11,713,385 results match your criteria Physiology & Behavior[Journal]

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Local oestrogen therapy modulates extracellular matrix and immune response in the vaginal tissue of post-menopausal women with severe pelvic organ prolapse.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

This study investigates the effect of local oestrogen therapy (LET) on the expression of proteins participating in collagen/elastin biogenesis and immune markers in vaginal tissues of post-menopausal women with severe pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Vaginal biopsies were collected from the anterior vaginal wall of informed and consented 52 post-menopausal women with severe POP undergoing total hysterectomy. Twenty-nine of the 52 women were treated with LET (in the form of vaginal oestrogen cream or tablet), while the remaining 23 untreated patients served as the controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14199DOI Listing
February 2019

Breakthroughs and new horizons in reproductive biology of rare and endangered animal species.

Biol Reprod 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Academic Unit of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2SF, UK.

Because of higher extinction rates due to human and natural factors, more basic and applied research in reproductive biology is required to preserve wild species and design proper strategies leading to sustainable populations. The objective of the review is to highlight recent, inspiring breakthroughs in wildlife reproduction science that will set directions for future research and lead to more successes in conservation biology. Despite new tools and approaches allowing a better and faster understanding of key mechanisms, we still know little about reproduction in endangered species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioz031DOI Listing
February 2019

Antioxidant Systems as a Response to Midgut Cellular of Bombyx mori Lineu, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Infection for Baculoviruses.

J Econ Entomol 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Laboratory of Statistical Research, State University of Western Paraná (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR, Brazil.

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a DNA virus that infects different tissues in Bombyx mori at immature stage. Caterpillars become infected after ingesting polyhedral occlusion bodies (POB) present in contaminated mulberry leaves and spread through the body after passing the epithelium of the midgut. As this organ is responsible for digestion, most absorption of nutrients requires an intact epithelium to maintain gastrointestinal physiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toz009DOI Listing
February 2019

Metabolic role of cGMP in S. cerevisiae: The murine phosphodiesterase-5 activity affects yeast cell proliferation by altering the cAMP/cGMP equilibrium.

FEMS Yeast Res 2019 Feb 17. Epub 2019 Feb 17.

Department of Biology and Biotechnology "C. Darwin", Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale A. Moro 5 00185 Rome, Italy.

In higher eukaryotes cAMP and cGMP are signal molecules of major transduction pathways while phosphodiesterases (PDE) are a superfamily of cAMP/cGMP hydrolysing enzymes, modulatory components of these routes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae harbours two genes for PDE: Pde2 is a high affinity cAMP-hydrolysing enzyme, while Pde1 can hydrolyse both cAMP and cGMP. To gain insight into the metabolic role of cGMP in the physiology of yeast, the murine Pde5a1 gene encoding a specific cGMP-hydrolysing enzyme, was expressed in S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsyr/foz016DOI Listing
February 2019

Beta-cell sensitivity to insulinotropic gut hormones is reduced after gastric bypass surgery.

Gut 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Objective: Postprandial hyperinsulinaemia after Roux-en Y gastric bypass (GB) has been attributed to rapid nutrient flux from the gut, and an enhanced incretin effect. However, it is unclear whether surgery changes islet cell responsiveness to regulatory factors. This study tested the hypothesis that β-cell sensitivity to glucagon like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) is attenuated after GB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2018-317760DOI Listing
February 2019

Review: The role of zinc in the endocrine system.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Jan;32(1):231-239

Selcuk University, Medical School, Department of Physiology, Konya, Turkey.

Zinc is essential in the regulation of a variety of physiological and biochemical events in the organism. It plays a critical role in maintaining the cell membrane integrity, protein-carbohydrate-lipid metabolism, immune system, wound injury and in the regulation of a number of other biological processes associated with normal growth and development. Physiological and biochemical levels of many hormones are affected by zinc metabolism. Read More

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January 2019

Gastroprotective and antioxidant potential of Euphorbia prostrata against aspirin induced gastric ulcers in rabbits.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Jan;32(1):7-13

Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Present study was planned to estimate the gastroprotective activity of Euphorbia prostrata plant against aspirin induced gastric ulcers in male adult albino rabbits. The ulcer was induced by oral administration of aspirin in all groups except normal control group. Gastric contents were used to estimate total acid output, gastric volume and gastric pH. Read More

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January 2019

NT-pro-BNP correlates with disease severity and predicts outcome in cerebral haemorrhage patients: Cohort study.

