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    4719 results match your criteria Pituitary Disease and Pregnancy

    1 OF 95

    Acute pituitary disease in pregnancy: how to handle hypophysitis and Sheehan's syndrome?
    Minerva Endocrinol 2018 Feb 19. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Pregnancy-related hypophysitis (PR-Hy) that typically occurs during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period is considered an autoimmune disorder. Knowledge and awareness of characteristic clinical symptoms and specific endocrine and neuroradiological features mostly enables a correct diagnosis and guarantees best possible management. In the presence of mild clinical symptoms, a "wait and watch" policy is recommended. Read More

    Cushing's disease: major difficulties in diagnosis and management during pregnancy.
    Minerva Endocrinol 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Endocrinology/Medicine Department, Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain -
    Pregnancy in women with a diagnosis of Cushing' syndrome (CS) is an extremely rare event and its diagnosis and treatment are a real medical challenge. During pregnancy, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis undergoes major changes leading to a significant increase in plasma cortisol levels throughout gestation. The difficulties in diagnosis are related to the resemblance of symptoms of CS and those of pregnancy, and to the complex interpretation of the screening tests. Read More

    A human exposure based mixture of persistent organic pollutants affects the stress response in female mice and their offspring.
    Chemosphere 2018 Apr 18;197:585-593. Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Section for Experimental Biomedicine, Department of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway.
    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are found in the food chain of both humans and animals and exert a wide spectrum of potentially adverse effects. The present experiment aimed to investigate whether a defined mixture of 29 POPs, based on the dietary intake of Scandinavians, could affect the stress response in female mice exposed through ingestion, and in their offspring. Female mice 129:C57BL/6F0 hybrids were exposed from weaning, throughout pregnancy, and up until necropsy, to either 5000 × or 100 000 × the estimated daily intake for Scandinavians. Read More

    Postpartum depression and vitamin D: A systematic review.
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2018 Feb 2:1-7. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    c Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.
    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent mood disorder estimated to affect 20%-40% of women worldwide after childbirth. In recent studies, the effect of vitamin D on prevention of mood disorders and depression has been investigated, but it is still unclear how vitamin D may affect PPD. The evidence on the relevance between vitamin D deficiency and PPD is inconsistent, and assessment of the recent literature has not previously been carried out. Read More

    Prenatal maternal psychosocial stress and offspring's asthma and allergic disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research, Centre for Medical Informatics, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
    Background: Prenatal maternal stress may influence offspring's atopic risk through sustained cortisol secretion resulting from activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA), leading to Th2-biased cell differentiation in the foetus. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the relationship between prenatal maternal psychosocial stress and risk of asthma and allergy in the offspring.

    Methods: We searched 11 electronic databases from 1960 to 2016, searched the grey literature and contacted experts in the field. Read More

    Pregnancy in a woman with acromegaly after transsphenoidal partial resection of pituitary macroadenoma - a case report.
    Pol Merkur Lekarski 2017 Dec;43(258):268-271
    Department of Maternal and Child Health , Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of the Medical University.
    Acromegaly is a systemic disease caused by an excessive release of growth hormone and the hypopituitarism, which is induced by macroadenoma local mass effect. The gynecological and obstetric disorders include irregular menstrual cycles, anovulatory cycles and infertility. Therefore, pregnancy in patients affected by the disease is rare. Read More

    Pregnancy in women after successful acromegaly treatment, including surgical removal of pituitary adenoma and postoperative therapy using lanreotide acetate.
    Gynecol Endocrinol 2017 ;33(sup1):50-51
    b International Clinical Center of the Reproductology "PERSONA" , Astana , Republic of Kazakhstan.
    Acromegaly is one of the most common syndromes in pituitary adenomas. Naturally, women with this condition have trouble with their reproductive function. The difficulty in diagnosing acromegaly progression in pregnancy is that there is also production of placental growth hormone observed, making it impossible to differentiate from neoplastic growth hormone production using conventional methods of investigation. Read More

    Macroprolactinemia and Empty Sella Syndrome.
    Pan Afr Med J 2017 14;27:278. Epub 2017 Aug 14.
    Endocrinology and Diabetes Department, University Hospital Farhat Hached Sousse, Tunisia.
    Macroprolactinemia is a polymeric form of prolactin-release, causing mildly symptomatic clinical pictures. The former can be isolated or associated with other causes of hyperprolactinemia. The association with an empty sella syndrome is rare. Read More

