94 results match your criteria Pitted Keratolysis

Effectiveness and safety of zinc oxide nanoparticle-coated socks compared to uncoated socks for the prevention of pitted keratolysis: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial study.

Int J Dermatol 2021 Jul 4;60(7):864-867. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Pitted keratolysis (PK) and bromodosis have negative impacts on the quality of life especially for military personnel. The antibacterial efficacy and safety of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) make them a suitable additive for textiles. We aim to establish the ability of ZnO-NP-coated socks to prevent PK and bromodosis in a real-life setting. Read More

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Pool Toes: Case Report and Review of Pool-Associated Pedal Dermatoses.

Philip R Cohen

Cureus 2020 Nov 28;12(11):e11756. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Dermatology, San Diego Family Dermatology, National City, USA.

Pool swimmers are susceptible to pedal dermatoses. The causes for these conditions are asteototic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, friction-induced injury, infections, keratoderma, pruritus, thermal injury, ultraviolet radiation exposure, and urticaria. The specific dermatoses include aquagenic keratoderma, aquagenic pruritus, aquagenic urticaria, cold-induced urticaria, contact urticaria, erosion interdigitalis blastomycetica, erythrasma, Mycobacterium abscessus hand and foot disease, onychomycosis, photosensitivity, pitted keratolysis, plantar verruca, pool dermatitis, pool feet, pool toes, pool water dermatitis, pseudomonas hot-foot syndrome, skin cancer, subcorneal hematoma, sunburn, swim fin dermatitis, tinea pedis, toe web infection, and xerosis. Read More

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November 2020

Pitted Keratolysis.

Indian Pediatr 2020 09;57(9):875

Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprosy, RG Kar Medical College, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

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September 2020

The foot microbiome.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 May 11;19(5):1039-1043. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Cosmetology, School of Pharmaceutical Science in Sosnowiec, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Sosnowiec, Poland.

Background: The human skin microbiome is represented by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites.

Aims: Every human being possess their own unique skin microbiome because intrinsic and environmental factors have a significant impact on the quality and quantity of microorganism. Every site of the body is a separate microbial niche. Read More

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Tolio: Foot Rot in Grand Canyon River Runners.

Wilderness Environ Med 2020 Mar 31;31(1):82-86. Epub 2020 Jan 31.


Treating skin disorders in wilderness settings is often challenging. In this report we describe common skin conditions affecting the feet of river runners on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. These conditions are frequently referred to by river runners with a catchall term, "tolio. Read More

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Randomized, controlled trial testing the effectiveness and safety of 2.5% and 5% benzoyl peroxide for the treatment of pitted keratolysis.

J Dermatolog Treat 2020 Jan 3:1-4. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

The appropriate dosage and duration of topical benzoyl peroxide gel (BP) treatment of pitted keratolysis (PK) is controversial. To compare the effectiveness and safety of topical 2.5% and 5% BP for the treatment of PK. Read More

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January 2020

Hyperhidrosis and its impact on those living with it.

Am J Manag Care 2018 12;24(23 Suppl):S491-S495

Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Email:

Sweating plays a vital role for humans. However, excessive sweating, also called hyperhidrosis, is a condition resulting in sweating beyond what is physiologically necessary. The increased rate of sweating is not caused by external stimuli or temperature fluctuations, as with an individual without hyperhidrosis. Read More

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December 2018

Managing pitted keratolysis: consider topical glycopyrrolate.

Clin Exp Dermatol 2019 Aug 4;44(6):713-714. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

First Department of Dermatology-Venereology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Faculty of Medicine, Andreas Sygros Hospital for Cutaneous and Venereal Diseases, 5 I. Dragoumi Street, GR-16121, Kaisariani, Athens, Greece.

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Cost-effectiveness analysis and safety of erythromycin 4% gel and 4% chlorhexidine scrub for pitted keratolysis treatment.

J Dermatolog Treat 2019 Sep 11;30(6):627-629. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

a Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University , Bangkok , Thailand.

Studies of Pitted keratolysis (PK) treatment are limited. To study cost-effectiveness and to compare the safety of 4% chlorhexidine scrub with 4% erythromycin gel, for PK infections. This cohort study was conducted on naval rating cadets with a clinical diagnosis of PK at Chumpol Naval Rating School, Thailand in 2016. Read More

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September 2019

Clinical manifestations, risk factors and quality of life in patients with pitted keratolysis: a cross-sectional study in cadets.

Br J Dermatol 2018 11 14;179(5):1220-1221. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

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November 2018

Tatami Mats: A Source of Pitted Keratolysis in a Martial Arts Athlete?

