76,902 results match your criteria Pituitary Gland


Multiorgan toxicity induced by EtOH extract of Fructus Psoraleae in Wistar rats.

Phytomedicine 2019 Feb 25;58:152874. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, PR China; Engineering Research Center of Shanghai Colleges for TCM New Drug Discovery, Shanghai 201203, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: The fruits of Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fructus Psoraleae, FP) has a long history and a wide range of applications in the treatment of osteoporosis and leukoderma. Although it is well known that FP could cause hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity, less is known about its potential toxicity on multiple organs. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09447113193004
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2019.152874DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Clinical manifestations, evaluation and management of hyperprolactinemia in adolescent and young girls: a brief review.

Acta Biomed 2019 Jan 23;90(1):149-157. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Venizeleio General Hospital, Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

Hyperprolactinemia (HPrl) is considered as a rare endocrinopathy in childhood. In children and adolescent girls, there are three major categories of HPrl causes; physiological, pathological and iatrogenic. Through hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, prolactin hypersecretion and production leads to the typical functional syndrome which is observed in female children and adolescents; delayed puberty, primary or secondary amenorrhea and/or galactorrhea. Read More

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http://www.mattioli1885journals.com/index.php/actabiomedica/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v90i1.8142DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Endoscopic Endonasal Transpituitary Gland Approach for Resection of Dorsum Sellae Meningioma - Technical Case Report.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Japan.

Background And Importance: Access to a dorsum sellae meningioma is difficult. A transcranial approach, such as a pterional, subtemporal, or transpetrosal method, often requires significant brain retraction and crossing of cranial nerves to access this region. We present here a successful purely endoscopic endonasal transpituitary gland approach for resection of a growing dorsum sellae meningioma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opz021DOI Listing

A microarray-based comparative analysis of gene expression profiles in thyroid glands in amphibian metamorphosis: differences in effects between chemical exposure and food restriction.

J Appl Toxicol 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Bioscience Research Laboratory, Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., 3-1-98 Kasugade-naka, Konohana-ku, Osaka City, Osaka, 554-8558, Japan.

Tadpoles during metamorphosis are sensitive to chemical exposure as shown in the amphibian metamorphosis assay, which is a method to detect effects of chemicals on the functions of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. The present study reports existence of different modes of action between pyriproxyfen (PYR) and 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) under different feeding conditions based on gene expression profiles (transcriptomics) in the thyroid glands of tadpoles of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis. PTU and PYR were exposed to the tadpoles during metamorphosis under normal (fed groups, both of PTU and PRY) and restricted feeding (fasted groups, PTU only) conditions; and effects were compared to control groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jat.3791DOI Listing

GnRH-1 Neural Migration From the Nose to the Brain Is Independent From Slit2, Robo3 and NELL2 Signaling.

Front Cell Neurosci 2019 1;13:70. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, University at Albany, Albany, NY, United States.

Gonadotropin releasing hormone-1 (GnRH-1) neurons play a pivotal role in controlling pubertal onset and fertility once they reach their hypothalamic location. During embryonic development, GnRH-1 neurons migrate from the nasal area to the hypothalamus where they modulate gonadotropin release from the pituitary gland. Defective migration of the GnRH-1 neurons to the brain, lack of GnRH-1 secretion or signaling cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), a pathology characterized by delayed or absence of puberty. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406018PMC

Pituitary Gland Functional Connectivity and BMI.

Front Neurosci 2019 1;13:120. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, The University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS, United States.

The pituitary gland (PG) influences body weight through hormonal releases; however, the relation between body weight and PG's co-activities with other brain regions remains unclear. Here, we aimed to identify (1) the functional connectivity of the PG and (2) PG functional connectivity associated with body mass index by examining resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Using enhanced Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample, PG functional connectivity of 494 individuals was analyzed to assess in voxel-wise fashion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405688PMC

Clinical characteristics and postoperative recovery of hypopituitarism in patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenoma.