    Prolactinoma through the female life cycle.
    Endocrine 2018 Jan 24;59(1):16-29. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Multidisciplinary Pituitary and Skull Base Tumor Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, Box 419, New York, NY, 10065, USA.
    Prolactinomas are the most common secretory pituitary adenoma. They typically occur in women in the 3rd-6th decade of life and rarely in the pediatric population or after menopause. Most women present with irregular menses and/or infertility. Read More

    Effects and Interactions of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure, a Post-Weaning High-Fat Diet and Gender on Adult Hypercholesterolemia Occurrence in Offspring Rats.
    Cell Physiol Biochem 2017 23;44(2):657-670. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medical School of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Background/aims: Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) could induce intrauterine programming of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis-associated neuroendocrine metabolism, resulting in intrauterine growth retardation and susceptibility to adult hypercholesterolemia in offspring. This study aimed to analyse the effects and interactions of PEE, a post-weaning high-fat diet (HFD) and gender on the occurrence of adult hypercholesterolemia in offspring rats.

    Methods: Wistar female rats were treated with ethanol (4 g/kg. Read More

    Are the estrogenic hormonal effects of environmental toxins affecting small intestinal bacterial and microfilaria overgrowth?
    Med Hypotheses 2017 Nov 28;109:90-94. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Wayne State College of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, USA. Electronic address:
    The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct. Read More

    Headache and pregnancy: a systematic review.
    J Headache Pain 2017 Oct 19;18(1):106. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Neurology Department, Aeginition Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11528, Athens, Greece.
    This systematic review summarizes the existing data on headache and pregnancy with a scope on clinical headache phenotypes, treatment of headaches in pregnancy and effects of headache medications on the child during pregnancy and breastfeeding, headache related complications, and diagnostics of headache in pregnancy. Headache during pregnancy can be both primary and secondary, and in the last case can be a symptom of a life-threatening condition. The most common secondary headaches are stroke, cerebral venous thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, pituitary tumor, choriocarcinoma, eclampsia, preeclampsia, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. Read More

    [Potential clinical application of Kisspeptin in reproductive endocrinology].
    Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2017 May;46(3):328-333
    Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310006, China.
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in the process of reproduction. Studies have shown that a family of peptides Kisspeptin can act on GnRH-related neurons, stimulating the secretion of GnRH, and activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Both animal experiments and clinical studies have shown that exogenous administration of Kisspeptin is able to induce physiological GnRH release in healthy individuals and those with endocrine-disorders, which brings great hope for treatment of reproductive endocrine diseases. Read More

    Newborn genome-wide DNA methylation in association with pregnancy anxiety reveals a potential role for.
    Clin Epigenetics 2017 3;9:107. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Neurosciences, Genetic Research About Stress and Psychiatry (GRASP), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Background: There is increasing evidence for the role of prenatal stress in shaping offspring DNA methylation and disease susceptibility. In the current study, we aimed to identify genes and pathways associated with pregnancy anxiety using a genome-wide DNA methylation approach.

    Methods: We selected 22 versus 23 newborns from our Prenatal Early Life Stress (PELS) cohort, exposed to the lowest or highest degree of maternal pregnancy anxiety, respectively. Read More

    The highs and lows of programmed cardiovascular disease by developmental hypoxia: studies in the chicken embryo.
    J Physiol 2017 Oct 5. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Physiology, Development & Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EG, UK.
    It is now established that adverse conditions during pregnancy can trigger a fetal origin of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or increase the risk of heart disease in later life. Suboptimal environmental conditions during early life that may promote the development of cardiovascular dysfunction in the offspring include alterations in fetal oxygenation and nutrition as well as fetal exposure to stress hormones, such as glucocorticoids. There has been growing interest in identifying the partial contributions of each of these stressors to programming of cardiovascular dysfunction. Read More

    Long-term follow-up of patients with elevated IGF-1 and nadir GH > 0.4 µg/L but < 1 µg/L.
    Arch Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sept-Oct;61(5):426-431. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Serviço de Endocrinologia, Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.
    Objective: To report the results of initial investigation and after 5 years of patients with a suspicious clinical scenario for acromegaly, elevated IGF-1, and nadir GH during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) > 0.4 µg/L but < 1 µg/L.