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2018 Apr;26(1):68-70

Daniela Ledić Drvar, MD, PhD, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Department of Dermatology and Venereology, School of Medicine University of Zagreb, Šalata 4, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia;

Dear Editor, Pitted keratolysis (PK), also known as keratosis plantaris sulcatum, is a non-inflammatory, bacterial, superficial cutaneous infection, characterized by many discrete superficial crateriform ''pits'' and erosions in the thickly keratinized skin of the weight-bearing regions of the soles of the feet (1). The disease often goes unnoticed by the patient, but when it is noticed it is because of the unbearable malodor and hyperhidrosis of the feet, which are socially unacceptable and cause great anxiety to many of the patients. PK occurs worldwide, with the incidence rates varying based on the environment and occupation. Read More

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Pitted keratolysis - a study of various clinical manifestations.

Int J Dermatol 2017 Nov 18;56(11):1154-1160. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, H.B.T. Medical College and Dr. R.N. Cooper Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Background: Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a common bacterial infection of skin characterized by noninflammatory superficial pits. Very few studies have focused on variations in clinical manifestations of PK. We conducted this study so that diagnosis of this treatable condition is not missed when it presents in an uncommonly perceived way. Read More

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November 2017

Palmoplantar Dermatoses- A Clinical Study of 300 Cases.

J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Aug 1;10(8):WC04-7. Epub 2016 Aug 1.

Plastic Surgeon, The Bangalore Hospital , Bengaluru, Karnataka, India .

Introduction: Dermatoses affecting palms and soles are among the most difficult of all dermatological therapeutic problems. Many previous studies have focused on the specific diseases of palmoplantar dermatoses. However, none of them have included a comprehensive study of palmoplantar dermatoses. Read More

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Renal disease in patients infected with hepatitis B virus.

Trop Gastroenterol 2015 Oct-Dec;36(4):220-8

Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can result in hepatic diseases which may include an asymptomatic non-replicative carrier state, immunotolerant phase characterized by high DNA levels without significant hepatic injury, immune-reactive phase characterized by occurrence of chronic hepatitis and fibrosis in the liver, or complications like cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Extrahepatic manifestations may also accompany HBV infection. These may include serum sickness syndrome, polyarthralgia, polyarthritis, dermatologic manifestations like pitted keratolysis, urticaria, purpura, oral lichen planus or Gianotti-Crosti syndrome-a childhood papular eruption. Read More

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September 2016

Clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections at a tertiary hospital.

Indian Dermatol Online J 2016 May-Jun;7(3):168-73

Department of Dermatology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.

Background: Skin infections caused by coryneform bacteria are common dermatological conditions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this group of disorders as one entity from India and abroad.

Aims: To study the clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections. Read More

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The first Danish family reported with an AQP5 mutation presenting diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type, hyperhidrosis and frequent Corynebacterium infections: a case report.

BMC Dermatol 2016 06 3;16(1). Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Background: An autosomal dominant form of diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type, is caused by mutations in the AQP5 gene encoding the cell-membrane water channel protein aquaporin 5 leading to defective epidermal-water-barrier function in the epidermis of the palms and soles.

Case Presentation: We report the first Danish family diagnosed with diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type in which fourteen individuals are potentially affected. The proband, a 36-year-old male had since childhood been affected by pronounced hyperhidrosis of the palms and soles along with palmoplantar keratoderma. Read More

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Plantar Hyperhidrosis: An Overview.

Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2016 Jul 26;33(3):441-51. Epub 2016 Mar 26.

Department of Podiatric Medicine, Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, 148 North 8th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. Electronic address:

Plantar hyperhidrosis, excessive sweating on the soles of feet, can have a significant impact on patients' quality of life and emotional well-being. Hyperhidrosis is divided into primary and secondary categories, depending on the cause of the sweating, with plantar hyperhidrosis typically being primary and idiopathic. There is an overall increased risk of cutaneous infection in the presence of hyperhidrosis, including fungal, bacterial, and viral infections. Read More

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Pitted keratolysis.

An Bras Dermatol 2016 Jan-Feb;91(1):106-8

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Pitted keratolysis is a skin disorder that affects the stratum corneum of the plantar surface and is caused by Gram-positive bacteria. A 30-year-old male presented with small punched-out lesions on the plantar surface. A superficial shaving was carried out for scanning electron microscopy. Read More

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October 2016

Pitted keratolysis: successful management with mupirocin 2% ointment monotherapy.

Dermatol Online J 2015 Aug 15;21(8). Epub 2015 Aug 15.

University of California, San Diego.

Background: Pitted keratolysis is a benign dermatosis that occurs on plantar skin.

