18,440 results match your criteria Pineal Tumors


In situ localization of vasotocin receptor gene transcripts in the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: a morpho-functional study.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, 682022, India.

In the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis, three vasotocin (VT) receptor subtype genes, v1a1, v1a2, and v2a, were cloned and characterized previously. In the present study, using RNA probes, we localized the distribution of the gene transcripts in the brain-pituitary-gonadal (BPG) axis. The V1a-type receptor, v1a1 and v1a2, genes showed similar and overlapping distribution in the brain. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Spatio-temporal regulation of Rx and mitotic patterns shape the eye-cup of the photoreceptor cells in Ciona.

Dev Biol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Institute for Integrative Neurobiology and Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Kobe 658-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

The ascidian larva has a pigmented ocellus comprised of a cup-shaped array of approximately 30 photoreceptor cells, a pigment cell, and three lens cells. Morphological, physiological and molecular evidence has suggested evolutionary kinship between the ascidian larval photoreceptors and vertebrate retinal and/or pineal photoreceptors. Rx, an essential factor for vertebrate photoreceptor development, has also been suggested to be involved in the development of the ascidian photoreceptor cells, but a recent revision of the photoreceptor cell lineage raised a crucial discrepancy between the reported expression patterns of Rx and the cell lineage. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Melatonin attenuates myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via improving mitochondrial fusion/mitophagy and activating the AMPK-OPA1 signaling pathways.

J Pineal Res 2018 Dec 5:e12542. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Optic atrophy 1 (OPA1)-related mitochondrial fusion and mitophagy are vital to sustain mitochondrial homeostasis under stress conditions. However, no study has confirmed whether OPA1-related mitochondrial fusion/mitophagy is activated by melatonin and, consequently, attenuates cardiomyocyte death and mitochondrial stress in the setting of cardiac ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Our results indicated that OPA1, mitochondrial fusion and mitophagy were significantly repressed by I/R injury, accompanied by infarction area expansion, heart dysfunction, myocardial inflammation, and cardiomyocyte oxidative stress. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

THE PINEAL PARENCHYMAL NEOPLASMS - A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF FOUR TUMOURS.

Med J Armed Forces India 1994 Jul 27;50(3):189-191. Epub 2017 Jun 27.

Consultant, Neurosurgery, Army Hospital, Delhi Cantt. 110010.

Tumours of pineocytes are rare intracranial tumours. They are suspected once the effects of compression of neighbouring structures manifest. Four pineocytic neoplasms are reported, of which one was a spinal metastasis. Read More

View Article

Pinealectomy alters IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in primary thymocyte culture of rats.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2018 Nov 30;64(14):25-30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey.

Melatonin, produced mainly by the pineal gland, has an immunomodulatory role. However, the effects of the pineal gland and/or melatonin on thymus cytokine levels such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 are not well known. Twenty-one male Wistar rats (220-250 gr) were randomly divided into three groups (n=7): intact control, sham, and pinealectomy. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Signaling within the pineal gland: A parallelism with the central nervous system.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Institute of Histology and Embryology of Mendoza (IHEM), National University of Cuyo, National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Mendoza, Argentina. Electronic address:

The pineal gland (PG) derives from the neural tube, like the rest of the central nervous system (CNS). The PG is specialized in synthesizing and secreting melatonin in a circadian fashion. The nocturnal elevation of melatonin is a highly conserved feature among species which proves its importance in nature. Read More

View Article
November 2018

The Supra/Infra Transtentorial Transfalcine Approach for the Removal of a Falcotentorial Meningioma: 2-Dimensional Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Director of Skull Base Program, Department of Neurological Surgery, Centro Médico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, ISSSTE, Mexico City, Mexico.

Falcotentorial meningiomas originate in the junction of the falx cerebri and the tentorium. Due to its anatomic vicinity, these tumors have a close relationship with important neurovascular structures surrounding the pineal region including the deep venous system. Surgical approaches would normally consider posterior midline corridors, but decision between supra or infratentorial access should be considered by the size, anatomic displacement of structures, and the infiltration of the dural attachment. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Melatonin and Its Metabolites Ameliorate UVR-Induced Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Human MNT-1 Melanoma Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 28;19(12). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Dermatology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.

