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    4647 results match your criteria Pituitary Disease and Pregnancy

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    Hyperprolactinaemia - a problem in patients from the reproductive period to the menopause.
    Prz Menopauzalny 2017 Mar 26;16(1):1-7. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    2 Department of Gynecology, Lublin Medical University, Lublin, Poland.
    Hyperprolactinaemia especially affects women in reproductive age (90/100,000) but also often is diagnosed in menopause age and leads to disturbances in functioning of LH-RH neurons and, as a consequence, to a decrease of FSH and LH, which causes inhibition of oestradiol production. Prolactin is a peptide hormone, phylogenetically one of the oldest, stimulating cells of various organs, which is produced and secreted mainly by lactotrophic acidophilic cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary. It influences the increase in the mass of the mammary glands, and stimulation and maintenance of lactation after delivery. Read More

    Neurobehavioral risks of SSRIs in pregnancy: Comparing human and animal data.
    Reprod Toxicol 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Laboratory of Teratology, Department of Medical Neurobiology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
    During the last twenty years, in spite of extensive literature regarding the use of SSRIs in pregnancy, confusion still exists as to possible long-term risks of these drugs on the offspring. Possible negative effects relate to neurodevelopmental outcome and association with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Most neurodevelopmental follow up studies did not find significant cognitive impairment except from some apparently transient, gross motor delay and slight impairment of language abilities. Read More

    Management of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 during pregnancy: A case report and review of the literature.
    J Exp Ther Oncol 2016 Jul;11(3):217-220
    Department of Perinatology, Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) or Wermer's syndrome is a rare hereditary endocrine syndrome with high penetrance caused by mutations in MEN1 tumor suppressor gene. MEN1 is characterized by hyperplasia or tumoral enlargement in a number of endocrine organs (parathyroid glands, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal gland) and it could be hormonally active or inactive. MEN1 is a significant cause of morbidity due to hormone secretion and mass effect. Read More

    Long-term consequences of obesity on female fertility and the health of the offspring.
    Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jun;29(3):180-187
    aDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology bDivision of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Obesity has reached near epidemic levels among reproductive age women with a myriad of consequences. Obesity adversely affects the maternal milieu by creating conditions that decrease fertility and increase the risk of gestational diabetes, hypertensive disease in pregnancy, fetal growth abnormalities and congenital anomalies. The effects of obesity are not limited to pregnancy. Read More

    Transcriptome analysis of endometrial tissues following GnRH agonist treatment in a mouse adenomyosis model.
    Drug Des Devel Ther 2017 9;11:695-704. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine Center, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
    Purpose: Adenomyosis is a common, benign gynecological condition of the female reproductive tract characterized by heavy menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are one of the medications used in adenomyosis treatment; however, their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Moreover, it is difficult to obtain endometrial samples from women undergoing such treatment. Read More

    Pituitary Adenoma and Hyperprolactinemia Accompanied by Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis.
    Case Rep Endocrinol 2017 22;2017:3974291. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    General Surgery Department, Liv Hospital, Ulus, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast, and its etiology remains not fully elucidated. IGM is observed more often in patients with autoimmune disease. Hyperprolactinemia is observed during pregnancy, lactation, and a history of oral contraceptive use. Read More

    Obesity and female infertility: potential mediators of obesity's impact.
    Fertil Steril 2017 Apr 11;107(4):840-847. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:
    The worldwide upward trend in obesity has been dramatic, now affecting more than 20% of American women of reproductive age. Obesity is associated with many adverse maternal and fetal effects prenatally, but it also exerts a negative influence on female fertility. Obese women are more likely to have ovulatory dysfunction due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Read More

    Successful Pregnancies and Deliveries in a Patient With Evolving Hypopituitarism due to Pituitary Stalk Transection Syndrome: Role of Growth Hormone Replacement.
    Intern Med 2017 1;56(5):527-530. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kurobe City Hospital, Japan.
    We herein report a 31-year-old Japanese woman with evolving hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk transection syndrome. She had a history of short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) in childhood and had hypothyroidism and primary amenorrhea at 20 years old. Levothyroxine replacement and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone-human chorionic gonadotropin (FSH-hCG) therapy for ovulation induction were started. Read More

