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    Pilomatrix Carcinoma: A 10 year review of the literature.
    J Cutan Pathol 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department, St John's Hospital, Livingston, United Kingdom.
    Pilomatrixoma, also known as calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a superficial benign skin tumour arising from hair follicle matrix cells (1,2) usually located in the head or neck region (1). It was first described in 1880 by Malherbe and Chenantais as a calcified epithelioma of sebaceous origin. In 1961, Forbis and Helwig proposed the term pilomatrixoma after establishing that the lesion actually originated from the outer root sheath cell of hair follicles (3-5). Read More

    Multiple pilomatrixomas in a survivor of WNT-activated medulloblastoma leading to the discovery of a germline APC mutation and the diagnosis of familial adenomatous polyposis.
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 2017 Aug 9. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Hematology-Oncology, Children's Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
    Because children diagnosed with WNT-activated medulloblastoma have a 10-year overall survival rate of 95%, active long-term follow-up is critically important in reducing mortality from other causes. Here, we describe an 11-year-old adopted female who developed multiple pilomatrixomas 3 years after diagnosis of WNT-activated medulloblastoma, an unusual finding that prompted deeper clinical investigation. A heterozygous germline APC gene mutation was discovered, consistent with familial adenomatous polyposis. Read More

    Pilomatrixoma located on the cruris: an uncommon localization.
    J Surg Case Rep 2017 Jul 4;2017(7):rjx114. Epub 2017 Jul 4.
    Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Ankara, Turkey.
    Pilomatrixoma is a benign tumor of hair follicle matrix cells. The majority of all pilomatrixomas were reported to affect the head-neck region and rarely the upper extremity. We present a case of left-leg pilomatrixoma, which is a extremely rare localization, in a 10-year-old boy. Read More

    Calcifying epithelioma of malherbe (Pilomatrixoma): Clinical and sonographic features.
    J Clin Ultrasound 2017 Jul 5. Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Department of Ultrasound, The first affiliated hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, WenZhou, 325000, Zhejiang Province, China.
    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and sonographic features of calcifying epitheliomas (pilomatrixomas).

    Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and sonographic appearances of 59 cases of calcifying epitheliomas in 58 patients that were confirmed pathologically.

    Results: The mean age of the patients was 26 years (range, 5-69 years) and the female-to-male ratio was 1. Read More

    Genetic basis of calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors.
    PLoS One 2017 28;12(6):e0180224. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Department of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors (CCOTs) are benign cystic tumors that form abnormally keratinized ghost cells. Mutations in CTNNB1, which encodes beta-catenin, have been implicated in the development of these tumors, but a causal relationship has not been definitively established. Thus, mutational hot spots in 50 cancer genes were examined by targeted next-generation sequencing in 11 samples of CCOT. Read More

    [The diagnosis of pilomatrixoma in children is not as easy as it may seem. A review of 126 cases].
    Cir Pediatr 2017 Jan 25;30(1):46-49. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet. Zaragoza.
    Objective: To describe our experience with pilomatrixomas, clinical presentation, clinical accuracy, associated diseases, and surgical treatment.

    Methods: A retrospective review of patients with a pathology report of an excised pilomatrixoma between 2011 and 2014. Data regarding gender, age of intervention, number of masses, size, location, and preoperative clinical diagnosis, pathology report, recurrences, and associated diseases were collected. Read More

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology in primary cutaneous tumors.
    Diagn Cytopathol 2017 Aug 4;45(8):681-688. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Department of Cytology and Gynecologic Pathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Background: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is occasionally used in the evaluation of primary skin tumors. However, in routine evaluation of any soft tissue swelling we encounter the cases of skin lesions. It is essential to know FNAB features of skin lesions. Read More

    Basal Cell Carcinoma With Matrical Differentiation: Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Molecular Biological Study of 22 Cases.
    Am J Surg Pathol 2017 Jun;41(6):738-749
    *Sikl's Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty in Pilsen, Charles University in Prague, Pilsen, Czech Republic ‡Bioptical Laboratory ∥Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen and Charles University Medical Faculty Hospital, Pilsen ¶Agel Laboratory of Pathology, Novy Jicin, Czech Republic †Department of Histopathology, Warwick Hospital, Warwick, United Kingdom §Department of Pathology, University of Nantes, Nantes, France.
    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with matrical differentiation is a fairly rare neoplasm, with about 30 cases documented mainly as isolated case reports. We studied a series of this neoplasm, including cases with an atypical matrical component, a hitherto unreported feature. Lesions coded as BCC with matrical differentiation were reviewed; 22 cases were included. Read More