Melatonin (Mel) is the major biologically active molecule secreted by the pineal gland. Mel and its metabolites, 6-hydroxymelatonin (6(OH)Mel) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT), possess a variety of functions, including the scavenging of free radicals and the induction of protective or reparative mechanisms in the cell. Their amphiphilic character allows them to cross cellular membranes and reach subcellular organelles, including the mitochondria. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Clinical Management of Prostate Cancer Metastasis to the Pineal Gland: case report and review of the literature.

World Neurosurg 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Neurological Surgery, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

Background: Prostate Cancer is the most common cancer among American men, with an incidence of approximately 233,000 cases per year.Intracranial metastases are rare and specifically, metastasis to the pineal gland has only been reported in 2 post mortem cases in the literature.

Case Description: We present the first documented case of confirmed prostate cancer metastasis to the pineal gland in a living patient. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Detection of recombinant and endogenous mouse melatonin receptors by monoclonal antibodies targeting the C-terminal domain.

J Pineal Res 2018 Nov 26:e12540. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Inserm, U1016, Institut Cochin, Paris, France.

Melatonin receptors play important roles in the regulation of circadian and seasonal rhythms, sleep, retinal functions, the immune system, depression and type 2 diabetes development. Melatonin receptors are approved drug targets for insomnia, non-24h sleep-wake disorders and major depressive disorders. In mammals, two melatonin receptors (MTRs) exist, MT and MT , belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) super-family. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Exploring the role of excess fluoride in chronic kidney disease: A review.

Authors:
R W Dharmaratne

Hum Exp Toxicol 2018 Nov 25:960327118814161. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS, USA.

This review covers nearly 100 years of studies on the toxicity of fluoride on human and animal kidneys. These studies reveal that there are direct adverse effects on the kidneys by excess fluoride, leading to kidney damage and dysfunction. With the exception of the pineal gland, the kidney is exposed to higher concentrations of fluoride than all other soft tissues. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Light intensity and suppression of nocturnal plasma melatonin in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus).

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2018 Nov 22;228:103-106. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Animal Science and Aquaculture, Dalhousie University, Agricultural Campus, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada.

The problem of early sexual maturation among farmed Arctic charr and other salmonids can be effectively reduced by 24 h light overwinter, provided it is bright enough to over-ride interference from the natural daylength cycle. To determine the threshold light intensity to suppress the nocturnal elevation of plasma melatonin, three groups of individually tagged fish (n = 26-28/group ca. 1040 g) were reared on 12 h light: 12 h dark (LD 12:12) and subjected to nighttime light intensities of either 50-65, 0. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Pineal cyst related aqueductal stenosis as a cause of intractable headaches in non-hydrocephalic patients.

World Neurosurg 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Neurooncology, Burdenko National Medical Research Center of Neurosurgery.

Background: Pineal cysts (PCs) are histologically benign lesions of the pineal gland. Although the majority of PCs are asymptomatic, some cases are ambiguous and accompanied by non-specific symptoms of variable severity. We suggested that disabling headache in non-hydrocephalic patients with PCs is associated with cerebral aqueduct (CAq) stenosis. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Latitude, Vitamin D, Melatonin, and Gut Microbiota Act in Concert to Initiate Multiple Sclerosis: A New Mechanistic Pathway.

Front Immunol 2018 30;9:2484. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). While the etiology of MS is still largely unknown, scientists believe that the interaction of several endogenous and exogenous factors may be involved in this disease. Epidemiologists have seen an increased prevalence of MS in countries at high latitudes, where the sunlight is limited and where the populations have vitamin D deficiency and high melatonin levels. Read More

View Article
October 2018
7 Reads

Melatonin protects endothelial progenitor cells against AGE-induced apoptosis via autophagy flux stimulation and promotes wound healing in diabetic mice.

Exp Mol Med 2018 Nov 21;50(11):154. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

Wound healing is delayed in diabetic patients. Increased apoptosis and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) dysfunction are implicated in delayed diabetic wound healing. Melatonin, a major secretory product of the pineal gland, promotes diabetic wound healing; however, its mechanism of action remains unclear. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

Endoscopic Assisted Retrosigmoid Approach for Cerebellopontine Angle Epidermoid Tumor.

