate is expected to rank second among all mental disorders by 2020. Hence, traditional Chinese medicines gradually attract the attention of many researchers because of their various targets and low toxicity. Huolisu oral solution (HLS) is a Chinese medicine compound preparation, which is present in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Read More

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Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Shortly After Starting Steroid Replacement Therapy in a Patient With Adrenal Insufficiency.

Cureus 2022 May 16;14(5):e25061. Epub 2022 May 16.

Clinical Medicine, QU Health, Qatar University, Doha, QAT.

Adrenal insufficiency is a rare disorder that results from etiological factors affecting either the hypothalamic-pituitary axis or the adrenal gland itself. Studies have associated an inherently increased risk of cardiovascular events with this condition. It is treated with exogenous steroid supplementation. Read More

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A New Perspective On Regulation of Pituitary Plasticity: The network of SOX2+ve cells may coordinate responses to challenge.

Endocrinology 2022 Jun 17. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Institute of Functional Genomics, University of Montpellier, CNRS, INSERM, Montpellier, France.

Plasticity of function is required for each of the anterior pituitary endocrine axes to support alterations in the demand for hormone with physiological status and in response to environmental challenge. This plasticity is mediated at the pituitary level by a change in functional cell mass resulting from a combination of alteration in the proportion of responding cells, the amount of hormone secreted from each cell and the total number of cells within an endocrine cell population. The functional cell mass also depends on its organisation into structural and functional networks. Read More

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Surgical strategies in the treatment of MR-negative Cushing's Disease: a systematic review and treatment algorithm.

Pituitary 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 525 East 68th St., Box #99, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Purpose: Several surgical strategies have been proposed to treat MRI-negative Cushing's Disease. These include tumor removal, if identified, and if a tumor is not identified, resection of varying degrees of the pituitary gland, often guided by inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS). The relative risks and benefits of each strategy have never been compared. Read More

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Changes in the expressions of annexin A1, annexin A5, inhibin/activin subunits, and vitamin D receptor mRNAs in pituitary glands of female rats during the estrous cycle: correlation analyses among these factors.

J Vet Med Sci 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Okayama University of Science.

Pituitary gonadotropin secretion is regulated by several pituitary factors as well as GnRH and ovarian hormones. To elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of pituitary gonadotropin secretions, we observed changes in the mRNA levels of pituitary factors, namely annexin A1 (Anxa1) and Anxa5, inhibin/activin subunits, follistatin (Fst), and vitamin D receptor (Vdr), in female rat pituitary glands during the estrous cycle. Additionally, levels of LHβ subunit (Lhb), FSHβ subunit (Fshb), and GnRH receptor (Gnrh-r) mRNA were examined. Read More

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Relationship between T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent vaccines after neurotrauma; is the B-cell response preserved?

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2022 Jun 15:2088971. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: After trauma and central nervous system (CNS) injury, trauma-induced immune deficiency syndrome (TIDS) and CNS injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome (CIDS) may negatively affect responses to T-cell-dependent vaccines, such as pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) recommended after basilar fracture. This study (NCT02806284) aimed to investigate whether there after neurotrauma is a correlation between T-cell-dependent and independent vaccine responses and, thus, if B-cell activity is similarly depressed and whether the T-cell-dependent response is possible to predict.

Methods: Adult patients with basilar fracture (n = 33) and those undergoing pituitary gland surgery (n = 23) were within 10 days vaccinated with a T-cell-dependent vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and a T-cell-independent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV). Read More

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Ockham's Razor for a Retinal Lesion and Acromegaly and Breaking the Vicious Circle.

J Endocr Soc 2022 Jul 3;6(7):bvac083. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Centre for Endocrinology, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Acromegaly due to ectopic secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is rare. Treatment consists of surgical removal of the primary tumor, cytostatic therapy, "cold" or radioactive somatostatin analogue treatment, and medical therapy for acromegaly, if needed. A 53 year-old female had an ocular lesion noted on a routine optician visit, originally considered to be an ocular melanoma. Read More

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Recent advancements in the molecular biology of pituitary adenomas.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2022 Jun 14:1-12. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Neurosurgery; University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) San Francisco, CA, USA.

Introduction: Pituitary adenomas are a common and diverse group of intracranial tumors arising from the anterior pituitary that are usually slow-growing and benign, but still pose a significant healthcare burden to patients. Additionally, they are increasing in both incidence and prevalence, leading to a need for better understanding of molecular changes in the development of these tumors.

