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    1 OF 25

    Clinical and imaging features of pituitary apoplexy and role of imaging in differentiation of clinical mimics.
    Quant Imaging Med Surg 2018 Mar;8(2):219-231
    Department of Radiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA.
    To discuss the clinical syndrome, review common imaging findings of pituitary apoplexy (PA) and role of imaging in therapy and follow-up. Also, to review other acute clinical scenarios with similar clinical and/or imaging findings as PA. PA is a severe and potentially life-threatening medical emergency, characterized by constellation of symptoms/signs that occur as a result of acute hemorrhage and/or infarction in pituitary gland. Read More

    Management of cystic prolactinomas: a review.
    Pituitary 2018 Apr 13. Epub 2018 Apr 13.
    Institute of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Rambam Health Care Campus, HaAliya HaShniya Street 8, 3109601, Haifa, Israel.
    Introduction: Cystic prolactinoma is a variant of prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma. The strategies for the management of cystic prolactinoma have not been addressed thoroughly in clinical guidelines.

    Methods: A literature search was performed using Pubmed to review the current approaches to the treatment of cystic prolactinoma. Read More

    Landscape of Molecular Events in Pituitary Apoplexy.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 20;9:107. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Department of Endocrinology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Apoplectic pituitary adenomas cause significant morbidity and even mortality. The pituitary apoplexy denotes a pituitary adenoma presenting with hemorrhage and/or infarction, implementation in remedial effects of various of drugs in pituitary apoplexy is a promising pharmacogenomic field in the near future adenoma treatment. Indisputably, this is an important horizon for complicated pituitary adenomas. Read More

    Rathke's Cleft Cyst or Pituitary Apoplexy: A Case Report and Literature Review.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2018 Mar 13;6(3):544-547. Epub 2018 Mar 13.
    Diagnostic Center, Clinic of Radiology, University Clinical Center of Kosovo, Prishtina, Kosovo.
    Background: During the examination of the sellar region by magnetic resonance imaging, hyperintensity in T1 weighted is a common finding. This signal intensity has different sources, and its significance depends on the clinical context. Pathologic variations in T1 signal hyperintensity may be related to clotting of blood (pituitary apoplexy) or the presence of a high concentration of protein (Rathke cleft cyst). Read More

    Angioplasty is an Effective Treatment for Vasospasm Following Pituitary Apoplexy and Tumor Resection.
    Cureus 2018 Jan 26;10(1):e2117. Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
    Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome characterized by acute headache, visual changes, and decreased consciousness occurring in association with hemorrhage or infarct of an existing pituitary adenoma. Surgical management involves tumor resection and decompression of surrounding structures including the optic apparatus. Vasospasm is a rare but potentially devastating complication of pituitary apoplexy. Read More

    Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for Complex Macroadenoma with Suprasellar and Retrochiasmatic Extension.
    J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2018 Apr 20;79(Suppl 3):S284. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, UPMC Presbyterian, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.
    In this video, we describe the technical nuances of an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for a complex macroadenoma with suprasellar and retrochiasmatic extension. The patient is a 51-year-old male with several years' history of progressive visual loss. Neuro-ophthalmology assessment revealed a profound visual loss with homonymous hemianopsia and left optic nerve atrophy. Read More

    Clinical Outcomes After Endoscopic Endonasal Resection of Giant Pituitary Adenomas.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Mar 12. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:
    Background: Giant pituitary adenomas represent a surgical challenge. We present the results of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for giant pituitary adenomas.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 55 patients with giant pituitary adenomas (>4 cm in maximum diameter) who underwent surgery with an EEA between 2008 and 2016. Read More

    Pituitary Apoplexy during Treatment of Prolactinoma with Cabergoline.
    Asian J Neurosurg 2018 Jan-Mar;13(1):93-95
    Department of Neurosurgery, Sina Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Pituitary apoplexy is a rare clinical presentation caused by infarction of the pituitary gland or adenoma with or without hemorrhage. Although pituitary apoplexy is usually spontaneous, one of the predisposing factors is treatment with dopamine agonists, especially bromocriptine. The occurrence of apoplexy during cabergoline therapy is reported much less frequently. Read More