    Metastatic endometrial endometrioid carcinoma mimicking pilomatrixoma of the distal vagina.
    BMJ Case Rep 2017 Jan 27;2017. Epub 2017 Jan 27.
    Department of Gynaecology, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Endometrioid carcinoma with a prominent squamous component has the ability to mimic pilomatrixoma. One previous case is documented of cutaneous metastasis in the upper limb derived from ovarian endometrioid carcinoma mimicking pilomatrixoma. Here, we describe a case of metastasis of endometrial endometrioid carcinoma in the distal vagina, treated with radiotherapy and later resected. Read More

    Diagnostic imaging of benign and malignant neck masses in children-a pictorial review.
    Quant Imaging Med Surg 2016 Oct;6(5):591-604
    Department of Radiology, Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool, UK.
    Neck masses are frequently encountered in pediatric medicine, and can present a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians involved. There are several means by which neck masses in children can be subdivided, for example by age at presentation, anatomical location including compartments and fascia of the neck, their classical appearance when imaged, or by etiology. When imaging children the clinicians must be mindful of radiation exposure and as such ultrasound (US) is often attempted first. Read More

    IMAGING DIAGNOSIS-NUCLEAR SCINTIGRAPHIC, RADIOLOGICAL, AND PATHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF METASTATIC PILOMATRICOMA IN A DOG.
    Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2016 Nov 9;57(6):E58-E62. Epub 2016 Feb 9.
    Department of Comparative Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907.
    A 6-year-old castrated Goldendoodle dog was presented for left-sided lameness of 3 weeks' duration. Focal, moderate to marked increased (99m) Tc-methylene diphosphonate ((99m) Tc-MDP) uptake was detected in the right caudal lung lobe, caudal angle of the left scapula, and the distal aspect of the left femur with whole body bone phase scintigraphy. Radiographs identified a well-circumscribed, oval-shaped soft tissue opaque mass in the right caudal lung lobe; a suspect oval-shaped osteolytic lesion in the proximal third of the left scapula; and an osteolytic lesion in the distal aspect of the left femur. Read More

    Pilomatricoma Associated with Kabuki Syndrome.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Jan 25;34(1):e26-e27. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Paediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Université de Montreal, Montreal, Canada.
    We report three cases of pilomatricomas associated with Kabuki syndrome (KS), supporting the hypothesis proposed of an association between pilomatricomas and KS and suggesting a noncoincidental association, because the Wnt pathway mutations involved could affect both morphogenesis and tumorigenesis in these patients. Read More

    [Clinical and pathological analysis of ocular tumors in 504 children cases].
    Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2016 Oct;52(10):764-768
    Tianjin Eye Hospital and Institute, Clinical College of Ophthalmology of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Vision Science, Tianjin 300020, China.
    Objective: To analyze the clinical features and pathological classification of chlidren's ocular tumors. Methods: Retrospective case series study. Five hundred and four cases (506 eyes) of ocular tumor with biopsy-proven in children below 14 years old between January 2002 and December 2014 from Tianjin Eye Hospital were performed to retrospectively investigated the lesion location, clinical features and histopathologic classification of these lesions. Read More

    Metastatic Malignant Pilomatrixoma in an 8-Year-Old Girl Misdiagnosed as a Recurrent Pilomatrixoma.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2017 Mar;39(3):e41-e43
    *Fundación Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Bogotá, Colombia; and Departments of † Dermatology, and ‡Pathology, Hospital de San José, Bogotá, Colombia.
    Malignant pilomatrixoma or pilomatrix carcinoma is a rare, locally aggressive malignant neoplasm, derived from the hair follicle with a high propensity for local recurrence. Only a few cases of metastatic pilomatrixoma have been described in the literature. Till date, only 17 cases have been reported in the English-language medical literature, most commonly occurring associated with local recurrence in adults. Read More