Areas Covered: A PubMed literature search was conducted using the terms 'pituitary adenoma' in combination with keywords related to secretory subtype: lactotroph, somatotroph, corticotroph, gonadotroph and null cell, in addition to their transcription factor expression: PIT1, TPIT, and SF-1. Read More

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[Pituitary apoplexy in pediatric patients: systematic review].

Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba 2022 06 6;79(2):141-145. Epub 2022 Jun 6.

Universidad de Cartagena.

Introduction: Necrosis or hemorrhage associated with pituitary tumors is an infrequent complication. The term pituitary apoplexy is related to the development of an inflammatory process that leads to irritation of the meningeal and periselar areas. Regardless of the mechanism (hemorrhage or infarction), the extent of the hemorrhage and necrosis will produce an increase in intraselar pressure which, in turn, will lead to a more or less pronounced compression of neighboring structures, thus explaining the broad spectrum clinical. Read More

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Decoding the activated stem cell phenotype of the neonatally maturing pituitary.

Elife 2022 Jun 14;11. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The pituitary represents the endocrine master regulator. In mouse, the gland undergoes active maturation immediately after birth. Here, we in detail portrayed the stem cell compartment of neonatal pituitary. Read More

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Analysis of 55 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1-associated insulinoma from a single center in China.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2022 06 13;17(1):219. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Ministry of Health, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100730, China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)-related insulinoma and their relationship with specific biochemical changes and to summarize the features of treatment options for the Chinese population with this disease and the impact on long-term prognosis.

Methods: "MEN1" and "insulinoma" were used when searching the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) medical record retrieval system to obtain clinical information about patients. We identified patients diagnosed with MEN1-associated insulinoma based on endocrinological, radiological, and pathological examinations, and subsequently analyzed their clinical data. Read More

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Top Ten Tips Palliative Care Clinicians Should Know About Managing Immune-Mediated Endocrine Toxicities in Cancer.

J Palliat Med 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), such as PD-1/PDL-1 and CTLA-4, have become widely used in the treatment of solid and hematological malignancies; their use and side effects are increasingly seen in the palliative care (PC) population. These drugs can result in immune-mediated endocrinopathies; the thyroid is the most common endocrine gland affected, but the pituitary, adrenals, and pancreas may be affected as well. Symptoms may be insidious and nonspecific. Read More

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Electron microscopic study on the effect of chronic fluoxetine treatment on pituitary gland and the possible therapeutic effect of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in adult male albino rats.

Ultrastruct Pathol 2022 Jun 13:1-14. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Department of Medical Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

Background: Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have therapeutic potential for the treatment of a variety of disorders due to their self-renewal and multipotential differentiation capabilities.

Aim Of The Work: This study was planned to demonstrate the electron microscopic structure of the pituitary gland after chronic fluoxetine treatment and the possible therapeutic effect of ADSCs.

Materials And Methods: Thirty healthy male adult albino rats were classified into Control group (Group I). Read More

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Epidemiology of Cancer Among Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Compared to The General Population.

Gulf J Oncolog 2022 May;1(39):7-15

The Medicine Department, MOHAP, Dubai, UAE.

Background: Kidney disease has a major effect on global health, both as direct cause of morbidity and mortality and as an important factor for other comorbid diseases including malignancy. Different studies report a higher risk of cancer development in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the impact of less sever CKD on risk of cancer is uncertain. However, data concerning the cancer risk in Oman CKD including dialysis patients is scarce. Read More

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Multiple high-grade and rare immune-related adverse events in a colon cancer patient with genomic and cytokine profiling.

Immunotherapy 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

We report a case of multiple high-grade and rare immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in a patient with microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). A middle-aged MSI-H mCRC patient with metastases to the lungs and lymph nodes received several lines of chemotherapy and immunotherapy and developed five different high-grade irAEs during immunotherapy, including lymphadenitis, pneumonitis, hypophysitis, thyroiditis and transverse myelitis. Genomic profiling revealed high tumor mutational burden of 43 Muts/Mb. Read More

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Differentiation of stem progenitor CD9/SOX2-positive cells is promoted with increased prolactin-producing and endothelial cells in the pituitary.

J Reprod Dev 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Laboratory of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Health Sciences, Kyorin University, Tokyo 181-8612, Japan.

Sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2)-positive cells are stem/progenitor cells in the adenohypophysis, comprising the anterior and intermediate lobes (AL and IL, respectively). The cells are located in the marginal cell layer (MCL) facing Rathke's cleft (primary niche) and the parenchyma of the AL (secondary niche). We previously demonstrated in vitro that the tetraspanin superfamily CD9 and SOX2 double-positive (CD9/SOX2-positive) cells in the IL-side MCL migrate to the AL side and differentiate into hormone-producing and endothelial cells in the AL parenchyma. Read More

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Seasonality of prolactin in birds and mammals.