    Evaluation of Clinical and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Profile of Pituitary Macroadenoma: A Prospective Study.
    J Nat Sci Biol Med 2018 Jan-Jun;9(1):34-38
    Department of Radiodiagnosis, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.
    Background: Pituitary macroadenoma is a common tumor of middle-aged people. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the investigation of choice for its evaluation. Various parameters regarding the extent, consistency, and contrast uptake can be studied and a noninvasive diagnosis is possible. Read More

    Subclinical haemorrhage in non-functional adenomas.
    Neurochirurgie 2018 Mar 7;64(1):44-48. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Department of Endocrinology, University of Strasbourg, 67100 Srasbourg, France.
    Aim: The prevalence and risk factors of subclinical haemorrhage on non-functional adenomas (NFA) remain controversial. The primary aim of our study was to assess the incidence of subclinical haemorrhage (SH) and the secondary objectives were to evaluate the risk factors of SH and the impact of SH on pituitary function at diagnosis.

    Patients And Methods: This retrospective transversal analysis included 95 patients between January 2012 and December 2014. Read More


    Apoplexy in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
    Pituitary 2018 Apr;21(2):138-144
    Neuroendocrinology Research Center/Endocrinology Division, Medical School and Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Professor Rodolpho Paulo Rocco, 255, 9° andar - Setor 9F - Sala de Pesquisa em Neuroendocrinologia, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, 21941-913, Brazil.
    Pituitary apoplexy is an uncommon event, occurring due to the infarction and/or haemorrhage usually of a previously unknown pituitary adenoma. It can occur in all adenoma subtypes but is more common in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. The physiopathology is not completely clear, and precipitating factors, such as major surgeries, anticoagulant use or pituitary dynamic tests, can be found in up to 40% of patients. Read More

    Epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
    Pituitary 2018 Apr;21(2):111-118
    Department of Endocrinology, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Oxford, UK.
    Purpose: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are benign pituitary neoplasms that do not cause a hormonal hypersecretory syndrome. An improved understanding of their epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnosis is needed.

    Method: A literature review was performed using Pubmed to identify research reports and clinical case series on NFPAs. Read More

    Pituitary Ring Sign Plus Sphenoid Sinus Mucosal Thickening: Neuroimaging Signs of Pituitary Apoplexy.
    Neuroophthalmology 2017 Dec 9;41(6):306-309. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
    Two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs of pituitary apoplexy are the "pituitary ring sign" and "sphenoid sinus mucosal thickening". The occurrence of both these MRI signs together in patients with ischaemic pituitary apoplexy was investigated. A literature review searching the terms "pituitary ring sign" and "sphenoid sinus mucosal thickening" in the context of pituitary apoplexy from 1990 until present was performed. Read More

    Pituitary Apoplexy: Should Endoscopic Surgery Be the Gold Standard?
    World Neurosurg 2018 Mar 26;111:e495-e499. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital de Santa Maria (CHLN), Lisbon, Portugal.
    Background: Pituitary apoplexy is an uncommon, potentially fatal condition due to spontaneous ischemia or hemorrhage in a pituitary adenoma. The treatment of this disorder has long been a matter of debate.

    Methods: Retrospective cohort study including all patients admitted with pituitary apoplexy in our department between 2005 and 2015 was undertaken. Read More

    A case series of atypical features of patients with biopsy-proven isolated IgG4-related hypophysitis and normal serum IgG4 levels.
    Pituitary 2017 Dec 16. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, WA, 98122, USA.
    Background: IgG4-related hypophysitis is a rare clinical entity that forms part of an emerging group of multi-organ IgG4-related fibrosclerotic systemic diseases. The rare prevalence of the disease, presenting features that overlap with other sellar pathologies, and variable imaging features can make preoperative identification challenging.

    Purpose And Methods: We report three cases of isolated IgG4-related hypophysitis with atypical clinical and imaging features that mimicked those of pituitary apoplexy and other sellar lesions. Read More

    The dangers of the "Head Down" position in patients with untreated pituitary macroadenomas: case series and review of literature.
    Pituitary 2017 Dec 13. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.
    Purpose: Cavernous sinus syndrome is a rare phenomenon, characterized by simultaneous neuropathies of cranial nerves III-VI. Various pathological processes have been reported as precipitating etiologies, including infection, inflammation, vascular lesions, and neoplasms.