J Neurol Sci 2019 Feb 8;399:51-56. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Internal Medicine Department, São João Hospital Centre, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal; Stroke Unit, São João Hospital Centre, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal; Department of Surgery and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernani Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal.

Background: Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating condition, with more than half of patients dying or becoming dependent after such an event. Natriuretic peptides, frequently used in the management of heart failure, have been shown to correlate with disease severity and prognosis in brain disorders. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that NT-pro-BNP correlates with disease severity and is an independent prognostic marker for non-traumatic ICH patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.02.014DOI Listing
February 2019

Persistent Na influx drives L-type channel resting Ca entry in rat melanotrophs.

Cell Calcium 2019 Feb 6;79:11-19. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Laboratory of Veterinary Physiology, Joint Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Tottori, Japan; The United Graduate School of Veterinary Science, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan. Electronic address:

Rat melanotrophs express several types of voltage-gated and ligand-gated calcium channels, although mechanisms involved in the maintenance of the resting intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca]) remain unknown. We analyzed mechanisms regulating resting [Ca] in dissociated rat melanotrophs by Ca-imaging and patch-clamp techniques. Treatment with antagonists of L-type, but not N- or P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca channels (VGCCs) as well as removal of extracellular Ca resulted in a rapid and reversible decrease in [Ca], indicating constitutive Ca influx through L-type VGCCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceca.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

ORAI channels in cellular remodeling of cardiorespiratory disease.

Cell Calcium 2019 Feb 8;79:1-10. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, United States. Electronic address:

Cardiorespiratory disease, which includes systemic arterial hypertension, restenosis, atherosclerosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent and devastating diseases with limited therapeutic modalities. A common pathophysiological theme to these diseases is cellular remodeling, which is contributed by changes in expression and activation of ion channels critical for either excitability or growth. Calcium (Ca) signaling and specifically ORAI Ca channels have emerged as significant regulators of smooth muscle, endothelial, epithelial, platelet, and immune cell remodeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceca.2019.01.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Investigation on the effect of alkyl chain linked mono-thioureas as Jack bean urease inhibitors, SAR, pharmacokinetics ADMET parameters and molecular docking studies.

Bioorg Chem 2019 Feb 8;86:473-481. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kongju National University, 56 Gongjudehak-Ro, Gongju, Chungnam 314-701, Republic of Korea.

The increasing resistance of pathogens to common antibiotics, as well as the need to control urease activity to improve the yield of soil nitrogen fertilization in agricultural applications, has stimulated the development of novel classes of molecules that target urease as an enzyme. In this context, the newly developed compounds on the basis of 1-heptanoyl-3-arylthiourea family were evaluated for Jack bean urease enzyme inhibition activity to validate their role as potent inhibitors of this enzyme. 1-Heptanoyl-3-arylthioureas were obtained in excellent yield and characterized through spectral and elemental analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of long-term sodium nitrate administration on diabetes-induced anemia and glucose homeostasis in obese type 2 diabetic male rats.

Nitric Oxide 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Endocrine Physiology Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences. Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: Anemia is common in patients with type 2 diabetes. This aims at determining long-term effects of nitrate administration on diabetes-induced anemia in obese type 2 diabetic rats.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, control + nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes + nitrate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2019.02.003DOI Listing
February 2019

Regulation of the pleiotropic effects of tissue resident mast cells.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Institute of Clinical Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Fruwirthstr. 12, D-70599 Stuttgart, Germany. Electronic address:

