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    1216 results match your criteria Pituitary Apoplexy

    1 OF 25

    Pituitary apoplexy - A single center retrospective study from the neurosurgical perspective and review of the literature.
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017 Dec 10;163:39-45. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45147 Essen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Objective: Thunderclap headache and visual disturbances are typical clinical features of pituitary apoplexy (PA). Because of the acute symptomatology, many patients are referred to a neurosurgical department without prior endocrinological assessment. It is the aim of the present study to analyze initial presenting symptoms, outcome and associated endocrine disturbances in a cohort of patients with pituitary apoplexy primarily seen by neurosurgeons. Read More

    Delayed Onset of Isolated Unilateral Oculomotor Nerve Palsy Caused by Post-Traumatic Pituitary Apoplexy: A Case Report.
    Clin Med Insights Case Rep 2017 25;10:1179547617731299. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Mie University, Tsu, Japan.
    Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy is uncommon, most of which present with a sudden onset of severe headache and visual impairments associated with a dumbbell-shaped pituitary tumor. We experienced an unusual case of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy with atypical clinical features. A 66-year-old man presented with mild cerebral contusion and an incidentally diagnosed intrasellar tumor after a fall accident with no loss of consciousness. Read More

    Surgical intervention for pituitary apoplexy: an analysis of functional outcomes.
    J Neurosurg 2017 Sep 15:1-8. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    California Center for Pituitary Disorders, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California.
    OBJECTIVE Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome consisting of neurological and endocrine abnormalities secondary to hemorrhage or ischemia of an underlying pituitary adenoma. The authors investigated whether there was a significant difference in neurological, endocrine, and nonneuroendocrine outcomes for patients with pituitary apoplexy, based on the time between symptom onset and surgical intervention. METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 32 patients who had presented to their institution with acute pituitary apoplexy and subsequently undergone endonasal transsphenoidal resection in the period from 2003 to 2014. Read More

    Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery for Treatment of Pituitary Apoplexy: 16 Years of Experience in a Specialized Pituitary Center: Endoscopic Surgery for Pituitary Apoplexy.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Aug 31. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Department of Surgery, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE - Brazil.
    Objective: Symptomatic pituitary apoplexy is a rare but life-threatening condition caused by sudden hemorrhage or infarction of a pituitary adenoma. In the current study, we aim to evaluate the clinical presentation, management and clinical outcomes in a cohort of patients who were treated for this condition in our center in the last 16 years.

    Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery for treatment of symptomatic pituitary apoplexy between 2001 and 2016 in our center. Read More

    Sphenoid sinus microbiota in pituitary apoplexy: a preliminary study.
    Pituitary 2017 Dec;20(6):619-623
    Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre (MAHSC), The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Purpose: There is a high incidence of abnormal sphenoid sinus changes in patients with pituitary apoplexy (PA). Their pathophysiology is currently unexplored and may reflect an inflammatory or infective process. In this preliminary study, we characterised the microbiota of sphenoid sinus mucosa in patients with PA and compared findings to a control group of surgically treated non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Read More

    Delayed Diagnosis of Cushing's Disease in a Pediatric Patient due to Apparent Remission from Spontaneous Apoplexy.
    J Clin Transl Endocrinol Case Rep 2016 Dec;2:30-34
    Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) 10 Center Dr, Bethesda, MD 20814.
    We report here a pediatric patient whose Cushing's Disease was diagnosed late because of her cyclical presentation, presumably due to subclinical pituitary apoplexy. Starting at age 8, she presented with observable signs of Cushing's but was not clinically assessed for Cushing's Syndrome until the age of 15. Initial tests at age 15 were consistent with Cushing's Disease, however, the patient presented with spontaneous remission of hypercortisolemia just a few short months later. Read More

    Acute hypopituitarism associated with periorbital swelling and cardiac dysfunction in a patient with pituitary tumor apoplexy: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Aug 24;11(1):235. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Uonuma Institute of Community Medicine, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Niigata, Japan.
    Background: Pituitary tumor apoplexy is a rare clinical syndrome caused by acute hemorrhage or infarction in a preexisting pituitary adenoma. It typically manifests as an acute episode of headache, visual disturbance, mental status changes, cranial nerve palsy, and endocrine pituitary dysfunction. However, not all patients present with classical symptoms, so it is pertinent to appreciate the clinical spectrum of pituitary tumor apoplexy presentation. Read More