    Purpose: We report a unique case series of cavernous sinus syndrome attributable to prolonged Trendelenburg or prone positioning during non-cranial procedures and review the pertinent literature to enlighten on this rare but catastrophic phenomenon. Read More


    An Unusual Presentation of Pituitary Gland Apoplexy With Noninfectious Meningitis.
    Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2018 Mar;39(1):23-26
    From Clemson University, Clemson, SC.
    Pituitary adenomas make up 10% of intracranial tumors, but because of their location, they may go undetected for long periods. In this article, we report the case of a 68-year-old white man found deceased in his residence, who died of acute pituitary tumor apoplexy. He was known to have severe symptoms including acute headache, vision loss, and altered behavior. Read More

    Hypersomatotropism induced secondary polycythaemia leading to spontaneous pituitary apoplexy resulting in cure of acromegaly and remission of polycythaemia: 'The virtuous circle'.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Dec 7;2017. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Department of Medicine, Midnapore Medical College and Hospital, Midnapore, West Bengal, India.
    A young man with subtle clinical features suggestive of hypersomatotropism presented with acute-onset severe headache. Relevant investigations confirmed polycythaemia and growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary macroadenoma with apoplexy. Secondary polycythaemia and myeloproliferative disorders were ruled out. Read More

    Impact of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Pituitary Adenoma.
    Mymensingh Med J 2017 Oct;26(4):756-761
    Dr Md Iqbal Hossain, Associate Professor, Department of Radiology and Imaging, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Pituitary adenoma is the third most common primary intracranial neoplasm involving the adult population with clinical features due to excess or deficient hormone secretion or due to its mass effect. Debate about the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of MRI imaging in detecting pituitary adenoma has been continuing. The study was aimed to evaluate the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging in detecting pituitary adenoma. Read More

    Postoperative Neurologic Outcome in Patients with Pituitary Apoplexy After Transsphenoidal Surgery.
    World Neurosurg 2018 Mar 28;111:e18-e23. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Department of Neurological Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:
    Objective: Pituitary apoplexy can cause severe neuro-ophthalmologic or endocrinologic sequelae, requiring timely treatment. The present study was performed to evaluate postoperative neurologic outcomes and to identify their risk factors in patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary apoplexy.

    Methods: Forty-one consecutive patients with pituitary apoplexy who underwent transsphenoidal surgery were reviewed retrospectively. Read More

    Rare, Uncommon, and Unusual Complications After Pancreaticoduodenal Resection.
    Surg Clin North Am 2018 Feb;98(1):87-94
    The Pancreas, Biliary and Advanced Laparoscopy Center of New York, 305 Second Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA. Electronic address:
    Complications after pancreaticoduodenal resection occur in at least 30% of patients. Most are a direct result of an intraoperative event, dissection, or anastomoses which account for the most serious morbidities, sepsis, pseudoaneurysms, and hemorrhage. Rarely, complications are due to the systemic impact of the procedure even if the procedure itself was unremarkable. Read More

    [Long QT syndrome and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia due to hypopituitarism. Report of one case].
    Rev Med Chil 2017 Jul;145(7):941-944
    Unidad de Medicina Interna, Hospital La Inmaculada, Almería, España.
    Symptoms of hypopituitarism are usually chronic and nonspecific, but rarely the disease can have acute and life threatening manifestations. We report a 53 years old female with a pituitary adenoma that was admitted to our hospital because of syncope. The electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia with a prolonged QT interval. Read More

    Ischaemic pituitary tumour apoplexy and concurrent meningitis: a diagnostic dilemma.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Nov 21;2017. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
    Department of Neurology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Pituitary tumour apoplexy is a rare but potentially life threatening clinical syndrome that mostly results from haemorrhage in the pre-existent tumour. Pure ischaemic subtype of apoplexy is even rarer. The presentation can be hard to differentiate clinically from bacterial meningitis. Read More

