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    4625 results match your criteria Pituitary Disease and Pregnancy

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    Pituitary Adenoma and Hyperprolactinemia Accompanied by Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis.
    Case Rep Endocrinol 2017 22;2017:3974291. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    General Surgery Department, Liv Hospital, Ulus, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast, and its etiology remains not fully elucidated. IGM is observed more often in patients with autoimmune disease. Hyperprolactinemia is observed during pregnancy, lactation, and a history of oral contraceptive use. Read More

    Pituitary Autoimmunity.
    Front Horm Res 2017 28;48:48-68. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Pituitary autoimmunity, considered a synonym of autoimmune hypophysitis, defines a wide spectrum of conditions (neoplastic, functional, and iatrogenic pituitary disorders; and extra-pituitary autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases), and is characterized by the presence of antipituitary antibodies (APAs) at various titer and prevalence. These conditions have been increasingly recognized not only in adults, but also in children. The autoimmune pathogenesis, histological features of the primary (i. Read More

    Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus.
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07747 Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Read More

    Pegvisomant in acromegaly: an update.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Feb 7. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Background: In 2007, we published an opinion document to review the role of pegvisomant (PEG) in the treatment of acromegaly. Since then, new evidence emerged on the biochemical and clinical effects of PEG and on its long-term efficacy and safety.

    Aim: We here reviewed the emerging aspects of the use of PEG in clinical practice in the light of the most recent literature. Read More

    Sex-Specific Neurodevelopmental Programming by Placental Insulin Receptors on Stress Reactivity and Sensorimotor Gating.
    Biol Psychiatry 2016 Dec 30. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:
    Background: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk. Read More

    Prolactin has a pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus.
    Immunol Res 2017 Jan 28. Epub 2017 Jan 28.
    Rheumatology Section, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Prolactin, a 23-kDa peptide hormone, is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites including the immune cells. Prolactin (PRL) participates in innate and adaptive immune response. PRL stimulates the immune cells by binding to receptor (PRL-R). Read More

    Thyroid in pregnancy: From physiology to screening.
    Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2017 Mar 19;54(2):102-116. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    c Division of Internal Medicine , University Hospital Basel , Basel , Switzerland.
    Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. Read More

    Hypertension: The role of biochemistry in the diagnosis and management.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 Feb 19;465:131-143. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry & Diagnostic Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Hypertension is defined as a persistently elevated blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg. It is an important treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with a high prevalence in the general population. The most common cause, essential hypertension, is a widespread disease - however, secondary hypertension is under investigated and under diagnosed. Read More

    Adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: do's and don'ts.
    J Med Life 2016 Oct-Dec;9(4):334-341
    "I. Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; Department of Endocrinology, Clinical County Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Aim. To present specific aspects of adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS) by introducing well established aspects ("do's") and less known aspects ("don'ts"). Material and Method. Read More

    Macroprolactinomas and Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas and Pregnancy Outcomes.
    Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jan;129(1):185-194
    Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Winchester, Hampshire, the Division of Women's Health, King's College London and Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, London, the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, and the Regional Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.
    Objective: To examine the monitoring, management, and outcomes of pituitary tumors in pregnancy.

    Methods: A national, prospective, observational, population-based case series study was conducted in all U.K. Read More

    Maternal epigenetics and fetal and neonatal growth.
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2017 Feb;24(1):43-46
    Department of Medical Genetics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Purpose Of Review: The article provides an update on new insights of factors altering inherited maternal epigenome that ultimately affect fetal and neonatal growth.

    Recent Findings: A number of new publications have identified mechanisms through which maternal nutrition, environmental exposures such as stress and toxic substances altering expression of imprinted genes during pregnancy can influence fetal and neonatal phenotype and susceptibility to disease development later in life. The possible causes of metabolic syndrome by in-utero epigenetic alterations of genes involved in energy metabolism (PPARγ and PPARα), microRNAs, arginine methyltransferases, lysine demethylases, and histone deacetylaces have been elucidated. Read More

    Preconception management of endocrine disorders.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2016 Nov;66(11):1494-1496
    Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Endocrine function is closely interlinked with pregnancy. Maternal and foetal outcomes can be improved if optimal endocrine function is achieved, and maintained prior to conception. This needs a systematic approach which includes rational screening, appropriate management, and pragmatic counseling. Read More

    Effects of Common Equine Endocrine Diseases on Reproduction.
    Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2016 Dec 8;32(3):435-449. Epub 2016 Oct 8.
    Equine Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 601 Vernon L. Tharp St, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:
    Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve. It is hoped that further research will establish these recommendations more firmly. Read More

