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    Thyroid Allostasis-Adaptive Responses of Thyrotropic Feedback Control to Conditions of Strain, Stress, and Developmental Programming.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 20;8:163. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Medical Department I, Endocrinology and Diabetology, Bergmannsheil University Hospitals, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
    The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback control is a dynamic, adaptive system. In situations of illness and deprivation of energy representing type 1 allostasis, the stress response operates to alter both its set point and peripheral transfer parameters. In contrast, type 2 allostatic load, typically effective in psychosocial stress, pregnancy, metabolic syndrome, and adaptation to cold, produces a nearly opposite phenotype of predictive plasticity. Read More

    Prenatal developmental origins of behavior and mental health: The influence of maternal stress in pregnancy.
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    Accumulating research shows that prenatal exposure to maternal stress increases the risk for behavioral and mental health problems later in life. This review systematically analyzes the available human studies to identify harmful stressors, vulnerable periods during pregnancy, specificities in the outcome and biological correlates of the relation between maternal stress and offspring outcome. Effects of maternal stress on offspring neurodevelopment, cognitive development, negative affectivity, difficult temperament and psychiatric disorders are shown in numerous epidemiological and case-control studies. Read More

    Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone As the Homeostatic Rheostat of Feto-Maternal Symbiosis and Developmental Programming In Utero and Neonatal Life.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 11;8:161. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Translational Medicine, Warwick Medical School, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    A balanced interaction between the homeostatic mechanisms of mother and the developing organism during pregnancy and in early neonatal life is essential in order to ensure optimal fetal development, ability to respond to various external and internal challenges, protection from adverse programming, and safeguard maternal care availability after parturition. In the majority of pregnancies, this relationship is highly effective resulting in successful outcomes. However, in a number of pathological settings, perturbations of the maternal homeostasis disrupt this symbiosis and initiate adaptive responses with unpredictable outcomes for the fetus or even the neonate. Read More

    Exposure to intimate partner violence in utero and infant internalizing behaviors: Moderation by salivary cortisol-alpha amylase asymmetry.
    Early Hum Dev 2017 Jul 20;113:40-48. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, USA.
    Guided by the main tenets of contemporary models of the developmental origins of health and disease, this study evaluated whether individual differences in reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) moderate the effect of prenatal exposure to trauma on internalizing and externalizing behaviors during infancy. Participants were a community sample of 182 mothers (M age=25years, 43% Caucasian, 33% Black/African American, 24% Biracial/Other) and their infants (59% girls; M age=11.8months). Read More

    Fertility, Contraception, and Novel Reproductive Technologies in Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Semin Nephrol 2017 Jul;37(4):327-336
    Department of Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL.
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function, leading to menstrual abnormalities, sexual dysfunction, functional menopause, and loss of fertility. Pregnancy in a patient with CKD is associated with a higher risk of complications to both the mother and the fetus, highlighting the importance of contraceptive counseling at all stages of CKD. There has been limited research on the safety and efficacy of different contraceptive methods in the CKD population, and it is important to tailor the choice of contraception to the patient's lifestyle and comorbidity status. Read More

    Use of cabergoline for the management of persistent Cushing's disease in pregnancy.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jul 14;2017. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
    Cushing's disease (CD) is rare during pregnancy and is associated with significant maternal and fetal complications. It is important to control hypercortisolism during pregnancy, either surgically or medically, for a successful maternal and fetal outcome. We report a patient with recurrent CD who was treated with low-dose cabergoline (CAB) for persistent hypercortisolism throughout pregnancy. Read More

    Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor: Two Case Reports and an Analysis of Adult Cases with Implications for Pathophysiology and Treatment.
    Front Neurol 2017 20;8:247. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    We present the first quantitative analysis of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) in adults, including two patients from our own institutions. These are of interest as one occurred during pregnancy and one is a long-term survivor. Our review of pathological findings of 50 reported cases of adult ATRT leads us to propose a solely ectodermal origin for the tumor and that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a defining feature. Read More

