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    4695 results match your criteria Pituitary Disease and Pregnancy

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    Are the estrogenic hormonal effects of environmental toxins affecting small intestinal bacterial and microfilaria overgrowth?
    Med Hypotheses 2017 Nov 28;109:90-94. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Wayne State College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, USA. Electronic address:
    The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct. Read More

    Headache and pregnancy: a systematic review.
    J Headache Pain 2017 Oct 19;18(1):106. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Neurology Department, Aeginition Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11528, Athens, Greece.
    This systematic review summarizes the existing data on headache and pregnancy with a scope on clinical headache phenotypes, treatment of headaches in pregnancy and effects of headache medications on the child during pregnancy and breastfeeding, headache related complications, and diagnostics of headache in pregnancy. Headache during pregnancy can be both primary and secondary, and in the last case can be a symptom of a life-threatening condition. The most common secondary headaches are stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary tumor, choriocarcinoma, eclampsia, preeclampsia, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Read More

    [Potential clinical application of Kisspeptin in reproductive endocrinology].
    Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2017 May;46(3):328-333
    Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, China.
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in the process of reproduction. Studies have shown that a family of peptides Kisspeptin can act on GnRH-related neurons, stimulating the secretion of GnRH, and activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Both animal experiments and clinical studies have shown that exogenous administration of Kisspeptin is able to induce physiological GnRH release in healthy individuals and those with endocrine-disorders, which brings great hope for treatment of reproductive endocrine diseases. Read More

    Newborn genome-wide DNA methylation in association with pregnancy anxiety reveals a potential role for GABBR1.
    Clin Epigenetics 2017 3;9:107. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Neurosciences, Genetic Research About Stress and Psychiatry (GRASP), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Background: There is increasing evidence for the role of prenatal stress in shaping offspring DNA methylation and disease susceptibility. In the current study, we aimed to identify genes and pathways associated with pregnancy anxiety using a genome-wide DNA methylation approach.

    Methods: We selected 22 versus 23 newborns from our Prenatal Early Life Stress (PELS) cohort, exposed to the lowest or highest degree of maternal pregnancy anxiety, respectively. Read More

    The highs and lows of programmed cardiovascular disease by developmental hypoxia: studies in the chicken embryo.
    J Physiol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Physiology, Development & Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EG, UK.
    It is now established that adverse conditions during pregnancy can trigger a fetal origin of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or increase the risk of heart disease in later life. Suboptimal environmental conditions during early life that may promote the development of cardiovascular dysfunction in the offspring include alterations in fetal oxygenation and nutrition as well as fetal exposure to stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids. There has been growing interest in identifying the partial contributions of each of these stressors to programming of cardiovascular dysfunction. Read More

    Practice Bulletin No. 183: Postpartum Hemorrhage.
    • Authors:
    Obstet Gynecol 2017 10;130(4):e168-e186
    Maternal hemorrhage, defined as a cumulative blood loss of greater than or equal to 1,000 mL or blood loss accompanied by signs or symptoms of hypovolemia within 24 hours after the birth process, remains the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide (1). Additional important secondary sequelae from hemorrhage exist and include adult respiratory distress syndrome, shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, loss of fertility, and pituitary necrosis (Sheehan syndrome).Hemorrhage that leads to blood transfusion is the leading cause of severe maternal morbidity in the United States closely followed by disseminated intravascular coagulation (2). Read More

    Thyroid Allostasis-Adaptive Responses of Thyrotropic Feedback Control to Conditions of Strain, Stress, and Developmental Programming.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 20;8:163. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Medical Department I, Endocrinology and Diabetology, Bergmannsheil University Hospitals, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
    The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback control is a dynamic, adaptive system. In situations of illness and deprivation of energy representing type 1 allostasis, the stress response operates to alter both its set point and peripheral transfer parameters. In contrast, type 2 allostatic load, typically effective in psychosocial stress, pregnancy, metabolic syndrome, and adaptation to cold, produces a nearly opposite phenotype of predictive plasticity. Read More

    Prenatal developmental origins of behavior and mental health: The influence of maternal stress in pregnancy.
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    Accumulating research shows that prenatal exposure to maternal stress increases the risk for behavioral and mental health problems later in life. This review systematically analyzes the available human studies to identify harmful stressors, vulnerable periods during pregnancy, specificities in the outcome and biological correlates of the relation between maternal stress and offspring outcome. Effects of maternal stress on offspring neurodevelopment, cognitive development, negative affectivity, difficult temperament and psychiatric disorders are shown in numerous epidemiological and case-control studies. Read More

    Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone As the Homeostatic Rheostat of Feto-Maternal Symbiosis and Developmental Programming In Utero and Neonatal Life.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 11;8:161. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Translational Medicine, Warwick Medical School, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    A balanced interaction between the homeostatic mechanisms of mother and the developing organism during pregnancy and in early neonatal life is essential in order to ensure optimal fetal development, ability to respond to various external and internal challenges, protection from adverse programming, and safeguard maternal care availability after parturition. In the majority of pregnancies, this relationship is highly effective resulting in successful outcomes. However, in a number of pathological settings, perturbations of the maternal homeostasis disrupt this symbiosis and initiate adaptive responses with unpredictable outcomes for the fetus or even the neonate. Read More

    Exposure to intimate partner violence in utero and infant internalizing behaviors: Moderation by salivary cortisol-alpha amylase asymmetry.
    Early Hum Dev 2017 10 20;113:40-48. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, USA.
    Guided by the main tenets of contemporary models of the developmental origins of health and disease, this study evaluated whether individual differences in reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) moderate the effect of prenatal exposure to trauma on internalizing and externalizing behaviors during infancy. Participants were a community sample of 182 mothers (M age=25years, 43% Caucasian, 33% Black/African American, 24% Biracial/Other) and their infants (59% girls; M age=11.8months). Read More

    Fertility, Contraception, and Novel Reproductive Technologies in Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Semin Nephrol 2017 Jul;37(4):327-336
    Department of Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL.
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function, leading to menstrual abnormalities, sexual dysfunction, functional menopause, and loss of fertility. Pregnancy in a patient with CKD is associated with a higher risk of complications to both the mother and the fetus, highlighting the importance of contraceptive counseling at all stages of CKD. There has been limited research on the safety and efficacy of different contraceptive methods in the CKD population, and it is important to tailor the choice of contraception to the patient's lifestyle and comorbidity status. Read More

    Use of cabergoline for the management of persistent Cushing's disease in pregnancy.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jul 14;2017. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
    Cushing's disease (CD) is rare during pregnancy and is associated with significant maternal and fetal complications. It is important to control hypercortisolism during pregnancy, either surgically or medically, for a successful maternal and fetal outcome. We report a patient with recurrent CD who was treated with low-dose cabergoline (CAB) for persistent hypercortisolism throughout pregnancy. Read More

    Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor: Two Case Reports and an Analysis of Adult Cases with Implications for Pathophysiology and Treatment.
    Front Neurol 2017 20;8:247. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    We present the first quantitative analysis of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) in adults, including two patients from our own institutions. These are of interest as one occurred during pregnancy and one is a long-term survivor. Our review of pathological findings of 50 reported cases of adult ATRT leads us to propose a solely ectodermal origin for the tumor and that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a defining feature. Read More

    Fetal Exposure to High Maternal Thyroid Hormone Levels Causes Central Resistance to Thyroid Hormone in Adult Humans and Mice.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep;102(9):3234-3240
    Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637.
    Context: Fetuses exposed to the high thyroid hormone (TH) levels of mothers with resistance to thyroid hormone beta (RTH-β), due to mutations in the THRB gene, have low birth weight and suppressed TSH.

    Objective: Determine if such exposure to high TH levels in embryonic life has a long-term effect into adulthood.

    Design: Observations in humans with a parallel design on animals to obtain a preliminary information regarding mechanism. Read More

    Hyperprolactinaemia - a problem in patients from the reproductive period to the menopause.
    Prz Menopauzalny 2017 Mar 26;16(1):1-7. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    2 Department of Gynecology, Lublin Medical University, Lublin, Poland.
    Hyperprolactinaemia especially affects women in reproductive age (90/100,000) but also often is diagnosed in menopause age and leads to disturbances in functioning of LH-RH neurons and, as a consequence, to a decrease of FSH and LH, which causes inhibition of oestradiol production. Prolactin is a peptide hormone, phylogenetically one of the oldest, stimulating cells of various organs, which is produced and secreted mainly by lactotrophic acidophilic cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary. It influences the increase in the mass of the mammary glands, and stimulation and maintenance of lactation after delivery. Read More