Mast cells, best known for their detrimental role in allergic diseases, act in a diverse array of physiological and pathological functions, made possible by the plurality of mast cell types. Their various developmental avenues and their distinct sensitivity to (micro-) environmental conditions convey extensive heterogeneity, resulting in diverse functions. We briefly summarize this heterogeneity, elaborate on molecular determinants that allow mast cells to communicate with their environment to fulfill their tasks, discuss their protease repertoire stored in secretory lysosomes, and consider different aspects of mast cell signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.02.004DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of long non-coding RNA uc.48+ on pain transmission in trigeminal neuralgia.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Physiology, Basic Medical College, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330006, PR China; Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Autonomic Nervous Function and Disease, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330006, PR China. Electronic address:

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is the most common neuropathic pain in the facial area, for which the effective therapy is unavailable. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) such as lncRNA uc.48+ is involved in diabetic neuropathic pain and may affect purinergic signaling in ganglia of diabetic rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.02.009DOI Listing
February 2019

Dietary exposure to mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) during post-implantation adversely affects placental development in mice.

Reprod Toxicol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA; Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA. Electronic address:

Zearalenone (ZEA) is a common food contaminant (ppb˜ppm) derived from Fusarium fungi. With its estrogenicity and potential chronic exposure, ZEA poses a risk to pregnancy. Our previous studies implied post-implantational lethality by ZEA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2019.01.010DOI Listing
February 2019

The Arc gene: Retroviral heritage in cognitive functions.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Laboratory for Neurobiology of Memory, P.K. Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology, Baltiyskaya 8, Moscow, 125315, Russian Federation; Department of Neuroscience, National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", Akademika Kurchatova pl. 1, Moscow, 123182, Russian Federation; Institute for Advanced Brain Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

Stabilization of neuronal plastic changes is mediated by transient gene expression, including transcription of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated gene (Arc), also known as Arg 3.1. Arc is implicated in several types of synaptic plasticity, including synaptic scaling, long-term potentiation, and long-term depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.02.006DOI Listing
February 2019

Desynchronizing to be faster? Perceptual- and attentional-modulation of brain rhythms at the sub-millisecond scale.

Neuroimage 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Integrative Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, 38 Nishigonaka, Myodaiji, Okazaki, 444-8585, Japan.

Neural oscillatory signals has been associated with many high-level functions (e.g. attention and working memory), because they reflect correlated behaviors of neural population that would facilitate the information transfer in the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.02.027DOI Listing
February 2019

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors within the nucleus of the solitary tract regulate alcohol-mediated behaviors in rodents.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Pharmacology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

The ability of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) to reduce food intake involves activation of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). It has also been demonstrated that systemic administration of GLP-1R agonists attenuates alcohol-mediated behaviors via, to date, unknown mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of NTS-GLP-1R activation by exendin-4 (Ex4) on alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation, accumbal dopamine release and memory of alcohol reward in the conditioned place preference (CPP) model in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.02.020DOI Listing
February 2019

A concise appraisal of lipid oxidation and lipoxidation in higher plants.

Redox Biol 2019 Feb 7:101136. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Plant Reproductive Biology Laboratory. Estación Experimental del Zaidín. Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Profesor Albareda 1, 18008 Granada, Spain. Electronic address:

Polyunsaturated fatty acids present in plant membranes react with reactive oxygen species through so-called lipid oxidation events. They generate great diversity of highly-reactive lipid-derived chemical species, which may be further degraded enzymatically or non-enzymatically originating new components like Reactive Carbonyl Species (RCS). Such RCS are able to selectively react with proteins frequently producing loss of function through lipoxidation reactions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2019.101136DOI Listing
February 2019

Pnpla3 silencing with antisense oligonucleotides ameliorates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis in Pnpla3 I148M knock-in mice.

Mol Metab 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Clinical Nutrition Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro, Italy; Cardiology Department, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a leading cause of advanced chronic liver disease. The progression of NAFLD, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), has a strong genetic component, and the most robust contributor is the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 encoding the 148M protein sequence variant. We hypothesized that suppressing the expression of the PNPLA3 148M mutant protein would exert a beneficial effect on the entire spectrum of NAFLD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2019.01.013DOI Listing
February 2019

Automated Pixel-Wise Quantitative Myocardial Perfusion Mapping by CMR to Detect Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease and Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction: Validation Against Invasive Coronary Physiology.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom; Division of Medicine, University College London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: The study sought to assess the performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) myocardial perfusion mapping against invasive coronary physiology reference standards for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD, defined by fractional flow reserve [FFR] ≤0.80), microvascular dysfunction (MVD) (defined by index of microcirculatory resistance [IMR] ≥25) and the ability to differentiate between the two.