    Pituitary Autoimmunity.
    Front Horm Res 2017 28;48:48-68. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Pituitary autoimmunity, considered a synonym of autoimmune hypophysitis, defines a wide spectrum of conditions (neoplastic, functional, and iatrogenic pituitary disorders; and extra-pituitary autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases), and is characterized by the presence of antipituitary antibodies (APAs) at various titer and prevalence. These conditions have been increasingly recognized not only in adults, but also in children. The autoimmune pathogenesis, histological features of the primary (i. Read More

    Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus.
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07747 Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Read More

    [A Case of Lymphocytic Adenohypophysitis Presenting Visual Disturbance in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy].
    No Shinkei Geka 2017 Feb;45(2):161-165
    Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University.
    Lymphocytic hypophysitis(LH)has first been described as an autoimmune endocrinopathy by Goudie in 1962. In particular, lymphocytic adenohypophysitis(LAH)is usually associated with pregnancy and hypopituitarism due to insufficient endocrine of ACTH. However, several cases of LAH in pregnant patients showing only visual disturbances have recently been documented. Read More

    Pegvisomant in acromegaly: an update.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Jun 7;40(6):577-589. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Background: In 2007, we published an opinion document to review the role of pegvisomant (PEG) in the treatment of acromegaly. Since then, new evidence emerged on the biochemical and clinical effects of PEG and on its long-term efficacy and safety.

    Aim: We here reviewed the emerging aspects of the use of PEG in clinical practice in the light of the most recent literature. Read More

    Sex-Specific Neurodevelopmental Programming by Placental Insulin Receptors on Stress Reactivity and Sensorimotor Gating.
    Biol Psychiatry 2016 Dec 30. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:
    Background: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk. Read More

    Prolactin has a pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus.
    Immunol Res 2017 Apr;65(2):512-523
    Rheumatology Section, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Prolactin, a 23-kDa peptide hormone, is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites including the immune cells. Prolactin (PRL) participates in innate and adaptive immune response. PRL stimulates the immune cells by binding to receptor (PRL-R). Read More

    Thyroid in pregnancy: From physiology to screening.
    Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2017 Mar 19;54(2):102-116. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    c Division of Internal Medicine , University Hospital Basel , Basel , Switzerland.
    Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. Read More

    Hypertension: The role of biochemistry in the diagnosis and management.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 Feb 19;465:131-143. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry & Diagnostic Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Hypertension is defined as a persistently elevated blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg. It is an important treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with a high prevalence in the general population. The most common cause, essential hypertension, is a widespread disease - however, secondary hypertension is under investigated and under diagnosed. Read More

    Adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: do's and don'ts.
    J Med Life 2016 Oct-Dec;9(4):334-341
    "I. Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; Department of Endocrinology, Clinical County Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Aim. To present specific aspects of adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS) by introducing well established aspects ("do's") and less known aspects ("don'ts"). Material and Method. Read More

    Macroprolactinomas and Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas and Pregnancy Outcomes.
    Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jan;129(1):185-194
    Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Winchester, Hampshire, the Division of Women's Health, King's College London and Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, London, the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, and the Regional Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.
    Objective: To examine the monitoring, management, and outcomes of pituitary tumors in pregnancy.

    Methods: A national, prospective, observational, population-based case series study was conducted in all U.K. Read More

    Maternal epigenetics and fetal and neonatal growth.
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2017 Feb;24(1):43-46
    Department of Medical Genetics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Purpose Of Review: The article provides an update on new insights of factors altering inherited maternal epigenome that ultimately affect fetal and neonatal growth.

    Recent Findings: A number of new publications have identified mechanisms through which maternal nutrition, environmental exposures such as stress and toxic substances altering expression of imprinted genes during pregnancy can influence fetal and neonatal phenotype and susceptibility to disease development later in life. The possible causes of metabolic syndrome by in-utero epigenetic alterations of genes involved in energy metabolism (PPARγ and PPARα), microRNAs, arginine methyltransferases, lysine demethylases, and histone deacetylaces have been elucidated. Read More

    Preconception management of endocrine disorders.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2016 Nov;66(11):1494-1496
    Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Endocrine function is closely interlinked with pregnancy. Maternal and foetal outcomes can be improved if optimal endocrine function is achieved, and maintained prior to conception. This needs a systematic approach which includes rational screening, appropriate management, and pragmatic counseling. Read More

    Hormonal Replacement in Hypopituitarism in Adults: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov 13;101(11):3888-3921. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    Oregon Health & Science University, Northwest Pituitary Center (M.F.), and Departments of Neurological Surgery and Medicine (Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition), Portland, Oregon 97239; Department of Pathology (I.A.H.), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390; Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (N.K.), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism (N.K.), Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom, Pituitary Center (S.M.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048; Mayo Clinic Evidence-Based Practice Center, (M.H.M), Rochester, Minnesota 55905; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism (R.S.), Pituitary Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287; and Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition (M.H.S.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239.
    Objective: To formulate clinical practice guidelines for hormonal replacement in hypopituitarism in adults.

