78,758 results match your criteria Pituitary Gland


Empty Sella Syndrome Associated with Growth Hormone Deficiency: the First Case Report of Weiss-Kruszka Syndrome.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 May 10;36(18):e133. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Inha University Hospital, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.

Weiss-Kruszka syndrome (WSKA), caused by heterozygous loss-of-function variants in gene, is a recently described and extremely rare genetic disorder. The main phenotypes include characteristic craniofacial features, ptosis, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and neurodevelopmental impairment. We report the first Korean boy with molecularly confirmed WSKA presenting with an atypical manifestation. Read More

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Targeted differential illumination improves reproductive traits of broiler breeder males.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 12;100(6):101109. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Animal Sciences, Robert H. Smith, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

Artificial targeted illumination has a pivotal role in reproductive processes of poultry. The light-absorption mechanism in birds consists of 2 main components: the eye (retinal photoreceptors) and extraretinal photoreceptors located in the brain. Previous studies conducted on hens have shown that photostimulation of brain extraretinal photoreceptors elevates reproductive activity, whereas retinal photostimulation suppresses it. Read More

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Radiologic Findings in Pediatric Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

Otol Neurotol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Atlanta, Atlanta, GA Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University Department of Radiology, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: Pediatric sudden sensorineural hearing loss (pSSNHL) is a rare phenomenon. There is currently no consensus on the role of imaging in the work-up for this patient population. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and high-resolution computed tomography (CT) studies in determining the etiology of pSSNHL. Read More

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Normative data for pituitary size and volume in the general population between 50 and 66 years.

Pituitary 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.

Purpose: The main aim of this study was to provide normative data for pituitary height and volume in persons between 50 and 66 years in the general population. The secondary aim was to establish a convenient surrogate marker of pituitary size for use in routine radiological practice.

Methods: From a geographically defined prospective healthy study, 1006 participants between 50 and 66 years had a brain MRI, of which 988 (519 women) were included in this study. Read More

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The expression of mimecan in adrenal tissue plays a role in an organism's responses to stress.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 10;13. Epub 2021 May 10.

The Core Laboratory in Medical Center of Clinical Research, Department of Molecular Diagnostic and Endocrinology, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Jiao tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

Mimecan encodes a secretory protein that is secreted into the human serum as two mature proteins with molecular masses of 25 and 12 kDa. We found 12-kDa mimecan to be a novel satiety hormone mediated by the upregulation of the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the hypothalamus. Mimecan was found to be expressed in human pituitary corticotroph cells and was up-regulated by glucocorticoids, while the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in pituitary corticotroph AtT-20 cells was induced by mimecan. Read More

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Diagnosis and treatment of refractory pituitary adenomas: a narrative review.

Gland Surg 2021 Apr;10(4):1499-1507

Chinese Pituitary Specialists Congress, Beijing, China.

Although aggressive pituitary adenomas (PAs) have been proposed and widely discussed for more than a decade, there is no general agreement regarding their definition, diagnosis or management. As one of the largest pituitary centers in China, we have diagnosed and treated more than fifty cases of aggressive PA and 3 pituitary carcinomas in the past 5 years and proposed a new term, i.e. Read More

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An increase in normetanephrine in hair follicles of acne lesions through the sympatho-adrenal medullary system in acne patients with anxiety.

J Dermatol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

Acne vulgaris, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, has been associated with not only sebaceous gland dysfunction but also various endogenous and exogenous stresses. Since sebaceous glands are under neuroendocrine control, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neuro-autocrine mechanisms, it remains unclear how psychological stress relates to the pathogenesis of acne. In this study, we investigated the relationship between psychological stress and catecholamine in acne lesions from 18 patients with mild or moderate acne. Read More

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A 45-year-old female patient with Sheehan's syndrome presenting with imminent adrenal crisis: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 May 8;15(1):229. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Background: Sheehan's syndrome is hypopituitarism due to pituitary gland necrosis resulting from hemorrhagic shock during pregnancy. It is a rare complication with varied manifestations and a considerable delay in diagnosis.