    Anxiety and Epigenetics.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;978:145-166
    Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA, 02125, USA.
    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent psychiatric disorders often comorbid with depression and substance abuse. Twin studies have shown that anxiety disorders are moderately heritable. Yet, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have failed to identify gene(s) significantly associated with diagnosis suggesting a strong role for environmental factors and the epigenome. Read More

    MAPK pathway control of stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryonic pituitary provides insights into the pathogenesis of papillary craniopharyngioma.
    Development 2017 Jun 15;144(12):2141-2152. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Developmental Biology and Cancer Programme, Birth Defects Research Centre, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Despite the importance of the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway in normal physiology and disease of numerous organs, its role during pituitary development and tumourigenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the over-activation of the MAPK pathway, through conditional expression of the gain-of-function alleles BrafV600E and KrasG12D in the developing mouse pituitary, results in severe hyperplasia and abnormal morphogenesis of the gland by the end of gestation. Cell-lineage commitment and terminal differentiation are disrupted, leading to a significant reduction in numbers of most of the hormone-producing cells before birth, with the exception of corticotrophs. Read More

    Hepatic thyroid signaling of heat-stressed late pregnant and early lactating cows.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Aug 12;234(2):129-141. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Institute of Nutritional Physiology 'Oskar Kellner'Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany
    During the transition between late gestation and early lactation, dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress due to the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus and the mammary gland. Additional thermal stress that occurs with rising temperatures during the ongoing climate change has further adverse implications on energy intake, metabolism and welfare. The thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated cellular signaling has a pivotal role in regulation of body temperature, energy intake and metabolic adaptation to heat. Read More

    Neurobehavioral risks of SSRIs in pregnancy: Comparing human and animal data.
    Reprod Toxicol 2017 Sep 8;72:191-200. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Laboratory of Teratology, Department of Medical Neurobiology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
    During the last twenty years, in spite of extensive literature regarding the use of SSRIs in pregnancy, confusion still exists as to possible long-term risks of these drugs on the offspring. Possible negative effects relate to neurodevelopmental outcome and association with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Most neurodevelopmental follow up studies did not find significant cognitive impairment except from some apparently transient, gross motor delay and slight impairment of language abilities. Read More

    Management of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 during pregnancy: A case report and review of the literature.
    J Exp Ther Oncol 2016 Jul;11(3):217-220
    Department of Perinatology, Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) or Wermer's syndrome is a rare hereditary endocrine syndrome with high penetrance caused by mutations in MEN1 tumor suppressor gene. MEN1 is characterized by hyperplasia or tumoral enlargement in a number of endocrine organs (parathyroid glands, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal gland) and it could be hormonally active or inactive. MEN1 is a significant cause of morbidity due to hormone secretion and mass effect. Read More

    Long-term consequences of obesity on female fertility and the health of the offspring.
    Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jun;29(3):180-187
    aDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology bDivision of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Obesity has reached near epidemic levels among reproductive age women with a myriad of consequences. Obesity adversely affects the maternal milieu by creating conditions that decrease fertility and increase the risk of gestational diabetes, hypertensive disease in pregnancy, fetal growth abnormalities and congenital anomalies. The effects of obesity are not limited to pregnancy. Read More

    Transcriptome analysis of endometrial tissues following GnRH agonist treatment in a mouse adenomyosis model.
    Drug Des Devel Ther 2017 9;11:695-704. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine Center, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
    Purpose: Adenomyosis is a common, benign gynecological condition of the female reproductive tract characterized by heavy menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are one of the medications used in adenomyosis treatment; however, their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Moreover, it is difficult to obtain endometrial samples from women undergoing such treatment. Read More

    Pituitary Adenoma and Hyperprolactinemia Accompanied by Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis.
    Case Rep Endocrinol 2017 22;2017:3974291. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    General Surgery Department, Liv Hospital, Ulus, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast, and its etiology remains not fully elucidated. IGM is observed more often in patients with autoimmune disease. Hyperprolactinemia is observed during pregnancy, lactation, and a history of oral contraceptive use. Read More

    MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Acromegaly and pregnancy: a contemporary review.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Jul 14;177(1):R1-R12. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Endocrinology UnitUniversidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil.
    Although fertility is frequently impaired in women with acromegaly, pregnancy is apparently becoming more common due to improvement in acromegaly treatment as well as in fertility therapy. As a result, several studies on pregnancy in patients with acromegaly have been published in recent years adding new and relevant information to the preexisting literature. Also, new GH assays with selective specificities and the knowledge of the expression of the various GH genes have allowed a better understanding of somatotrophic axis function during pregnancy. Read More

    Obesity and female infertility: potential mediators of obesity's impact.
    Fertil Steril 2017 Apr 11;107(4):840-847. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:
    The worldwide upward trend in obesity has been dramatic, now affecting more than 20% of American women of reproductive age. Obesity is associated with many adverse maternal and fetal effects prenatally, but it also exerts a negative influence on female fertility. Obese women are more likely to have ovulatory dysfunction due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Read More

    Therapeutic effects of Schisandra chinensis on the hyperprolactinemia in rat.
    Int J Oncol 2017 Apr 17;50(4):1448-1454. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Natural Resources and Life Science, Pusan National University, Miryang‑si, Gyeongsangnam‑do, Republic of Korea.
    Prolactin (PRL) is secreted from the pituitary gland in response to eating, mating, and ovulation. Increased serum concentration of PRL during pregnancy contributes to enlargement of the mammary glands of the breasts and prepares for production of milk. However, high PRL levels derived from prolactinoma and hyperprolactinemia induce physiological disorders such as infertility and early menopause. Read More

    Successful Pregnancies and Deliveries in a Patient With Evolving Hypopituitarism due to Pituitary Stalk Transection Syndrome: Role of Growth Hormone Replacement.
    Intern Med 2017 1;56(5):527-530. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kurobe City Hospital, Japan.
    We herein report a 31-year-old Japanese woman with evolving hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk transection syndrome. She had a history of short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) in childhood and had hypothyroidism and primary amenorrhea at 20 years old. Levothyroxine replacement and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone-human chorionic gonadotropin (FSH-hCG) therapy for ovulation induction were started. Read More

    Pituitary Autoimmunity.
    Front Horm Res 2017 28;48:48-68. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Pituitary autoimmunity, considered a synonym of autoimmune hypophysitis, defines a wide spectrum of conditions (neoplastic, functional, and iatrogenic pituitary disorders; and extra-pituitary autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases), and is characterized by the presence of antipituitary antibodies (APAs) at various titer and prevalence. These conditions have been increasingly recognized not only in adults, but also in children. The autoimmune pathogenesis, histological features of the primary (i. Read More

    Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus.
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07747 Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Read More

    [A Case of Lymphocytic Adenohypophysitis Presenting Visual Disturbance in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy].
    No Shinkei Geka 2017 Feb;45(2):161-165
    Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University.
    Lymphocytic hypophysitis(LH)has first been described as an autoimmune endocrinopathy by Goudie in 1962. In particular, lymphocytic adenohypophysitis(LAH)is usually associated with pregnancy and hypopituitarism due to insufficient endocrine of ACTH. However, several cases of LAH in pregnant patients showing only visual disturbances have recently been documented. Read More

    Prenatal stress-immune programming of sex differences in comorbidity of depression and obesity/metabolic syndrome.
    Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2016 Dec;18(4):425-436
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the number one cause of disability worldwide and is comorbid with many chronic diseases, including obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS). Women have twice as much risk for MDD and comorbidity with obesity/MetS as men, although pathways for understanding this association remain unclear. On the basis of clinical and preclinical studies, we argue that prenatal maternal stress (ie, excess glucocorticoid expression and associated immune responses) that occurs during the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain has sex-dependent effects on brain development within highly sexually dimorphic regions that regulate mood, stress, metabolic function, the autonomic nervous system, and the vasculature. Read More

    Pegvisomant in acromegaly: an update.
    J Endocrinol Invest 2017 Jun 7;40(6):577-589. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    Department of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Background: In 2007, we published an opinion document to review the role of pegvisomant (PEG) in the treatment of acromegaly. Since then, new evidence emerged on the biochemical and clinical effects of PEG and on its long-term efficacy and safety.