    [Pilomatricoma: a study of 22 cases].
    Pan Afr Med J 2016 28;23:254. Epub 2016 Apr 28.
    Service de Dermatologie CHU Ibn Rochd, Casablanca, Maroc.
    Pilomatricoma is a common and benign skin tumor of childhood arising from the hair follicle matrix. It is an often misunderstood adnexal tumor, confused with other skin lesions. The most common sites of pilomatricome are the head and the neck. Read More

    Cluster Sampling Bias in Government-Sponsored Evaluations: A Correlational Study of Employment and Welfare Pilots in England.
    PLoS One 2016 9;11(8):e0160652. Epub 2016 Aug 9.
    London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom.
    For pilot or experimental employment programme results to apply beyond their test bed, researchers must select 'clusters' (i.e. the job centres delivering the new intervention) that are reasonably representative of the whole territory. Read More

    Pilomatrixoma of the breast in a patient with type 1 myotonic dystrophy: successful surgical approach.
    J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2016 Apr-Jun;30(2 Suppl 2):1-6
    Department of Human Pathology; University Hospital of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Malherbe’s calcifying epithelioma is an uncommon cutaneous tumour that originates from the matrix cells of hair follicle. It was initially described by Malherbe as a benign calcifying epithelioma. Several ultra-structural and electron-microscopic studies later demonstrated its origin from matrix cells and the term pilomatrixoma was introduced. Read More

    Review of pediatric head and neck pilomatrixoma.
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2016 Jun 28;85:148-53. Epub 2016 Mar 28.
    Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:
    Introduction: Pilomatrixoma is a benign skin tumor, which is commonly found in the head and neck region. It usually presents as an isolated lesion and rarely undergoes malignant transformation. It is not uncommon for these tumors to be misdiagnosed. Read More

    IL-8, IL-8RA (CXCR1) and IL-8RB (CXCR2) expression in pilomatricoma.
    Rom J Morphol Embryol 2016 ;57(1):59-64
    Department of Immunology, "Grigore T. Popa" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iassy, Romania;
    Pilomatricoma is a rare benign tumor of the hair follicle matrix cells, which associates during its evolution a foreign body-like inflammatory process. We have investigated three such tumors, two of them displaying a rather poor stroma, while the third was distinctive due to its stroma and large numbers of inflammatory cells infiltrating the tumor. The analysis of IL-8 (interleukin-8), CXCR1 (IL-8RA - IL-8 receptor alpha) and CXCR2 (IL-8RB - IL-8 receptor beta) expression showed that these molecules are present not only in many different types of inflammatory and endothelial cells, but also in several tumor basaloid, transitional and even few ghost cells. Read More

    Concomitant cetuximab and radiation therapy: A possible promising strategy for locally advanced inoperable non-melanoma skin carcinomas.
    Mol Clin Oncol 2016 Apr 27;4(4):467-471. Epub 2016 Jan 27.
    Oncology Unit, 'San Giovanni di Dio' Hospital, A.S.L. Napoli 2 Nord, I-80027 Frattamaggiore (NA), Italy.
    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) include a heterogeneous group of malignancies arising from the epidermis, comprising squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Merkel cell carcinoma and more rare entities, including malignant pilomatrixoma and sebaceous gland tumours. The treatment of early disease depends primarily on surgery. In addition, certain patients present with extensive local invasion or metastasis, which renders these tumours surgically unresectable. Read More

    Metachronous T-Lymphoblastic Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma in a Child With Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome.
    Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016 08 1;63(8):1454-6. Epub 2016 Apr 1.
    Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.
    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a cancer predisposition syndrome associated with a high risk of developing early-onset malignancies of the blood, brain, and intestinal tract. We present the case of a patient with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma at the age of 3 years, followed by Burkitt lymphoma 10 years later. This patient also exhibited numerous nonmalignant findings including café au lait spots, lipomas, bilateral renal nodules, a nonossifying fibroma, multiple colonic adenomas, and a rapidly enlarging pilomatrixoma. Read More

    Metastatic pilomatrix carcinoma: Not so rare after all? A case report and review of the literature.
    Ear Nose Throat J 2016 Mar;95(3):117-20
    Department of General Surgery, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia.
    Pilomatrixoma is a slowly growing benign tumor of the dermal hair cells. Metastatic disease is exceptionally rare. Pilomatrixoma can occur at any age, but most patients are older than 40 years at presentation. Read More