Case Presentation: We describe the case of a 45-year-old Ethiopian woman who presented with generalized fatigue for 18 years which progressed to anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain of 6 years' duration, for which she was treated symptomatically throughout these years. Read More

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CD9-positive cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland are important supplier for prolactin-producing cells in the anterior lobe.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Health Sciences, Kyorin University, 5-4-1 Shimorenjaku, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8612, Japan.

A supply of hormone-producing cells from stem/progenitor cells is critical to sustain the endocrine activity of the pituitary gland. In the adenohypophysis composing the anterior and intermediate lobe (AL and IL, respectively), stem/progenitor cells expressing sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) and S100β are located in the marginal cell layer (MCL) facing Rathke's cleft (primary niche) and the parenchyma of the AL (secondary niche). Our previous studies using mice and rats indicated that the tetraspanin superfamily CD9 and CD81 are expressed in S100β/SOX2-positive cells of primary and secondary niches (named CD9/CD81/S100β/SOX2-positive cell), and the cells located in the AL-side niches exhibit plasticity and multipotency. Read More

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Pituitary Adenomas: From Diagnosis to Therapeutics.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 30;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Pituitary adenomas are tumors that arise in the anterior pituitary gland. They are the third most common cause of central nervous system (CNS) tumors among adults. Most adenomas are benign and exert their effect via excess hormone secretion or mass effect. Read More

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Salivary gland tissues and derived primary and metastatic neoplasms: unusual pitfalls in the work-up of sellar lesions. A systematic review.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Neuromed Institute, IRCCS, Pozzilli, IS, Italy.

Purpose: Salivary gland (SG) tissue and derived neoplasms may occur in the sellar region. As the current literature is mostly limited to case reports, the puzzling case of an inflammatory SG removed by transsphenoidal surgery (TS) and mimicking a prolactinoma prompted us to perform the first systematic review of these unusual conditions.

Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Read More

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COVID-19 and the pituitary.

Pituitary 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, San Raffaele Vita-Salute University and IRCC Hospital, Via Olgettina 60, 20132, Milan, Italy.

Background: Despite COVID-19 being identified as severe respiratory viral infection, progressively many relevant endocrine manifestations have been reported greatly contributing to the severity of the clinical presentation. Systemic involvement in COVID-19 is due to the ubiquitous expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, responsible for the entry in the cells of SARS-CoV-2, Several reports in humans and animal models showed a significant ACE2 mRNA expression in hypothalamus and pituitary cells. Moreover, higher mortality and poorer outcomes have been widely described in COVID-19 patients with obesity, diabetes and vertebral fractures, which are all highly prevalent in subjects with pituitary dysfunctions. Read More

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Long-Term Quality of Life after Endoscopic Pituitary Adenoma Surgery with Nasoseptal Flap Reconstruction.

Rambam Maimonides Med J 2021 Apr 29;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel.

Introduction: Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) on the pituitary gland is considered safe and efficacious. The nasoseptal flap (NSF) is sometimes used to prevent or repair postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks. Few investigators have quantified long-term quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes regarding sinonasal measures after EETS, with or without involvement of the NSF. Read More

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The influence of chronic stress on the mechanism of the cytotoxic system in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Immunology 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Comparative Immunology and Genetics, The Mina and Everard Goodman, Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.

Aquaculture conditions expose fish to internal and environmental stressors that increase their susceptibility to morbidity and mortality. The brain accumulates stress signals and processes them according to the intensity, frequency duration and type of stress, recruiting several brain functions to activate the autonomic or limbic system. Triggering the autonomic system causes the rapid release of catecholamines, such as adrenaline and noradrenaline, into circulation from chromaffin cells in the head kidney. Read More

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Challenges in the functional diagnosis of thyroid nodules before surgery for TSH-producing pituitary adenoma.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Apr 1;2021. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Endocrine CentreToranomon HospitalMinato-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Summary: A 50-year-old woman with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-producing pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) was diagnosed due to symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Preoperatively, she showed thyrotoxicosis with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of TSH (SITSH) and had a 5 cm nodule in her thyroid gland. Octreotide was administered preoperatively, which helped lower her serum TSH level but not her thyroid hormone level. Read More