    Aim: We here reviewed the emerging aspects of the use of PEG in clinical practice in the light of the most recent literature. Read More

    Sex-Specific Neurodevelopmental Programming by Placental Insulin Receptors on Stress Reactivity and Sensorimotor Gating.
    Biol Psychiatry 2017 Jul 30;82(2):127-138. Epub 2016 Dec 30.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:
    Background: Diabetes, obesity, and overweight are prevalent pregnancy complications that predispose offspring to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Although male individuals are three to four times more likely than female individuals to develop these disorders, the mechanisms driving the sex specificity of disease vulnerability remain unclear. Because defective placental insulin receptor (InsR) signaling is a hallmark of pregnancy metabolic dysfunction, we hypothesized that it may be an important contributor and novel mechanistic link to sex-specific neurodevelopmental changes underlying disease risk. Read More

    Prolactin has a pathogenic role in systemic lupus erythematosus.
    Immunol Res 2017 Apr;65(2):512-523
    Rheumatology Section, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Prolactin, a 23-kDa peptide hormone, is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites including the immune cells. Prolactin (PRL) participates in innate and adaptive immune response. PRL stimulates the immune cells by binding to receptor (PRL-R). Read More

    Disruption of aromatase homeostasis as the cause of a multiplicity of ailments: A comprehensive review.
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Apr 18;168:19-25. Epub 2017 Jan 18.
    Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics Research Center, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182, USA. Electronic address:
    Human health is beset with a legion of ailments, which is exacerbated by lifestyle errors. Out of the numerous enzymes in human body, aromatase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme is particularly very critical. Occurring at the crossroads of multiple signalling pathways, its homeostasis is vital for optimal health. Read More

    Thyroid in pregnancy: From physiology to screening.
    Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2017 Mar 19;54(2):102-116. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    c Division of Internal Medicine , University Hospital Basel , Basel , Switzerland.
    Thyroid hormones are crucial for the growth and maturation of many target tissues, especially the brain and skeleton. During critical periods in the first trimester of pregnancy, maternal thyroxine is essential for fetal development as it supplies thyroid hormone-dependent tissues. The ontogeny of mature thyroid function involves organogenesis, and maturation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and the thyroid gland; and it is almost complete by the 12th-14th gestational week. Read More

    Epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in pituitary dwarfism.
    Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2017 Apr 22;36(2):123-124. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Derpartment of anesthesiology, Weifang people's hospital, Guangwen street, 261041 Weifang, China.
    We describe the anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a 32-year-old patient with pituitary dwarfism. In addition to supportive treatment, we offered a postoperative epidural analgesia pump. The patient recovered well without any complications. Read More

    Hypertension: The role of biochemistry in the diagnosis and management.
    Clin Chim Acta 2017 Feb 19;465:131-143. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry & Diagnostic Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
    Hypertension is defined as a persistently elevated blood pressure ≥140/90mmHg. It is an important treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with a high prevalence in the general population. The most common cause, essential hypertension, is a widespread disease - however, secondary hypertension is under investigated and under diagnosed. Read More

    Elevated IGF-1 with GH suppression after an oral glucose overload: incipient acromegaly or false-positive IGF-1?
    Arch Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov-Dec;60(6):510-514. Epub 2016 Aug 25.
    Programa de Pós-Graduação e Serviço de Endocrinologia, Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Objective: To report the evolution of patients with a suggestive clinical scenario and elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), but growth hormone (GH) suppression in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), in whom acromegaly was not initially excluded.

    Subjects And Methods: Forty six patients with a suggestive clinical scenario, who had elevated IGF-1 (outside puberty and pregnancy) in two measurements, but GH < 0.4 µg/L in the OGTT, were selected. Read More

    Adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome: do's and don'ts.
    J Med Life 2016 Oct-Dec;9(4):334-341
    "I. Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; Department of Endocrinology, Clinical County Hospital, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Aim. To present specific aspects of adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS) by introducing well established aspects ("do's") and less known aspects ("don'ts"). Material and Method. Read More

    Macroprolactinomas and Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas and Pregnancy Outcomes.
    Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jan;129(1):185-194
    Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Winchester, Hampshire, the Division of Women's Health, King's College London and Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, London, the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, and the Regional Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.
    Objective: To examine the monitoring, management, and outcomes of pituitary tumors in pregnancy.

    Methods: A national, prospective, observational, population-based case series study was conducted in all U.K. Read More

    Management of a pregnant woman with thyrotropinoma: a case report and review of the literature.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Mar 2;33(3):188-192. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    a Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition , Clínica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra , Pamplona , Spain.
    Introduction: Pituitary disorders during pregnancy are uncommon. The approach should include a close follow-up in order to reduce maternal and fetal risks associated with physiological changes during pregnancy or treatment side effects.

