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    Tatami Mats: A Source of Pitted Keratolysis in a Martial Arts Athlete?
    Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2018 Apr;26(1):68-70
    Daniela Ledić Drvar, MD, PhD, University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Department of Dermatology and Venereology, School of Medicine University of Zagreb, Šalata 4, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia;
    Dear Editor, Pitted keratolysis (PK), also known as keratosis plantaris sulcatum, is a non-inflammatory, bacterial, superficial cutaneous infection, characterized by many discrete superficial crateriform ''pits'' and erosions in the thickly keratinized skin of the weight-bearing regions of the soles of the feet (1). The disease often goes unnoticed by the patient, but when it is noticed it is because of the unbearable malodor and hyperhidrosis of the feet, which are socially unacceptable and cause great anxiety to many of the patients. PK occurs worldwide, with the incidence rates varying based on the environment and occupation. Read More

    Pitted keratolysis - a study of various clinical manifestations.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 Nov 18;56(11):1154-1160. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, H.B.T. Medical College and Dr. R.N. Cooper Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
    Background: Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a common bacterial infection of skin characterized by noninflammatory superficial pits. Very few studies have focused on variations in clinical manifestations of PK. We conducted this study so that diagnosis of this treatable condition is not missed when it presents in an uncommonly perceived way. Read More

    Palmoplantar Dermatoses- A Clinical Study of 300 Cases.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Aug 1;10(8):WC04-7. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    Plastic Surgeon, The Bangalore Hospital , Bengaluru, Karnataka, India .
    Introduction: Dermatoses affecting palms and soles are among the most difficult of all dermatological therapeutic problems. Many previous studies have focused on the specific diseases of palmoplantar dermatoses. However, none of them have included a comprehensive study of palmoplantar dermatoses. Read More

    Renal disease in patients infected with hepatitis B virus.
    Trop Gastroenterol 2015 Oct-Dec;36(4):220-8
    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can result in hepatic diseases which may include an asymptomatic non-replicative carrier state, immunotolerant phase characterized by high DNA levels without significant hepatic injury, immune-reactive phase characterized by occurrence of chronic hepatitis and fibrosis in the liver, or complications like cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Extrahepatic manifestations may also accompany HBV infection. These may include serum sickness syndrome, polyarthralgia, polyarthritis, dermatologic manifestations like pitted keratolysis, urticaria, purpura, oral lichen planus or Gianotti-Crosti syndrome-a childhood papular eruption. Read More

    Clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections at a tertiary hospital.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2016 May-Jun;7(3):168-73
    Department of Dermatology, Father Muller Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India.
    Background: Skin infections caused by coryneform bacteria are common dermatological conditions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this group of disorders as one entity from India and abroad.

    Aims: To study the clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections. Read More

    The first Danish family reported with an AQP5 mutation presenting diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type, hyperhidrosis and frequent Corynebacterium infections: a case report.
    BMC Dermatol 2016 06 3;16(1). Epub 2016 Jun 3.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.
    Background: An autosomal dominant form of diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type, is caused by mutations in the AQP5 gene encoding the cell-membrane water channel protein aquaporin 5 leading to defective epidermal-water-barrier function in the epidermis of the palms and soles.

    Case Presentation: We report the first Danish family diagnosed with diffuse non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma of Bothnian type in which fourteen individuals are potentially affected. The proband, a 36-year-old male had since childhood been affected by pronounced hyperhidrosis of the palms and soles along with palmoplantar keratoderma. Read More

    Plantar Hyperhidrosis: An Overview.
    Clin Podiatr Med Surg 2016 Jul 26;33(3):441-51. Epub 2016 Mar 26.
    Department of Podiatric Medicine, Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, 148 North 8th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. Electronic address:
    Plantar hyperhidrosis, excessive sweating on the soles of feet, can have a significant impact on patients' quality of life and emotional well-being. Hyperhidrosis is divided into primary and secondary categories, depending on the cause of the sweating, with plantar hyperhidrosis typically being primary and idiopathic. There is an overall increased risk of cutaneous infection in the presence of hyperhidrosis, including fungal, bacterial, and viral infections. Read More

    Pitted keratolysis.
    An Bras Dermatol 2016 Jan-Feb;91(1):106-8
    Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.
    Pitted keratolysis is a skin disorder that affects the stratum corneum of the plantar surface and is caused by Gram-positive bacteria. A 30-year-old male presented with small punched-out lesions on the plantar surface. A superficial shaving was carried out for scanning electron microscopy. Read More

    Pitted keratolysis: successful management with mupirocin 2% ointment monotherapy.
    Dermatol Online J 2015 Aug 15;21(8). Epub 2015 Aug 15.
    University of California, San Diego.
    Background: Pitted keratolysis is a benign dermatosis that occurs on plantar skin.