Background: Differentiation of epicardial (CAD) and MVD in patients with stable angina remains challenging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2018.12.022DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of concentric and eccentric hamstring training on sprint recovery, strength and muscle architecture in inexperienced athletes.

J Sci Med Sport 2019 Jan 26. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Australia.

Objectives: To investigate whether five-weeks of concentric (CON) or eccentric (ECC) hamstring strength training have different effects on recovery from sprint running, eccentric strength and architecture of the biceps femoris long head (BF).

Design: Cohort study.

Methods: Thirty males (age, 22. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2019.01.010DOI Listing
January 2019

Veiled Potential of Secretagogin in Diabetes: Correlation or Coincidence?

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Uppal Road, Hyderabad-500 007, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad-201002, India. Electronic address:

Secretagogin (SCGN) is a calcium sensor protein enriched in neuroendocrine cells in general and pancreatic β-cells in particular. SCGN regulates insulin secretion through several Ca-dependent interactions. Recent studies implicate SCGN in the β-cell physiology and extracellular insulin function, making it an intriguing candidate in diabetes research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2019.01.007DOI Listing
February 2019

Corrigendum to "Effects of different patterns of electric stimulation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex on hippocampal-prefrontal coherence in a rat model of depression" [Behav. Brain Res. 356 (2019) 179-188].

Behav Brain Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

The National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders & Beijing Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2019.01.030DOI Listing
February 2019

Technical note: Bovine adipocyte and preadipocyte co-culture as an efficient adipogenic model.

J Dairy Sci 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824. Electronic address:

Reductionist studies of adipose tissue biology require reliable in vitro adipocyte culturing models. Current protocols for adipogenesis induction in stromal vascular fraction-derived preadipocytes require extended culturing periods and have low adipogenic rates. We compared the adipogenic efficiency of a 7-d co-culture model of visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SC) stromal vascular fraction-derived preadipocytes with mature adipocytes with a 14-d standard adipocyte differentiation protocol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-15626DOI Listing
February 2019

Neurological recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 Feb 15:1-17. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

1Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

OBJECTIVEPredicting neurological recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) is a complex task considering the heterogeneous nature of injury and the inconsistency of individual studies. This study aims to summarize the current evidence on neurological recovery following TSCI by use of a meta-analytical approach, and to identify injury, treatment, and study variables with prognostic significance.METHODSA literature search in MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed, and studies reporting follow-up changes in American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) or Frankel or ASIA motor score (AMS) scales were included in the meta-analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.10.SPINE18802DOI Listing
February 2019

Leptomeningeal dissemination: a sinister pattern of medulloblastoma growth.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Feb 15:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

3Cancer Research Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Center and Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD) is the defining pattern of metastasis for medulloblastoma. Although LMD is responsible for virtually 100% of medulloblastoma deaths, it remains the least well-understood part of medulloblastoma pathogenesis. The fact that medulloblastomas rarely metastasize outside the CNS but rather spread almost exclusively to the spinal and intracranial leptomeninges has fostered the long-held belief that medulloblastoma cells spread directly through the CSF, not the bloodstream. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2018.11.PEDS18506DOI Listing
February 2019
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Vascular smooth muscle-MAPK14 is required for neointimal hyperplasia by suppressing VSMC differentiation and inducing proliferation and inflammation.

Redox Biol 2019 Feb 6;22:101137. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Injury-induced stenosis is a serious vascular complication. We previously reported that p38α (MAPK14), a redox-regulated p38MAPK family member was a negative regulator of the VSMC contractile phenotype in vitro. Here we evaluated the function of VSMC-MAPK14 in vivo in injury-induced neointima hyperplasia and the underlying mechanism using an inducible SMC-MAPK14 knockout mouse line (iSMC-MAPK14). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2019.101137DOI Listing
February 2019

Dietary supplementation with strawberry induces marked changes in the composition and functional potential of the gut microbiome in diabetic mice.