    Giant molluscum contagiosum presenting as lid neoplasm in an immunocompetent child.
    Dermatol Online J 2016 Jan 15;22(1). Epub 2016 Jan 15.
    Medical Research Foundation, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai.
    A three-year-old boy presented to our oculoplastic clinic with complaints of painless gradually increasing right upper lid mass for the last 6 months. On examination a firm mass measuring roughly 1x1 cm was present on the upper lid. The mass was non tender with fine superficial vessels running over it. Read More

    Pilomatrix carcinoma of the vulva.
    Gynecol Oncol Rep 2016 Jan 19;15:9-11. Epub 2015 Dec 19.
    Rutgers-Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, 195 Little Albany Street, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, United States.
    Background: Pilomatrix carcinomas are rare, frequently occurring in older male patients. We report a case of vulvar pilomatrix carcinoma in a 30-year-old woman, the second known reported case occurring on the external genitalia.

    Case: A 30-year-old female originally presented at an outside institution for the management of an asymptomatic vulvar mass that was biopsied and read as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Read More

    Complicated Giant Pilomatrixoma of the Parotid Region.
    J Maxillofac Oral Surg 2016 Mar 24;15(1):111-5. Epub 2014 Dec 24.
    Pathology Department, Dr. Lutfi Kirdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Objective: Pilomatrixoma (calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe) is a benign soft tissue tumour arising from dermis or subcutaneous tissue which should be considered in differential diagnosis of preauricular lesions especially when skin fixation is present.

    Case Report: Twenty-three year old male referred to our clinic with complaint of left preauricular swelling over 18 months which enlarged and became painful in the last 2 months. Because the lesion showed signs of infection, surgery was planned after medical therapy was completed. Read More

    Expression of epidermal stem cell markers in skin and adnexal malignancies.
    Br J Dermatol 2016 Sep 27;175(3):520-30. Epub 2016 Jul 27.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Strasse, Magdeburg, 39120, Germany.
    Background: Epidermal stem cells are multipotent cells that maintain the skin epidermis. Potential markers for stem cells have been identified in mammalian skin from mouse experiments; however, it is unclear if stem cells also contribute to tumour formation in human skin.

    Objectives: To investigate the expression of potential stem cell markers, such as leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor (Lgr) 5, Lgr6, leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domain protein 1 (Lrig1) and cytokeratin 15 (CK15) in basal cell carcinomas and tumours of the skin appendages. Read More

    Activation of the OVOL1-OVOL2 Axis in the Hair Bulb and in Pilomatricoma.
    Am J Pathol 2016 Apr 9;186(4):1036-43. Epub 2016 Feb 9.
    Department of Dermatology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.
    OVOL1 and OVOL2, ubiquitously conserved genes encoding C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors in mammals, control epithelial cell proliferation, and differentiation, including those in skin. OVOL1 and OVOL2 expression is coordinately mediated via the Wnt signaling pathway, and OVOL1 negatively regulates OVOL2 expression in a transcriptional manner. Our previous study of OVOL1 expression in human skin revealed that OVOL1 is preferentially expressed in the inner root sheath of the hair follicle. Read More

    Bleeding Papule on the Scapula.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Feb;38(2):131-2 , 158-61
    *Department of Dermatology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain; †Department of Dermatology, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain; and ‡Department of Pathology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular Materno Infantil, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain.

    Uncommon benign tumour of the skin: infraorbital pilomatricoma.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Jan 6;2016. Epub 2016 Jan 6.
    Department of Pathology, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Pilomatricoma is a relatively rare tumour of the skin derived from primitive basal cells of epidermis that differentiate into hair matrix cells. It comprises approximately 1% of all benign skin tumours. The most common sites for pilomatricomas are the head, neck and upper extremities. Read More

    Malignant Melanocytic Matricoma: A Report of 2 Cases and Review of the Literature.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Jan;38(1):33-8
    *Department of Anatomical Pathology, PathWest Laboratory Medicine, QEII Medical Centre, Perth, Australia; †Histology Unit, Western Diagnostic Pathology, Perth, Australia; and ‡School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
    Background: To describe 2 cases of melanocytic matricoma with malignant histological features and systematically review previously reported cases of malignant melanocytic matricoma.

    Methods: Two cases of malignant melanocytic matricoma were identified from the practice of the authors. Additional 3 cases were identified in the literature. Read More

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