World Neurosurg 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing 100730, China; China Pituitary Disease Registry Center, Chinese Pituitary Adenoma Cooperative Group, Beijing 100730, China; Key Laboratory of Endocrinology of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing 100730, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics of hypopituitarism and its reversibility after surgery for nonfunctional pituitary adenoma (NFPA); analyze the correlation between tumor size and hypopituitarism incidence; predict hypopituitarism by tumor volume and maximum diameter.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 164 NFPA patients who underwent surgical treatment at PUMCH from January 2016 to December 2016. Demographic, imaging and endocrine data were collected during preoperative, postoperative and long-term follow-up (21. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.03.062DOI Listing

Effects of citrate ester plasticizers and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in the OECD 28-day repeated-dose toxicity test (OECD TG 407).

Environ Res 2019 Mar 8;172:675-683. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Life Science and Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, 222, Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Citrate esters are considered functional alternatives to phthalate plasticizers, but their toxicity remains poorly understood. The toxicity of citrate esters, including triethyl 2-acetylcitrate (ATEC) and trihexyl O-acetylcitrate (ATHC), were examined together with that of bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline 407 (OECD TG407). Following 28-day oral administration, no significant differences in body weight or the weight of the brain, pituitary, heart, epididymis, seminal vesicles, or coagulating gland were found between the vehicle control and DEHP, ATEC or ATHC groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.03.004DOI Listing

Impaired EIF2S3 function associated with a novel phenotype of X-linked hypopituitarism with glucose dysregulation.

EBioMedicine 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Genetics and Genomic Medicine, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: The heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein eIF2 forms a ternary complex with initiator methionyl-tRNA and recruits it to the 40S ribosomal subunit for start codon selection and thereby initiates protein synthesis. Mutations in EIF2S3, encoding the eIF2γ subunit, are associated with severe intellectual disability and microcephaly, usually as part of MEHMO syndrome.

Methods: Exome sequencing of the X chromosome was performed on three related males with normal head circumferences and mild learning difficulties, hypopituitarism (GH and TSH deficiencies), and an unusual form of glucose dysregulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.03.013DOI Listing

Chronological Aging Standard Curves of Telomere Length and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Twelve Tissues of C57BL/6 Male Mouse.

Cells 2019 Mar 15;8(3). Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Anatomy and Convergence Medical Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 52727, Korea.

The changes in telomere length and mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) are considered to be aging markers. However, many studies have provided contradictory or only fragmentary information about changes of these markers in animal models, due to inaccurate analysis methods and a lack of objective aging standards. To establish chronological aging standards for these two markers, we analyzed telomere length and mtDNAcn in 12 tissues-leukocytes, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, retina, aorta, liver, kidney, spleen, skeletal muscle, and skin-from a commonly used rodent model, C57BL/6 male mice aged 2⁻24 months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells8030247DOI Listing
March 2019
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Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Lawsonia inermis on Aluminum-induced Oxidative Stress and Adult Wistar Rat Pituitary Gland Histology.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Anatomy, School of Health and Health Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA), Nigeria.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of aqueous Lawsonia inermis leaf extract on aluminum-induced oxidative stress and the histology of the pituitary gland of adult Wistar rats.

Methods: Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats weighing between 100-196g and 15 mice of the same weight range were included in the study. Lawsonia inermis extracts and aluminum chloride (AlCl) were administered for a period of three weeks to five rats per group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20190024DOI Listing

The Activin Social Network: Activin, Inhibin and Follistatin in Breast Development and Cancer.

Endocrinology 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.

Activins and inhibins are closely related protein heterodimers with similar tissue distribution, yet these two complexes have opposing functions in development and disease. Both are secreted cytokine hormones, with activin being the primary inducer of downstream signaling cascades and inhibin acting as a rheostat that exquisitely governs activin function. Adding to the complexity of activin signaling, follistatin, a high glycosylated monomeric protein, binds activin with high affinity, also restraining downstream pathway activation but through a mechanism distinct from that of inhibin. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/endo/advance-article/doi/10.1210/en
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2019-00015DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Optimization of Extraction Technology of Majun Mupakhi Ela and its Effect on Hydrocortisone-induced Kidney Yang Deficiency in Mice.

