4,815 results match your criteria Pituitary Disease and Pregnancy


Management of Endocrinopathies in Pregnancy: A Review of Current Evidence.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 Mar 4;16(5). Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, University of Crete, 71110 Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

Pregnancy in women with associated endocrine conditions is a therapeutic challenge for clinicians. These disorders may be common, such us thyroid disorders and diabetes, or rare, including adrenal and parathyroid disease and pituitary dysfunction. With the development of assisted reproductive techniques, the number of pregnancies with these conditions has increased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050781DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Exacerbation of Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy: stimulation of a cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenoma by ACTH originating from the foeto-placental unit.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2019 Feb 7;2019. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

A 29-year-old G4A3 woman presented at 25 weeks of pregnancy with progressive signs of Cushing's syndrome (CS), gestational diabetes requiring insulin and hypertension. A 3.4 × 3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EDM-18-0115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6373782PMC
February 2019
3 Reads

Pregnancy in acromegaly is safe and is associated with improvements in IGF-1 concentrations.

Eur J Endocrinol 2019 Apr;180(4):K21-K29

Department of Endocrinology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Pregnancy is rarely reported in acromegaly. Many patients are diagnosed in later life and younger patients may have subfertility due to hypopituitarism. We present a case series of 17 pregnancies in 12 women with acromegaly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-18-0688DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Plurihormonal Pituitary Tumor of Pit-1 and SF-1 Lineages, with Synchronous Collision Corticotroph Tumor: a Possible Stem Cell Phenomenon.

Endocr Pathol 2019 Mar;30(1):74-80

Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting pituitary tumors are the rarest functioning pituitary tumors. Nonetheless, they are not infrequently plurihormonal, as they may express/secrete hormones made by other pituitary cells derived from the Pit-1 lineage such as growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and α-subunit (αSU). However, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) or gonadotropin secretion by such a tumor is exceptional. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12022-018-9562-3DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Gestational Stress Augments Postpartum β-Amyloid Pathology and Cognitive Decline in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Oct 1. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Neuroscience, Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience (CCBN), University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada.

Besides well-known risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), stress, and in particular noise stress (NS), is a lifestyle risk factor common today. It is known that females are at a significantly greater risk of developing AD than males, and given that stress is a common adversity in females during pregnancy, we hypothesized that gestational noise exposure could exacerbate the postpartum development of the AD-like neuropathological changes during the life span. Pregnant APPNL-G-F/NL-G-F mice were randomly assigned to either the stress condition or control group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhy251DOI Listing
October 2018
5 Reads

Primary hypophysitis and other autoimmune disorders of the sellar and suprasellar regions.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2018 12;19(4):335-347

Medicover GmbH, Berlin/Hannover, Germany.

The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus can be affected by autoimmune-mediated structural and functional disruption. These autoimmune-mediated diseases occur more commonly in females and are often found during pregnancy or in the post-partum period. Autoimmune diseases can either affect parts of the pituitary or hypothalamus, or can involve both sellar and suprasellar structures. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11154-018-9480-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11154-018-9480-1DOI Listing
December 2018
15 Reads

Maternal high fat diet programs hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in adult rat offspring.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019 Apr 6;102:128-138. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China. Electronic address:

Maternal environmental factors such as diet have profound effects on offspring development and later health. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is an important stress neuroendocrine system that is subject to programming by early life challenges. The present study was further to investigate whether maternal high fat diet (HFD) exposure during rat pregnancy and lactation can alter the HPA axis activity in adult male offspring. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03064530183100
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.12.003DOI Listing
April 2019
7 Reads

hCG production by mucinous adenocarcinoma of the ovary in a reproductive aged woman.

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2018 Nov 31;26:102-104. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, United States.

