40,097 results match your criteria Pituitary Adenoma

Skull Base Tumors: Neuropathology and Clinical implications.

Neurosurgery 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Tumors that arise in and around the skull base comprise a wide range of common and rare entities. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of their pathogenesis, which in some cases, have significantly influenced clinical practice. The genotype of meningiomas is strongly associated with their phenotype, including histologic subtype and tumor location, and clinical outcome. Read More

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Long-term response to cabergoline and multi-modal treatment in men with macroprolactinoma: does size really matter?

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Institute of Endocrinology, Beilinson Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Objective: To study the outcome of men with macroprolactinoma following cabergoline treatment based on tumour size.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Methods: The study included 94 men, divided into 3 groups according to adenoma diameter: 10-19 mm (group A, n = 36); 20-39 mm (group B, n = 41); or ≥40 mm (group C, giant prolactinomas, n = 17). Read More

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Recurrent cavernous sinus thrombosis: a rare complication of Cushing disease.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 22;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Medicine, Hospital Melaka, Melaka, Malaysia.

A 14-year-old girl who presented in 2017 with headache, unilateral right eye ptosis and secondary amenorrhoea had an initial workup consistent with non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma. She underwent debulking of pituitary tumour in October 2017. Postoperatively, she developed recurrent cavernous sinus thrombosis. Read More

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Pituitary apoplexy induced by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist administration for treatment of prostate cancer: a systematic review.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA.

Objective: We aimed to review of literature on the clinical presentation, management and outcomes of pituitary apoplexy following gonadotrophic release hormone (GnRH) agonist administration for the treatment of prostate cancer.

Methods: We used PRISMA guidelines for our systematic review and included all English language original articles on pituitary apoplexy following GnRH agonist administration among prostate cancer patients from Jan 1, 1995 to Dec 31, 2020. Data on patient demographics, prostate cancer type, Gleason score at diagnosis, history of pituitary adenoma, clinical presentation, GnRH agonist, interval to pituitary apoplexy, laboratory evaluation at admission, radiologic findings, treatment of pituitary apoplexy, time to surgery if performed, pathology findings, and clinical/hormonal outcomes were collected and analyzed. Read More

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GHRH secretion from a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor causing gigantism in a patient with MEN1.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Jun 1;2021. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Endocrinology, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, William Harvey Research Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Summary: A male patient with a germline mutation in MEN1 presented at the age of 18 with classical features of gigantism. Previously, he had undergone resection of an insulin-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour (pNET) at the age of 10 years and had subtotal parathyroidectomy due to primary hyperparathyroidism at the age of 15 years. He was found to have significantly elevated serum IGF-1, GH, GHRH and calcitonin levels. Read More

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Selective resection of cushing microadenoma guided by preoperative hybrid 18-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine and 11-C-methionine PET/MRI.

Pituitary 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, St. Claraspital, Basel, CH, Switzerland.

Purpose: 11-C-methionine (MET)-positron emission tomography (PET) as an adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed as a suitable molecular imaging modality for localizing pituitary adenomas in Cushing's disease. 18-F-Fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine (FET)-PET, which is more widely available has not yet been reported in this context.

Methods: Retrospective double-center cohort study on 15 patients who underwent transsphenoidal surgery for biochemically proven Cushing's disease between 2011 and 2019. Read More

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Epidemiologic Study of Primary Brain Tumors in Miyazaki Prefecture: A Regional 10-year Survey in Southern Japan.

Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki.

The increased use of neuroimaging and the aging of society have changed the incidence and proportion of histological types of intracranial tumors in Japan. A population-based epidemiological survey has been reported only from Kumamoto Prefecture. We performed a 10-year survey in Miyazaki Prefecture to compare our findings with the incidence rate (IR) of primary intracranial tumors (PIT) reported in the Kumamoto survey. Read More

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Intrasellar hemorrhagic chordoma masquerading as pituitary apoplexy: case report and review of the literature.