    Purpose: We describe a man with pitted keratolysis that was successfully treated with mupirocin 2% ointment monotherapy.

    Methods And Materials: We reviewed PubMed for the following terms: mupirocin, ointment, pitted keratolysis, treatment. Read More

    Pitted keratolysis: a clinical review.
    J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 2014 Mar;104(2):177-82
    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, Hampshire, England.
    Background: Pitted keratolysis is a bacterial infection that affects the plantar epidermis. Despite the condition being reported in many countries affecting both shod and unshod populations, there is little guidance for clinicians providing evidence or best practice guidelines on the management of this often stubborn infection.

    Methods: Using a structured search of a range of databases, papers were identified that reported treatments tested on patients with the condition. Read More

    Pitted keratolysis, erythromycin, and hyperhidrosis.
    Dermatol Ther 2014 Mar-Apr;27(2):101-4. Epub 2013 May 24.
    Dermatology Unit, NESMOS Department, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology "Sapienza" University Rome "S. Andrea Hospital,", Rome, Italy.
    Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a plantar skin disorder mainly caused by coryneform bacteria. A common treatment consists of the topical use of erythromycin. Hyperhidrosis is considered a predisposing factor for bacterial proliferation and, consequently, for the onset of PK. Read More

    Pitted keratolysis; physicians' treatment and their perceptions in Dutch army personnel.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2013 Sep 7;27(9):1120-6. Epub 2012 Aug 7.
    Department of Dermatology, Central Military Hospital, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Background: Pitted keratolysis (PK) is a common plantar skin manifestation in army personnel, farmers and athletes. Due to pain while walking and marching, the condition can cause reduced operational deployability (in case of army personnel).

    Objective: We used a questionnaire to investigate currently used treatment options of PK and perceptions on perceived efficacy of these treatments among Royal Netherlands Armed Forces primary health care physicians. Read More

    Topical review: skin infections in the foot and ankle patient.
    Foot Ankle Int 2012 Jul;33(7):612-9
    Rush University Medical Center, Orthopaedic Surgery, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
    There are numerous cutaneous disorders that affect the foot, but of these conditions skin infections have the most significant impact on overall patient morbidity and clinical outcome. Skin infections in foot and ankle patients are common, with often devastating consequences if left unrecognized and untreated in both surgical and nonsurgical cases. There is a diverse array of infectious dermatoses that afflict the foot and ankle patient including tinea pedis, onychomycosis, paronychia, pitted keratolysis, verruca, folliculitis, and erysipelas. Read More

    Skin manifestations of athletes competing in the summer olympics: what a sports medicine physician should know.
    Sports Med 2012 May;42(5):399-413
    University of Hawaii Transitional Residency Program, Honolulu, HI, USA.
    Olympic athletes are vulnerable to traumatic, environmental and infectious skin manifestations. Although dermatological complaints are frequent among Olympians, there is a scarcity of literature that reviews sports-related dermatoses among Olympic athletes. A comprehensive review of PREMEDLINE and MEDLINE searches of all available literature through to January 2011 was conducted, focusing on sports-related dermatological presentations as well as the key words 'Olympic athletes' and 'skin diseases'. Read More

    Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups.
    Dermatol Reports 2012 Jan 7;4(1):e4. Epub 2012 Feb 7.
    İzmir Ataturk Research and Education Hospital, İzmir,Turkey.
    Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. Read More

    Skin conditions in figure skaters, ice-hockey players and speed skaters: part II - cold-induced, infectious and inflammatory dermatoses.
    Sports Med 2011 Nov;41(11):967-84
    Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.
    Participation in ice-skating sports, particularly figure skating, ice hockey and speed skating, has increased in recent years. Competitive athletes in these sports experience a range of dermatological injuries related to mechanical factors: exposure to cold temperatures, infectious agents and inflammation. Part I of this two part review discussed the mechanical dermatoses affecting ice-skating athletes that result from friction, pressure, and chronic irritation related to athletic equipment and contact with surfaces. Read More

    [Pitted keratolysis--how to treat?].
    Pol Merkur Lekarski 2011 Aug;31(182):127-9
    Uniwersytet Jagielloński Collegium Medicum, Kraków, Zakład Dermatologii Doświadczalnej i Kosmetologii, Wydział Farmaceutyczny.
    Pitted keratolysis is a common and problematic skin condition affecting the feet caused by the keratolytic activity of Corynebacterium, Micrococcus, Dermatophilus. Skin lesions are characterized by crater-like pits of the epidermis accompanied by a burning sensation, itching, pain and malodor. The purpose of the present paper was to characterise the disease's clinical features and possibilities for the therapy. Read More