    Hyperprolactinaemia - a problem in patients from the reproductive period to the menopause.
    Prz Menopauzalny 2017 Mar 26;16(1):1-7. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    2 Department of Gynecology, Lublin Medical University, Lublin, Poland.
    Hyperprolactinaemia especially affects women in reproductive age (90/100,000) but also often is diagnosed in menopause age and leads to disturbances in functioning of LH-RH neurons and, as a consequence, to a decrease of FSH and LH, which causes inhibition of oestradiol production. Prolactin is a peptide hormone, phylogenetically one of the oldest, stimulating cells of various organs, which is produced and secreted mainly by lactotrophic acidophilic cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary. It influences the increase in the mass of the mammary glands, and stimulation and maintenance of lactation after delivery. Read More

    Neurobehavioral risks of SSRIs in pregnancy: Comparing human and animal data.
    Reprod Toxicol 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Laboratory of Teratology, Department of Medical Neurobiology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
    During the last twenty years, in spite of extensive literature regarding the use of SSRIs in pregnancy, confusion still exists as to possible long-term risks of these drugs on the offspring. Possible negative effects relate to neurodevelopmental outcome and association with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Most neurodevelopmental follow up studies did not find significant cognitive impairment except from some apparently transient, gross motor delay and slight impairment of language abilities. Read More

    Management of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 during pregnancy: A case report and review of the literature.
    J Exp Ther Oncol 2016 Jul;11(3):217-220
    Department of Perinatology, Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) or Wermer's syndrome is a rare hereditary endocrine syndrome with high penetrance caused by mutations in MEN1 tumor suppressor gene. MEN1 is characterized by hyperplasia or tumoral enlargement in a number of endocrine organs (parathyroid glands, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal gland) and it could be hormonally active or inactive. MEN1 is a significant cause of morbidity due to hormone secretion and mass effect. Read More

    Long-term consequences of obesity on female fertility and the health of the offspring.
    Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jun;29(3):180-187
    aDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology bDivision of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Obesity has reached near epidemic levels among reproductive age women with a myriad of consequences. Obesity adversely affects the maternal milieu by creating conditions that decrease fertility and increase the risk of gestational diabetes, hypertensive disease in pregnancy, fetal growth abnormalities and congenital anomalies. The effects of obesity are not limited to pregnancy. Read More

    Transcriptome analysis of endometrial tissues following GnRH agonist treatment in a mouse adenomyosis model.
    Drug Des Devel Ther 2017 9;11:695-704. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine Center, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
    Purpose: Adenomyosis is a common, benign gynecological condition of the female reproductive tract characterized by heavy menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are one of the medications used in adenomyosis treatment; however, their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Moreover, it is difficult to obtain endometrial samples from women undergoing such treatment. Read More

    Pituitary Adenoma and Hyperprolactinemia Accompanied by Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis.
    Case Rep Endocrinol 2017 22;2017:3974291. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    General Surgery Department, Liv Hospital, Ulus, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast, and its etiology remains not fully elucidated. IGM is observed more often in patients with autoimmune disease. Hyperprolactinemia is observed during pregnancy, lactation, and a history of oral contraceptive use. Read More

    MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Acromegaly and pregnancy: a contemporary review.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Jul 14;177(1):R1-R12. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Endocrinology UnitUniversidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil.
    Although fertility is frequently impaired in women with acromegaly, pregnancy is apparently becoming more common due to improvement in acromegaly treatment as well as in fertility therapy. As a result, several studies on pregnancy in patients with acromegaly have been published in recent years adding new and relevant information to the preexisting literature. Also, new GH assays with selective specificities and the knowledge of the expression of the various GH genes have allowed a better understanding of somatotrophic axis function during pregnancy. Read More

    Obesity and female infertility: potential mediators of obesity's impact.
    Fertil Steril 2017 Apr 11;107(4):840-847. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:
    The worldwide upward trend in obesity has been dramatic, now affecting more than 20% of American women of reproductive age. Obesity is associated with many adverse maternal and fetal effects prenatally, but it also exerts a negative influence on female fertility. Obese women are more likely to have ovulatory dysfunction due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Read More