When elevated serum hCG is discovered during the work up of a gynecologic tumor, it is paramount to identify the source of hCG prior to initiation of treatment. Potential sources of hCG include viable intrauterine pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, gestational trophoblastic disease, pituitary hCG production, phantom hCG (heterophilic antibody interference), and tumor production. Here, we present a case of elevated hCG in a young women with a large complex pelvic mass. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gore.2018.10.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258238PMC
November 2018
3 Reads

Neuro-Ophthalmic Disorders in Pregnancy.

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):85-102

Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 60 Fenwood Road, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

The physiologic changes that accompany pregnancy can have important implications for neuro-ophthalmic disease. This article discusses pregnancy-related considerations for meningioma, pituitary disorders, demyelinating disease, myasthenia gravis, thyroid eye disease, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, stroke, migraine, and cranial neuropathies. The article also details the potential neuro-ophthalmic complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia and reviews the use of common diagnostic studies during pregnancy. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07338619183125
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2018.09.001DOI Listing
February 2019
13 Reads

Excitotoxicity and compensatory upregulation of GAD67 in fetal rat hippocampus caused by prenatal nicotine exposure are associated with inhibition of the BDNF pathway.

Food Chem Toxicol 2019 Jan 30;123:314-325. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China; Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan 430071, China. Electronic address:

Prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) can cause hypersensitivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in offspring with intrauterine growth retardation. The purpose of this study was to explore the original mechanism of intrauterine development that mediates hypersensitivity of the HPA axis in offspring due to PNE. Pregnant Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with 2 mg/kg·d of nicotine on the 9th to the 20th gestational day (GD9-GD20) and the fetuses were extracted at GD20. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S02786915183080
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2018.10.062DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

Gestational diabetes insipidus.

QJM 2019 Feb;112(2):123-124

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, RIPAS Hospital, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcy252DOI Listing
February 2019
4 Reads

No evidence of adverse fertility and pregnancy outcomes in patients with unrecognized and untreated multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2019 Feb 14;90(2):312-319. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

School of Medicine, Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Royal Hobart Hospital, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania.

Objective: Literature concerning the impact of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) on fertility is limited to case reports despite the early onset of endocrinopathies, such as primary hyperparathyroidism and prolactinoma, that may impact fertility. This study describes the impact of unrecognized and untreated MEN 1 on fertility and pregnancy outcomes in a multigenerational cohort of the Tasman 1 MEN 1 kindred.

Methods: All MEN 1 positive (MEN 1 , n = 63) and MEN 1 negative (MEN 1 , n = 75) descendants born between 1825 and 1951 of a common founder. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/cen.13890
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cen.13890DOI Listing
February 2019
12 Reads

Maternal smoking and high BMI disrupt thyroid gland development.

BMC Med 2018 10 23;16(1):194. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Institute of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD, UK.

Background: Maternal lifestyle factors, including smoking and increased body weight, increase risks of adult diseases such as metabolic syndrome and infertility. The fetal thyroid gland is essential for the control of fetal metabolic rate, cardiac output, and brain development. Altered fetal thyroid function may contribute to increased disease onset later in life. Read More

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https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s1291
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-018-1183-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6198368PMC
October 2018
14 Reads

Surgery for Cushing's disease in pregnancy: our experience and a literature review.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2019 Jan 5;101(1):e26-e31. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital Birmingham , Birmingham , UK.

Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy is a rare phenomenon and there is limited literature on its management. Cushing's disease in pregnancy is even less common and there is little guidance to help in the treatment for this patient group. Diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome in pregnancy is often delayed due to overlap of symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1308/rcsann.2018.0175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6303815PMC
January 2019
16 Reads

The gonadotropin system, lessons from animal models and clinical cases.