Br J Neurosurg 2021 Jun 21:1-4. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Background And Importance: Chordomas are centrally located, expansile soft tissue neoplasms that arise from the remnants of the embryological notochord. Hemorrhagic presentation is exceedingly rare and can resemble pituitary apoplexy. Moreover, a purely intrasellar location of a chordoma is extremely uncommon. Read More

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Clinical relevance of tumor consistency in pituitary adenoma.

Hormones (Athens) 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: To review the clinical relevance of pituitary adenoma (PA) consistency and its relationship to clinical presentation, radiologic and histopathological characteristics, and surgical outcomes.

Background: PA consistency is a critical factor influencing operative planning, surgical outcomes, and patient counseling. There is no validated classification of PA consistency in the literature, and there are no current preoperative variables capable of predicting it. Read More

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Acute control of carotid bleed with vascularized nasoseptal flap (with video).

Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Division of Rhinology and Skull Base Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York.

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Image-driven classification of functioning and nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma by deep convolutional neural networks.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 14;19:3077-3086. Epub 2021 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Cancer Center, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, School of Life Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510060, China.

The secreting function of pituitary adenomas (PAs) plays a critical role in making the treatment strategies. However, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) analysis for pituitary adenomas is labor intensive and highly variable among radiologists. In this work, by applying convolutional neural network (CNN), we built a segmentation and classification model to help distinguish functioning pituitary adenomas from non-functioning subtypes with 3D MRI images from 185 patients with PAs (two centers). Read More

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Familial Acromegaly and Bilateral Asynchronous Pheochromocytomas in a Female Patient With a Mutation: A Case Report.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 31;12:683492. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Neuroendocrinology and Bone Diseases, Endocrinology Research Centre, Moscow, Russia.

Background: There are very few cases of co-occurring pituitary adenoma (PA) and pheochromocytomas (PCC)/paragangliomas caused by mutations. No cases of familial PA in patients with mutations have been described to date.

Case Presentation: We describe a 38-year-old female patient, presenting with clinical and biochemical features of acromegaly and PCC of the left adrenal gland. Read More

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An unusual presentation of prolonged delirium.

BMJ 2021 06 16;373:n1423. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Sheffield Health and Social Care NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK.

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Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Pituitary Apoplexy: A Single-Center Case Series and Review of the Literature.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA.

Background: Pituitary apoplexy (PA) is a rare, but life-threatening, condition characterized by pituitary infarction and hemorrhage, most often in the setting of a preexisting adenoma. The risk factors and mechanisms associated with PA are poorly understood. Although neurovascular manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection have been documented, its association with PA has not yet been determined. Read More

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Co-occurrence of Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors (PitNETs) and Tumors of the Neurohypophysis.

Endocr Pathol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Johannes Wesling Klinikum, University Hospital of the Ruhr-University Bochum (RUB), Hans-Nolte-Straße 1, D-32427, Minden, Germany.

Between 1996 and 2020, 12,565 cases were enrolled in the German Registry of Pituitary Tumors including 10,084 PitNETs (10,067 adenomas and 19 carcinomas obtained surgically and 193 adenomas diagnosed at autopsy) as well as 69 spindle cell tumors of the neurohypophysis (64 surgical specimens and 5 autopsies). In six patients (1 post mortem and 5 surgical specimens), PitNETs as well as posterior lobe tumors were found in the specimens. Two of the PitNETs were sparsely granulated prolactin-producing tumors, combined in one case with a granular cell tumor and in one case with a pituicytoma. Read More

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Diaphragma sellae sinking can predict the onset of hyponatremia after transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Fuzong Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350025, China.

Purpose: Sinking of the diaphragma sellae (DS) may stretch the pituitary stalk, which in turn impairs neurohypophyseal function; thus, it may play a role in the development of postoperative hyponatremia. We aimed to assess the factors influencing the development of hyponatremia after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for pituitary adenomas and analyze the effect of DS sinking on hyponatremia.