    Therapeutic effects of Schisandra chinensis on the hyperprolactinemia in rat.
    Int J Oncol 2017 Apr 17;50(4):1448-1454. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Natural Resources and Life Science, Pusan National University, Miryang‑si, Gyeongsangnam‑do, Republic of Korea.
    Prolactin (PRL) is secreted from the pituitary gland in response to eating, mating, and ovulation. Increased serum concentration of PRL during pregnancy contributes to enlargement of the mammary glands of the breasts and prepares for production of milk. However, high PRL levels derived from prolactinoma and hyperprolactinemia induce physiological disorders such as infertility and early menopause. Read More

    Successful Pregnancies and Deliveries in a Patient With Evolving Hypopituitarism due to Pituitary Stalk Transection Syndrome: Role of Growth Hormone Replacement.
    Intern Med 2017 1;56(5):527-530. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kurobe City Hospital, Japan.
    We herein report a 31-year-old Japanese woman with evolving hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk transection syndrome. She had a history of short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) in childhood and had hypothyroidism and primary amenorrhea at 20 years old. Levothyroxine replacement and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone-human chorionic gonadotropin (FSH-hCG) therapy for ovulation induction were started. Read More

    Pituitary Autoimmunity.
    Front Horm Res 2017 28;48:48-68. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Pituitary autoimmunity, considered a synonym of autoimmune hypophysitis, defines a wide spectrum of conditions (neoplastic, functional, and iatrogenic pituitary disorders; and extra-pituitary autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases), and is characterized by the presence of antipituitary antibodies (APAs) at various titer and prevalence. These conditions have been increasingly recognized not only in adults, but also in children. The autoimmune pathogenesis, histological features of the primary (i. Read More

    Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus.
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07747 Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Read More

    [A Case of Lymphocytic Adenohypophysitis Presenting Visual Disturbance in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy].
    No Shinkei Geka 2017 Feb;45(2):161-165
    Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University.
    Lymphocytic hypophysitis(LH)has first been described as an autoimmune endocrinopathy by Goudie in 1962. In particular, lymphocytic adenohypophysitis(LAH)is usually associated with pregnancy and hypopituitarism due to insufficient endocrine of ACTH. However, several cases of LAH in pregnant patients showing only visual disturbances have recently been documented. Read More

    Pegvisomant in acromegaly: an update.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Jun 7;40(6):577-589. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Background: In 2007, we published an opinion document to review the role of pegvisomant (PEG) in the treatment of acromegaly. Since then, new evidence emerged on the biochemical and clinical effects of PEG and on its long-term efficacy and safety.

    Aim: We here reviewed the emerging aspects of the use of PEG in clinical practice in the light of the most recent literature. Read More

    Sex-Specific Neurodevelopmental Programming by Placental Insulin Receptors on Stress Reactivity and Sensorimotor Gating.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 30;82(2):127-138. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:
    Background: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk. Read More

    Prolactin has a pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus.
    Immunol Res 2017 Apr;65(2):512-523
    Rheumatology Section, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Prolactin, a 23-kDa peptide hormone, is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites including the immune cells. Prolactin (PRL) participates in innate and adaptive immune response. PRL stimulates the immune cells by binding to receptor (PRL-R). Read More

    Disruption of aromatase homeostasis as the cause of a multiplicity of ailments: A comprehensive review.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Apr 18;168:19-25. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA. Electronic address:
    Human health is beset with a legion of ailments, which is exacerbated by lifestyle errors. Out of the numerous enzymes in human body, aromatase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme is particularly very critical. Occurring at the crossroads of multiple signalling pathways, its homeostasis is vital for optimal health. Read More

    Thyroid in pregnancy: From physiology to screening.
    Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2017 Mar 19;54(2):102-116. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    c Division of Internal Medicine , University Hospital Basel , Basel , Switzerland.
    Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. Read More