    Prenatal maternal depression is associated with offspring inflammation at 25 years: a prospective longitudinal cohort study.
    Transl Psychiatry 2016 Nov 1;6(11):e936. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Animal studies and a handful of prospective human studies have demonstrated that young offspring exposed to maternal prenatal stress show abnormalities in immune parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. No study has examined the effect of maternal prenatal depression on offspring inflammation and HPA axis activity in adulthood, nor the putative role of child maltreatment in inducing these abnormalities. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and awakening cortisol were measured at age 25 in 103 young-adult offspring of the South London Child Development Study (SLCDS), a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of mother-offspring dyads recruited in pregnancy in 1986. Read More

    Preadolescent Adversity Programs a Disrupted Maternal Stress Reactivity in Humans and Mice.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Apr 26;81(8):693-701. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Penn PROMOTES Research on Sex and Gender in Health, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:
    Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are one of the greatest predictors of affective disorders for women. Periods of dynamic hormonal flux, including pregnancy, exacerbate the risk for affective disturbance and promote hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, a key feature of affective disorders. Little is understood as to how stress experienced in late childhood, defined as preadolescence, alters the programming unique to this period of brain maturation and its interaction with the hormonal changes of pregnancy and postpartum. Read More

    Impact of maternal steroids during pregnancy.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2016 Dec 16;77(6):677-679. Epub 2016 Sep 16.
    Endocrinology unit, centre for cardiovascular science, Queen's medical research institute, 47, Little France Crescent, EH16 4TJ Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids is a key mechanism thought to underlie the early life programming of later life disease. There is substantial experimental data in animal models in support of this hypothesis. Emerging evidence suggests glucocorticoid programming may also occur in humans with some studies now linking maternal endogenous cortisol levels with size at birth and gestation at delivery. Read More

    Postpartum Granulomatous Hypophysitis: A Case Study, Review of the Literature, and Discussion of Pathogenesis.
    Case Rep Pathol 2016 24;2016:7510323. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Department of Pathology, Cell Biology and Anatomy, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory condition of the pituitary gland that has three main histologic subtypes: lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH), granulomatous hypophysitis (GH), and xanthomatous hypophysitis (XH). Among these, LH is the most common and is strongly associated with the postpartum state, while XH is the least common. Many hypophysitis cases have been reported in the literature but only a few cases of postpartum GH have been discussed. Read More

    Gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease.
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2016 Sep 1. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Biomedical Research Department, Diabetes and Obesity Research Division, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, California, LA, USA.
    Sexual dysfunction is a common finding in both men and women with chronic kidney failure. Common disturbances include erectile dysfunction in men, menstrual abnormalities in women, and decreased libido and fertility in both sexes. These abnormalities are primarily organic in nature and are related to uremia as well as the other comorbid conditions that frequently occur in the chronic kidney failure patient. Read More

    Pregnancy and acromegaly.
    Pituitary 2017 Feb;20(1):179-184
    Rotterdam Pituitary Centre, Erasmus University MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Introduction: Acromegaly is a rare disorder in which, due to the high incidence of secondary hypogonadism, pregnancies are relatively rare. However, some women with acromegaly do get pregnant, which brings along questions about medication, complications and follow-up. This review tries to address these issues and provide the reader with practical information. Read More

    Mutations in gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway in two nIHH patients with successful pregnancy outcomes.
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2016 Aug 20;14(1):48. Epub 2016 Aug 20.
    Center of Human Reproduction "Genesis", St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Background: Anomalous levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion result in a variety of reproductive phenotypes associated with infertility or subfertility. The normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH) is due to a failure of either GnRH pulsatile secretion in hypothalamus or its reception in pituitary. The spectrum of nIHH-associated alterations continues to expand, especially when additional ethnic populations are investigated. Read More

    Managing thyroid disease in general practice.
    Med J Aust 2016 Aug;205(4):179-84
    Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA
    Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) testing is the best screening tool for thyroid dysfunction. When TSH levels are in the reference range, additional tests such as free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine or thyroid antibodies rarely add value, except in patients with pituitary disease, when TSH is unreliable. Overt hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH levels > 10 mU/L can be treated without further investigation. Read More