Sci Rep 2019 Mar 15;9(1):4628. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources and Chemistry in Arid Regions, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 830011, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

We used Box-Behnken design-based (BBD) response surface methodology (RSM) in this research to optimize the extraction process of Traditional medicine Majun Mupakhi Ela (MME) and evaluate its effect on hydrocortisone-induced kidney yang deficiency. Three independent parameters were applied to evaluate the maximum phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibition activity of MME extracts in vitro. The optimal processing conditions (extraction time 2 h, solid-liquid ratio 1:16, extraction once) gave a maximum PDE5 inhibition rate of 84. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-41006-6DOI Listing

Characteristics and relative numbers of lethal snake bite cases in medicolegal practice in central Myanmar - A five year study.

J Forensic Leg Med 2019 Apr 5;63:52-55. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

The University of Adelaide Medical School, Frome Road, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia; Forensic Science SA, 21 Divett Place, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia. Electronic address:

Clinical and pathological case files of lethal snakebites were reviewed from the XXXX, Magway, Myanmar, over a five-year period (January 2013 December 2017). A total of 2069 postmortem examinations were performed which included 84 cases of lethal snake bite (4.1%). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1752928X183050
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2019.03.005DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Clinical and hormonal characteristics of patients with different types of hypophysitis: a single-center experience.

Arch Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb;63(1):47-52

Saglik Bilimleri University, Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: The inflammation of the pituitary gland is known as hypophysitis. It is a rare disease accounting for approximately 0.24%-0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.20945/2359-3997000000102DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

Rare empty sella syndrome found after postoperative hypotension and respiratory failure: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2019 Mar;7(5):663-667

Department of Anesthesiology, Shaoxing Central Hospital, Shaoxing 312000, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Empty sella syndrome is a condition in which the pituitary gland shrinks or flattens. Patients with empty sella syndrome often present with headache, hypertension, obesity, visual disturbances, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhoea, or endocrine dysfunction. Herein, we report a rare case of empty sella syndrome discovered after the patient experienced postoperative hypotension and respiratory failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v7.i5.663DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6406202PMC
March 2019
1 Read

"Jüdisch versippt" and "materialistic": The marginalization of Walther E. Berblinger (1882-1966) in the Third Reich.

Pathol Res Pract 2019 Mar 1. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074 Germany. Electronic address:

The pathologist Walther Berblinger (1882-1966) became famous for his scientific studies on internal secretion, namely on the pathology of the pituitary and the pineal gland. The results of his research on the hormonal control of the reproductive system contributed significantly to the consolidation of the young discipline of endocrinology. His later pioneering work on the use of chemotherapeutics in tuberculosis was similarly important. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2019.02.006DOI Listing
March 2019
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A comparison of the thyroid disruption induced by decabrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-209) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in rats.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Mar 4;174:224-235. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

School of Public Health and Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China. Electronic address:

In recent years, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), a new alternative flame retardant to the decabrominated diphenyl ethers (BDE-209), is widely used in a variety of products. Previous studies have indicated that DBDPE, like BDE-209, could disrupt thyroid function. However, compared with BDE-209, the degrees of thyrotoxicosis induced by DBDPE were not clear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.02.080DOI Listing
March 2019
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Expression profile of Galp, alarin and their receptors in rat adrenal gland.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland.

Background: Galanin-like peptide (Galp) and alarin (Ala) are 2 new members of the galanin peptide family. Galanin (Gal), the "parental" peptide of the entire family, is known to regulate numerous physiological processes, including energy and osmotic homeostasis, reproduction, food intake, and secretion of adrenocortical hormones. Galp and Ala are known to regulate food intake. Read More

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http://www.advances.umed.wroc.pl/ahead-of-print/95039.pdf
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/95039DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

The real costs of acromegaly: analysis of different therapies.

Endokrynol Pol 2019 ;70(1):74-85

Deptartment of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Isotope Therapy, Medical University Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.