    Materials And Methods: We report a 21-year-old woman with a thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary macroadenoma and positive antithyroid antibodies. Read More

    Pregnancy and tumor outcomes in infertile women with macroprolactinoma on cabergoline therapy.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 Apr 2;33(4):270-273. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    a Department of Endocrinology , Post Graduate Institute of Medical education and Research (PGIMER) , Chandigarh, 160012 , India.
    Hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas cause infertility in significant number of women. But, pregnancy may lead to post-partum remission of hyperprolactinemia. The data on pregnancy and tumor outcome in women with macroprolactinoma conceiving on Cabergoline (CAB) therapy is increasing but still less than with Bromocriptine. Read More

    Maternal epigenetics and fetal and neonatal growth.
    Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2017 Feb;24(1):43-46
    Department of Medical Genetics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece.
    Purpose Of Review: The article provides an update on new insights of factors altering inherited maternal epigenome that ultimately affect fetal and neonatal growth.

    Recent Findings: A number of new publications have identified mechanisms through which maternal nutrition, environmental exposures such as stress and toxic substances altering expression of imprinted genes during pregnancy can influence fetal and neonatal phenotype and susceptibility to disease development later in life. The possible causes of metabolic syndrome by in-utero epigenetic alterations of genes involved in energy metabolism (PPARγ and PPARα), microRNAs, arginine methyltransferases, lysine demethylases, and histone deacetylaces have been elucidated. Read More

    Prolactinoma and pregnancy - a series of cases including pituitary apoplexy.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Apr 21;37(3):284-287. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    a Centro Hospitalar do Porto - Centro Materno Infantil do Norte , Porto , Portugal.
    The objective of this article is to evaluate the impact of pregnancy in women with prolactinoma, the possible consequences of therapy maintenance/discontinuation during pregnancy and to assess the type of delivery and maternal-foetal obstetrical outcome. A retrospective study of all pregnant women with prolactinoma in our Centre between 2006 and 2014 was made. We had 35 cases of pregnant women with prolactinoma, two of which had an episode of pituitary apoplexy during the second trimester. Read More

    Imaging of Neurologic Conditions in Pregnant Patients.
    Radiographics 2016 Nov-Dec;36(7):2102-2122
    From the Departments of Radiology (S.K., S.B.) and Neurology (S.K.), Pennsylvania State University and Hershey Medical Center, 500 University Dr, Hershey, PA 17033.
    A number of physiologic, hormonal, immunologic, and hemodynamic changes take place in the maternal body during pregnancy. The majority of these changes are essential for maintaining the normal course of pregnancy. However, these changes may also cause acute or chronic conditions that affect various biologic systems in the mother. Read More

    Preconception management of endocrine disorders.
    J Pak Med Assoc 2016 Nov;66(11):1494-1496
    Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
    Endocrine function is closely interlinked with pregnancy. Maternal and foetal outcomes can be improved if optimal endocrine function is achieved, and maintained prior to conception. This needs a systematic approach which includes rational screening, appropriate management, and pragmatic counseling. Read More

    Hormonal Replacement in Hypopituitarism in Adults: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 Nov 13;101(11):3888-3921. Epub 2016 Oct 13.
    Oregon Health & Science University, Northwest Pituitary Center (M.F.), and Departments of Neurological Surgery and Medicine (Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition), Portland, Oregon 97239; Department of Pathology (I.A.H.), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390; Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (N.K.), College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom; Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism (N.K.), Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom, Pituitary Center (S.M.), Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048; Mayo Clinic Evidence-Based Practice Center, (M.H.M), Rochester, Minnesota 55905; Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism (R.S.), Pituitary Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287; and Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition (M.H.S.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon 97239.
    Objective: To formulate clinical practice guidelines for hormonal replacement in hypopituitarism in adults.

    Participants: The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of six experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry, the Pituitary Society, and the European Society of Endocrinology co-sponsored this guideline. Read More

    Effects of Common Equine Endocrine Diseases on Reproduction.
    Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 2016 Dec 8;32(3):435-449. Epub 2016 Oct 8.
    Equine Internal Medicine, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, 601 Vernon L. Tharp St, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:
    Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve. It is hoped that further research will establish these recommendations more firmly. Read More

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