    Antenatal endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoids and their impact on immune ontogeny and long-term immunity.
    Semin Immunopathol 2016 Nov 28;38(6):739-763. Epub 2016 Jul 28.
    Department of Immunology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.
    Endogenous levels of glucocorticoids rise during pregnancy to warrant development and maturation of the fetal organs close to birth. However, during most of the gestation, the fetus is protected from excessive biologically active endogenous glucocorticoids by placental and fetal expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2). Maternal stress, which may overwhelm placental 11β-HSD2 activity with high glucocorticoid levels, or administration of synthetic glucocorticoids to improve the survival chances of the premature newborn, are associated to postnatal increased risk for immune diseases. Read More

    Dopamine agonists for preventing future miscarriage in women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and recurrent miscarriage history.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Jul 25;7:CD008883. Epub 2016 Jul 25.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 17, Section Three, Ren Min Nan Lu Avenue, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 610041.
    Background: Hyperprolactinemia is the presence of abnormally high circulating levels of prolactin. Idopathic hyperprolactinemia is the term used when no cause of prolactin hypersecretion can be identified and it is causally related to the development of miscarriage in pregnant women, especially women who have a history of recurrent miscarriage. A possible mechanism is that high levels of prolactin affect the function of the ovaries, resulting in a luteal phase defect and miscarriage. Read More

    A primer on pituitary injury for the obstetrician gynecologist: Simmond's disease, Sheehan's Syndrome, traumatic injury, Dahan's Syndrome, pituitary apoplexy and lymphocytic hypophysitis.
    Minerva Ginecol 2017 Apr 13;69(2):190-194. Epub 2016 Jul 13.
    McGill Reproductive Center, McGill University, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Canada.
    The pituitary gland plays a critical role in reproduction. In response to the hypothalamus the anterior pituitary secretes prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adreno-corticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and growth hormone. Dysregulation in these hormones often lead to reproductive failure. Read More

    Cabergoline treatment for recurrent Cushing's disease during pregnancy.
    Hormones (Athens) 2016 Jul;15(3):453-458
    Endocrinology Department, Bnai Zion Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.
    Objective: Cushing's disease during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for maternal and fetal complications. In recurrent Cushing`s disease following transsphenoidal surgery, and when re-operation is not feasible, medical treatment is usually considered. Cabergoline was found to be effective in reducing hypercortisolism in Cushing's disease. Read More

    RCT to evaluate the influence of adjuvant medical treatment of peritoneal endometriosis on the outcome of IVF.
    Hum Reprod 2016 Sep 1;31(9):2017-23. Epub 2016 Jul 1.
    Fertility Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, AZ Jan Palfijn, Henri Dunantlaan 5, 9000 Ghent, Belgium Center for Reproductive Medicine, Dutch Speaking Free University Brussels, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels, Belgium.
    Study Question: Does a 3-month adjuvant hormonal treatment of mild peritoneal endometriosis after laparoscopic surgery influence the outcome of IVF stimulation in terms of number of mature oocytes obtained per cycle?

    Summary Answer: Complementary medical treatment of mild peritoneal endometriosis does not influence the number of oocytes per treatment cycle.

    What Is Known Already: Endometriosis is a disease known to be related to infertility. However, the influence of superficial endometriosis-and its treatment-is still a matter of debate. Read More

    Diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency including adrenal crisis: a Japan Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline [Opinion].
    Endocr J 2016 Sep 24;63(9):765-784. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoa 814-0180, Japan.
    This clinical practice guideline of the diagnosis and treatment of adrenal insufficiency (AI) including adrenal crisis was produced on behalf of the Japan Endocrine Society. This evidence-based guideline was developed by a committee including all authors, and was reviewed by a subcommittee of the Japan Endocrine Society. The Japanese version has already been published, and the essential points have been summarized in this English language version. Read More

    Is plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 a physiological bottleneck bridging major depressive disorder and cardiovascular disease?
    Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2017 Apr 5;219(4):715-727. Epub 2016 Jul 5.
    Women's Health Concerns Clinic, St. Joseph's Healthcare, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is estimated to affect one in twenty people worldwide. MDD is highly comorbid with cardiovascular disease (CVD), itself one of the single largest causes of mortality worldwide. A number of pathological changes observed in MDD are believed to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease, although no single mechanism has been identified. Read More

    Neurological Complications of Pregnancy.
    Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2016 Jul;16(7):67
    SSM Healthcare-Dean Medical Group, 700 S. Park Street, Madison, WI, 53715, USA.
    Physiologic alterations during pregnancy create an environment for the occurrence of disease states that are either unique to pregnancy, occur more frequently in pregnancy, or require special management considerations that may be different from the nonpregnancy state. In the realm of cerebrovascular disease, preeclampsia, eclampsia, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, sources of cardiogenic embolization including peripartum cardiomyopathy, cerebral venous thrombosis, pituitary apoplexy, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and special considerations for anticoagulation during pregnancy will be discussed. Management of epilepsy during pregnancy counterbalances maternal freedom from seizures against the potential for major, minor, cognitive, and behavioral fetal deformities. Read More