    Hypertension: The role of biochemistry in the diagnosis and management.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 Feb 19;465:131-143. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry & Diagnostic Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Hypertension is defined as a persistently elevated blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg. It is an important treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with a high prevalence in the general population. The most common cause, essential hypertension, is a widespread disease - however, secondary hypertension is under investigated and under diagnosed. Read More

    Elevated IGF-1 with GH suppression after an oral glucose overload: incipient acromegaly or false-positive IGF-1?
    Arch Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov-Dec;60(6):510-514. Epub 2016 Aug 25.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação e Serviço de Endocrinologia, Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Objective: To report the evolution of patients with a suggestive clinical scenario and elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but growth hormone (GH) suppression in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), in whom acromegaly was not initially excluded.

    Subjects And Methods: Forty six patients with a suggestive clinical scenario, who had elevated IGF-1 (outside puberty and pregnancy) in two measurements, but GH < 0.4 µg/L in the OGTT, were selected. Read More

    Adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: do's and don'ts.
    J Med Life 2016 Oct-Dec;9(4):334-341
    "I. Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; Department of Endocrinology, Clinical County Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Aim. To present specific aspects of adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS) by introducing well established aspects ("do's") and less known aspects ("don'ts"). Material and Method. Read More

    Macroprolactinomas and Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas and Pregnancy Outcomes.
    Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jan;129(1):185-194
    Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Winchester, Hampshire, the Division of Women's Health, King's College London and Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, London, the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, and the Regional Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.
    Objective: To examine the monitoring, management, and outcomes of pituitary tumors in pregnancy.

    Methods: A national, prospective, observational, population-based case series study was conducted in all U.K. Read More

    Maternal epigenetics and fetal and neonatal growth.
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2017 Feb;24(1):43-46
    Department of Medical Genetics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Purpose Of Review: The article provides an update on new insights of factors altering inherited maternal epigenome that ultimately affect fetal and neonatal growth.

    Recent Findings: A number of new publications have identified mechanisms through which maternal nutrition, environmental exposures such as stress and toxic substances altering expression of imprinted genes during pregnancy can influence fetal and neonatal phenotype and susceptibility to disease development later in life. The possible causes of metabolic syndrome by in-utero epigenetic alterations of genes involved in energy metabolism (PPARγ and PPARα), microRNAs, arginine methyltransferases, lysine demethylases, and histone deacetylaces have been elucidated. Read More

    Preconception management of endocrine disorders.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2016 Nov;66(11):1494-1496
    Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Endocrine function is closely interlinked with pregnancy. Maternal and foetal outcomes can be improved if optimal endocrine function is achieved, and maintained prior to conception. This needs a systematic approach which includes rational screening, appropriate management, and pragmatic counseling. Read More

    Hormonal Replacement in Hypopituitarism in Adults: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov 13;101(11):3888-3921. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    Oregon Health & Science University, Northwest Pituitary Center (M.F.), and Departments of Neurological Surgery and Medicine (Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition), Portland, Oregon 97239; Department of Pathology (I.A.H.), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390; Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (N.K.), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism (N.K.), Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom, Pituitary Center (S.M.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048; Mayo Clinic Evidence-Based Practice Center, (M.H.M), Rochester, Minnesota 55905; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism (R.S.), Pituitary Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287; and Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition (M.H.S.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239.
    Objective: To formulate clinical practice guidelines for hormonal replacement in hypopituitarism in adults.

    Participants: The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of six experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry, the Pituitary Society, and the European Society of Endocrinology co-sponsored this guideline. Read More

    Effects of Common Equine Endocrine Diseases on Reproduction.
    Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2016 Dec 8;32(3):435-449. Epub 2016 Oct 8.
    Equine Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 601 Vernon L. Tharp St, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:
    Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve. It is hoped that further research will establish these recommendations more firmly. Read More