Acromegaly is a rare, chronic condition caused by growth hormone (GH) overproduction, usually due to a benign tumour of the pituitary gland. During the disease many complications occur, including cardiovascular disease and changes in the musculoskeletal, respiratory, and endocrine systems. Treatment includes surgery, medical therapy, and radiation. Read More

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https://journals.viamedica.pl/endokrynologia_polska/article/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/EP.a2018.0080DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

VEGF, VEGF165b and EG-VEGF expression is specifically related with hormone profile in pituitary adenomas.

Eur J Histochem 2019 Mar 5;63(1). Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Victor Babeș University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Microscopic Morphology/Histology.

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its inhibitory splice variant, VEGF165b and Endocrine Gland derived VEGF (EG-VEGF) have a controversial role in pituitary gland. We aim to study VEGF, VEGF165b and EG-VEGF expression in pituitary adenomas. A significant correlation was found between growth hormone (GH) and VEGF secretion (P=0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ejh.2019.3010DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Clinical utility of routine postoperative morning cortisol monitoring in detecting new hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis insufficiency following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for sellar lesions.

J Neurosurg 2019 Mar 1:1-5. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

1Department of Neurological Surgery and.

OBJECTIVEHypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction is a well-documented complication of transsphenoidal craniotomy (TSC) for sellar lesions. The authors aimed to assess their multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of postoperative hypocortisolemia utilizing conservative screening methods.METHODSThe authors performed a retrospective review of 257 patients who underwent TSC for pituitary adenoma (PA) or Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) at the University of Southern California between 2012 and 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.11.JNS182521DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features for Improving the Diagnosis of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Without Papilledema.

J Neuroophthalmol 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Neurology (RMM), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Ophthalmology (RMM), Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts; East Tennessee Medical Group-Neurology (OFR), Blount Memorial Hospital, Maryville, Tennessee; Department of Radiology (JHW, YJC), Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Texas Neurology Consultants (SR), Texas Health Resources, Plano, Texas; Department of Radiology (KLS, LL), University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah; Department of Radiology (MCP), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Department of Ophthalmology (MAT, KSS, GTL), University of Pennsylvania Scheie Eye Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Departments of Ophthalmology and Neurology (KBD), University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah; Departments of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics and Ophthalmology (DIF), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Department of Neurology (MAT, KSS, GTL), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Division of Ophthalmology (GTL), Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: Revised diagnostic criteria for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) were proposed in part to reduce misdiagnosis of intracranial hypertension without papilledema (WOP) by using 3 or 4 MRI features of intracranial hypertension when a sixth nerve palsy is absent. This study was undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the MRI criteria and to validate their utility for diagnosing IIH in patients with chronic headaches and elevated opening pressure (CH + EOP), but WOP.

Methods: Brain MRIs from 80 patients with IIH with papilledema (WP), 33 patients with CH + EOP, and 70 control patients with infrequent episodic migraine were assessed in a masked fashion for MRI features of intracranial hypertension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNO.0000000000000767DOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Sex-specific distribution of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the brain of the frog, Microhyla ornata.

Neuropeptides 2019 Apr 21;74:1-10. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Zoology, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Ganeshkhind Road, Pune 411 007, India. Electronic address:

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in sex-specific behavioural processes in vertebrates. NPY integrates energy balance and reproduction in mammals. However, the relevance of NPY in reproduction of lower vertebrates is understudied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.npep.2019.01.004DOI Listing

Use of Pterional Craniotomy for Removal of Penetrating Object: Video Submission and Case Report.

World Neurosurg 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Neurosurgery. Electronic address:

Background: and Importance: Penetrating injuries are dangerous because they can damage intracranial structures. Removal of the object carries this same risk of injury so neurosurgeons often visualize the injury via craniotomy during removal.

Case Description: This report illustrates the case of a 41-year-old male who had a penetrating injury with a knife that started in the left nasal passage and extended to the parasellar region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.02.080DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Effects of zearalenone and its derivatives on the synthesis and secretion of mammalian sex steroid hormones: A review.