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Pituitary Sarcoidosis in a Pediatric Patient Successfully Treated With Adalimumab and Methotrexate.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2021 Jan-Dec;9:23247096211012191

Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Neurosarcoidosis is a rare phenomenon in the pediatric population, with only a few cases reported in the literature worldwide. While hypothalamo-pituitary involvement is known to occur, direct infiltration of the pituitary gland and isolated anterior pituitary dysfunction without diabetes insipidus is seldom observed. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis, and treatment can be challenging due to lack of standardized guidelines. Read More

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Positive Correlation between nNOS and Stress-Activated Bowel Motility Is Confirmed by In Vivo HiBiT System.

Cells 2021 Apr 27;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Graduate School of International Agricultural Technology and Green, Institute of Green BioScience and Technology, Seoul National University, 1447 Pyeongchang-ro, Daewha, Pyeongchang 25354, Korea.

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has various roles as a neurotransmitter. However, studies to date have produced insufficient data to fully support the correlation between nNOS and bowel motility. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between nNOS expression and gastrointestinal (GI) tract motility using a stress-induced neonatal maternal separation (NMS) mouse model. Read More

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Fluorophores Use in Pituitary Surgery: A Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Appraisal.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 28;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Neurosurgery Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

(1) Background: Despite many surgical and technological advances, pituitary adenoma surgery is still burdened by non-negligible rates of incomplete tumor resection, mainly due to difficulties in differentiating pathology from normal pituitary tissue. Some fluorescent agents have been recently investigated as intraoperative contrast agents in pituitary surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate the actual knowledge about the usefulness of such fluorophores with a particular focus on both the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics issues of the pituitary gland. Read More

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Advances in the Regulation of Mammalian Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Secretion.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Laboratory Animals, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Model, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, China.

Mammalian reproduction is mainly driven and regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which is synthesized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, is a key regulator that ultimately affects animal fertility. As a dimeric glycoprotein hormone, the biological specificity of FSH is mainly determined by the β subunit. Read More

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Regulation of Serum Sodium Levels during Chemotherapy Using Selective Arginine Vasopressin V2-Receptor Antagonist Tolvaptan in a Four-Year-Old Girl with a Suprasellar Germ Cell Tumor.

Children (Basel) 2021 Apr 10;8(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of Pediatrics, Department of Homeostatic Regulation and Development, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata 951-8510, Japan.

There are limited reports on the use of tolvaptan for syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in children. Managing serum sodium levels in SIADH patients during chemotherapy is often difficult because of the need for massive fluid infusions. We report the course of the use of tolvaptan for the treatment of hyponatremia during chemotherapy in a four-year-old girl with a suprasellar germ cell tumor. Read More

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The Enigma of the Adrenarche: Identifying the Early Life Mechanisms and Possible Role in Postnatal Brain Development.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 21;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Health & Biomedical Sciences, Bundoora Campus, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3083, Australia.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfated metabolite (DHEAS) are dynamically regulated before birth and the onset of puberty. Yet, the origins and purpose of increasing DHEA[S] in postnatal development remain elusive. Here, we draw attention to this pre-pubertal surge from the adrenal gland-the adrenarche-and discuss whether this is the result of intra-adrenal gene expression specifically affecting the zona reticularis (ZR), if the ZR is influenced by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and the possible role of spino-sympathetic innervation in prompting increased ZR activity. Read More

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Visualization of incidentally imaged pituitary gland on three-dimensional arterial spin labeling of the brain.

Br J Radiol 2021 Apr 29:20201311. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan.

Objective: To evaluate the visualization of incidentally imaged normal pituitary gland on three-dimensional (3D) pseudo continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL) perfusion imaging of the brain.