Minerva Ginecol 2018 Oct 26;70(5):561-587. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

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This review article centers upon family of gonadotropin hormones which consists of two pituitary hormones - follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) as well as one non-pituitary hormone - human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secreted by placenta, and their receptors. Gonadotropins play an essential role in proper sexual development, puberty, gametogenesis, maintenance of pregnancy and male sexual differentiation during the fetal development. They belong to the family of glycoprotein hormones thus they constitute heterodimeric proteins built of common α subunit and hormone-specific β-subunit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4784.18.04307-1DOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

Maternal Placentophagy as a Possible Cause of Breast Budding and Vaginal Bleeding in a Breast-Fed 3-Month-Old Infant.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2019 Feb 20;32(1):78-79. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Division of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Background: Placentophagy, or the practice of placental consumption, has grown in popularity over the past decade. Although advocates endorse prevention of postpartum depression, increased breast milk production, reduction in postpartum bleeding, and provision of nutrients postpartum, scientific studies have failed to show benefit. No studies have explored the effect of placental hormone consumption on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of the offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2018.09.005DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Pregnancy-associated Cushing's disease? An exploratory retrospective study.

Pituitary 2018 Dec;21(6):584-592

Pacific Neuroscience Institute, John Wayne Cancer Institute at Providence's Saint John's Health Center, 2125 Arizona Ave., Santa Monica, CA, 90404, USA.

Purpose: In most clinical series of Cushing's disease (CD), over 80% of patients are women, many of whom are of reproductive age. The year following pregnancy may be a common time to develop CD. We sought to establish the incidence of CD onset associated with pregnancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11102-018-0910-6DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Neurosurgical anesthesia for a pregnant woman with macroprolactinoma: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Sep;97(37):e12360

Department of Anesthesiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Rationale: Being required to perform neurosurgery on a pregnant woman is rare, but occasionally unavoidable. In these cases, clinical anesthesiologists are confronted with conflicting information and few evidence-based guidelines.

Patient Concerns: Here, we describe the successful anesthetic management of a 24-week pregnant woman with macroprolactinoma who underwent endonasal transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000012360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6156042PMC
September 2018
5 Reads

Beat the giant: case of a giant prolactinoma during pregnancy on cabergoline.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2018 23;2018. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Obesity, Endocrine, and Metabolism Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Giant prolactinomas are a rare entity; during pregnancy, the risk for complications associated with these tumors is higher. Here, we report a case of a young woman who had an invasive, giant prolactinoma post resection with residual disease who became pregnant. This patient was treated with cabergoline to prevent tumor expansion in pregnancy, resulting in the uneventful delivery of a healthy baby boy. Read More

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https://edm.bioscientifica.com/view/journals/edm/2018/1/EDM1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EDM-18-0099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6109208PMC
August 2018
15 Reads

Diabetes Insipidus Presenting with Oligohydramnios and Polyuria During Pregnancy.

J Nippon Med Sch 2018 ;85(3):191-193

Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School.

We report a case of subclinical central diabetes insipidus (DI), due to Rathke's cleft cysts, that was initially misdiagnosed as transient DI of pregnancy because it presented in the third trimester of pregnancy. A 37-year-old primigravida visited the Department of Obstetrics in the 30th week of gestation due to polyuria. She was admitted due to oligohydramnios; the amniotic fluid index was 3. Read More

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https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jnms/85/3/85_JNMS.2018_
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1272/jnms.JNMS.2018_85-29DOI Listing
October 2018
20 Reads

Inoperable Giant Growth Hormone-secreting Pituitary Adenoma: Radiological Aspects, Clinical Management and Pregnancy Outcome.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2019 ;19(2):214-220

Interdisciplinary Department of Medicine, Section of Internal Medicine, Geriatrics, Endocrinology & Rare Diseases, University of Bari "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy.

Background And Objective: Giant pituitary adenomas (GPAs) are benign tumours with a diameter ≥ 4 cm [1]. They can cause symptoms and signs due to the possible hyper-secretion of one or more pituitary hormones, and involvement of the surrounding structures whereas the compression of the pituitary itself can lead to hypopituitarism.