    Pituitary apoplexy and rivaroxaban.
    Pituitary 2017 Dec;20(6):709-710
    CHU REIMS service neurochirurgie, Reims, France.
    Pituitary apoplexy (PA), defined by the occurrence of a massive hemorrhagic necrotic rearrangement within a pituitary adenoma, is rare. Its occurrence can be associated with certain risk factors, including anticoagulation. We report the first case of PA with rivaroxaban which is one of the new oral anticoagulants: a 73 year-old patient presenting with severe headache and visual field deterioration. Read More

    Surgical Outcomes of Cavernous Sinus Syndrome in Pituitary Adenomas.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Nov 18;107:526-533. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China; China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
    Objective: The type of pituitary adenoma with a manifestation that includes cavernous sinus syndrome is rare. Based on the clinical data of 70 patients, this study investigated the pathogenesis, imaging characteristics, and prognostic factors of pituitary adenoma with cavernous sinus syndrome.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the characteristics of patients with pituitary adenoma with cavernous sinus syndrome who received surgical treatment. Read More

    Brain and Optic Chiasm Herniation into Sella after Pituitary Tumor Apoplexy.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 7;8:192. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Clínica de Endocrinología y Metabolismo, Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Brain and optic chiasm herniation has been rarely reported following dopamine agonist treatment for large prolactinomas. We report a case of brain and optical chiasm herniation, secondary to an empty sella due to apoplexy of a prolactinoma, and we focus on the specific presentation of this case. A 32-year-old female presented to a neurologist complaining of headaches. Read More

    Spindle Cell Oncocytoma of the Anterior Pituitary Presenting with an Acute Clinical Course Due To Intraventricular Hemorrhage. A Case Report and Review of Literature.
    Am J Case Rep 2017 Aug 17;18:894-901. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Dr. Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    BACKGROUND Spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) is a rare nonfunctioning neoplasm of the adenohypophysis, and was first described in 2002. SCO has been categorized as a separate entity by the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) and is classified as a Grade 1 tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). Review of the literature has shown that 33 cases of SCO have been reported to date, and most of them presented with a mass effect or with panhypopituitarism. Read More

    A retrospective review of 34 cases of pediatric pituitary adenoma.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 18;33(11):1961-1967. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37th Guoxue Alley, Chengdu, China.
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study invasiveness, tumor features and clinical symptoms of pediatric pituitary adenoma, and to discuss some inconclusive results in prior studies.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 34 cases of children (<20 year-old) who were pathologically diagnosed with pituitary adenoma and surgically treated from 2010 to 2017. Data of general information, clinical symptoms, invasive behaviors, surgery approaches, and tumor features were collected and analyzed. Read More

    Pituitary apoplexy: a rare complication of leuprolide therapy in prostate cancer treatment.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jul 14;2017. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson city, Tennessee, USA.
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, used widely in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, are associated with a rare but potentially fatal outcome of pituitary apoplexy (PA). An 85-year-old man presented with sudden onset of headache, left eye pain, sensitivity to light, nausea and vomiting. The symptoms started 4 hours after initiation of leuprolide therapy for treatment of recently diagnosed metastatic prostate carcinoma. Read More

    Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery for Pituitary Apoplexy: Evidence On a 75-Case Series From a Tertiary Care Center.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Oct 30;106:331-338. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Center of Pituitary Tumors and Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery, Department of Neurosurgery, IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Background: The optimal management of pituitary apoplexy (PA) remains debated. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of the transsphenoidal approach for PA in a large surgical experience.

    Materials: Each consecutive case of PA consecutively operated by endoscopic endonasal approach from our tertiary care center, from 1998 to 2015, was included in this series. Read More

    Acute Ischaemic Stroke as a Manifestation of Pituitary Apoplexy in a Young Lady.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 May 1;11(5):OD03-OD05. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Postgraduate, Department of Medicine, NRI Medical College and General Hospital, Chinakakani, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
    Pituitary Apoplexy (PA) is defined as a clinical syndrome comprising headache, visual deficits and altered sensorium, which can result from haemorrhage or infarction of the pituitary gland. Acute ischaemic stroke following PA is very rare. We are presenting a 35-year-old young otherwise healthy lady who presented with neuro ophthalmological and vascular symptoms on a background of PA. Read More