Methods: After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of patients with pituitary adenoma who underwent TSS. Read More

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Pituitary apoplexy of a giant prolactinoma during pregnancy.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2021 Jun 14:1-4. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Endocrinology and Diabetes Department, Farhat Hached University Hospital of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia.

Aims And Methods: Prolactinomas are a common cause of sexual dysfunction and infertility. We aimed, through this case report, to illustrate the difficulties of management of women with giant prolactinoma, especially in cases of desire of pregnancy.

Results: A 30-year-old woman was referred to our department for secondary amenorrhea. Read More

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Prediction of Readmission and Complications After Pituitary Adenoma Resection via the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) Database.

Cureus 2021 May 2;13(5):e14809. Epub 2021 May 2.

Neurological Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA.

Introduction Pituitary adenomas are common intracranial tumors (incidence 4:100,000 people) with good surgical outcomes; however, a subset of patients show higher rates of perioperative morbidity. Our goal was to identify risk factors for postoperative complications or readmission after pituitary adenoma resection. Methods We undertook a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent surgery for pituitary adenoma in 2006-2018 by using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Read More

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Understanding giant cell sarcoma of the head and neck: A population-based study.

Head Neck 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

Background: Giant cell sarcomas (GCS) are rare head and neck neoplasms.

Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was analyzed for all patients who have been diagnosed with GCS from 1973 to 2014.

Results: Four hundred and forty cases of GCS of the head and neck were identified. Read More

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Exploration of spatial distribution of brain metastasis from small cell lung cancer and identification of metastatic risk level of brain regions: a multicenter, retrospective study.

Cancer Imaging 2021 Jun 13;21(1):41. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 88 Keling Road, Suzhou New District, Suzhou, 215163, Jiangsu, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to explore the spatial distribution of brain metastases (BMs) from small cell lung cancer (SCLC) a homogenous sample, and to identify the metastatic risk levels in brain regions.

Methods: T1-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from SCLC patients were retrospectively reviewed from three medical institutions in China. All images were registered to the standard brain template provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) 152 database, followed by transformation of the location of all BMs to the space of standard brain. Read More

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Emergency endoscopic surgery for pituitary apoplexy presenting as cerebral infarction in a limited resources condition: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 May 26;83:106015. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Surgery, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam; Department of Neurosurgery I, Viet Duc University Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Introduction And Importance: Pituitary apoplexy is defined as a sudden onset of neurologic deficit due to infarction or hemorrhage of the pituitary tumor. We report a case of emergency endoscopic surgery for pituitary apoplexy presenting as cerebral infarction due to ICA compression in a limited resources condition.

Case Presentation: A 38-year-old female presented with acute onset of severe headache, decreased level of consciousness, decreased visual acuity bilaterally, aphasia, and right hemiparesis. Read More

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ACTH Stimulation Maximizes the Accuracy of Peripheral Steroid Profiling in Primary Aldosteronism Subtyping.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetes, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: ACTH can contribute to aldosterone excess in primary aldosteronism (PA) via increased melanocortin type 2 receptor expression. Dynamic manipulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis could assist PA subtyping, but a direct comparison of dynamic tests is lacking.

Methods: We conducted comprehensive dynamic testing in 80 patients: 40 with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and 40 bilateral PA (BPA). Read More

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The Interdisciplinary Management of Newly Diagnosed Pituitary Tumors.

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2021 Apr;118(14):237-243

Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, DKD Helios Klinik Wiesbaden Medicover Oldenburg MVZ; Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, University Hospital, University of; Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; Department of Neurosurgery, Johannes Wesling Klinikum Minden; Institute of Neuropathology, UKE Hamburg; Department of Neurosurgery, UKE Hamburg.

Background: The increasing use of cranial tomographic imaging has led to the more frequent discovery of pituitary tumors. In this review, we discuss the clinical symptoms that point toward a pituitary tumor, the required diagnostic studies, the potential need for follow-up studies, and the indications for neurosurgical treatment.