    Participants: The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of six experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry, the Pituitary Society, and the European Society of Endocrinology co-sponsored this guideline. Read More

    Effects of Common Equine Endocrine Diseases on Reproduction.
    Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2016 Dec 8;32(3):435-449. Epub 2016 Oct 8.
    Equine Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 601 Vernon L. Tharp St, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:
    Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve. It is hoped that further research will establish these recommendations more firmly. Read More

    Prenatal maternal depression is associated with offspring inflammation at 25 years: a prospective longitudinal cohort study.
    Transl Psychiatry 2016 Nov 1;6(11):e936. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Animal studies and a handful of prospective human studies have demonstrated that young offspring exposed to maternal prenatal stress show abnormalities in immune parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. No study has examined the effect of maternal prenatal depression on offspring inflammation and HPA axis activity in adulthood, nor the putative role of child maltreatment in inducing these abnormalities. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and awakening cortisol were measured at age 25 in 103 young-adult offspring of the South London Child Development Study (SLCDS), a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of mother-offspring dyads recruited in pregnancy in 1986. Read More

    Developmental Programming: Insulin Sensitizer Prevents the GnRH-Stimulated LH Hypersecretion in a Sheep Model of PCOS.
    Endocrinology 2016 Dec 28;157(12):4641-4653. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Department of Pediatrics (R.C.C., A.B., J.M., V.P.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109; and Department of Zoology and Physiology (D.C.S.), University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071.
    Prenatal testosterone (T) treatment recapitulates the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome in female sheep. At the neuroendocrine level, prenatal T treatment results in disrupted steroid feedback on gonadotropin release, increased pituitary sensitivity to GnRH, and subsequent LH hypersecretion. Because prenatal T-treated sheep manifest functional hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia, gonadal steroids and/or insulin may play a role in programming and/or maintaining these neuroendocrine defects. Read More

    Childhood acromegaly due to X-linked acrogigantism: long term follow-up.
    Pituitary 2016 Dec;19(6):560-564
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY, 10032, USA.
    Purpose: Acromegaly in infancy is extremely rare. We describe a 32 year old woman who presented at 6 months of age with isolated macrocephaly, followed by accelerated linear growth. At 21 months of age, her head circumference was 55 cm (+5. Read More

    Preadolescent Adversity Programs a Disrupted Maternal Stress Reactivity in Humans and Mice.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Apr 26;81(8):693-701. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Penn PROMOTES Research on Sex and Gender in Health, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:
    Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are one of the greatest predictors of affective disorders for women. Periods of dynamic hormonal flux, including pregnancy, exacerbate the risk for affective disturbance and promote hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, a key feature of affective disorders. Little is understood as to how stress experienced in late childhood, defined as preadolescence, alters the programming unique to this period of brain maturation and its interaction with the hormonal changes of pregnancy and postpartum. Read More

    Congenital craniopharyngioma treated by radical surgery: case report and review of the literature.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Feb 26;33(2):357-362. Epub 2016 Sep 26.
    Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan.
    Purpose: Craniopharyngiomas are 5-10 % of all pediatric tumors, but are seldomly encountered in the perinatal period. Only seven instances of a truly antenatal diagnosis of a congenital craniopharyngioma that subsequently underwent radical surgery have been reported. We present the case of a patient who received the diagnosis of a suprasellar tumor during the prenatal period and received radical surgery. Read More

    Impact of maternal steroids during pregnancy.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2016 Dec 16;77(6):677-679. Epub 2016 Sep 16.
    Endocrinology unit, centre for cardiovascular science, Queen's medical research institute, 47, Little France Crescent, EH16 4TJ Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids is a key mechanism thought to underlie the early life programming of later life disease. There is substantial experimental data in animal models in support of this hypothesis. Emerging evidence suggests glucocorticoid programming may also occur in humans with some studies now linking maternal endogenous cortisol levels with size at birth and gestation at delivery. Read More