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2018 Dec 25;79(Suppl 5):S413-S414. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado, United States.

This case is a 20-year-old male, who presented with 1 month of right facial weakness (HB4) and complaints of ipsilateral eye dryness. He was initially treated for Bell's palsy with steroids and antiviral agents, but subsequently developed diplopia with right lateral gaze and underwent an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). MRI demonstrated a 4. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Fast-developing fatal diffuse leptomeningeal dissemination of a pineal germinoma in a young child: a case report and literature review.

Br J Neurosurg 2018 Nov 19:1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

a Department of Neurosurgery , West China Hospital, Sichuan University , Chengdu , Sichuan 610041 , China.

Background: Intracranial germinomas are uncommon and constitute less than 1% of all intracranial tumors. They usually arise in the midline of the brain, most commonly in the pineal region. Pineal germinomas tend to spread through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Surgical treatment of pineal cysts in non-hydrocephalic and neurologically intact patients: selection of surgical candidates and clinical outcome.

Br J Neurosurg 2018 Nov 19:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

a Department of Neurosurgery , Military Institute of Medicine , Warsaw , Poland.

Purpose: Management of patients presenting for various nonspecific complaints without clear neurological abnormalities and with normal ventricular size remains highly controversial. We intended to share our rationale for surgical treatment of patients who show symptoms of transient increase of intracranial pressure owing to the presence of the cyst.

Materials And Methods: We have retrospectively analyzed 28 cases of patients who presented without Parinaud syndrome nor ventricular enlargement and underwent pineal cyst removal in our centre between 2007 and 2015. Read More

View Article
November 2018
5 Reads

Circadian characteristic of kidney excretory function influenced by nitrogen monoxide synthesis blockade under conditions of pineal gland normal with peculiarities of melatonin effect.

Wiad Lek 2018 ;71(7):1331-1335

Higher State Educational Institution Of Ukraine "Bukovinian State Medical University", Chernivtsi, Ukraine.

Objective: The features of сhronorhythmic alterations of excretory renal function under the physiological conditions of the pineal gland (PG) under the influence of a blockade of synthesis of nitrogen monoxide (NO) and melatonin correction were investigated. The aim: Aim of our work was to investigate circadian characteristic of kidney excretory function influenced by nitrogen monoxide synthesis blockade under conditions of pineal gland normal with peguliarities of melatonin effect.

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: The experiments were conducted on 72 mature non-linear albino male rats with their body mass 0,15-0,18 kg. Read More

View Article
January 2018
4 Reads

Predictive factors of overall survival in primary intracranial pure choriocarcinoma.

J Clin Neurosci 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

The incidence of primary intracranial pure choriocarcinoma (PIPC) is extremely rare. Only several case and case series have been previously reported; therefore, there is still lack of knowledge about the prognosis and its standard treatment. We performed a collective study of all reported cases of PIPC to identify the predictive factors related with OS. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads
1.320 Impact Factor

Melatonin reduces lung cancer stemness through inhibiting of PLC, ERK, p38, β-catenin, and Twist pathways.

Environ Toxicol 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

Lung cancer is one of the most common cancer in cancer-related deaths worldwide, which is characterized by its strong metastatic potential. The melatonin hormone secreted by the pineal grand has an antioxidant effect and protects cells against carcinogenic substances. However, the effects of melatonin in lung cancer stemness are largely unknown. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads
3.200 Impact Factor

[Parinaud syndrome caused by corpus pineale tumour in a 14-year-old boy].

Ugeskr Laeger 2018 Nov;180(46)

Parinaud syndrome (PS) can manifest in a pineal tumour. Major components of PS include restriction of gazing upwards, light-near dissociation and convergence retraction nystagmus. A 14-year-old boy presented with diplopia and restricted ability to gaze upwards. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Melatonin and its Metabolites as Chemical Agents Capable of Directly Repairing Oxidized DNA.

J Pineal Res 2018 Nov 11:e12539. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Departamento de Química, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina. Iztapalapa. C. P. 09340, México City, México.