Methods: This review is based on pertinent publications from the years 2005-2020 that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, as well as on the current German S2k guideline, which was created with the present authors playing a coordinating role, and on further guidelines from abroad. Read More

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Pituitary adenoma…nomen omen?

Andrea Giustina

Endocrine 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, San Raffaele, Vita-Salute University and IRCCS Hospital, Milano, Italy.

Background: In 2017, the International Pituitary Pathology Club proposed to rename pituitary adenoma as pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) but since no consensus on this new terminology was obtained the Pituitary Society decided to host on this topic an international multidisciplinary virtual workshop, Pituitary Neoplasm Nomenclature (PANOMEN), to which several Societies participated with the designation of their representatives in the expert panel. Main conclusion of the meeting was that there was not yet a case for adopting the PitNET nomenclature and main recommendation was that the term adenoma is retained.

Aim: Aim of this Editorial is to comment the outcome of the recently published document of the meeting. Read More

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Enhancing gonadotrope gene expression through regulatory lncRNAs.

Endocrinology 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Faculty of Biology, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel.

The world of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has opened up massive new prospects in understanding the regulation of gene expression. Not only are there seemingly almost infinite numbers of lncRNAs in the mammalian cell, but they have highly diverse mechanisms of action. In the nucleus, some are chromatin-associated, transcribed from transcriptional enhancers (eRNAs) and/or direct changes in the epigenetic landscape with profound effects on gene expression. Read More

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Cabergoline reduces 3-methoxytyramine in a SDHC patient with metastatic paraganglioma and prolactinoma.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Jun 1;2021. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Endocrinology, University College London Hospital, London, UK.

Summary: We observed a novel therapeutic response with cabergoline in a male patient with a dopamine-secreting head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL), macroprolactinoma and germline succinate dehydrogenase C mutation (SDHC). The macroprolactinoma was treated with cabergoline which gave an excellent response. He was found to have raised plasma 3-methoxytyramine of 1014 pmol/L (NR: 0-180 pmol/L); but it was unclear if this was a drug-induced phenomenon from dopamine agonist (DA) therapy. Read More

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The use of mass spectrometry in a proteome-centered multiomics study of human pituitary adenomas.

Mass Spectrom Rev 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Shandong Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

A pituitary adenoma (PA) is a common intracranial neoplasm, and is a complex, chronic, and whole-body disease with multicausing factors, multiprocesses, and multiconsequences. It is very difficult to clarify molecular mechanism and treat PAs from the single-factor strategy model. The rapid development of multiomics and systems biology changed the paradigms from a traditional single-factor strategy to a multiparameter systematic strategy for effective management of PAs. Read More

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Tolvaptan in the Management of Acute Euvolemic Hyponatremia After Transsphenoidal Surgery: A Retrospective Single-Center Analysis.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 24;12:689887. Epub 2021 May 24.

Endocrinology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) can be a complication of hypothalamus-pituitary surgery. The use of tolvaptan in this setting is not well established, hence the primary aim of this study was to assess the sodium correction rates attained with tolvaptan compared with standard treatments (fluid restriction and/or hypertonic saline). Furthermore, we compared the length of hospital stay in the two treatment groups and investigated the occurrence of overcorrection and side effects including osmotic demyelination syndrome. Read More

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Second-Line Tests in the Diagnosis of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Dependent Hypercortisolism.

Ann Lab Med 2021 Nov;41(6):521-531

Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medicine (DIMED), University-Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare disease caused by chronic and excessive cortisol secretion. When adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) is measurable, autonomous adrenal cortisol secretion could be reasonably ruled out in a differential diagnosis of CS. ACTH-dependent CS accounts for 80%-85% of cases and involves cortisol production stimulated by uncontrolled pituitary or ectopic ACTH secretion. Read More

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November 2021

Heart Rate Variability in Postoperative Patients with Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported to be associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Hypopituitarism in nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) is often linked to increased cardiovascular mortality. We therefore hypothesized that postoperative NFPA patients with hormone deficiency have an elevated risk of HRV alterations indicating cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Read More

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