Food Chem Toxicol 2019 Apr 27;126:262-276. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu, China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, The Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China. Electronic address:

Zearalenone (ZEA), a non-steroidal estrogen mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium fungi, can be metabolized into many other derivatives by microorganisms, plants, animals and humans. It can affect mammalian reproductive capability by impacting the synthesis and secretion of sex hormones, including testosterone, estradiol and progesterone. This review summarizes the mechanisms in which ZEA and its derivatives disturb the synthesis and secretion of sex steroid hormones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2019.02.031DOI Listing

The combination of acromegaly and Klinefelter syndrome in one patient.

Vnitr Lek 2019 ;65(1):51-54

Acromegaly is a rare disorder usually caused by a benign tumour of the pituitary gland. Long-term presence of elevated growth hormone (GH) and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) levels accompanying this disease is associated with complications such as cardiomyopathy, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnoea and arthropathy. Incidence of acromegaly is 3-4 patients per million per year. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

Impulsive model of endocrine regulation with a local continuous feedback.

Math Biosci 2019 Feb 26;310:128-135. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Engineering and Technology Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Whereas development of mathematical models describing the endocrine system as a whole remains a challenging problem, visible progress has been demonstrated in modeling its subsystems, or axes. Models of hormonal axes portray only the most essential interactions between the hormones and can be described by low-order systems of differential equations. This paper analyzes the properties of a novel model of a hypothalamic-pituitary axis, portraying the interactions in a chain of a release hormone (secreted by the hypothalamus), a tropic hormone (produced by the pituitary gland) and an effector hormone (secreted by a target gland). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mbs.2019.02.006DOI Listing
February 2019
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Ex Vivo H NMR study of pituitary adenomas to differentiate various immunohistochemical subtypes.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 28;9(1):3007. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Kenneth R. Peak Brain and Pituitary Tumor Treatment Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Houston Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital and Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA.

Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are benign growths arising from epithelial cells in the adenohypophysis of the pituitary gland. To date, there has been no detailed metabolic characterization of PAs of various subtypes. In this study, we report nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of surgically resected tumors from forty five pituitary tumor patients [gonadotropic (LH/FSH-secreting) = 17; prolactinomas (PRL-secreting) = 11, Cushing's disease (ACTH-secreting) = 4, non-functional = 5, and mixed = 8] who underwent transsphenoidal selective adenomectomy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-38542-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6395808PMC
February 2019

Berengario da Carpi and the Renaissance of Brain Anatomy.

Authors:
André Parent

Front Neuroanat 2019 13;13:11. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec, QC, Canada.

Berengario da Carpi (Jacopo Barigazzi) was born around 1460 in the small Italian town of Carpi near Modena. Berengario's father, Faustino, was a reputable barber-surgeon who initiated his son early into the art of anatomy and surgery. After his graduation from the University of Bologna in 1489, Berengario rapidly acquired an enviable reputation as a physician and surgeon following the successful treatment of several dignitaries, including Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino who suffered a severe head injury in 1517. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2019.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6381050PMC
February 2019

Early-life adversity programs long-term cytokine and microglia expression within the HPA axis in female Japanese quail.

J Exp Biol 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9JP, UK.

Stress exposure during pre and post-natal development can have persistent and often dysfunctional effects on several physiological systems, including immune function, affecting the ability to combat infection. The neuro-immune response is inextricably linked to the action of the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) axis. Cytokines released from neuro-immune cells, including microglia, activate the HPA axis while glucocorticoids in turn regulate cytokine release from microglia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.187039DOI Listing
February 2019

MRI Findings of Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension: Usefulness of Straight Sinus Distention.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Feb 26:1-7. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

3 Department of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) shows various characteristic MRI findings. We evaluated the usefulness of straight sinus distention compared with transverse sinus distention and also evaluated other MRI findings of SIH.

Materials And Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients (28 female and 15 male patients) treated for SIH and 43 age- and sex-matched control subjects at two institutions from 2012 through 2014 were included in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20369DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Ectopic thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma of the nasopharynx diagnosed by Ga-DOTA-TATE PET/CT.

World Neurosurg 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco.

Ectopic thyroid-secreting hormone (TSH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are rare, with only nine cases reported in the literature. We describe a case of an ectopic TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma located in the nasopharynx in a patient initially presenting with signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism that persisted despite treatment with anti-thyroid medications. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland was normal, though subsequent review by neuroradiology revealed a nodule attached to the posterior septum in the nasopharynx that was, in retrospect, seen on several other MR scans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.02.022DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Repeated potassium iodide exposure during pregnancy impairs progeny's brain development.