    Diabetes insipidus and pregnancy.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2016 Jun 9;77(2):135-8. Epub 2016 May 9.
    Service d'endocrinologie et des maladies de la reproduction, centre de référence des maladies endocriniennes rares de la croissance, hôpital de Bicêtre, hôpitaux universitaires Paris-Sud, Assistance publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (PC), 78, rue du Général-Leclerc, 94275 Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.
    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a rare complication of pregnancy. It is usually transient, being due to increased placental production of vasopressinase that inactivates circulating vasopressin. Gestational, transient DI occurs late in pregnancy and disappears few days after delivery. Read More

    Diabetes insipidus during pregnancy.
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Mar 16;30(2):305-15. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
    Section of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, Boston University School of Medicine/Boston Medical Center, 88 East Newton Street, H-3600, Boston, MA 02118, USA. Electronic address:
    Diabetes insipidus (DI) in pregnancy is a heterogeneous syndrome, most classically presenting with polyuria and polydipsia that can complicate approximately 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The presentation can involve exacerbation of central or nephrogenic DI during pregnancy, which may have been either overt or subclinical prior to pregnancy. Women without preexisting DI can also be affected by the actions of placental vasopressinase which increases in activity between the 4th and 38th weeks of gestation, leading to accelerated metabolism of AVP and causing a transient form of DI of pregnancy. Read More

    Prolactinoma and pregnancy: From the wish of conception to lactation.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2016 Jun 26;77(2):128-34. Epub 2016 Apr 26.
    Service d'endocrinologie et nutrition, cliniques universitaires Saint-Luc, avenue Hippocrate, UCL 54.74, 1200 Bruxelles, Belgium. Electronic address:
    Prolactinoma is a common cause of infertility in young women and treatment with dopamine agonists (DA) allows restoration of fertility in over 90% of the cases. Both bromocriptine and cabergoline have shown a good safety profile when administered during early pregnancy. In particular, data on exposure of the fetus or embryo to cabergoline during the first weeks of pregnancy have now been reported in more than 900 cases, and do indicate that cabergoline is safe in this context. Read More

    Thyrotropinoma with Graves' disease detected by the fusion of indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging.
    Indian J Nucl Med 2016 Apr-Jun;31(2):141-3
    Department of Endocrinology, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey.
    Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma (TSHoma) is a rare benign endocrinological tumor which produces TSH in the pituitary gland. Herein, we presented a female patient having TSHoma with Graves' disease during and just after pregnancy that we found by indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy while investigating the patient for hyperthyroidism symptoms. Read More

    Juvenile granulosa cell tumour of the ovary presenting with hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2016 23;2016:160006. Epub 2016 Feb 23.
    Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust , Herries Road, Sheffield, S5 7AU , UK.
    Unlabelled: Secondary amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea represent a common endocrine presentation. We report a case of an oestrogen-producing juvenile granulosa cell tumour (JGCT) of the ovary in a 16-year-old post-pubertal woman with hyperprolactinaemia amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea which resolved following surgical resection of the tumour. This patient presented with a 9-month history of secondary amenorrhoea and a 2-month history of galactorrhoea. Read More

    Hypopituitarism.
    Lancet 2016 Nov 31;388(10058):2403-2415. Epub 2016 Mar 31.
    Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes, Institute of Human Development, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK. Electronic address:
    Hypopituitarism refers to deficiency of one or more hormones produced by the anterior pituitary or released from the posterior pituitary. Hypopituitarism is associated with excess mortality, a key risk factor being cortisol deficiency due to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. Onset can be acute or insidious, and the most common cause in adulthood is a pituitary adenoma, or treatment with pituitary surgery or radiotherapy. Read More

    General health status and intelligence scores of children of mothers with acromegaly do not differ from those of healthy mothers.
    Pituitary 2016 Aug;19(4):391-8
    Division of Endocrinology-Metabolism and Diabetes, Department of Internal Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Purpose: To determine the physical status and intelligence scores of children of acromegalic mothers and to compare them with those of children from mothers without acromegaly.