    Subjects And Methods: Seventeen patients who had elevated IGF-1 (outside puberty and pregnancy) in two measurements and GH between 0. Read More

    Practice Bulletin No. 183: Postpartum Hemorrhage.
    • Authors:
    Obstet Gynecol 2017 10;130(4):e168-e186
    Maternal hemorrhage, defined as a cumulative blood loss of greater than or equal to 1,000 mL or blood loss accompanied by signs or symptoms of hypovolemia within 24 hours after the birth process, remains the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide (1). Additional important secondary sequelae from hemorrhage exist and include adult respiratory distress syndrome, shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure, loss of fertility, and pituitary necrosis (Sheehan syndrome).Hemorrhage that leads to blood transfusion is the leading cause of severe maternal morbidity in the United States closely followed by disseminated intravascular coagulation (2). Read More

    Long-Term Effects of the Periconception Period on Embryo Epigenetic Profile and Phenotype: The Role of Stress and How This Effect Is Mediated.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;1014:117-135
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.
    Stress represents an unavoidable aspect of human life, and pathologies associated with dysregulation of stress mechanisms - particularly psychiatric disorders - represent a significant global health problem. While it has long been observed that levels of stress experienced in the periconception period may greatly affect the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not yet comprehensively understood. In order to address this question, this chapter will take a 'top-down' approach, by first defining stress and associated concepts, before exploring the mechanistic basis of the stress response in the form of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and how dysregulation of the HPA axis can impede our mental and physical health, primarily via imbalances in glucocorticoids (GCs) and their corresponding receptors (GRs) in the brain. Read More

    Thyroid Allostasis-Adaptive Responses of Thyrotropic Feedback Control to Conditions of Strain, Stress, and Developmental Programming.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 20;8:163. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Medical Department I, Endocrinology and Diabetology, Bergmannsheil University Hospitals, Ruhr University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
    The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid feedback control is a dynamic, adaptive system. In situations of illness and deprivation of energy representing type 1 allostasis, the stress response operates to alter both its set point and peripheral transfer parameters. In contrast, type 2 allostatic load, typically effective in psychosocial stress, pregnancy, metabolic syndrome, and adaptation to cold, produces a nearly opposite phenotype of predictive plasticity. Read More

    Prenatal developmental origins of behavior and mental health: The influence of maternal stress in pregnancy.
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017 Jul 28. Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    Accumulating research shows that prenatal exposure to maternal stress increases the risk for behavioral and mental health problems later in life. This review systematically analyzes the available human studies to identify harmful stressors, vulnerable periods during pregnancy, specificities in the outcome and biological correlates of the relation between maternal stress and offspring outcome. Effects of maternal stress on offspring neurodevelopment, cognitive development, negative affectivity, difficult temperament and psychiatric disorders are shown in numerous epidemiological and case-control studies. Read More

    Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone As the Homeostatic Rheostat of Feto-Maternal Symbiosis and Developmental Programmingand Neonatal Life.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 11;8:161. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Translational Medicine, Warwick Medical School, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    A balanced interaction between the homeostatic mechanisms of mother and the developing organism during pregnancy and in early neonatal life is essential in order to ensure optimal fetal development, ability to respond to various external and internal challenges, protection from adverse programming, and safeguard maternal care availability after parturition. In the majority of pregnancies, this relationship is highly effective resulting in successful outcomes. However, in a number of pathological settings, perturbations of the maternal homeostasis disrupt this symbiosis and initiate adaptive responses with unpredictable outcomes for the fetus or even the neonate. Read More

    Exposure to intimate partner violence in utero and infant internalizing behaviors: Moderation by salivary cortisol-alpha amylase asymmetry.
    Early Hum Dev 2017 10 20;113:40-48. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, USA.
    Guided by the main tenets of contemporary models of the developmental origins of health and disease, this study evaluated whether individual differences in reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) moderate the effect of prenatal exposure to trauma on internalizing and externalizing behaviors during infancy. Participants were a community sample of 182 mothers (M age=25years, 43% Caucasian, 33% Black/African American, 24% Biracial/Other) and their infants (59% girls; M age=11.8months). Read More

    Fertility, Contraception, and Novel Reproductive Technologies in Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Semin Nephrol 2017 Jul;37(4):327-336
    Department of Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL.
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function, leading to menstrual abnormalities, sexual dysfunction, functional menopause, and loss of fertility. Pregnancy in a patient with CKD is associated with a higher risk of complications to both the mother and the fetus, highlighting the importance of contraceptive counseling at all stages of CKD. There has been limited research on the safety and efficacy of different contraceptive methods in the CKD population, and it is important to tailor the choice of contraception to the patient's lifestyle and comorbidity status. Read More