Oxidative stress mediates chemical damage to DNA yielding a wide variety of products. In this work, the potential capability of melatonin and several of its metabolites to repair directly (chemically) oxidative lesions in DNA was explored. It was found that all the investigated molecules are capable of repairing guanine-centered radical cations by electron transfer at very high rates, i. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Protective stabilization of mitochondrial permeability transition and mitochondrial oxidation during mitochondrial Ca stress by melatonin's cascade metabolites C3-OHM and AFMK in RBA1 astrocytes.

J Pineal Res 2018 Nov 11:e12538. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin (C3-OHM) and N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) are two major cascade metabolites of melatonin. We previously showed melatonin provides multiple levels of mitochondria-targeted protection beyond as a mitochondrial antioxidant during ionomycin-induced mitochondrial Ca (mCa ) stress in RBA1 astrocytes. Using non-invasive laser scanning fluorescence coupled time-lapse digital imaging microscopy, this study investigated whether C3-OHM and AFMK also provide mitochondrial levels of protection during ionomycin-induced mCa stress in RBA1 astrocytes. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Behavioral, neuroendocrine and physiological indicators of the circadian biology of male and female rabbits.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Centro de Investigación en Reproducción Animal, CINVESTAV-Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Mexico.

locomotion, body temperature, blood and intraocular pressure, corticosteroid secretion, and sleep. Control of several circadian rhythms involves a light-entrained circadian clock and a food-entrained oscillator. Nursing periodicity, however, relies on a suckling stimulation threshold. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Melatonin-deficient rice plants show a common semidwarf phenotype either dependent or independent of brassinosteroid biosynthesis.

J Pineal Res 2018 Nov 7:e12537. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Department of Biotechnology, Bioenergy Research Center, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, South Korea.

Melatonin-deficient rice with a semidwarf erect-leaf phenotype was created by suppressing serotonin N-acetyltransferase 2 (SNAT2). We generated an RNAi transgenic rice that suppressed tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), which encodes the first TDC enzyme committed step for melatonin biosynthesis in plants catalyzing the conversion of tryptophan into tryptamine, to determine whether other transgenic rice with downregulated melatonin biosynthetic genes exhibited the same erect-leaf phenotype as the snat2 RNAi rice. The TDC RNAi rice produced significantly less melatonin than the wild type and exhibited a semidwarf phenotype, but no erect-leaf phenotype was observed. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Diagnostic radiation-induced regression of a metastatic primary intracranial germinoma: a case report.

Br J Neurosurg 2018 Nov 4:1-4. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

a Department of Neurosurgery , Kwong Wah Hospital , Yaumatei , Hong Kong.

Pineal region germinomas are sensitive to radiotherapy. Standard neurosurgical management involves obtaining a tissue biopsy and to relieve the often accompanying obstructive hydrocephalus. We present a patient with a suspected hyper-radiosensitive metastatic primary intracranial germinoma where computed tomography scanning resulted in tumor regression before radiotherapy could be administered. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Pineal parenchymal tumors with intermediate differentiation: a long-term follow up study in Helsinki Neurosurgery.

World Neurosurg 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

"Juha Hernesniemi" International Center for Neurosurgery, Henan Provincial People´s Hospital, Zhengzhou China.

Background: Pineal parenchymal tumors of intermediate differentiation (PPTIDs) are rare lesions with particular features compared to other pineal parenchymal tumors.

Methods: We present a retrospective review of the patients with histologically confirmed PPTIDs that were operated on in our department between 1997 and 2015. A demographic analysis, and an evaluation of preoperative status, surgical treatment, as well as immediate and long-term clinical and radiological outcomes were conducted. Read More

View Article
October 2018
3 Reads
2.420 Impact Factor

Melatonin activates BK channels in cerebral artery myocytes via both direct and MT receptor/PKC-mediated pathway.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Oct 26;842:177-188. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Exercise Physiology, Beijing Sport University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

The pineal hormone melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone with high membrane permeability that is involved in regulation of circadian rhythm of several biological functions. Large-conductance Ca-activated K (BK) channels are abundantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and play an important role in vascular tone regulation. We investigated the mechanisms through which myocyte BK channels mediate effects of melatonin on cerebral arteries (CAs). Read More

View Article
October 2018
5 Reads

Distribution patterns of the zebrafish neuronal intermediate filaments inaa and inab.