    Methods: Six women with acromegaly who became pregnant under follow-up between 2010 and 2014 and their 16 children (group A) were assessed and compared with 16 children of healthy women (group B) and 15 children of women with prolactinoma (group C). The physical examinations of children were performed by the department of pediatric endocrinology and intelligence quotient (IQ) testing was undertaken by adult and pediatric psychiatry departments, using appropriate scales for their ages. Read More

    Activity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal System in Prenatally Stressed Male Rats on the Experimental Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.
    Bull Exp Biol Med 2016 Mar 29;160(5):601-4. Epub 2016 Mar 29.
    Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology, I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Using the experimental model of post-traumatic stress disorder (stress-restress paradigm), we studied the dynamics of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system (HPAS) in adult male rats, whose mothers were daily subjected to restraint stress on days 15-19 of pregnancy. Prenatally stressed males that were subjected to combined stress and subsequent restress exhibited not only increased sensitivity of HPAS to negative feedback signals (manifested under restress conditions), but also enhanced stress system reactivity. These changes persisted to the 30th day after restress. Read More

    Prenatal fat exposure and hypothalamic PPAR β/δ: Possible relationship to increased neurogenesis of orexigenic peptide neurons.
    Peptides 2016 05 19;79:16-26. Epub 2016 Mar 19.
    Laboratory of Behavioral Neurobiology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:
    Gestational exposure to a fat-rich diet, while elevating maternal circulating fatty acids, increases in the offspring's hypothalamus and amygdala the proliferation and density of neurons that express neuropeptides known to stimulate consummatory behavior. To understand the relationship between these phenomena, this study examined in the brain of postnatal offspring (day 15) the effect of prenatal fat exposure on the transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ, which is sensitive to fatty acids, and the relationship of PPAR β/δ to the orexigenic neuropeptides, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, and enkephalin. Prenatal exposure to a fat-rich diet compared to low-fat chow increased the density of cells immunoreactive for PPAR β/δ in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PFLH), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), but not the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus or basolateral amygdaloid nucleus. Read More

    Effect of Growth Hormone on Endometrial Thickness and Fertility Outcome in the Treatment of Women with Panhypopituitarism: A Case Report.
    J Reprod Med 2016 Jan-Feb;61(1-2):78-82
    Background: The role of growth hormone (GH) in female reproduction has become a topic of increasing interest over the last decade. The replacement of GH for ovulation induction in women with hypopituitarism remains controversial. The role of GH in the human endometrium is still largely unknown. Read More

    Pregnancy and pituitary adenomas.
    Minerva Endocrinol 2016 Sep 15;41(3):341-50. Epub 2016 Mar 15.
    Neuroendocrine Unit, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hospital das Clinicas, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil -
    Infertility is frequent in patients harboring pituitary adenomas. The mechanisms involved include hypogonadism secondary to hormonal hypersecretion (prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol), stalk disconnection and pituitary damage. With the improvement of clinical and surgical treatment, pregnancy in women harboring pituitary adenomas turned into a reality. Read More

    Ectopic recurrence of pediatric craniopharyngiomas after gross total resection: a report of two cases and a review of the literature.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2016 Aug 11;32(8):1523-9. Epub 2016 Mar 11.
    The Institute of Skull Base Surgery and Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Neurosurgery Institute of Central South University, 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan, 410008, People's Republic of China.
    Introduction: Ectopic recurrent craniopharyngioma is rare. We reported two pediatric cases and reviewed the related literature.

    Method: We retrospectively studied 177 craniopharyngioma cases treated by the senior author (Yuan X) between years 2003 and 2013. Read More

    [Misleading diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia in women].
    Gynecol Obstet Fertil 2016 Mar 7;44(3):181-6. Epub 2016 Mar 7.
    Service d'endocrinologie, hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, 184, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, France; Sorbonne universités, université Pierre-et-Marie-Curie-Paris 6, 75012 Paris, France; Inserm U933, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address:
    Prolactin is a major hormone, involved in gonadotroph axis regulation. Hyperprolactinemia induces gonadotropin deficiency and therefore hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It should be suspected in front of menstrual cycle abnormalities, infertility and/or galactorrhea. Read More

    [Neurological Disorders and Pregnancy].
    Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 2016 Feb 8;84(2):103-11; quiz 112-3. Epub 2016 Mar 8.
    Neurological disorders caused by pregnancy and puerperium include the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, the amniotic fluid embolism syndrome (AFES), the postpartum angiopathy due to reversible vasoconstriction syndrome, and the Sheehan syndrome. Hypertension and proteinuria are the hallmarks of preeclampsia, seizures define eclampsia. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets constitute the HELLP syndrome. Read More