J Nutr Biochem 2019 Jan 18;66:63-69. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

Department of Nutrition and Integrative Physiology, College of Health, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. Electronic address:

Gut microbiota contributes to the biological activities of berry anthocyanins by transforming them into bioactive metabolites, and anthocyanins support the growth of specific bacteria, indicating a two-way relationship between anthocyanins and microbiota. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that strawberry supplementation alters gut microbial ecology in diabetic db/db mice. Control (db/+) and diabetic (db/db) mice (7 weeks old) consumed standard diet or diet supplemented with 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2019.01.004DOI Listing
January 2019

Brain region specific glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors regulate alcohol-induced behaviors in rodents.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2019 Feb 8;103:284-295. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Pharmacology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone that reduces food intake, was recently established as a novel regulator of alcohol-mediated behaviors. Clinically available analogues pass freely into the brain, but the mechanisms underlying GLP-1-modulated alcohol reward remains largely unclear. GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are expressed throughout the nuclei of importance for acute and chronic effects of alcohol, such as the laterodorsal tegmental area (LDTg), the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.02.006DOI Listing
February 2019

Movie violence acutely affects food choices in young adults.

Eat Behav 2019 Feb 10;33:7-12. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Nutrition Division, Department of Natural Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese American University, Lebanon.

Background: Extensive research has been conducted to investigate the effects of media violence on attitudes, behaviors, and cardiovascular health; however, only few studies have examined its effect on appetite, eating behavior and food preferences. Little attention has been given to understand how movie genre manipulates the physiology and the eating behavior of individuals. The present study aimed at investigating the acute effect of violence content in movies on appetite perception, heart rate and blood pressure, along with food preferences and intake in young individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Intravaginal treatment with Marantodes Pumilum (Kacip Fatimah) ameliorates vaginal atrophy in rats with post-menopausal condition.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Marantodes pumilum (MP) (Kacip Fatimah) is used to maintain the well-being of post-menopausal women. However, its role in ameliorating post menopause-related vaginal atrophy (VA) is unknown.

Aims: To investigate the ability of intravaginal MP gel treatment to ameliorate VA in sex-steroid deficient condition, mimicking post-menopause. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.027DOI Listing
February 2019

Acute and sub-acute toxicity of the aqueous extract from the stem bark of Tetrapleura tetrapteura Taub. (Fabaceae) in mice and rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

H.E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan; Department of Biochemistry, Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research (P.C.M.D.), International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Tetrapleura tetrapteura Taub. is a leguminous multipurpose tree (Fabaceae) indigenous to tropical Africa. Fruits, seeds and stem bark infusions or decoctions of Tetrapleura tetrapteura Taub. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.026DOI Listing
February 2019

Towards the first targeted therapy for triple-negative breast cancer: repositioning of clofazimine as a chemotherapy-compatible selective Wnt pathway inhibitor.

Cancer Lett 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, Translational Research Centre in Oncohaematology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia. Electronic address:

Wnt signaling is overactivated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and several other cancers, and its suppression emerges as an effective anticancer treatment. However, no drugs targeting the Wnt pathway exist on the market nor in advanced clinical trials. Here we provide a comprehensive body of preclinical evidence that an anti-leprotic drug clofazimine is effective against TNBC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2019.02.018DOI Listing
February 2019

Attenuation of adverse effects of noise induced hearing loss on adult neurogenesis and memory in rats by intervention with Adenosine A receptor agonist.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Defence Research and Development Organization, Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Hearing loss and cognitive decline are commonly associated with aging and morbidity. Present clinical interest lies in whether peripheral hearing loss promotes cognitive decline and if prophylaxis with selective adenosine receptor agonist CGS21680 effectively mitigates the adverse effects. In the current study, male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-250 gm were randomly allocated into three groups: Group 1) rats exposed to 100 dB SPL white noise, 2 hours a day for 15 consecutive days, 2) rats supplemented with an adenosine receptor agonist, CGS21680 at 100 μg/kg/day prior to noise exposure and 3) unexposed control rats. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.02.006DOI Listing
February 2019