    Pituitary apoplexy - A single center retrospective study from the neurosurgical perspective and review of the literature.
    Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2017 Dec 10;163:39-45. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Hufelandstr. 55, 45147 Essen, Germany. Electronic address:
    Objective: Thunderclap headache and visual disturbances are typical clinical features of pituitary apoplexy (PA). Because of the acute symptomatology, many patients are referred to a neurosurgical department without prior endocrinological assessment. It is the aim of the present study to analyze initial presenting symptoms, outcome and associated endocrine disturbances in a cohort of patients with pituitary apoplexy primarily seen by neurosurgeons. Read More

    Delayed Onset of Isolated Unilateral Oculomotor Nerve Palsy Caused by Post-Traumatic Pituitary Apoplexy: A Case Report.
    Clin Med Insights Case Rep 2017 25;10:1179547617731299. Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Mie University, Tsu, Japan.
    Post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy is uncommon, most of which present with a sudden onset of severe headache and visual impairments associated with a dumbbell-shaped pituitary tumor. We experienced an unusual case of post-traumatic pituitary apoplexy with atypical clinical features. A 66-year-old man presented with mild cerebral contusion and an incidentally diagnosed intrasellar tumor after a fall accident with no loss of consciousness. Read More

    Surgical intervention for pituitary apoplexy: an analysis of functional outcomes.
    J Neurosurg 2017 Sep 15:1-8. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    California Center for Pituitary Disorders, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California.
    OBJECTIVE Pituitary apoplexy is a clinical syndrome consisting of neurological and endocrine abnormalities secondary to hemorrhage or ischemia of an underlying pituitary adenoma. The authors investigated whether there was a significant difference in neurological, endocrine, and nonneuroendocrine outcomes for patients with pituitary apoplexy, based on the time between symptom onset and surgical intervention. METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 32 patients who had presented to their institution with acute pituitary apoplexy and subsequently undergone endonasal transsphenoidal resection in the period from 2003 to 2014. Read More

    Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery for Treatment of Pituitary Apoplexy: 16 Years of Experience in a Specialized Pituitary Center.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Dec 1;108:137-142. Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Department of Surgery, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.
    Objective: Symptomatic pituitary apoplexy is a rare but life-threatening condition caused by sudden hemorrhage or infarction of a pituitary adenoma. In the current study, we aim to evaluate the clinical presentation, management, and clinical outcomes in a cohort of patients who were treated for this condition in our center in the last 16 years.

    Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal surgery for treatment of symptomatic pituitary apoplexy between 2001 and 2016 in our center. Read More

    Sphenoid sinus microbiota in pituitary apoplexy: a preliminary study.
    Pituitary 2017 Dec;20(6):619-623
    Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre (MAHSC), The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
    Purpose: There is a high incidence of abnormal sphenoid sinus changes in patients with pituitary apoplexy (PA). Their pathophysiology is currently unexplored and may reflect an inflammatory or infective process. In this preliminary study, we characterised the microbiota of sphenoid sinus mucosa in patients with PA and compared findings to a control group of surgically treated non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Read More

    Delayed Diagnosis of Cushing's Disease in a Pediatric Patient due to Apparent Remission from Spontaneous Apoplexy.
    J Clin Transl Endocrinol Case Rep 2016 Dec;2:30-34
    Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) 10 Center Dr, Bethesda, MD 20814.
    We report here a pediatric patient whose Cushing's Disease was diagnosed late because of her cyclical presentation, presumably due to subclinical pituitary apoplexy. Starting at age 8, she presented with observable signs of Cushing's but was not clinically assessed for Cushing's Syndrome until the age of 15. Initial tests at age 15 were consistent with Cushing's Disease, however, the patient presented with spontaneous remission of hypercortisolemia just a few short months later. Read More

    Acute hypopituitarism associated with periorbital swelling and cardiac dysfunction in a patient with pituitary tumor apoplexy: a case report.
    J Med Case Rep 2017 Aug 24;11(1):235. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Uonuma Institute of Community Medicine, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Niigata, Japan.
    Background: Pituitary tumor apoplexy is a rare clinical syndrome caused by acute hemorrhage or infarction in a preexisting pituitary adenoma. It typically manifests as an acute episode of headache, visual disturbance, mental status changes, cranial nerve palsy, and endocrine pituitary dysfunction. However, not all patients present with classical symptoms, so it is pertinent to appreciate the clinical spectrum of pituitary tumor apoplexy presentation. Read More