Methods: Ninety-three patients with a normal pituitary gland who underwent 3D PCASL for suspected brain diseases were retrospectively included. Visualization of the pituitary gland on PCASL cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps was assessed independently by two observers using a three-point grading system: Grade 1, pituitary CBF ≤ CBF of the cerebral white matter (WM); Grade 2, CBF of WM < pituitary CBF ≤ CBF of the cortical gray matter (GM); and Grade 3, CBF of GM < pituitary CBF. Read More

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A Novel SLC5A5 Variant Reveals the Crucial Role of Kinesin Light Chain 2 in Thyroid Hormonogenesis.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Context: Iodide transport defect (ITD) (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man #274400) is an uncommon cause of dyshormonogenic congenital hypothyroidism due to loss-of-function variants in the SLC5A5 gene, which encodes the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS), causing deficient iodide accumulation in thyroid follicular cells.

Objective: To determine the molecular basis of a patient´s ITD clinical phenotype.

Patient: The propositus was diagnosed with dyshormonogenic congenital hypothyroidism with minimal 99mTc-pertechnetate accumulation in a eutopic thyroid gland. Read More

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Distribution of Myeloid and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Subpopulations in Peripheral Blood of Hyperprolactinemic Women.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 Apr 17;20(2):198-204. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Pathology and Stem Cell Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Dendritic cells (DCs) play key roles in regulating the immune response using the specialized function of processing and presenting antigens. Prolactin (PRL), a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, participates in DC maturation and function. The present study was aimed to determine the frequencies of peripheral blood DC subpopulations of myeloid DC (MDC) and plasmacytoid DC (PDC) in hyperprolactinemic (HPRL) women compared to normal healthy volunteers. Read More

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Ultrasound evaluation of adrenal gland size in clinically healthy dogs and in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism.

Vet Rec 2021 Apr 28;188(8):e80. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Morphology, Veterinary Faculty, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.

Background: Precise reference intervals of adrenal gland thickness are required for detection of adrenomegaly in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC).

Methods: Eighty-six clinically healthy dogs were prospectively included, and 91 dogs with untreated HAC were retrospectively evaluated. Dorso-ventral adrenal gland thickness was ultrasonographically measured on the sagittal plane. Read More

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Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus accompanied with central nephrogenic diabetes secondary to pituitary surgery -a case report.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Apr 21;21(1):78. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Endocrinology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Affiliated People's Hospital, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, 310003, Zhejiang province, China.

Background: Diabetes insipidus (DI) can be a common cause of polydipsia and polyuria. Here, we present a case of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) accompanied with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) secondary to pituitary surgery.

Case Presentation: A 24-year-old Chinese woman came to our hospital with the complaints of polydipsia and polyuria for 6 months. Read More

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Oral contraceptive use is associated with smaller hypothalamic and pituitary gland volumes in healthy women: A structural MRI study.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(4):e0249482. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Health, Bronx, NY, United States of America.

The effects of hormonal contraceptives on structural features of the hypothalamus and pituitary are incompletely understood. One prior study reported microstructural changes in the hypothalamus with oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use. However, effects on hypothalamic volume have not been reported. Read More

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SRC-1 Deficiency Increases Susceptibility of Mice to Depressive-Like Behavior After Exposure to CUMS.

Neurochem Res 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Cerebral Diseases, Department of Physiology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) is one of the coactivators recruited by the nuclear receptors (NRs) when NRs are activated by steroid hormones, such as glucocorticoid. SRC-1 is abundant in hippocampus and hypothalamus and is also related to some major risk factors for depression, implicated by its reduced expression after stress and its effect on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland axis function. However, whether SRC-1 is involved in the formation of depression remains unclear. Read More

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Role of pituitary stalk and gland radiological status on endocrine function and outcome after endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for non-functioning pituitary adenomas.

Endocrine 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Neurosurgery Department, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Paseo de la Castellana, 261, Madrid, 28046, Spain.

Purpose: To investigate endocrine function changes after non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) transsphenoidal surgery and to search for predictors of hypopituitarism resolution and development.

Methods: We included 117 patients with NFPA who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery from 2005 to 2019 by two neurosurgeons. Twenty-one patients were excluded because of previous pituitary surgery or radiotherapy. Read More

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