J Neurosci Res 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

It has been reported that the neuronal intermediate filament (IF) α-internexin may plays a role in the formation of the neuronal cytoskeleton during mammalian development. From a phylogenetic viewpoint, zebrafish express inaa and inab as homologs of mammalian α-internexin. However, the distribution patterns of the inaa and inab proteins throughout zebrafish development have not been well-characterized. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Melatonin: An Anti-Tumor Agent in Hormone-Dependent Cancers.

Int J Endocrinol 2018 2;2018:3271948. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria and Instituto de Investigación Valdecilla (IDIVAL), 39011 Santander, Spain.

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the pineal gland mainly during the night, since light exposure suppresses its production. Initially, an implication of this indoleamine in malignant disease was described in endocrine-responsive breast cancer. Data from several clinical trials and multiple experimental studies performed both and have documented that the pineal hormone inhibits endocrine-dependent mammary tumors by interfering with the estrogen signaling-mediated transcription, therefore behaving as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Read More

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

Pineal and Suprasellar Germinoma Cooccurence with Vertebra Plana: A Case Report.

Brain Tumor Res Treat 2018 Oct;6(2):73-77

Department of Neurosurgery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Germinoma is the most common type of intracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs). Pineal gland and suprasellar region are the most frequent sites of central nervous system (CNS) involvement. Intracranial masses caused by Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) mimics features of CNS GCTs. Read More

View Article
October 2018
3 Reads

Clinical case seminar: Familial intracranial germinoma.

Endokrynol Pol 2018 ;69(5):612-618

Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro; University of Belgrade, School of Medicine, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Intracranial germinomas (ICG) are uncommon brain neoplasms with extremely rare familial occurance. Since ICG invades hypothalamus and/or pituitary, the endocrine dysfunction is one of the common determinants of these tumors. We presented two brothers with the history of ICG. Read More

View Article
January 2018
7 Reads

[Parinaud syndrome caused by corpus pineale tumour in a 14-year-old boy].

Ugeskr Laeger 2018 Oct;180(43)

Parinaud syndrome (PS) can manifest in a pineal tumour. Major components of PS include restriction of gazing upwards, light-near dissociation and convergence retraction nystagmus. A 14-year-old boy presented with diplopia and restricted ability to gaze upwards. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Melatonin-mediated downregulation of ZNF746 suppresses bladder tumorigenesis mainly through inhibiting the AKT-MMP-9 signaling pathway.

J Pineal Res 2018 Oct 29:e12536. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Nursing, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan.

There still lacking effective treatment for bladder cancer. This study investigated whether melatonin (Mel) can suppress the growth and invasion of bladder cancer cells. Male C57B/L6 mice were categorized into control group (ie, subcutaneous injection of HT1197 bladder cancer cell line at the back] and treatment group [subcutaneous HT1197 cells + intraperitoneal Mel (100 mg/kg/d) from day 8 to day 21 after tumor cell injection]. Read More

View Article
October 2018
6 Reads
9.600 Impact Factor

Melatonin protects chronic kidney disease mesenchymal stem cells against senescence via PrP -dependent enhancement of the mitochondrial function.

J Pineal Res 2018 Oct 29:e12535. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Soonchunhyang Medical Science Research Institute, Soonchunhyang University, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Although mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a treatment strategy for ischemic diseases associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), MSCs of CKD patients undergo accelerated senescence, with decreased viability and proliferation upon uremic toxin exposure, inhibiting their utility as a potent stem cell source for transplantation therapy. We investigated the effects of melatonin administration in protecting against cell senescence and decreased viability induced by pathophysiological conditions near the engraftment site. MSCs harvested from CKD mouse models were treated with H O to induce oxidative stress. Read More

View Article
October 2018
5 Reads

Unusual Radiographic Presentation of Intracranial Mature Teratoma and Resection via a Supraorbital Approach.