Neuroscience 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PSE-SANTE, SERAMED, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses, France. Electronic address:

Protracted radioiodine release may require repeated intake of potassium iodide (KI) to protect thyroid gland. It is well established that iodine excess inhibits transiently the thyroid function. As developing fetus depends on maternal thyroid hormones (TH) supply, more knowledge is needed about the plausible effects that repeated KI intake can cause in this sensitive population, especially that even subtle variation of maternal thyroid function may have persistent consequences on progeny brain processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.02.016DOI Listing
February 2019
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Clinical features, MR imaging and treatment experience of 20 patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis at a single treatment center.

World Neurosurg 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: Lymphocytic hypophysitis (LYH)is a rare autoimmune inflammatory disease of the pituitary gland. In the study, we aim to characterize LYH at presentation and focus on the management and prognosis of LYH.

Methods: The retrospective study of patients with LYH was conducted between 2011 and 2018 at a single institute. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.01.250DOI Listing
February 2019
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[Differential diagnosis and treatment of pituitary adenomas].

HNO 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Klinik für Neurochirurgie, Universität Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, 89075, Ulm, Deutschland.

Pituitary adenomas are among the most common primary brain tumors. These tumors can produce all hormones of the anterior pituitary and thus cause endocrine diseases. Compression of the pituitary gland, the surrounding cranial nerves, or brain structures can lead to hypopituitarism, cranial nerve deficits, or diverse neurological symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00106-019-0629-3DOI Listing
February 2019
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Pituitary Hyperplasia from Primary Hypothyroidism.

N Engl J Med 2019 Feb;380(8):e9

Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore, India

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMicm1805378DOI Listing
February 2019
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[Levels of sex hormones, sex hormone binding globulin, antisperm antibodies and dopamine in postmanopausal women of nomadic and settled aboriginal and local caucasoid populations of the arctic territories.]

Klin Lab Diagn 2018 ;63(12):761-767

State institution YNAO «Scientific center of Arctic research», 629730, Nadym, Russia.

Positive changes in the society led to an improvement in quality and lifetime; as a result the menopause in women lengthens much longer, in light of this the relevance of studying hormonal changes increases, especially among the representatives of different groups living in the Arctic territories. The study was carried out on 138 women who included nomadic and settled aboriginal and local Caucasoid postmenopausal populations, permanently residing in the Arctic territories of Russia. The greatest difference in the studied blood indicators was shown between the local Caucasoid and aboriginal population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18821/0869-2084-2018-63-12-761-767DOI Listing
January 2018
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Genetic variation in thyroid folliculogenesis influences susceptibility to hypothyroidism-induced hearing impairment.

Mamm Genome 2019 Feb 18;30(1-2):5-22. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, 5705 Medical Science II, 1241 Catherine St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-5618, USA.

Maternal and fetal sources of thyroid hormone are important for the development of many organ systems. Thyroid hormone deficiency causes variable intellectual disability and hearing impairment in mouse and man, but the basis for this variation is not clear. To explore this variation, we studied two thyroid hormone-deficient mouse mutants with mutations in pituitary-specific transcription factors, POU1F1 and PROP1, that render them unable to produce thyroid stimulating hormone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-019-09792-6DOI Listing
February 2019
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Hyperadrenocorticism Caused by a Pituitary Ganglioglioma in a Dog.

Vet Pathol 2019 Feb 17:300985819829530. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

5 Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, Musashino-shi, Tokyo, Japan.