Methods: We report on a young woman with acromegaly due to an inoperable giant GH-secreting pituitary adenoma extending to right cavernous sinus, right orbital cavity, ethmoid, right maxillary sinus, sphenoid sinus, clivus and right temporal fossa, in which medical treatment with Octreotide- LAR was able to promptly relieve headache and bilateral hemianopsia due to optic chiasm involvement, improve acromegaly symptoms and, over the time, control tumor expansion, improving fertility and therefore allowing the patient to become pregnant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530318666180807160712DOI Listing
January 2019
16 Reads

Programming Bugs: Microbiota and the Developmental Origins of Brain Health and Disease.

Biol Psychiatry 2019 Jan 27;85(2):150-163. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

APC Microbiome Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. Electronic address:

It has been nearly 30 years since Dr. David Barker first highlighted the importance of prenatal factors in contributing to the developmental origins of adult disease. This concept was later broadened to include postnatal events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.06.014DOI Listing
January 2019
28 Reads

Developmental origins of the human hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 2017 09 2;12(5):321-339. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

a Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior , University of California , Irvine , CA , USA.

Introduction: The developmental origins of disease or fetal programming model predicts that intrauterine exposures have life long consequences for physical and psychological health. Prenatal programming of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is proposed as a primary mechanism by which early experiences are linked to later disease risk. Areas covered: This review describes the development of the fetal HPA axis, which is determined by an intricately timed cascade of endocrine events during gestation and is regulated by an integrated maternal-placental-fetal steroidogenic unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17446651.2017.1356222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6334849PMC
September 2017
3 Reads

Sex differences in major depression and comorbidity of cardiometabolic disorders: impact of prenatal stress and immune exposures.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 01 7;44(1):59-70. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

Department of Basic Medical Science, University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 85004, USA.

Major depressive disorder topped ischemic heart disease as the number one cause of disability worldwide in 2012, and women have twice the risk of men. Further, the comorbidity of depression and cardiometabolic disorders will be one of the primary causes of disability worldwide by 2020, with women at twice the risk. Thus, understanding the sex-dependent comorbidities has public health consequences worldwide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-018-0146-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235859PMC
January 2019
8 Reads

Placental H3K27me3 establishes female resilience to prenatal insults.

Nat Commun 2018 07 2;9(1):2555. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine Health Sciences Facility, III 670 W. Baltimore Street, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

Although sex biases in disease presentation are well documented, the mechanisms mediating vulnerability or resilience to diseases are unknown. In utero insults are more likely to produce detrimental health outcomes for males versus females. In our mouse model of prenatal stress, male offspring experience long-term dysregulation of body weight and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal stress axis dysfunction, endophenotypes of male-biased neurodevelopmental disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-04992-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6028627PMC
July 2018
9 Reads

Accelerated Episodic Luteinizing Hormone Release Accompanies Blunted Progesterone Regulation in PCOS-like Female Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca Mulatta) Exposed to Testosterone during Early-to-Mid Gestation.

Neuroendocrinology 2018 15;107(2):133-146. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Background/aims: Ovarian theca cell hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is compounded by androgen receptor-mediated impairment of estradiol and progesterone negative feedback regulation of episodic luteinizing hormone (LH) release. The resultant LH hypersecretion, likely the product of accelerated episodic release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the median eminence of the hypothalamus, hyperstimulates ovarian theca cell steroidogenesis, enabling testosterone (T) and androstenedione excess. Prenatally androgenized (PA) female monkeys exposed to fetal male levels of T during early-to-mid gestation, when adult, demonstrate PCOS-like traits, including high T and LH levels. Read More

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https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/490570
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000490570DOI Listing
January 2019
12 Reads

Long-term follow-up of female prolactinoma patients at child-bearing age after transsphenoidal surgery.

Endocrine 2018 10 22;62(1):76-82. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Context: Prolactinoma is the most common subtype of functional pituitary adenoma. Effective therapy is required for women of child-bearing age to achieve remission at serum prolactin level and regain reproductive function.