Purpose: We describe a man with pitted keratolysis that was successfully treated with mupirocin 2% ointment monotherapy.

Methods And Materials: We reviewed PubMed for the following terms: mupirocin, ointment, pitted keratolysis, treatment. Read More

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Pitted Keratolysis.

J Pediatr 2015 Nov 24;167(5):1165. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

Toronto Dermatology Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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November 2015

Pitted keratolysis: an infective cause of foot odour.

CMAJ 2015 Apr 23;187(7):519. Epub 2015 Feb 23.

Dermatology Department (Fernández-Crehuet), Hospital Alto Guadalquivir, Andújar, Spain; Dermatology Department (Ruiz-Villaverde), Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain.

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Pitted keratolysis: a clinical review.

J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2014 Mar;104(2):177-82

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire, England.

Background: Pitted keratolysis is a bacterial infection that affects the plantar epidermis. Despite the condition being reported in many countries affecting both shod and unshod populations, there is little guidance for clinicians providing evidence or best practice guidelines on the management of this often stubborn infection.

Methods: Using a structured search of a range of databases, papers were identified that reported treatments tested on patients with the condition. Read More

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Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.

Dermatol Ther 2014 Mar-Apr;27(2):101-4. Epub 2013 May 24.

Dermatology Unit, NESMOS Department, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology "Sapienza" University Rome "S. Andrea Hospital,", Rome, Italy.

Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. Read More

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December 2014

Pitted keratolysis; physicians' treatment and their perceptions in Dutch army personnel.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2013 Sep 7;27(9):1120-6. Epub 2012 Aug 7.

Department of Dermatology, Central Military Hospital, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a common plantar skin manifestation in army personnel, farmers and athletes. Due to pain while walking and marching, the condition can cause reduced operational deployability (in case of army personnel).

Objective: We used a questionnaire to investigate currently used treatment options of PK and perceptions on perceived efficacy of these treatments among Royal Netherlands Armed Forces primary health care physicians. Read More

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September 2013

Topical review: skin infections in the foot and ankle patient.

Foot Ankle Int 2012 Jul;33(7):612-9

Rush University Medical Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

There are numerous cutaneous disorders that affect the foot, but of these conditions skin infections have the most significant impact on overall patient morbidity and clinical outcome. Skin infections in foot and ankle patients are common, with often devastating consequences if left unrecognized and untreated in both surgical and nonsurgical cases. There is a diverse array of infectious dermatoses that afflict the foot and ankle patient including tinea pedis, onychomycosis, paronychia, pitted keratolysis, verruca, folliculitis, and erysipelas. Read More

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Skin manifestations of athletes competing in the summer olympics: what a sports medicine physician should know.

Sports Med 2012 May;42(5):399-413

University of Hawaii Transitional Residency Program, Honolulu, HI, USA.

Olympic athletes are vulnerable to traumatic, environmental and infectious skin manifestations. Although dermatological complaints are frequent among Olympians, there is a scarcity of literature that reviews sports-related dermatoses among Olympic athletes. A comprehensive review of PREMEDLINE and MEDLINE searches of all available literature through to January 2011 was conducted, focusing on sports-related dermatological presentations as well as the key words 'Olympic athletes' and 'skin diseases'. Read More

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Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups.

Dermatol Reports 2012 Jan 7;4(1):e4. Epub 2012 Feb 7.

İzmir Ataturk Research and Education Hospital, İzmir,Turkey.

Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. Read More

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January 2012

Skin conditions in figure skaters, ice-hockey players and speed skaters: part II - cold-induced, infectious and inflammatory dermatoses.

Sports Med 2011 Nov;41(11):967-84

Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Participation in ice-skating sports, particularly figure skating, ice hockey and speed skating, has increased in recent years. Competitive athletes in these sports experience a range of dermatological injuries related to mechanical factors: exposure to cold temperatures, infectious agents and inflammation. Part I of this two part review discussed the mechanical dermatoses affecting ice-skating athletes that result from friction, pressure, and chronic irritation related to athletic equipment and contact with surfaces. Read More

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November 2011

[Pitted keratolysis--how to treat?].

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2011 Aug;31(182):127-9

Uniwersytet Jagielloński Collegium Medicum, Kraków, Zakład Dermatologii Doświadczalnej i Kosmetologii, Wydział Farmaceutyczny.

Pitted keratolysis is a common and problematic skin condition affecting the feet caused by the keratolytic activity of Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, Dermatophilus. Skin lesions are characterized by crater-like pits of the epidermis accompanied by a burning sensation, itching, pain and malodor. The purpose of the present paper was to characterise the disease's clinical features and possibilities for the therapy. Read More

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