    [Assisted Reproductive Technology in Female Transplant Recipients: Experience of a Reproductive Medicine Unit and Literature Review].
    Acta Med Port 2016 Jan 29;29(1):73-8. Epub 2016 Jan 29.
    Serviço de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia. Centro Hospitalar de São João, EPE. Porto. Portugal. Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade do Porto. Porto. Portugal. Unidade de Investigação em Epidemiologia - EPIUnit. Instituto de Saúde Pública. Universidade do Porto. Porto. Portugal.
    Diseases in end stage typically occur with hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis disorders, with consequent anovulation and infertility. The solid organ transplantation increased survival of patients with end-stage organs disease and the vast majority of women improve their reproductive capacity after transplantation. Although adoption can always be a possibility, the transplanted infertile woman has the right to self-reproductive determination using assisted reproductive techniques. Read More

    A case report of severe panhypopituitarism in a newborn delivered by a women with Turner syndrome.
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2015 ;36(8):734-6
    Children's University Hospital, Krakow, Poland.
    Turner syndrome (TS) is a congenital disease caused by absence or structural abnormalities of sex chromosomes resulting in gonadal dysgenesis. Spontaneous pregnancies occur in 2-8% of patients, especially with mosaic kariotypes, however they are associated with increased risk of poor outcome both for mother and fetus. We report a 4-day-old male infant delivered by women with mosaic TS who was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit and presented with severe panhypopituitarism as the early manifestation of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS). Read More

    Critical Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome After In Vitro Fertilization Treatment in a Renal Transplant Recipient: A Case Report.
    Transplant Proc 2016 Jan-Feb;48(1):267-70
    Kidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, P.R. China. Electronic address:
    Objective: The study sought to describe a case of critical ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) after in vitro fertilization treatment in a renal transplant recipient.

    Patient: A 35-year-old woman with a 5-year history of renal transplantation underwent in vitro fertilization treatment with a midluteal pituitary downregulation regimen.

    Result: There are only 7 cases published regarding successful pregnancies outcomes after in vitro fertilization treatment in renal transplant recipients. Read More

    [Update on endocrinology: management of prolactinomas during pregnancy].
    Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba 2015 ;72(3):170-4
    Unlabelled: The prolactinomas are the most common functioning pituitary tumors. The hyperprolactinemia is associated with anovulation and infertility.

    Objectives: a) describe the relationship between hyperprolactinemia and fertility, b) review the results of the use of dopamine agonists during pregnancy and embryo-fetal development and c) review the therapeutic management in micro and macroprolactinomas during pregnancy. Read More

    Pituitary metastasis of choriocarcinoma: A case report.
    Oncol Lett 2016 Feb 8;11(2):1517-1520. Epub 2016 Jan 8.
    Department of Radiology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, P.R. China.
    Choriocarcinoma is an aggressive obstetric or gynecological neoplasm with a high malignant potential. It is a form of gestational trophoblastic disease and often secondary to hydatidiform mole, and intrauterine or ectopic pregnancy. Choriocarcinoma has a proclivity to metastasize to the lung, vagina, pelvis or liver in over 50% of patients, which always occurs in the early stage of the disease. Read More

    Spontaneous pituitary apoplexy during the second trimester of pregnancy, with sensory loss.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Feb 16;2016. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
    University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.
    A 32-year-old Hispanic woman at 23 weeks gestation presented with right-sided headache, associated with photophobia and right-sided numbness. She denied visual problems, menstrual irregularities and galactorrhoea. Examination revealed visual acuity 20/40 bilaterally with some blurriness on the left side, decreased right V1-V2 facial sensation and preserved 5/5 power, but decreased sensation over the entire right upper extremity (RUE) and right lower extremity (RLE) to touch and pinprick. Read More

    Neonatal proinflammatory challenge in male Wistar rats: Effects on behavior, synaptic plasticity, and adrenocortical stress response.
    Behav Brain Res 2016 May 3;304:1-10. Epub 2016 Feb 3.
    Department of Functional Biochemistry of the Nervous System, Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 117485, Russia. Electronic address:
    Effects of neonatal proinflammatory stress (NPS) on the development of anxiety and depressive-like behavior, stress responsiveness, hippocampal plasticity and conditioned fear response were studied in adolescent and adult male Wistar rats. On PND 3 and PND 5, the pups were subcutaneously injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 μg/kg). In the open field test, signs of increased anxiety were demonstrated in adolescent (PND 32), but not in adult (PND 101) rats. Read More

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