Purpose: To evaluate long-term outcomes, including menstrual recovery, after transsphenoidal surgery on female prolactinoma patients by experienced neurosurgeons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-018-1652-yDOI Listing
October 2018
17 Reads
3.530 Impact Factor

Metabolic Syndrome in Hyperprolactinemia.

Front Horm Res 2018 5;49:29-47. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a conglomerate of clinical findings that convey into increased morbidity and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) is associated with components of MetS, especially during pregnancy. Endogenous levels of sex steroids are high during pregnancy in contrast to untreated or replaced hypogonadism in most patients with a prolactinoma and hypogonadism may confer increased risk of MetS in hyperPRL. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000486000DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Early-Life Stress: From Neuroendocrine Mechanisms to Stress-Related Disorders.

Horm Res Paediatr 2018 8;89(5):372-379. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Stress exposure is highly prevalent in the general population; however, the experience of stress during vulnerable periods of development has substantial and permanent effects on brain structure and function and physical health in adulthood. Stress, the state of threatened homeostasis, is generally associated with a time-limited activation of the stress system, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000488468DOI Listing
October 2018
13 Reads

An evaluation of an immunomodulatory feed ingredient in heat-stressed lactating Holstein cows: Effects on hormonal, physiological, and production responses.

J Dairy Sci 2018 Aug 7;101(8):7095-7105. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson 85719. Electronic address:

Holstein cows (n = 30) were balanced by days in milk, milk production, and parity (91 ± 5.9 d in milk, 36.2 ± 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-14210DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

An Ω-3 fatty acid-deficient diet during gestation induces depressive-like behavior in rats: the role of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system.

Food Funct 2018 Jun;9(6):3481-3488

Institute of Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, PR China.

Low intake of omega-3 (Ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is associated with postpartum depression. DHA deficiency is accompanied by impaired attention and cognition, and will precipitate psychiatric symptoms. However, the effects of dietary DHA on postpartum depression remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7fo01714fDOI Listing
June 2018
15 Reads

MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Hypophysitis: diagnosis and treatment.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Sep 7;179(3):R151-R163. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Endocrinology, Guy's & St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Hypophysitis is a rare condition characterised by inflammation of the pituitary gland, usually resulting in hypopituitarism and pituitary enlargement. Pituitary inflammation can occur as a primary hypophysitis (most commonly lymphocytic, granulomatous or xanthomatous disease) or as secondary hypophysitis (as a result of systemic diseases, immunotherapy or alternative sella-based pathologies). Hypophysitis can be classified using anatomical, histopathological and aetiological criteria. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-17-0009DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Developed diplopia due to a pituitary macroadenoma during pregnancy.

Pan Afr Med J 2018 17;29:39. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Department of Endocrinology, National Institute of Nutrition, Tunis, Tunisia.

Physiologic pituitary enlargement is common during normal pregnancy. However, symptoms such as diplopia, blurred vision and headache resulting from physiologic pituitary enlargement are very rare during pregnancy. A 43-year-old woman complained of sudden headache and left eye ptosis at 36th weeks of gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.29.39.12706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5987105PMC
June 2018
8 Reads

The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis and the Fetus.

Horm Res Paediatr 2018 6;89(5):380-387. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Glucocorticoids (GCs), cortisol in humans, influence multiple essential maturational events during gestation. In the human fetus, fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, fetal adrenal steroidogenesis, placental 11β- hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity, maternal cortisol concentrations, and environmental factors impact fetal cortisol exposure. The beneficial effects of synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs), such as dexamethasone and betamethasone, on fetal lung maturation have significantly shifted the management of preterm labor and threatened preterm birth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000488106DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Maternal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system activity and stress during pregnancy: Effects on gestational age and infant's anthropometric measures at birth.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 08 22;94:152-161. Epub 2018 Apr 22.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, RG Stress, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Prenatal maternal stress might be a risk for the developing fetus and may have long-lasting effects on child and adult vulnerability to somatic and psychiatric disease. Over-exposure of the unborn to excess glucocorticoids and subsequent alteration of fetal development is hypothesized to be one of the key mechanisms linking prenatal stress with negative child outcome.