    Prolactinomas diagnosed in the postmenopausal period: Clinical phenotype and outcomes.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Nov 18;87(5):508-514. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Objective: Most prolactinomas in females are diagnosed during the reproductive age, and the majority are microadenomas. Prolactinomas detected in the postmenopausal period are less common with limited published data on their presentation and prognosis. Our objective was to assess the presenting clinical, biochemical and imaging findings, as well as the outcomes of women diagnosed with a prolactinoma in the postmenopausal period. Read More

    Intrasellar dermoid cyst mimicking pituitary apoplexy: A case report and review of the literature.
    J Clin Neurosci 2017 Nov 7;45:125-128. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, PR China. Electronic address:
    Intrasellar dermoid cysts are extremely unusual lesions, with only four cases reported to date, and have not been previously reported in association with sudden-onset symptoms. Here, we present the case of an intrasellar dermoid cyst with sudden-onset symptoms mimicking pituitary apoplexy in an elderly woman. A 69year-old woman presented with sudden onset of headache, dizziness, and decreased visual acuity. Read More

    Pituitary Adenoma Apoplexy in an Adolescent: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
    J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2017 Sep 7;9(3):265-273. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    We present a 13-year-old boy who was admitted with complaints of a state of progressive sleepiness and a sudden headache with vomiting and fever. Laboratory testing showed hypoglycemia, multiple pituitary hormonal deficiencies, and an elevated C-reactive protein level. A cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an opaque sphenoid sinus and an intrasellar mass suggesting hemorrhage, so that we suspected pituitary apoplexy (PA) originating from a non-functioning adenoma, although a pituitary abscess could not completely be excluded. Read More

    Pituitary apoplexy presenting as a peripheral rim enhancing parasellar mass lesion with dural enhancement along the tentorium.
    Neuroradiol J 2017 Jan 1:1971400917690765. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Department of Neurosurgery, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, India.
    Pituitary apoplexy is a potentially life-threatening clinical condition caused by rapid enlargement of a pituitary adenoma because of haemorrhage or infarction. The clinical features are typically acute in onset. We report an interesting case of 25-year-old man with complaints of sudden onset of headache and ophthalmoplegia in the right eye one month previously. Read More

    Endocrine Emergencies With Neurologic Manifestations.
    Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2017 06;23(3, Neurology of Systemic Disease):778-801
    Purpose Of Review: This article provides an overview of endocrine emergencies with potentially devastating neurologic manifestations that may be fatal if left untreated. Pituitary apoplexy, adrenal crisis, myxedema coma, thyroid storm, acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia, hyperglycemic emergencies (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state), and acute hypoglycemia are discussed, with an emphasis on identifying the signs and symptoms as well as diagnosing and managing these clinical entities.

    Recent Findings: To identify the optimal management of endocrine emergencies, using formal clinical diagnostic criteria and grading scales such as those recently proposed for pituitary apoplexy will be beneficial in future prospective studies. Read More

    Stubborn hiccups as a sign of massive apoplexy in a naive acromegaly patient with pituitary macroadenoma.
    Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2017 18;2017. Epub 2017 May 18.
    Departments of Endocrinology.
    Pituitary apoplexy (PA) may very rarely present with hiccups. A 32-year-old man with classical acromegaloid features was admitted with headache, nausea, vomiting and stubborn hiccups. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated apoplexy of a macroadenoma with suprasellar extension abutting the optic chiasm. Read More

    Headaches complicating pregnancy and the postpartum period.
    Pract Neurol 2017 Jun 4;17(3):191-202. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Headaches are a common neurological complaint during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Most are primary and benign, but there are also several secondary headaches. This review uses a practical case-based approach to the evaluation and management of the most common headaches referred for neurological consultation: primary headaches such as migraine as well as the presentation and management of some of the secondary headaches complicating pregnancy and the puerperium. Read More

    Presenting Symptoms of Pituitary Apoplexy.
    J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Sotiria General Hospital of Chest Diseases, Athens, Greece.
    The classical term "pituitary apoplexy" (PA) describes a clinical syndrome usually characterized by abrupt onset of headache accompanied by neurologic and/or endocrinologic deterioration due to sudden expansion of a mass within the sella turcica as a result of hemorrhage or infarction within a pituitary tumor and adjacent pituitary gland. PA is a medical emergency and a difficult diagnosis to establish. Thus this article reviews the presenting symptoms of PA patients to help clinicians recognize or at least suspect this critical condition early on. Read More