    Use of cabergoline for the management of persistent Cushing's disease in pregnancy.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jul 14;2017. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
    Cushing's disease (CD) is rare during pregnancy and is associated with significant maternal and fetal complications. It is important to control hypercortisolism during pregnancy, either surgically or medically, for a successful maternal and fetal outcome. We report a patient with recurrent CD who was treated with low-dose cabergoline (CAB) for persistent hypercortisolism throughout pregnancy. Read More

    Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor: Two Case Reports and an Analysis of Adult Cases with Implications for Pathophysiology and Treatment.
    Front Neurol 2017 20;8:247. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    We present the first quantitative analysis of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRT) in adults, including two patients from our own institutions. These are of interest as one occurred during pregnancy and one is a long-term survivor. Our review of pathological findings of 50 reported cases of adult ATRT leads us to propose a solely ectodermal origin for the tumor and that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a defining feature. Read More

    Reproductive endocrine issues in men with sickle cell anemia.
    Andrology 2017 Jul 29;5(4):679-690. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA.
    In patients with sickle cell anemia, the sickling of red blood cells is known to cause end-organ damage by infarction. In some men who are affected by sickle cell anemia, the obstruction of venous outflow of the penis causes priapism, which could lead to erectile dysfunction. There is also evidence that the disease is linked to other reproductive issues in men-specifically delayed puberty, low testosterone, and sperm abnormalities-although the causes of these problems are less clear. Read More

    Borderline personality disorder and childhood trauma: exploring the affected biological systems and mechanisms.
    BMC Psychiatry 2017 06 15;17(1):221. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Biological Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Istituto Centro San Giovanni di Dio - Fatebenefratelli, via Pilastroni 4, Brescia, Italy.
    Background: According to several studies, the onset of the Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) depends on the combination between genetic and environmental factors (GxE), in particular between biological vulnerabilities and the exposure to traumatic experiences during childhood. We have searched for studies reporting possible alterations in several biological processes and brain morphological features in relation to childhood trauma experiences and to BPD. We have also looked for epigenetic mechanisms as they could be mediators of the effects of childhood trauma in BPD vulnerability. Read More

    Fetal Exposure to High Maternal Thyroid Hormone Levels Causes Central Resistance to Thyroid Hormone in Adult Humans and Mice.
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Sep;102(9):3234-3240
    Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637.
    Context: Fetuses exposed to the high thyroid hormone (TH) levels of mothers with resistance to thyroid hormone beta (RTH-β), due to mutations in the THRB gene, have low birth weight and suppressed TSH.

    Objective: Determine if such exposure to high TH levels in embryonic life has a long-term effect into adulthood.

    Design: Observations in humans with a parallel design on animals to obtain a preliminary information regarding mechanism. Read More

    Hyperprolactinaemia - a problem in patients from the reproductive period to the menopause.
    Prz Menopauzalny 2017 Mar 26;16(1):1-7. Epub 2017 Apr 26.
    2 Department of Gynecology, Lublin Medical University, Lublin, Poland.
    Hyperprolactinaemia especially affects women in reproductive age (90/100,000) but also often is diagnosed in menopause age and leads to disturbances in functioning of LH-RH neurons and, as a consequence, to a decrease of FSH and LH, which causes inhibition of oestradiol production. Prolactin is a peptide hormone, phylogenetically one of the oldest, stimulating cells of various organs, which is produced and secreted mainly by lactotrophic acidophilic cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary. It influences the increase in the mass of the mammary glands, and stimulation and maintenance of lactation after delivery. Read More

    Anxiety and Epigenetics.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;978:145-166
    Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA, 02125, USA.
    Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent psychiatric disorders often comorbid with depression and substance abuse. Twin studies have shown that anxiety disorders are moderately heritable. Yet, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have failed to identify gene(s) significantly associated with diagnosis suggesting a strong role for environmental factors and the epigenome. Read More

    MAPK pathway control of stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the embryonic pituitary provides insights into the pathogenesis of papillary craniopharyngioma.
    Development 2017 06 15;144(12):2141-2152. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Developmental Biology and Cancer Programme, Birth Defects Research Centre, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London WC1N 1EH, UK
    Despite the importance of the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway in normal physiology and disease of numerous organs, its role during pituitary development and tumourigenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the over-activation of the MAPK pathway, through conditional expression of the gain-of-function allelesandin the developing mouse pituitary, results in severe hyperplasia and abnormal morphogenesis of the gland by the end of gestation. Cell-lineage commitment and terminal differentiation are disrupted, leading to a significant reduction in numbers of most of the hormone-producing cells before birth, with the exception of corticotrophs. Read More