Methods: In this prospective longitudinal study, mothers-to-be (n = 405) in late pregnancy (36. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2018.04.022DOI Listing
August 2018
5 Reads

Peripartum cardiomyopathy.

Herz 2018 Aug;43(5):431-437

Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare and potentially life-threatening disease that occurs toward the end of pregnancy or in the months following delivery in previously heart-healthy women. The incidence varies widely depending on geographical region and ethnic background, with an estimated number of 1 in 1000-1500 pregnancies in Germany. The course of the disease ranges from mild forms with minor symptoms to severe forms with acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00059-018-4709-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00059-018-4709-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096623PMC
August 2018
7 Reads

Pregnancy in Patients with Cushing's Syndrome.

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2018 06;47(2):441-449

Neuroendocrine Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hospital das Clínicas, University of São Paulo Medical School, Avenida Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, n° 155, 8° andar, bloco 03, São Paulo, São Paulo 05403-000, Brazil. Electronic address:

Progress in diagnosis and treatment of endocrine diseases has made pregnancy possible for women with endocrinopathies, including Cushing's syndrome (CS). The risk of maternal-fetal complications in patients who are not biochemically controlled, however, is substantial. Therefore, the surgical and/or medical control of hypercortisolism is mandatory prior to conceiving. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2018.02.004DOI Listing
June 2018
8 Reads

Gestational Hypoxia and Developmental Plasticity.

Physiol Rev 2018 07;98(3):1241-1334

The Lawrence D. Longo, MD Center for Perinatal Biology, Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine , Loma Linda, California.

Hypoxia is one of the most common and severe challenges to the maintenance of homeostasis. Oxygen sensing is a property of all tissues, and the response to hypoxia is multidimensional involving complicated intracellular networks concerned with the transduction of hypoxia-induced responses. Of all the stresses to which the fetus and newborn infant are subjected, perhaps the most important and clinically relevant is that of hypoxia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00043.2017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088145PMC
July 2018
3 Reads

Reproduction in domestic ruminants during the past 50 yr: discovery to application.

J Anim Sci 2018 Jun;96(7):2952-2970

Department of Animal Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.

The study of reproductive physiology in domestic ruminants has progressed from the whole animal to the molecular level in an amazingly short period of time. The volume of information on this subject is enormous; therefore, we have focused on domestic ruminants, with an emphasis on cattle. To date, artificial insemination (AI) is perhaps the most powerful technique that reproductive physiologists and geneticists have provided the livestock industry for genetic improvement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jas/sky139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6095338PMC
June 2018
24 Reads

Human Placental Growth Hormone Variant in Pathological Pregnancies.

Endocrinology 2018 05;159(5):2186-2198

Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.

Growth hormone (GH), an endocrine hormone, primarily secreted from the anterior pituitary, stimulates growth, cell reproduction, and regeneration and is a major regulator of postnatal growth. Humans have two GH genes that encode two versions of GH proteins: a pituitary version (GH-N/GH1) and a placental GH-variant (GH-V/GH2), which are expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and extravillous trophoblast cells of the placenta. During pregnancy, GH-V replaces GH-N in the maternal circulation at mid-late gestation as the major circulating form of GH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2018-00037DOI Listing
May 2018
3 Reads

[GESTASTRES cohort study protocol on the effects of stress during pregnancy by measuring the cortisol in women's and newborn's hair].

Rev Esp Salud Publica 2018 Apr 16;92. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Centro de Investigación Mente, Cerebro y Comportamiento (CIMCYC), Universidad de Granada. Granada. España.

The aim was to present the longitudinal study protocol on the effects of perinatal stress from conception to one year of age. Stress is associated to psychopathological, cardiovascular and inmunological diseases. During pregnancy, the activation of the Hipotalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal results in an increased release of cortisol. Read More

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April 2018
4 Reads

Ovotesticular Disorder of Sex Development (Ovotestis) in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel Syndrome: Expansion of the Clinical Spectrum.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2019 Jan-Feb;22(1):70-74. Epub 2018 Apr 13.