    Sphenoid sinus mucosal thickening in the acute phase of pituitary apoplexy.
    Pituitary 2017 Aug;20(4):441-449
    Department of Neurosurgery, Greater Manchester Neuroscience Centre, Salford Royal Foundation Trust (SRFT), Stott Lane, Salford, M6 8HD, UK.
    Purpose: In pituitary apoplexy (PA), there are preliminary reports on the appearance of sphenoid sinus mucosal thickening (SSMT). SSMT is otherwise uncommon with an incidence of up to 7% in asymptomatic individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical significance of SSMT in patients with PA and a control group of surgically treated non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Read More

    Concomitant Primary CNS Lymphoma and FSH-Pituitary Adenoma Arising Within the Sella. Entirely Coincidental?
    Neurosurgery 2017 Jan;80(1):E170-E175
    Division of Neurosurgery, Addenbroo-ke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.
    Background And Importance: Collision tumors are the simultaneous occurrence of more than one type of neoplasm within an anatomic space. In the pituitary sella, collision tumors are exceedingly rare, and not much is known about their etiology and prognosis.

    Clinical Presentation: A 74-year-old man presented with a concomitant primary pituitary lymphoma (diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; DLBCL) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-adenoma diagnosed histologically after clinical features of apoplexy prompted urgent surgical decompression and resection. Read More

    DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Expanding the cause of hypopituitarism.
    Eur J Endocrinol 2017 Jun 3;176(6):R269-R282. Epub 2017 Mar 3.
    School of MedicineUniversity of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
    Hypopituitarism is defined as one or more pituitary hormone deficits due to a lesion in the hypothalamic-pituitary region. By far, the most common cause of hypopituitarism associated with a sellar mass is a pituitary adenoma. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosing hypopituitarism in several other conditions such as other massess in the sellar and parasellar region, brain damage caused by radiation and by traumatic brain injury, vascular lesions, infiltrative/immunological/inflammatory diseases (lymphocytic hypophysitis, sarcoidosis and hemochromatosis), infectious diseases and genetic disorders. Read More

    Presence of headache and headache types in patients with tumors of the sellar region-can surgery solve the problem? Results of a prospective single center study.
    Endocrine 2017 May 27;56(2):325-335. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University of Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, Essen, 45147, Germany.
    Purpose: Headache is a common presenting feature of patients with pituitary adenomas and other tumors of the sellar region. However, at present, it still is unclear whether the headache is actually caused by the tumor. To explore whether there is a relation, we examined in detail the headache types, their relationship to the underlying pathology, and if the headache responded to neurosurgery in a prospective study design. Read More

    Young adult patient with headache, fever and blurred vision.
    Hormones (Athens) 2016 Oct;15(4):548-550
    Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Hellenic Red Cross Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    Background And Importance: This case highlights the fact that acute pituitary apoplexy may be misdiagnosed due to being confused with other entities exhibiting similar symptoms, such as meningitis or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Clinical Presentation: A patient in his late 30s presented with sudden and severe frontal headache, fever, blurred vision, nausea, confusion, as well as oculomotor palsy (CN III) with partial ptosis of the left eyelid, dilated left pupil and left eye globe deviation inferiorly and laterally. The final diagnosis was acute pituitary apoplexy complicating a pituitary macroadenoma. Read More

    The impact of surgical timing on visual outcome in pituitary apoplexy: Literature review and case illustration.
    Surg Neurol Int 2017 6;8:16. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Neurosciences, Division of Neurosurgery, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia; Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia.
    Background: Neuro-ophthalmologic signs are common clinical manifestations of pituitary apoplexy. Managing sudden visual loss is critical for achieving a good outcome. The timing of pituitary surgery remains controversial. Read More

    Management dilemmas in a rare case of pituitary apoplexy in the setting of dengue hemorrhagic fever.
    Surg Neurol Int 2017 19;8. Epub 2017 Jan 19.
    Department of Neurosurgery, NIMHANS, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
    Background: Pituitary apoplexy occurs due to infarction or hemorrhage, within a pituitary adenoma or a nontumorous pituitary gland and can have catastrophic consequences. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a severe manifestation of the spectrum of dengue virus infection and is characterized by high-grade fever, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhagic tendencies, and increased vascular permeability. Cases of incidentalomas complicated by DHF and presenting with apoplexy are extremely rare. Read More