Corticosterone mediated functional and structural plasticity in corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Centre for Neuroendocrinology, Department of Physiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Corticosteroid stress hormones drive a multitude of adaptations in the brain. Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons control the circulating levels of corticosteroid stress hormones in the body and are themselves highly sensitive to corticosteroids. CRH neurons have been shown to undergo various adaptions in response to acute stress hormone elevations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.02.017DOI Listing
February 2019

Validation of antibody-based assays for regulatory peptides: do it once, get it right, and exploit the under-appreciated benefit of long-term antibody stability.

Authors:
Graham Dockray

Peptides 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Physiological Laboratory, Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, University of Liverpool, Crown St, Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK.. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Pomolic acid reduces contractility and modulates excitation-contraction coupling in rat cardiomyocytes.

Eur J Pharmacol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Laboratory of Cellular Physiology, Centre of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), Caracas, Venezuela; Physiology and Biochemistry Research Group-PHYSIS, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. Electronic address:

Pomolic acid (PA) isolated from Licania pittieri has hypotensive effects in rats, inhibits human platelet aggregation and elicits endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortic rings. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of PA on cardiomyocytes. Trabeculae and enzymatically isolated cardiomyocytes from rats were used to evaluate the concentration-dependent effects of PA on cardiac muscle tension and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) by recording Ca transients reported with Fluo-3 and Fura-2, as well as L-type Ca currents (LTCC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.02.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Pre-existing fibroblasts of epicardial origin are the primary source of pathological fibrosis in cardiac ischemia and aging.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Aab Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA; Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. Electronic address:

Serum response factor (SRF) and the SRF co-activators myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are essential for epicardium-derived progenitor cell (EPDC)-mobilization during heart development; however, the impact of developmental EPDC deficiencies on adult cardiac physiology has not been evaluated. Here, we utilize the Wilms Tumor-1 (Wt1)-Cre to delete Mrtfs or Srf in the epicardium, which reduced the number of EPDCs in the adult cardiac interstitium. Deficiencies in Wt1-lineage EPDCs prevented the development of cardiac fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in aged mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2019.01.015DOI Listing
February 2019

SPRED2 deficiency elicits cardiac arrhythmias and premature death via impaired autophagy.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Physiology, University of Wuerzburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Cardiac functionality is dependent on a balanced protein turnover. Accordingly, regulated protein decay is critical to maintain cardiac function. Here we demonstrate that deficiency of SPRED2, an intracellular repressor of ERK-MAPK signaling markedly expressed in human heart, resulted in impaired autophagy, heart failure, and shortened lifespan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2019.01.023DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of amantadine on corneal endothelium.

Exp Eye Res 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Ross Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA; Research and Ophthalmology Services, Veterans Administration of Western New York Healthcare System, Buffalo, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: An adverse effect of amantadine, a drug used for Parkinson's disease, is corneal edema. While corneal endothelial cell loss is noted with amantadine toxicity, the reversibility of corneal edema suggests that amantadine affects active mechanisms regulating corneal hydration. Although mainly known as a NMDA receptor antagonist, amantadine is also a K-channel blocker. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2019.02.010DOI Listing
February 2019

A dual neutrophil-T cell purification procedure and methodological considerations in studying the effects of estrogen on human Th17 cell differentiation.

J Immunol Methods 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Program in Translational Medicine, Peter Gilgan Centre for Research and Learning, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Canada; Departments of Paediatrics and Physiology, University of Toronto, Canada; Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

New procedures are required to optimize the use of blood samples to study different cell types. The purification of neutrophils and T cells from the same blood sample is not commonly described. We have previously used PolymorphPrep™ (P) or LymphoPrep™ (L) for purifying neutrophils or T cells, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jim.2019.01.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Weak effects of geolocators on small birds: a meta-analysis controlled for phylogeny and publication bias.

J Anim Ecol 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

The Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Biology, Květná 8, 603 65, Brno, Czech Republic.