1 Department of Pathology, Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island.

Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type I (SGBS, OMIM312870), caused by defects of the GPC3 and GPC4 genes on chromosome Xq26, is an X-linked recessive macrosomia/multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by somatic overgrowth, coarse facial features, variable congenital anomalies, increased tumor risk, and mild-to-moderate neurodevelopmental anomalies. We report the postmortem findings in 3 second-trimester male siblings with SGBS who displayed ambiguous genitalia (in all 3) and gonadal dysgenesis (ovotestis) (in 1), thus expanding the SGBS spectrum to include these disorders of sex development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1093526618770327DOI Listing
March 2019
15 Reads

Evaluation and Management of Children with Thyrotoxicosis.

Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov 2017 ;11(1):22-31

Departments of Medicine, Community Health Sciences, and Oncology, The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis, especially in early infancy, may cause irreversible damage to the central nervous system as well as profound effects on the function of many organs. Thyrotoxicosis has multiple etiologies and treatment depends on the underlying etiology. An accurate diagnosis is essential so that appropriate treatment can be initiated without undue delay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1872214812666180327112540DOI Listing
October 2018
7 Reads

Central congenital hypothyroidism caused by maternal thyrotoxicosis.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Mar 22;2018. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Department of Pediatrics, Haga Hospital/Juliana Children's Hospital, The Hague, Netherlands.

Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is a rare and underdiagnosed disease that sometimes is caused by maternal Graves' disease. We report a case of CCH caused by undiagnosed, initially antibody-negative maternal thyrotoxicosis with possible disruption of fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis maturation. In CCH, maternal thyroid disease should be considered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2017-222620DOI Listing
March 2018
5 Reads

Pituitary disease management during pregnancy: an overview.

Minerva Endocrinol 2018 Dec 15;43(4):420-422. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

ENDOC Center for Endocrine Tumors, Hamburg, Germany -

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https://www.minervamedica.it/index2.php?show=R07Y2018N04A042
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0391-1977.18.02835-3DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

The Ovarian Cycle.

Vitam Horm 2018 23;107:1-25. Epub 2018 Feb 23.

Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; Center for Reproductive Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address:

The "ovarian cycle" is an exquisite and dynamic endocrine system that includes ovarian events, hypothalamic-pituitary interactions, uterine endometrial and myometrial changes during implantation and pregnancy, cervical alterations in structure, and breast development. The ovarian cycle and the steroid hormones produced by the ovary also impact epithelial cancer development in the ovary, uterus, cervix, and breast. This chapter provides a personal view of recent developments that occur in this complex endocrine environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.vh.2018.01.009DOI Listing
November 2018

Novel hGHRH homodimer promotes fertility of female infertile hamster by up-regulating ovarian GHRH receptor without triggering GH secretion.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2018 May 8;117:341-350. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Courses, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Extra-hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) plays an important role in infertility. The female infertility models were formed by intraperitoneally injecting cyclophosphamide in 5-week-old Chinese hamster once in a week for 5 weeks. All the models mated with healthy male hamster in the ratio of 1:1 in the experimental 6-8th week and the couples were separated to breed in the 9-10th week. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2018.03.012DOI Listing
May 2018
43 Reads

MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Management of Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy: solved and unsolved questions.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Jun 9;178(6):R259-R266. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Aix-Marseille Université, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U1251, Marseille Medical Genetics, Marseille, France.

With fewer than 200 reported cases, Cushing's syndrome (CS) in pregnancy remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In normal pregnancies, misleading signs may be observed such as striae or hypokalemia, while plasma cortisol and urinary free cortisol may rise up to 2- to 3-fold. While the dexamethasone suppression test is difficult to use, reference values for salivary cortisol appear valid. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-17-1058DOI Listing
June 2018
23 Reads