    Pituitary apoplexy and rivaroxaban.
    Pituitary 2017 Dec;20(6):709-710
    CHU REIMS service neurochirurgie, Reims, France.
    Pituitary apoplexy (PA), defined by the occurrence of a massive hemorrhagic necrotic rearrangement within a pituitary adenoma, is rare. Its occurrence can be associated with certain risk factors, including anticoagulation. We report the first case of PA with rivaroxaban which is one of the new oral anticoagulants: a 73 year-old patient presenting with severe headache and visual field deterioration. Read More

    Surgical Outcomes of Cavernous Sinus Syndrome in Pituitary Adenomas.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Nov 18;107:526-533. Epub 2017 Aug 18.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Dongcheng District, Beijing, China; China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
    Objective: The type of pituitary adenoma with a manifestation that includes cavernous sinus syndrome is rare. Based on the clinical data of 70 patients, this study investigated the pathogenesis, imaging characteristics, and prognostic factors of pituitary adenoma with cavernous sinus syndrome.

    Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the characteristics of patients with pituitary adenoma with cavernous sinus syndrome who received surgical treatment. Read More

    Brain and Optic Chiasm Herniation into Sella after Pituitary Tumor Apoplexy.
    Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2017 7;8:192. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Clínica de Endocrinología y Metabolismo, Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Brain and optic chiasm herniation has been rarely reported following dopamine agonist treatment for large prolactinomas. We report a case of brain and optical chiasm herniation, secondary to an empty sella due to apoplexy of a prolactinoma, and we focus on the specific presentation of this case. A 32-year-old female presented to a neurologist complaining of headaches. Read More

    Spindle Cell Oncocytoma of the Anterior Pituitary Presenting with an Acute Clinical Course Due To Intraventricular Hemorrhage. A Case Report and Review of Literature.
    Am J Case Rep 2017 Aug 17;18:894-901. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Dr. Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    BACKGROUND Spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) is a rare nonfunctioning neoplasm of the adenohypophysis, and was first described in 2002. SCO has been categorized as a separate entity by the 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) and is classified as a Grade 1 tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). Review of the literature has shown that 33 cases of SCO have been reported to date, and most of them presented with a mass effect or with panhypopituitarism. Read More

    A retrospective review of 34 cases of pediatric pituitary adenoma.
    Childs Nerv Syst 2017 Nov 18;33(11):1961-1967. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37th Guoxue Alley, Chengdu, China.
    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study invasiveness, tumor features and clinical symptoms of pediatric pituitary adenoma, and to discuss some inconclusive results in prior studies.

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 34 cases of children (<20 year-old) who were pathologically diagnosed with pituitary adenoma and surgically treated from 2010 to 2017. Data of general information, clinical symptoms, invasive behaviors, surgery approaches, and tumor features were collected and analyzed. Read More

    Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach for the Removal of Optochiasmatic Cavernoma: Case Report and Literature Review.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Oct 13;106:1053.e11-1053.e14. Epub 2017 Jul 13.
    Department of Neurosurgery, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address:
    Background: Cavernoma of the optic chiasm is a rare disease, and the most common clinical presentation is chiasmal apoplexy. Almost all the cases reported in the literature were treated surgically with craniotomy.

    Case Description: We report a case of optochiasmatic cavernoma successfully resected via an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETA). Read More

    Pituitary apoplexy: a rare complication of leuprolide therapy in prostate cancer treatment.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jul 14;2017. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson city, Tennessee, USA.
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, used widely in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, are associated with a rare but potentially fatal outcome of pituitary apoplexy (PA). An 85-year-old man presented with sudden onset of headache, left eye pain, sensitivity to light, nausea and vomiting. The symptoms started 4 hours after initiation of leuprolide therapy for treatment of recently diagnosed metastatic prostate carcinoma. Read More

    Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery for Pituitary Apoplexy: Evidence On a 75-Case Series From a Tertiary Care Center.
    World Neurosurg 2017 Oct 30;106:331-338. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Center of Pituitary Tumors and Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery, Department of Neurosurgery, IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Background: The optimal management of pituitary apoplexy (PA) remains debated. The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of the transsphenoidal approach for PA in a large surgical experience.