    Hepatic thyroid signaling of heat-stressed late pregnant and early lactating cows.
    J Endocrinol 2017 Aug 12;234(2):129-141. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Institute of Nutritional Physiology 'Oskar Kellner'Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology (FBN), Dummerstorf, Germany
    During the transition between late gestation and early lactation, dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress due to the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus and the mammary gland. Additional thermal stress that occurs with rising temperatures during the ongoing climate change has further adverse implications on energy intake, metabolism and welfare. The thyroid hormone (TH)-mediated cellular signaling has a pivotal role in regulation of body temperature, energy intake and metabolic adaptation to heat. Read More

    Neurobehavioral risks of SSRIs in pregnancy: Comparing human and animal data.
    Reprod Toxicol 2017 Sep 8;72:191-200. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Laboratory of Teratology, Department of Medical Neurobiology, Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address:
    During the last twenty years, in spite of extensive literature regarding the use of SSRIs in pregnancy, confusion still exists as to possible long-term risks of these drugs on the offspring. Possible negative effects relate to neurodevelopmental outcome and association with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Most neurodevelopmental follow up studies did not find significant cognitive impairment except from some apparently transient, gross motor delay and slight impairment of language abilities. Read More

    Management of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 during pregnancy: A case report and review of the literature.
    J Exp Ther Oncol 2016 Jul;11(3):217-220
    Department of Perinatology, Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) or Wermer's syndrome is a rare hereditary endocrine syndrome with high penetrance caused by mutations in MEN1 tumor suppressor gene. MEN1 is characterized by hyperplasia or tumoral enlargement in a number of endocrine organs (parathyroid glands, pancreas, pituitary gland, adrenal gland) and it could be hormonally active or inactive. MEN1 is a significant cause of morbidity due to hormone secretion and mass effect. Read More

    Long-term consequences of obesity on female fertility and the health of the offspring.
    Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jun;29(3):180-187
    aDivision of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology bDivision of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
    Purpose Of Review: Obesity has reached near epidemic levels among reproductive age women with a myriad of consequences. Obesity adversely affects the maternal milieu by creating conditions that decrease fertility and increase the risk of gestational diabetes, hypertensive disease in pregnancy, fetal growth abnormalities and congenital anomalies. The effects of obesity are not limited to pregnancy. Read More

    Transcriptome analysis of endometrial tissues following GnRH agonist treatment in a mouse adenomyosis model.
    Drug Des Devel Ther 2017 9;11:695-704. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Reproductive Medicine Center, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.
    Purpose: Adenomyosis is a common, benign gynecological condition of the female reproductive tract characterized by heavy menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are one of the medications used in adenomyosis treatment; however, their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Moreover, it is difficult to obtain endometrial samples from women undergoing such treatment. Read More

    Pituitary Adenoma and Hyperprolactinemia Accompanied by Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis.
    Case Rep Endocrinol 2017 22;2017:3974291. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    General Surgery Department, Liv Hospital, Ulus, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the breast, and its etiology remains not fully elucidated. IGM is observed more often in patients with autoimmune disease. Hyperprolactinemia is observed during pregnancy, lactation, and a history of oral contraceptive use. Read More

    MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Acromegaly and pregnancy: a contemporary review.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Jul 14;177(1):R1-R12. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    Endocrinology UnitUniversidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil.
    Although fertility is frequently impaired in women with acromegaly, pregnancy is apparently becoming more common due to improvement in acromegaly treatment as well as in fertility therapy. As a result, several studies on pregnancy in patients with acromegaly have been published in recent years adding new and relevant information to the preexisting literature. Also, new GH assays with selective specificities and the knowledge of the expression of the various GH genes have allowed a better understanding of somatotrophic axis function during pregnancy. Read More

    Obesity and female infertility: potential mediators of obesity's impact.
    Fertil Steril 2017 04 11;107(4):840-847. Epub 2017 Mar 11.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. Electronic address:
    The worldwide upward trend in obesity has been dramatic, now affecting more than 20% of American women of reproductive age. Obesity is associated with many adverse maternal and fetal effects prenatally, but it also exerts a negative influence on female fertility. Obese women are more likely to have ovulatory dysfunction due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Read More