    Multidisciplinary Management of Pituitary Apoplexy.
    Int J Endocrinol 2016 15;2016:7951536. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Pituitary apoplexy is a rare clinical syndrome due to ischemic or haemorrhagic necrosis of the pituitary gland which complicates 2-12% of pituitary tumours, especially nonfunctioning adenomas. In many cases, it results in severe neurological, ophthalmological, and endocrinological consequences and may require prompt surgical decompression. Pituitary apoplexy represents a rare medical emergency that necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. Read More

    Macroprolactinomas and Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas and Pregnancy Outcomes.
    Obstet Gynecol 2017 Jan;129(1):185-194
    Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Winchester, Hampshire, the Division of Women's Health, King's College London and Queen Charlotte's and Chelsea Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare National Health Service Trust, London, the National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, and the Regional Centre for Endocrinology and Diabetes, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.
    Objective: To examine the monitoring, management, and outcomes of pituitary tumors in pregnancy.

    Methods: A national, prospective, observational, population-based case series study was conducted in all U.K. Read More

    Imaging of the Sella and Parasellar Region.
    Radiol Clin North Am 2017 Jan;55(1):83-101
    Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1200 North State Street, Room 3740A, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
    The sella and parasellar region, found between the anterior and central skull base, represents the central aspect of the skull base. Given the location of the pituitary gland in this location, small lesions in this location may have major physiologic effects on the human body. This article reviews the anatomy, development, and pathologic processes that may involve this region. Read More

    Spontaneous Involution of Rathke's Cleft Cysts without Visual Symptoms.
    Brain Tumor Res Treat 2016 Oct 31;4(2):58-62. Epub 2016 Oct 31.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.; Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: There have been various reports in the literature regarding the conservative management of pituitary apoplexy, pituitary incidentalomas and Rathke cleft cysts (RCCs). However, to the best of our knowledge, spontaneous involution of cystic sellar mass has rarely been reported. We report 14 cases of cystic sellar masses with spontaneous involution. Read More

    Prolactinoma and pregnancy - a series of cases including pituitary apoplexy.
    J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Apr 21;37(3):284-287. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
    a Centro Hospitalar do Porto - Centro Materno Infantil do Norte , Porto , Portugal.
    The objective of this article is to evaluate the impact of pregnancy in women with prolactinoma, the possible consequences of therapy maintenance/discontinuation during pregnancy and to assess the type of delivery and maternal-foetal obstetrical outcome. A retrospective study of all pregnant women with prolactinoma in our Centre between 2006 and 2014 was made. We had 35 cases of pregnant women with prolactinoma, two of which had an episode of pituitary apoplexy during the second trimester. Read More

    Pituitary apoplexy masquerading as functional decline in an older person.
    Age Ageing 2017 Mar;46(2):335-336
    Department of Medicine, National University Hospital, Singapore 119074, Singapore.
    We report the case of an older lady who was admitted to a tertiary teaching hospital with sub-acute functional decline of two months' duration, which was initially attributed to a concomitant urinary tract infection. Further investigations, however, revealed the diagnosis of pituitary apoplexy with central hypocortisolism. Subsequent treatment with physiological doses of steroids improved patient's function and overall well-being. Read More

    Complex effects of apoplexy secondary to pituitary adenoma.
    Rev Neurosci 2017 Jan;28(1):59-64
    Pituitary adenoma apoplexy is a well-known clinical syndrome induced by insulin infusion, cardiac surgery, trauma, and hypothalamic releasing factors. Pituitary apoplexy can cause secondary cerebral infarct and internal carotid artery occlusion. With blockade of tumor perfusion, apoplexy triggers a sudden onset of headache, visual impairment, cranial nerve palsy, disturbances of consciousness, eyelid ptosis, and hemiparesis. Read More

    Rathke Cleft Cyst with Evidence of Rupture into Subarachnoid Space.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Jan 21;97:752.e1-752.e3. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan.
    Background: A Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) with nonhemorrhagic rupture mimicking pituitary apoplexy has been reported rarely.

    Case Description: A 52-year-old woman, previously diagnosed with asymptomatic RCC, came to us with a severe headache, along with visual dysfunction and symptoms of pituitary insufficiency. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral cisterns, whereas watery clear cerebrospinal fluid was obtained by lumbar puncture. Read More

    Surgical versus non-surgical treatment for pituitary apoplexy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    J Neurol Sci 2016 Nov 23;370:258-262. Epub 2016 Sep 23.
    Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Pituitary apoplexy is a rare disease caused by a sudden hemorrhage into or infarction of the pituitary gland. Its optimal management remains controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of surgical and non-surgical treatments for pituitary apoplexy. Read More

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