World Neurosurg 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Primary intracranial teratomas account for <1% of intracranial masses during childhood after infancy. When supratentorial, they commonly occur in the pineal and suprasellar regions demonstrating multilocularity, areas of fat as well as calcifications and increasing enhancement correlating with decreased maturity. However, the presence of a teratoma as a mobile fat lesion within a large unilocular suprasellar cyst is rarely documented in this patient population. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Daily expression of clock genes in central and peripheral tissues of tree sparrow (Passer montanus).

Chronobiol Int 2018 Oct 26:1-12. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

a Department of Zoology , Mizoram University , Aizawl , Mizoram , India.

Almost all organisms live in a fluctuating environment. To achieve synchrony with the fluctuating environment, organisms have evolved with time-tracking mechanism commonly known as biological clocks. This circadian clock machinery has been identified in almost all cells of vertebrates and categorized as central and peripheral clocks. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Single-cell RNA sequencing of the mammalian pineal gland identifies two pinealocyte subtypes and cell type-specific daily patterns of gene expression.

PLoS One 2018 22;13(10):e0205883. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Office of the Scientific Director, Intramural Research Program, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

The vertebrate pineal gland is dedicated to the production of the hormone melatonin, which increases at night to influence circadian and seasonal rhythms. This increase is associated with dramatic changes in the pineal transcriptome. Here, single-cell analysis of the rat pineal transcriptome was approached by sequencing mRNA from ~17,000 individual pineal cells, with the goals of profiling the cells that comprise the pineal gland and examining the proposal that there are two distinct populations of pinealocytes differentiated by the expression of Asmt, which encodes the enzyme that converts N-acetylserotonin to melatonin. Read More

View Article
October 2018
3 Reads

Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) Fatty Rat, a Novel Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Shows Blunted Circadian Rhythms and Melatonin Secretion.

Int J Endocrinol 2018 23;2018:9065690. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Biological/Pharmacological Research Laboratories, Central Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Japan Tobacco Inc., 1-1 Murasaki-cho, Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan.

In patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), impairments of circadian rhythms, including the sleep-wake cycle, blood pressure, and plasma melatonin concentrations, are frequently observed. Animal models of DM are also reported to show aberrant circadian rhythms. However, the changes in the circadian rhythms of plasma soluble substances, including melatonin, in diabetic animals are controversial. Read More

View Article
September 2018
6 Reads

Aanat knockdown and melatonin supplementation in embryo development: involvement of mitochondrial function and DNA methylation.

Antioxid Redox Signal 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

college of animal science and technology , China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China , Beijing, China , 100193 ;

Aims: In addition to pineal gland, many cells, tissues and organs also synthesize melatonin. Embryos are group of special cells whether they can synthesize melatonin is still an open question. However, melatonin application promoted embryo development in many species under the in vitro condition. Read More

View Article
October 2018
8 Reads

Kobayashi award: Discovery of cerebellar and pineal neurosteroids and their biological actions on the growth and survival of Purkinje cells during development (review).

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Laboratory of Integrative Brain Sciences, Department of Biology, Waseda University, and Center for Medical Life Science of Waseda University, 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480, Japan. Electronic address:

The brain has traditionally been considered to be a target site of peripheral steroid hormones. On the other hand, extensive studies over the past thirty years have demonstrated that the brain is a site of biosynthesis of several steroids. Such steroids synthesized de novo from cholesterol in the brain are called neurosteroids. Read More

View Article
October 2018
4 Reads

The loss of ecosystem-services emerging from artificial light at night.

Chronobiol Int 2018 Oct 19:1-3. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

a The Israeli Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Chronobiology , University Haifa , Haifa , Israel.

Light pollution is increasing worldwide, affecting human health and ecosystem quality. The adverse effect of this novel pollution, mediated in mammals by suppression of the pineal neuro-hormone melatonin production and secretion, particularly by short wavelength (SWL) illumination. Currently, this problem is not challenged sufficiently, even ignored by decision-makers at local and national levels, as well as other related organizations. Read More

View Article
October 2018
6 Reads

Melatonin enhances atherosclerotic plaque stability by inducing prolyl-4-hydroxylase α1 expression.