    Materials: Each consecutive case of PA consecutively operated by endoscopic endonasal approach from our tertiary care center, from 1998 to 2015, was included in this series. Read More

    Acute Ischaemic Stroke as a Manifestation of Pituitary Apoplexy in a Young Lady.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2017 May 1;11(5):OD03-OD05. Epub 2017 May 1.
    Postgraduate, Department of Medicine, NRI Medical College and General Hospital, Chinakakani, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India.
    Pituitary Apoplexy (PA) is defined as a clinical syndrome comprising headache, visual deficits and altered sensorium, which can result from haemorrhage or infarction of the pituitary gland. Acute ischaemic stroke following PA is very rare. We are presenting a 35-year-old young otherwise healthy lady who presented with neuro ophthalmological and vascular symptoms on a background of PA. Read More

    Prolactinomas diagnosed in the postmenopausal period: Clinical phenotype and outcomes.
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2017 Nov 18;87(5):508-514. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
    Objective: Most prolactinomas in females are diagnosed during the reproductive age, and the majority are microadenomas. Prolactinomas detected in the postmenopausal period are less common with limited published data on their presentation and prognosis. Our objective was to assess the presenting clinical, biochemical and imaging findings, as well as the outcomes of women diagnosed with a prolactinoma in the postmenopausal period. Read More

    Intrasellar dermoid cyst mimicking pituitary apoplexy: A case report and review of the literature.
    J Clin Neurosci 2017 Nov 7;45:125-128. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, PR China. Electronic address:
    Intrasellar dermoid cysts are extremely unusual lesions, with only four cases reported to date, and have not been previously reported in association with sudden-onset symptoms. Here, we present the case of an intrasellar dermoid cyst with sudden-onset symptoms mimicking pituitary apoplexy in an elderly woman. A 69year-old woman presented with sudden onset of headache, dizziness, and decreased visual acuity. Read More

    Pituitary Adenoma Apoplexy in an Adolescent: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
    J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol 2017 Sep 7;9(3):265-273. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    We present a 13-year-old boy who was admitted with complaints of a state of progressive sleepiness and a sudden headache with vomiting and fever. Laboratory testing showed hypoglycemia, multiple pituitary hormonal deficiencies, and an elevated C-reactive protein level. A cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an opaque sphenoid sinus and an intrasellar mass suggesting hemorrhage, so that we suspected pituitary apoplexy (PA) originating from a non-functioning adenoma, although a pituitary abscess could not completely be excluded. Read More

    Pituitary apoplexy presenting as a peripheral rim enhancing parasellar mass lesion with dural enhancement along the tentorium.
    Neuroradiol J 2017 Dec 5;30(6):561-567. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    1 Department of Neurosurgery, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Medical Sciences, India.
    Pituitary apoplexy is a potentially life-threatening clinical condition caused by rapid enlargement of a pituitary adenoma because of haemorrhage or infarction. The clinical features are typically acute in onset. We report an interesting case of 25-year-old man with complaints of sudden onset of headache and ophthalmoplegia in the right eye one month previously. Read More

    Endocrine Emergencies With Neurologic Manifestations.
    Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2017 06;23(3, Neurology of Systemic Disease):778-801
    Purpose Of Review: This article provides an overview of endocrine emergencies with potentially devastating neurologic manifestations that may be fatal if left untreated. Pituitary apoplexy, adrenal crisis, myxedema coma, thyroid storm, acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia, hyperglycemic emergencies (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state), and acute hypoglycemia are discussed, with an emphasis on identifying the signs and symptoms as well as diagnosing and managing these clinical entities.

    Recent Findings: To identify the optimal management of endocrine emergencies, using formal clinical diagnostic criteria and grading scales such as those recently proposed for pituitary apoplexy will be beneficial in future prospective studies. Read More

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