    Prenatal maternal depression is associated with offspring inflammation at 25 years: a prospective longitudinal cohort study.
    Transl Psychiatry 2016 Nov 1;6(11):e936. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Animal studies and a handful of prospective human studies have demonstrated that young offspring exposed to maternal prenatal stress show abnormalities in immune parameters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. No study has examined the effect of maternal prenatal depression on offspring inflammation and HPA axis activity in adulthood, nor the putative role of child maltreatment in inducing these abnormalities. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and awakening cortisol were measured at age 25 in 103 young-adult offspring of the South London Child Development Study (SLCDS), a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of mother-offspring dyads recruited in pregnancy in 1986. Read More

    Developmental Programming: Insulin Sensitizer Prevents the GnRH-Stimulated LH Hypersecretion in a Sheep Model of PCOS.
    Endocrinology 2016 Dec 28;157(12):4641-4653. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Department of Pediatrics (R.C.C., A.B., J.M., V.P.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109; and Department of Zoology and Physiology (D.C.S.), University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071.
    Prenatal testosterone (T) treatment recapitulates the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome in female sheep. At the neuroendocrine level, prenatal T treatment results in disrupted steroid feedback on gonadotropin release, increased pituitary sensitivity to GnRH, and subsequent LH hypersecretion. Because prenatal T-treated sheep manifest functional hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia, gonadal steroids and/or insulin may play a role in programming and/or maintaining these neuroendocrine defects. Read More

    Postpartum hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency with remission: A rare case.
    Endocr J 2017 Feb 25;64(2):157-162. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Mellitus, Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan.
    A 37-year-old female patient was hospitalized because of general fatigue and loss of axillary and pubic hair after massive bleeding at delivery of her third child. The basal levels of both plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and serum cortisol were very low, 5.2 pg/mL and 1. Read More

    Management of prolactinomas: a survey of physicians from the Middle East and North Africa.
    Pituitary 2017 Apr;20(2):231-240
    Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Background: Prolactinomas are the commonest functional tumors of the pituitary gland. There are still controversies regarding medical therapy in specific clinical situations. Patients may be managed by different specialists in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and no data exist on patterns of clinical management. Read More

    Childhood acromegaly due to X-linked acrogigantism: long term follow-up.
    Pituitary 2016 Dec;19(6):560-564
    Department of Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, New York, NY, 10032, USA.
    Purpose: Acromegaly in infancy is extremely rare. We describe a 32 year old woman who presented at 6 months of age with isolated macrocephaly, followed by accelerated linear growth. At 21 months of age, her head circumference was 55 cm (+5. Read More

    Preadolescent Adversity Programs a Disrupted Maternal Stress Reactivity in Humans and Mice.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Apr 26;81(8):693-701. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Penn PROMOTES Research on Sex and Gender in Health, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:
    Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are one of the greatest predictors of affective disorders for women. Periods of dynamic hormonal flux, including pregnancy, exacerbate the risk for affective disturbance and promote hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation, a key feature of affective disorders. Little is understood as to how stress experienced in late childhood, defined as preadolescence, alters the programming unique to this period of brain maturation and its interaction with the hormonal changes of pregnancy and postpartum. Read More

    Acute vision loss in post-partum period as presenting symptom of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis-an unusual case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Oct 19;16(1):582. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
    Department of Neurology, King George Medical University, Lucknow, PIN-226003, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Background: Acute vision loss in the post-partum period can occur due to many reasons. Eclampsia, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), pituitary apoplexy, and central serous retinopathy are some of the important causes. Cryptococcal meningitis as a cause of acute vision loss in the post-partum period has not been mentioned in literature. Read More

    Congenital craniopharyngioma treated by radical surgery: case report and review of the literature.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Feb 26;33(2):357-362. Epub 2016 Sep 26.
    Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan.
    Purpose: Craniopharyngiomas are 5-10 % of all pediatric tumors, but are seldomly encountered in the perinatal period. Only seven instances of a truly antenatal diagnosis of a congenital craniopharyngioma that subsequently underwent radical surgery have been reported. We present the case of a patient who received the diagnosis of a suprasellar tumor during the prenatal period and received radical surgery. Read More