J Hypertens 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, The State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University.

Objective: Melatonin, an endogenous neurohormone secreted predominately by the pineal gland, has a variety of physiological functions. However, its protective role in atherosclerosis is not clear. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential effects of melatonin in modulating atherosclerotic plaque stability in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE) mice. Read More

View Article
October 2018
2 Reads

Therapeutic potential of melatonin related to its role as an autophagy regulator: A review.

J Pineal Res 2018 Oct 17:e12534. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), Oviedo, Spain.

There are several pathologies, syndromes, and physiological processes in which autophagy is involved. This process of self-digestion that cells trigger as a survival mechanism is complex and tightly regulated, according to the homeostatic conditions of the organ. However, in all cases, its relationship with oxidative stress alterations is evident, following a pathway that suggests endoplasmic reticulum stress and/or mitochondrial changes. Read More

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

Cryptochrome deficiency enhances transcription but reduces protein levels of pineal Aanat

J Mol Endocrinol 2018 Oct 15;61(4):219-229. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Research and Education Center for Brain Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Cryptochrome (Cry) 1 and 2 are essential for circadian rhythm generation, not only in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the site of the mammalian master circadian clock, but also in peripheral organs throughout the body. CRY is also known as a repressor of arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) transcription; therefore, Cry deficiency is expected to induce constantly high pineal melatonin content. Nevertheless, we previously found that the content was consistently low in melatonin-proficient Cry1 and Cry2 double-deficient mice (Cry1−/−/Cry2−/−) on C3H background. Read More

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

Melatonin Modulates lipid Metabolism in HepG2 Cells Cultured in High Concentrations of Oleic Acid: AMPK Pathway Activation may Play an Important Role.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2018 Dec 15;76(4):463-470. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

College of Food, Shenyang Agricultural University, No. 120 Dongling Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang City, 110866, China.

Melatonin exists as an active ingredient in several foods and has been reported to inhibit fatty liver disease in animals; however, its molecular mechanisms are not well elucidated. Herein, we explored effects of melatonin on lipid accumulation induced by oleic acid in HepG2 cells and characterized the underlying molecular mechanisms. Pretreatment with melatonin (0. Read More

View Article
December 2018
8 Reads

Color opponency with a single kind of bistable opsin in the zebrafish pineal organ.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 10 15;115(44):11310-11315. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Biology and Geosciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 558-8585 Osaka, Japan;

Lower vertebrate pineal organs discriminate UV and visible light. Such color discrimination is typically considered to arise from antagonism between two or more spectrally distinct opsins, as, e.g. Read More

View Article
October 2018
10 Reads

Melatonin promotes reduction in TNF levels and improves the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in pinealectomized rats with periodontal disease.

Life Sci 2018 Nov 12;213:32-39. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Programa de Pós-graduação Multicêntrico em Ciências Fisiológicas-SBFis, Brazil; Department of Basic Sciences, School of Dentistry of Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araçatuba, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of melatonin (ME) on insulin resistance (IR) and signaling (IS), proinflammatory cytokine levels, and lipid profiles in pinealectomyzed (PNX) rats with periodontal disease (PD).

Main Methods: One hundred and forty-four rats (age = 40 days) were distributed into 8 groups: 1) control (CN); 2) PD only; 3) PNX only; 4) PNX and PD (PNXPD); 5) CN treated with ME (CNM); 6) PD treated with ME (PDM); 7) PNX treated with ME(PNXM); 8) PNX and PD treated with ME(PNXPDM). The PNX groups were subjected to pinealectomy at 40 and at 60 days of age. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Melatonin protects against paraquat-induced damage during in vitro maturation of bovine oocytes.

J Pineal Res 2018 Oct 15:e12532. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Embryo Biotechnology and Reproduction Laboratory, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Paraquat (PQ), a broad-spectrum agricultural pesticide, causes cellular toxicity by increasing oxidative stress levels in various biological systems, including the reproductive system. PQ exposure causes embryotoxicity and reduces the developmental abilities of embryos. However, there is little information regarding the toxic effects of PQ on oocyte maturation. Read More

View Article
October 2018
2 Reads