    Prolactin Secreting Pituitary Microadenoma: Results of Transsphenoidal Surgery After Medical Therapy With Dopamine Agonist.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 Jun;28(4):992-994
    *Department of Neurosciences, Neurosurgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata †Department of Diagnostic for Imaging and Radiotherapy, CIRAD of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Medical therapy with dopamine agonist is very effective in controlling prolactin serum levels and it usually represents the first therapeutic choice for prolactin secreting pituitary adenomas. However, many patients present increase of prolactinemia after withdrawal of medical therapy which consequently should be taken for long time; other present intolerance to medical therapy; women with pregnancy need to withdraw dopamine agonists with consequent potential related problems: in these patients transsphenoidal surgery can be requested. The presented study concerns the efficacy of transsphenoidal surgery in patients affected by microprolactinoma after treatment with medical therapy for different periods of time. Read More

    Therapeutic effects of Schisandra chinensis on the hyperprolactinemia in rat.
    Int J Oncol 2017 Apr 17;50(4):1448-1454. Epub 2017 Feb 17.
    Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Natural Resources and Life Science, Pusan National University, Miryang‑si, Gyeongsangnam‑do, Republic of Korea.
    Prolactin (PRL) is secreted from the pituitary gland in response to eating, mating, and ovulation. Increased serum concentration of PRL during pregnancy contributes to enlargement of the mammary glands of the breasts and prepares for production of milk. However, high PRL levels derived from prolactinoma and hyperprolactinemia induce physiological disorders such as infertility and early menopause. Read More

    Successful Pregnancies and Deliveries in a Patient With Evolving Hypopituitarism due to Pituitary Stalk Transection Syndrome: Role of Growth Hormone Replacement.
    Intern Med 2017 1;56(5):527-530. Epub 2017 Mar 1.
    Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kurobe City Hospital, Japan.
    We herein report a 31-year-old Japanese woman with evolving hypopituitarism due to pituitary stalk transection syndrome. She had a history of short stature treated with growth hormone (GH) in childhood and had hypothyroidism and primary amenorrhea at 20 years old. Levothyroxine replacement and recombinant follicle stimulating hormone-human chorionic gonadotropin (FSH-hCG) therapy for ovulation induction were started. Read More

    Pituitary Autoimmunity.
    Front Horm Res 2017 28;48:48-68. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Pituitary autoimmunity, considered a synonym of autoimmune hypophysitis, defines a wide spectrum of conditions (neoplastic, functional, and iatrogenic pituitary disorders; and extra-pituitary autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases), and is characterized by the presence of antipituitary antibodies (APAs) at various titer and prevalence. These conditions have been increasingly recognized not only in adults, but also in children. The autoimmune pathogenesis, histological features of the primary (i. Read More

    Transfer of maternal psychosocial stress to the fetus.
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Hans Berger Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07747 Jena, Germany. Electronic address:
    Psychosocial maternal stress experienced during different vulnerable periods throughout gestation is thought to increase the individual's risk to develop neuropsychiatric, cardiovascular and metabolic disease in later life. Cortisol has generally been identified as the major mediator of maternal stress transfer to the fetus. Its lipophilic nature allows a trans-placental passage and thus excessive maternal cortisol could persistently impair the development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). Read More

    [A Case of Lymphocytic Adenohypophysitis Presenting Visual Disturbance in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy].
    No Shinkei Geka 2017 Feb;45(2):161-165
    Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University.
    Lymphocytic hypophysitis(LH)has first been described as an autoimmune endocrinopathy by Goudie in 1962. In particular, lymphocytic adenohypophysitis(LAH)is usually associated with pregnancy and hypopituitarism due to insufficient endocrine of ACTH. However, several cases of LAH in pregnant patients showing only visual disturbances have recently been documented. Read More

    Prenatal stress-immune programming of sex differences in comorbidity of depression and obesity/metabolic syndrome.
    Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2016 12;18(4):425-436
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, Arizona, USA; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the number one cause of disability worldwide and is comorbid with many chronic diseases, including obesity/metabolic syndrome (MetS). Women have twice as much risk for MDD and comorbidity with obesity/MetS as men, although pathways for understanding this association remain unclear. On the basis of clinical and preclinical studies, we argue that prenatal maternal stress (ie, excess glucocorticoid expression and associated immune responses) that occurs during the sexual differentiation of the fetal brain has sex-dependent effects on brain development within highly sexually dimorphic regions that regulate mood, stress, metabolic function, the autonomic nervous system, and the vasculature. Read More

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