    Dermoscopy of Pitted Keratolysis.
    Case Rep Dermatol 2010 Aug 19;2(2):146-148. Epub 2010 Aug 19.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Irritated hyperhidrotic soles with multiple small pits are pathognomonic for pitted keratolysis (PK). Here we show the dermatoscopic view of typical pits that can ensure the diagnosis. PK is a plantar infection caused by Gram-positive bacteria, particularly Corynebacterium. Read More

    Primary hyperhidrosis increases the risk of cutaneous infection: a case-control study of 387 patients.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2009 Aug 23;61(2):242-6. Epub 2009 Apr 23.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.
    Background: Although primary hyperhidrosis (PHH) has been frequently associated with diminished quality of life, the medical consequences of the condition are less well studied.

    Objective: The objective was to study the clinical presentation of PHH and to determine its relationship to cutaneous infection.

    Methods: A retrospective case-control study of patients encountered between 1993 and 2005 with the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis code for hyperhidrosis (HH) and meeting criteria for PHH was conducted. Read More

    Complete genome sequence of Kytococcus sedentarius type strain (541).
    Stand Genomic Sci 2009 Jul 20;1(1):12-20. Epub 2009 Jul 20.
    Kytococcus sedentarius (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Stackebrandt et al. 1995 is the type strain of the species, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its location in the Dermacoccaceae, a poorly studied family within the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. Kytococcus sedentarius is known for the production of oligoketide antibiotics as well as for its role as an opportunistic pathogen causing valve endocarditis, hemorrhagic pneumonia, and pitted keratolysis. Read More

    Corynebacterium-associated skin infections.
    Int J Dermatol 2008 Sep;47(9):884-90
    Department of Dermatopathology, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
    Background: Corynebacterium spp. are diphtheroid bacteria responsible for pitted keratolysis, a common plantar infection confined to the thick stratum corneum.

    Aim: To study a series of demographic features of patients suffering from pitted keratolysis, and to present a review of the Corynebacterium-associated infections, including pitted keratolysis, erythrasma, and trichobacteriosis. Read More

    [Focal acral hyperkeratosis associated with pitted keratolysis].
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2005 Jan-Feb;96(1):37-9
    Dermatóloga, Centro Dermatológico Dr. Ladislao de Pascua (CDP), Ciudad de México.
    Focal acral hyperkeratosis is characterized by the same clinical appearance as acrokeratoelastoidosis, but without abnormalities in the elastic fibers. We present the case of a woman with a 10-year case of dermatosis localized on the palms, soles and dorsum of the metacarpophalangeal joints, consisting of multiple polygonal papules and associated hyperhydrosis, clinically compatible with acrokeratoelastoidosis. Her father had a history of the disease. Read More

    Dermatoses among paddy field workers--a descriptive, cross-sectional pilot study.
    Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2005 Jul-Aug;71(4):254-8
    Department of Skin and STD, KMC, Manipal, India.
    Background: Paddy farming is one of the main occupations in coastal South India. Dermatological problems in paddy field workers have not received much attention.

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to study the dermatoses of the exposed parts of the body, viz. Read More

    Prevalence of skin diseases among male adolescent and post-adolescent boarding school students in Turkey.
    J Dermatol 2005 Jul;32(7):557-64
    Gaziantep University Medical Faculty, Department of Dermatology, Turkey.
    Skin disease is a common problem in boarding schools and may account for significant morbidity. To document the prevalence and patterns of skin diseases among male adolescent and post-adolescent boarding school residents, a cross-sectional epidemiologic survey was performed. A total of 682 students were examined for evidence of any skin disease, and subjects with skin disease(s) were also asked to fill in a questionnaire. Read More

    Dermatological manifestations in hepatitis B surface antigen carriers in east region of Turkey.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2005 May;19(3):323-5
    Maresal Cakmak Hospital, Department of Dermatology, Erzurum, Turkey.
    Background And Design: Various cutaneous disorders associated with hepatitis B virus infection have been reported so far. Almost all of them were some peculiar eruptions or some disorders mainly based on immune complex reaction.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of all dermatological disorders other than genetic ones in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier patients and controls in our geographical area. Read More

    Plantar hyperhidrosis and pitted keratolysis treated with botulinum toxin injection.
    Dermatol Surg 2004 Dec;30(12 Pt 2):1510-4
    General Hospital of the Medical School of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Sulcate plantare keratolysis or pitted keratolysis (plantar keratolysis sulcatum) is a disease that is commonly found in tropical countries. Patients have also reported plantar hyperhidrosis.