    Postpartum Granulomatous Hypophysitis: A Case Study, Review of the Literature, and Discussion of Pathogenesis.
    Case Rep Pathol 2016 24;2016:7510323. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Department of Pathology, Cell Biology and Anatomy, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory condition of the pituitary gland that has three main histologic subtypes: lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH), granulomatous hypophysitis (GH), and xanthomatous hypophysitis (XH). Among these, LH is the most common and is strongly associated with the postpartum state, while XH is the least common. Many hypophysitis cases have been reported in the literature but only a few cases of postpartum GH have been discussed. Read More

    Gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease.
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2017 Mar;18(1):117-130
    Biomedical Research Department, Diabetes and Obesity Research Division, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, California, LA, USA.
    Sexual dysfunction is a common finding in both men and women with chronic kidney failure. Common disturbances include erectile dysfunction in men, menstrual abnormalities in women, and decreased libido and fertility in both sexes. These abnormalities are primarily organic in nature and are related to uremia as well as the other comorbid conditions that frequently occur in the chronic kidney failure patient. Read More

    Pregnancy and acromegaly.
    Pituitary 2017 Feb;20(1):179-184
    Rotterdam Pituitary Centre, Erasmus University MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Introduction: Acromegaly is a rare disorder in which, due to the high incidence of secondary hypogonadism, pregnancies are relatively rare. However, some women with acromegaly do get pregnant, which brings along questions about medication, complications and follow-up. This review tries to address these issues and provide the reader with practical information. Read More

    Mutations in gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway in two nIHH patients with successful pregnancy outcomes.
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2016 Aug 20;14(1):48. Epub 2016 Aug 20.
    Center of Human Reproduction "Genesis", St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Background: Anomalous levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion result in a variety of reproductive phenotypes associated with infertility or subfertility. The normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH) is due to a failure of either GnRH pulsatile secretion in hypothalamus or its reception in pituitary. The spectrum of nIHH-associated alterations continues to expand, especially when additional ethnic populations are investigated. Read More

    Managing thyroid disease in general practice.
    Med J Aust 2016 Aug;205(4):179-84
    Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA
    Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) testing is the best screening tool for thyroid dysfunction. When TSH levels are in the reference range, additional tests such as free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine or thyroid antibodies rarely add value, except in patients with pituitary disease, when TSH is unreliable. Overt hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH levels > 10 mU/L can be treated without further investigation. Read More

    Antenatal endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids and their impact on immune ontogeny and long-term immunity.
    Semin Immunopathol 2016 Nov 28;38(6):739-763. Epub 2016 Jul 28.
    Department of Immunology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Endogenous levels of glucocorticoids rise during pregnancy to warrant development and maturation of the fetal organs close to birth. However, during most of the gestation, the fetus is protected from excessive biologically active endogenous glucocorticoids by placental and fetal expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2). Maternal stress, which may overwhelm placental 11β-HSD2 activity with high glucocorticoid levels, or administration of synthetic glucocorticoids to improve the survival chances of the premature newborn, are associated to postnatal increased risk for immune diseases. Read More

    Dopamine agonists for preventing future miscarriage in women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and recurrent miscarriage history.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Jul 25;7:CD008883. Epub 2016 Jul 25.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 17, Section Three, Ren Min Nan Lu Avenue, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 610041.
    Background: Hyperprolactinemia is the presence of abnormally high circulating levels of prolactin. Idopathic hyperprolactinemia is the term used when no cause of prolactin hypersecretion can be identified and it is causally related to the development of miscarriage in pregnant women, especially women who have a history of recurrent miscarriage. A possible mechanism is that high levels of prolactin affect the function of the ovaries, resulting in a luteal phase defect and miscarriage. Read More

    A primer on pituitary injury for the obstetrician gynecologist: Simmond's disease, Sheehan's Syndrome, traumatic injury, Dahan's Syndrome, pituitary apoplexy and lymphocytic hypophysitis.
    Minerva Ginecol 2017 Apr 13;69(2):190-194. Epub 2016 Jul 13.
    McGill Reproductive Center, McGill University, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Canada.
    The pituitary gland plays a critical role in reproduction. In response to the hypothalamus the anterior pituitary secretes prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adreno-corticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and growth hormone. Dysregulation in these hormones often lead to reproductive failure. Read More