J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol 2022 Jun 10. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health & Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

In most animals, annual rhythms in environmental cues and internal programs regulate seasonal physiology and behavior. Prolactin, an evolutionarily ancient hormone, serves as a molecular correlate of seasonal timing in most species. Prolactin is highly pleiotropic with a wide variety of well-documented physiological effects; in a seasonal context prolactin is known to regulate annual changes in pelage and molt. Read More

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Hidden disability: a study of the psychosocial impact of living with pituitary conditions.

Br J Nurs 2022 Jun;31(11):590-597

Patient Support Manager, The Pituitary Foundation, Bristol.

Background: Pituitary patients often experience psychosocial symptoms associated with their condition.

Aims: To explore the condition management experiences of pituitary patients and their psychosocial symptoms and to explore the impact of these on quality of life.

Methods: A sample of 748 individuals aged 18 to more than 65 years) completed a questionnaire relating to quality of life and the psychosocial impact of pituitary conditions. Read More

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Protocol for isolating adult pituitary stem/progenitor cells in mice.

STAR Protoc 2022 Jun 3;3(2):101420. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Laboratory of Veterinary Biochemistry, Joint Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-minami, Tottori-shi, Tottori 680-8553, Japan.

Hormone-producing cells in the anterior lobe (AL) of the pituitary gland are important for growth and reproduction, but it has been challenging to isolate their source: the pituitary stem/progenitor cells. Here, we present a protocol for isolating adult pituitary stem/progenitor cells (APSCs) in mice. We describe dissociation and culture of AL cells, followed by the assessments of stemness marker expression and the differentiation capacity. Read More

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Integrating genome-wide association study and pathway analysis reveals physiological aspects affecting heifer early calving defined at different ages in Nelore cattle.

Genomics 2022 Jun 4;114(4):110395. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV) - Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Via de Acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castelane, Jaboticabal, SP, 14884-900, Brazil.; National Council for Science and Technological Development (CNPq), Brasilia -, DF, 71605-001, Brazil.. Electronic address:

Heifer early calving (HC) plays a key role in beef cattle herds' economic sustainability and profitability by reducing production costs and generation intervals. However, the genetic basis of HC in Nelore heifers at different ages remains to be well understood. In this study, we aimed to perform a multi-trait weighted single-step genome-wide association (MT w-ssGWAS) to uncover the genetic mechanism involved in HC at 24 (HC24), 26 (HC26), 28 (HC28), and 30 (HC30) months of age in Nelore heifers. Read More

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Pituitary Stalk Thickening: Causes and Consequences. The Children's Memorial Health Institute Experience and Literature Review.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 20;13:868558. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Pathology, Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Pituitary stalk thickening (PST) is a rare abnormality in the pediatric population. Its etiology is heterogeneous. The aim of the study was to identify important clinical, radiological and endocrinological manifestations of patients with PST and follow the course of the disease. Read More

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Case Report: Adrenocortical Oncocytoma in a Patient with a Previous Contralateral Adrenalectomy for a Cortisol-Secreting Adenoma.

Front Surg 2022 19;9:897967. Epub 2022 May 19.

Endocrinology, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences 'Mario Serio', University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Background: Oncocytomas are uncommon benign tumors that arise in various organs and are predominantly composed of oncocytes. Adrenocortical oncocytomas are extremely rare and are generally non-functioning.

Methods: We report the case of a 40-year-old patient with a progressively enlarging left adrenal mass. Read More

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Evaluating diagnostic accuracy and determining optimal diagnostic thresholds of different approaches to [Ga]-DOTATATE PET/MRI analysis in patients with meningioma.

Sci Rep 2022 Jun 3;12(1):9256. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine, 525 E. 68th St., New York, NY, 10021, USA.

Multiple approaches with [Ga]-DOTATATE, a somatostatin analog PET radiotracer, have demonstrated clinical utility in evaluation of meningioma but have not been compared directly. Our purpose was to compare diagnostic performance of different approaches to quantitative brain [Ga]-DOTATATE PET/MRI analysis in patients with suspected meningioma recurrence and to establish the optimal diagnostic threshold for each method. Patients with suspected meningioma were imaged prospectively with [Ga]-DOTATATE brain PET/MRI. Read More

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