    Objective: Two patients with pitted keratolysis resistant to topical and systemic treatments are described. Read More

    Current epidemiology of atopic dermatitis in south-eastern Nigeria.
    Int J Dermatol 2004 Oct;43(10):739-44
    Sub-Department of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria.
    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common pruritic, eczematous skin disorder that runs a chronic and relapsing course. In Nigeria, it is currently on the increase, particularly amongst infants, and has created cost burdens for families. It occurs in association with a personal or family history of asthma, allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis. Read More

    Common bacterial dermatoses: protecting competitive athletes.
    Phys Sportsmed 2004 Jun;32(6):33-9
    US Army Health Clinic, Friedberg, DE.
    Athletes competing in a wide variety of sports are at risk of contracting and spreading bacterial skin infections. Bacteria proliferate in environments of wet, macerated skin that is repeatedly abraded against competing athletes, equipment, clothing, or objects in the field of play. Common infections include impetigo, folliculitis, furunculosis, pitted keratolysis, and otitis externa. Read More

    [Tinea pedis and Onychomycosis in Children of the Mazahua Indian Community in Mexico].
    Gac Med Mex 2003 May-Jun;139(3):215-20
    Sección de Micología, Departamento de Dermatología, Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea González, Calzada de Tlalpan #4800, Tlalpan, México D.F. 14000.
    Background: Tinea pedis and onychomycosis in childhood are unusual, The previous reported prevalence range from 4.2 to 8.2%. Read More

    Kytococcus sedentarius, the organism associated with pitted keratolysis, produces two keratin-degrading enzymes.
    J Appl Microbiol 2002 ;93(5):810-6
    Skin Research Centre, Division of Microbiology, School of BMB, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Aims: To determine characteristics of the extracellular enzyme activity of Kytococcus sedentarius on human callus.

    Methods And Results: A concentrate of a continuous culture supernatant fluid of K. sedentarius, which had callus-degrading activity, was subjected to a series of chromatographic purification procedures. Read More

    Prevalence of skin disease in a cohort of shelter-based homeless men.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 1999 Aug;41(2 Pt 1):197-202
    Department of Dermatology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA USA.
    Background: Cutaneous disease is a frequent cause of morbidity in homeless people. A variety of infectious and noninfectious conditions have been described in this population that are exacerbated by malnutrition, exposure to hazardous environment, psychiatric disease, physical injuries, and limited access to health care.

    Objective: Our purpose was to study the prevalence of skin disease in a selected group of the homeless population. Read More

    Road rash with a rotten odor.
    Mil Med 1999 Jan;164(1):65-7
    Department of Dermatology, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234, USA.
    As military physicians, our mission is to support the fighting force and keep our soldiers mission capable. One group of disorders that can quickly cripple a fighting force is disorders of the foot. A complete survey of dematologic conditions of the foot is quite extensive, but only one comes with its own distinctive odor. Read More

    Skin and wound infections: an overview.
    Am Fam Physician 1998 May;57(10):2424-32
    University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.
    Skin infections are common and may be caused by bacteria, fungi or viruses. Breaks in the skin integrity, particularly those that inoculate pathogens into the dermis, frequently cause or exacerbate skin infections. Bacterial skin infections caused by corynebacteria include erythrasma, trichomycosis axillaris and pitted keratolysis. Read More

    Pitted keratolysis: clinical manifestations in 53 cases.
    Br J Dermatol 1997 Aug;137(2):282-5
    Department of Dermatology, Aichi Medical University, Japan.
    Pitted keratolysis (PK) has been reported to be more common among bare-footed people living in tropical regions. It is now known that the disease is not limited to the tropics but has a world-wide distribution. However, no study has previously been performed analysing the clinical manifestations of the disease in temperate countries. Read More

    Pitted Keratolysis.
    Phys Sportsmed 1996 Oct;24(10):51-56
    In brief Pitted keratolysis usually presents no diagnostic difficulties because of its distinctive clinical appearance and odor. Participating in a sport that makes the feet hot and sweaty often contributes to this dermatologic condition. Sometimes simple measures such as proper foot drying and ventilating procedures are enough to clear the infection. Read More

    Pitted keratolysis: a common infection of active feet.
    Phys Sportsmed 1996 Oct;24(10):51-6
    Department of Dermatology, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA, USA.
    Pitted keratolysis usually presents no diagnostic difficulties because of its distinctive clinical appearance and odor. Participating in a sport that makes the feet hot and sweaty often contributes to this dermatologic condition. Sometimes simple measures such as proper foot drying and ventilating procedures are enough to clear the infection. Read More

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