    Cabergoline treatment for recurrent Cushing's disease during pregnancy.
    Hormones (Athens) 2016 Jul;15(3):453-458
    Endocrinology Department, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.
    Objective: Cushing's disease during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for maternal and fetal complications. In recurrent Cushing`s disease following transsphenoidal surgery, and when re-operation is not feasible, medical treatment is usually considered. Cabergoline was found to be effective in reducing hypercortisolism in Cushing's disease. Read More

    RCT to evaluate the influence of adjuvant medical treatment of peritoneal endometriosis on the outcome of IVF.
    Hum Reprod 2016 Sep 1;31(9):2017-23. Epub 2016 Jul 1.
    Fertility Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, AZ Jan Palfijn, Henri Dunantlaan 5, 9000 Ghent, Belgium Center for Reproductive Medicine, Dutch Speaking Free University Brussels, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels, Belgium.
    Study Question: Does a 3-month adjuvant hormonal treatment of mild peritoneal endometriosis after laparoscopic surgery influence the outcome of IVF stimulation in terms of number of mature oocytes obtained per cycle?

    Summary Answer: Complementary medical treatment of mild peritoneal endometriosis does not influence the number of oocytes per treatment cycle.

    What Is Known Already: Endometriosis is a disease known to be related to infertility. However, the influence of superficial endometriosis-and its treatment-is still a matter of debate. Read More

    Diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency including adrenal crisis: a Japan Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline [Opinion].
    Endocr J 2016 Sep 24;63(9):765-784. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoa 814-0180, Japan.
    This clinical practice guideline of the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency (AI) including adrenal crisis was produced on behalf of the Japan Endocrine Society. This evidence-based guideline was developed by a committee including all authors, and was reviewed by a subcommittee of the Japan Endocrine Society. The Japanese version has already been published, and the essential points have been summarized in this English language version. Read More

    Is plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 a physiological bottleneck bridging major depressive disorder and cardiovascular disease?
    Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2017 Apr 5;219(4):715-727. Epub 2016 Jul 5.
    Women's Health Concerns Clinic, St. Joseph's Healthcare, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is estimated to affect one in twenty people worldwide. MDD is highly comorbid with cardiovascular disease (CVD), itself one of the single largest causes of mortality worldwide. A number of pathological changes observed in MDD are believed to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, although no single mechanism has been identified. Read More

    Correlation between Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Activity and Plasma Levels of Monomeric Prolactin and Macroprolactin.
    Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2016 ;16(1):21-7
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Federal University of Uberlândia, Pará Av., 1720, ZIP code: 38400-902, Uberlândia, Brazil.
    Unlabelled: The correlation of prolactin (PRL) levels with SLE activity is a controversial issue, which could be explained by the presence of macroprolactin (MPRL), a high molecular weight form of PRL with a lower in vivo biological activity.

    Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia, PRL and MPRL levels in SLE patients, and to correlate these levels with disease activity as measured by the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI).

    Material And Methods: We conducted a case-control, cross-sectional study with 73 SLE patients (L group), sixty-two of which were evaluated before and after treatment, and correlated the results with serum PRL and MPRL levels. Read More

    Neurological Complications of Pregnancy.
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2016 Jul;16(7):67
    SSM Healthcare-Dean Medical Group, 700 S. Park Street, Madison, WI, 53715, USA.
    Physiologic alterations during pregnancy create an environment for the occurrence of disease states that are either unique to pregnancy, occur more frequently in pregnancy, or require special management considerations that may be different from the nonpregnancy state. In the realm of cerebrovascular disease, preeclampsia, eclampsia, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, sources of cardiogenic embolization including peripartum cardiomyopathy, cerebral venous thrombosis, pituitary apoplexy, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and special considerations for anticoagulation during pregnancy will be discussed. Management of epilepsy during pregnancy counterbalances maternal freedom from seizures against the potential for major, minor, cognitive, and behavioral fetal deformities. Read More

    Genetic predisposition for high stress reactivity amplifies effects of early-life adversity.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 2016 Aug 3;70:85-97. Epub 2016 May 3.
    Department of Stress Neurobiology and Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Kraepelinstr. 2, 80804 Munich, Germany; Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Großhaderner Str. 2, 82152 Munich, Germany. Electronic address:
    A dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and the experience of early-life adversity are both well-established risk factors for the development of affective disorders, such as major depression. However, little is known about the interaction of these two factors in shaping endophenotypes of the disease. Here, we studied the gene-environment interaction of a genetic predisposition for HPA axis dysregulation with early-life stress (ELS), assessing the short-, as well as the long-lasting consequences on emotional behavior, neuroendocrine functions and gene expression profiles. Read More