An 11-year-old castrated male Chihuahua dog was presented with complaints of polyuria, polydipsia, abdominal enlargement, and alopecia. Hyperadrenocorticism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs, blood tests, adrenocorticotropin-stimulation test results, and an elevated serum adrenocorticotropin concentration. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed that the pituitary gland was enlarged, compatible with a pituitary macroadenoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300985819829530DOI Listing
February 2019

Small Cell Lung Cancer with Pituitary Metastasis Presenting as Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Am J Case Rep 2019 Feb 17;20:207-211. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department of Endocrinology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

BACKGROUND Pituitary gland metastasis is rarely the initial presentation of metastatic cancer. Most cases of pituitary gland metastasis are asymptomatic with diabetes insipidus being the most common symptomatic presentation. It can rarely present with symptoms of hormone underproduction such as secondary adrenal insufficiency. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.913388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388645PMC
February 2019
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Differential and temporal expression of cortocotropin releasing hormone and its receptors in the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure and paraventricular nucleus during the stress response in chickens (Gallus gallus).

Brain Res 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Poultry Science Center, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, United States. Electronic address:

Recently, in addition to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC) have been proposed to regulate stress in birds due to the discovery of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) neurons in the NHpC. Expression of CRH, CRHR1, CRHR2 and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) were determined within the NHpC compared to the PVN. Additionally, two levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis: 1) anterior pituitary and 2) adrenal gland were examined following food deprivation (FD) stress including proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression and plasma corticosterone (CORT), respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2019.02.018DOI Listing
February 2019

Hyperthyroidism Following Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: The association of hyperthyroidism with exposure to ionizing radiation is poorly understood. This study addresses the risk of hyperthyroidism in relation to incidental therapeutic radiation dose to the thyroid and pituitary glands in a large cohort of survivors of childhood cancer.

Methods: Utilizing the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a cohort of five-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed at hospitals in the United States and Canada between 1970 and 1986, the occurrence of hyperthyroidism through 2009 was ascertained among 12,183 survivors based on serial questionnaires. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03603016193020
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.02.009DOI Listing
February 2019
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Outcomes of three-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging for the identification of pituitary adenoma in patients with Cushing's disease.

Endocr J 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Hypothalamic and Pituitary Surgery, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo 105-8470, Japan.

Pituitary adenoma has been reported to be detectable in only 36-63% of Cushing's disease (CD) patients by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we investigate the outcomes and problems associated with tumor identification using 3-Tesla (3-T) MRI, which provides clearer images than ≤1.5-T MRI, in 115 patients who were initially diagnosed with CD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1507/endocrj.EJ18-0458DOI Listing
February 2019
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Toxicity of Pexacerfont, a Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Type 1 Receptor Antagonist, in Rats and Dogs.

Int J Toxicol 2019 Feb 13:1091581819827501. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

2 Evansville, IL, USA.

Pexacerfont is a corticotropin-releasing factor subtype 1 receptor antagonist that was developed for the treatment of anxiety- and stress-related disorders. This report describes the results of repeat-dose oral toxicity studies in rats (3 and 6 months) and dogs (3 months and 1 year). Pexacerfont was well tolerated in all of these studies at exposures equal to or greater than areas under the curve in humans (clinical dose of 100 mg). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1091581819827501DOI Listing
February 2019
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Congenital Hypopituitarism: Various Genes, Various Phenotypes.

Horm Metab Res 2019 Feb 13;51(2):81-90. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, First Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, "Aghia Sofia" Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece.

The ontogenesis and development of the pituitary gland is a highly complex process that depends on a cascade of transcription factors and signaling molecules. Spontaneous mutations and transgenic murine models have demonstrated a role for many of these factors, including , , , , , , , , , , , and in the etiology of congenital hypopituitarism. Genetic mutations in any of these factors can lead to congenital hypopituitarism, which is characterized by the deficiency in one or more pituitary hormones. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0822-3637DOI Listing
February 2019
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Disruption of the Pituitary Circadian Clock Induced by Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: Consequences on Daily Pituitary Hormone Expression Profiles.

Thyroid 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

1 Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: The secretion of pituitary hormones oscillates throughout the 24-hour period, indicating that circadian clock-mediated mechanisms regulate this process in the gland. Additionally, pituitary hormone synthesis has been shown to be altered in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Although thyroid hormones can modulate the other peripheral clocks, the interaction between thyroid hormone levels and circadian clock gene expression in the anterior pituitary has yet to be elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2018.0578DOI Listing
March 2019
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