Currently, the deployment of tracking devices is one of the most frequently used approaches to study movement ecology of birds. Recent miniaturisation of light-level geolocators enabled studying small bird species whose migratory patterns were widely unknown. However, geolocators may reduce vital rates in tagged birds and may bias obtained movement data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12962DOI Listing
February 2019

PKA phosphorylation underlies functional recruitment of sarcolemmal SK2 channels in ventricular myocytes from hypertrophic hearts.

J Physiol 2019 Feb 16. Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210.

Key Points Summary: Small-conductance Ca -activated K (SK) channels expressed in ventricular myocytes are dormant in health yet become functional in cardiac disease. SK channels are voltage independent and their gating is controlled by intracellular [Ca ] in a biphasic manner. Submicromolar [Ca ] activates the channel via constitutively-bound calmodulin, while higher [Ca ] exerts inhibitory effect during depolarization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP277618DOI Listing
February 2019

A new twist on tropomyosin binding to actin filaments: perspectives on thin filament function, assembly and biomechanics.

J Muscle Res Cell Motil 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Massachusetts-Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA.

Tropomyosin, best known for its role in the steric regulation of muscle contraction, polymerizes head-to-tail to form cables localized along the length of both muscle and non-muscle actin-based thin filaments. In skeletal and cardiac muscles, tropomyosin, under the control of troponin and myosin, moves in a cooperative manner between blocked, closed and open positions on filaments, thereby masking and exposing actin-binding sites necessary for myosin crossbridge head interactions. While the coiled-coil signature of tropomyosin appears to be simple, closer inspection reveals surprising structural complexity required to perform its role in steric regulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10974-019-09501-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Detection of α-Synuclein in Biological Samples Using Mass Spectrometry.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1948:209-220

Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.

Here we describe a method using mass spectrometry to characterize and quantify immuno-enriched α-synuclein forms from biochemically fractionated brain tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9124-2_16DOI Listing
January 2019

Measuring Mitochondrial Dysfunction Caused by Soluble α-Synuclein Oligomers.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1948:183-198

Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Accumulation of misfolded αSyn and mitochondrial dysfunction are central features of Parkinson's disease. Growing evidence points to a relationship between these two phenomena as oligomeric α-synuclein (αSyn) can interact with mitochondria and impair their function. Standardization of methods to prepare αSyn oligomers and isolate functional mitochondria will facilitate efforts to expand upon early findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9124-2_14DOI Listing
January 2019

Yeast-Based Screens to Target Alpha-Synuclein Toxicity.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1948:145-156

Department of Experimental Neurodegeneration, Center for Biostructural Imaging of Neurodegeneration, University Medical Center Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) has been a remarkable experimental model for the discovery of fundamental biological processes. The high degree of conservation of cellular and molecular processes between the budding yeast and higher eukaryotes has made it a valuable system for the investigation of the molecular mechanisms behind various types of devastating human pathologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9124-2_12DOI Listing
January 2019

Circular Dichroism and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry to Study the Interaction of α-Synuclein with Membranes.

Authors:
Matteo Rovere

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1948:123-143

Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

α-Synuclein's physiology and pathology have been linked by numerous reports to its ability to bind and remodel membranes, especially at synaptic terminals. It is therefore critical for researchers investigating the determinants of these interactions to rely on methods capable of providing an accurate and complete physicochemical snapshot of the binding events. Circular dichroism (CD) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) are established techniques for the study of binding equilibria in biological systems and, especially when used in combination, allow a thorough characterization of the protein-lipid interplay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9124-2_11DOI Listing
January 2019

Alpha-Synuclein Proximity Ligation Assay (AS-PLA) in Brain Sections to Probe for Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1948:69-76

Division of Brain Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Alpha-synuclein oligomers are thought to be toxic mediators of Parkinson's disease and other alpha-synucleinopathies, but their histological detection in situ in diseased brain has been a challenge in the field for some time. Here we describe a method, the alpha-synuclein proximity ligation assay (AS-PLA), to detect alpha-synuclein oligomers in paraffin-embedded brain sections. Using AS-PLA previously unobserved alpha-synuclein oligomeric pathology is revealed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9124-2_7DOI Listing
January 2019
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