    Diabetes insipidus and pregnancy.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2016 Jun 9;77(2):135-8. Epub 2016 May 9.
    Service d'endocrinologie et des maladies de la reproduction, centre de référence des maladies endocriniennes rares de la croissance, hôpital de Bicêtre, hôpitaux universitaires Paris-Sud, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (PC), 78, rue du Général-Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.
    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It is usually transient, being due to increased placental production of vasopressinase that inactivates circulating vasopressin. Gestational, transient DI occurs late in pregnancy and disappears few days after delivery. Read More

    Diabetes insipidus during pregnancy.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Mar 16;30(2):305-15. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
    Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Boston University School of Medicine/Boston Medical Center, 88 East Newton Street, H-3600, Boston, MA 02118, USA. Electronic address:
    Diabetes insipidus (DI) in pregnancy is a heterogeneous syndrome, most classically presenting with polyuria and polydipsia that can complicate approximately 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The presentation can involve exacerbation of central or nephrogenic DI during pregnancy, which may have been either overt or subclinical prior to pregnancy. Women without preexisting DI can also be affected by the actions of placental vasopressinase which increases in activity between the 4th and 38th weeks of gestation, leading to accelerated metabolism of AVP and causing a transient form of DI of pregnancy. Read More

    Diabetes insipidus: Differential diagnosis and management.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Mar 18;30(2):205-18. Epub 2016 Feb 18.
    Feinberg Medical School of Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address:
    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a syndrome characterized by the excretion of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine. It can be caused by any of 4 fundamentally different defects that must be distinguished for safe and effective management. They are: (1) pituitary DI, due to inadequate production and secretion of antidiuretic hormone, arginine-vasopressin (AVP); (2) gestational DI due to degradation of AVP by an enzyme made in placenta; (3) primary polydipsia, due to suppression of AVP secretion by excessive fluid intake; and (4) nephrogenic DI due to renal insensitivity to the antidiuretic effect of AVP. Read More

    Prolactinoma and pregnancy: From the wish of conception to lactation.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2016 Jun 26;77(2):128-34. Epub 2016 Apr 26.
    Service d'endocrinologie et nutrition, cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, avenue Hippocrate, UCL 54.74, 1200 Bruxelles, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Prolactinoma is a common cause of infertility in young women and treatment with dopamine agonists (DA) allows restoration of fertility in over 90% of the cases. Both bromocriptine and cabergoline have shown a good safety profile when administered during early pregnancy. In particular, data on exposure of the fetus or embryo to cabergoline during the first weeks of pregnancy have now been reported in more than 900 cases, and do indicate that cabergoline is safe in this context. Read More

    Thyrotropinoma with Graves' disease detected by the fusion of indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging.
    Indian J Nucl Med 2016 Apr-Jun;31(2):141-3
    Department of Endocrinology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey.
    Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare benign endocrinological tumor which produces TSH in the pituitary gland. Herein, we presented a female patient having TSHoma with Graves' disease during and just after pregnancy that we found by indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy while investigating the patient for hyperthyroidism symptoms. Read More

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumour of the ovary presenting with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2016 23;2016:160006. Epub 2016 Feb 23.
    Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust , Herries Road, Sheffield, S5 7AU , UK.
    Unlabelled: Secondary amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea represent a common endocrine presentation. We report a case of an oestrogen-producing juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) of the ovary in a 16-year-old post-pubertal woman with hyperprolactinaemia amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea which resolved following surgical resection of the tumour. This patient presented with a 9-month history of secondary amenorrhoea and a 2-month history of galactorrhoea. Read More

    Lancet 2016 Nov 31;388(10058):2403-2415. Epub 2016 Mar 31.
    Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Human Development, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK. Electronic address:
    Hypopituitarism refers to deficiency of one or more hormones produced by the anterior pituitary or released from the posterior pituitary. Hypopituitarism is associated with excess mortality, a key risk factor being cortisol deficiency due to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. Onset can be acute or insidious, and the most common cause in adulthood is a pituitary adenoma, or treatment with pituitary surgery or radiotherapy. Read More

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