    Impact of maternal steroids during pregnancy.
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2016 Dec 16;77(6):677-679. Epub 2016 Sep 16.
    Endocrinology unit, centre for cardiovascular science, Queen's medical research institute, 47, Little France Crescent, EH16 4TJ Edinburgh, United Kingdom. Electronic address:
    Increased fetal exposure to glucocorticoids is a key mechanism thought to underlie the early life programming of later life disease. There is substantial experimental data in animal models in support of this hypothesis. Emerging evidence suggests glucocorticoid programming may also occur in humans with some studies now linking maternal endogenous cortisol levels with size at birth and gestation at delivery. Read More

    Postpartum Granulomatous Hypophysitis: A Case Study, Review of the Literature, and Discussion of Pathogenesis.
    Case Rep Pathol 2016 24;2016:7510323. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Department of Pathology, Cell Biology and Anatomy, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Hypophysitis is a rare inflammatory condition of the pituitary gland that has three main histologic subtypes: lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH), granulomatous hypophysitis (GH), and xanthomatous hypophysitis (XH). Among these, LH is the most common and is strongly associated with the postpartum state, while XH is the least common. Many hypophysitis cases have been reported in the literature but only a few cases of postpartum GH have been discussed. Read More

    Whole exome sequencing and array-based molecular karyotyping as aids to prenatal diagnosis in fetuses with suspected Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.
    Prenat Diagn 2016 Oct 27;36(10):961-965. Epub 2016 Sep 27.
    Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Objective: Simpson-Golabi-Behmel (SGBS) syndrome type 1 and type 2 represent rare X-linked prenatal overgrowth disorders. The aim of our study is to describe the prenatal sonographic features as well as the genetic work-up.

    Method: Retrospective analysis of four cases with a pre- or postnatal diagnosis of SGBS in a single tertiary referral center within a period of 4 years. Read More

    Gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease.
    Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2017 Mar;18(1):117-130
    Biomedical Research Department, Diabetes and Obesity Research Division, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, California, LA, USA.
    Sexual dysfunction is a common finding in both men and women with chronic kidney failure. Common disturbances include erectile dysfunction in men, menstrual abnormalities in women, and decreased libido and fertility in both sexes. These abnormalities are primarily organic in nature and are related to uremia as well as the other comorbid conditions that frequently occur in the chronic kidney failure patient. Read More

    Pregnancy and acromegaly.
    Pituitary 2017 Feb;20(1):179-184
    Rotterdam Pituitary Centre, Erasmus University MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Introduction: Acromegaly is a rare disorder in which, due to the high incidence of secondary hypogonadism, pregnancies are relatively rare. However, some women with acromegaly do get pregnant, which brings along questions about medication, complications and follow-up. This review tries to address these issues and provide the reader with practical information. Read More

    Mutations in gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway in two nIHH patients with successful pregnancy outcomes.
    Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2016 Aug 20;14(1):48. Epub 2016 Aug 20.
    Center of Human Reproduction "Genesis", St. Petersburg, Russia.
    Background: Anomalous levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion result in a variety of reproductive phenotypes associated with infertility or subfertility. The normosmic isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH) is due to a failure of either GnRH pulsatile secretion in hypothalamus or its reception in pituitary. The spectrum of nIHH-associated alterations continues to expand, especially when additional ethnic populations are investigated. Read More

    Managing thyroid disease in general practice.
    Med J Aust 2016 Aug;205(4):179-84
    Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA
    Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) testing is the best screening tool for thyroid dysfunction. When TSH levels are in the reference range, additional tests such as free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine or thyroid antibodies rarely add value, except in patients with pituitary disease, when TSH is unreliable. Overt hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH levels > 10 mU/L can be treated without further investigation. Read More

    Prevalence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism.
    Eur J Intern Med 2016 Nov 26;35:106-110. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    Department of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research (PGIMER) and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia (RML) Hospital, 1 Baba Kharak Singh Marg, New Delhi 110001, India. Electronic address:
    Background And Aims: Hyperprolactinemia has been reported in 0-57% of primary hypothyroidism. Data on hyperprolactinemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is scant and inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in ScH. Read More

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