11,804,580 results match your criteria Physiology & Behavior[Journal]

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Distribution of D and D receptor- immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus in the rat.

J Chem Neuroanat 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Xinxiang Key Laboratory of Molecular Neurology, Department of Human Anatomy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang 453003, China; Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China. Electronic address:

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is an important center in regulating the functions of internal organs, and it is the key nucleus for coordinating endocrine, behavior and autonomic stress responses. Dopamine receptors are widely expressed in the hypothalamus and participate in the regulation of many vital activities, such as blood pressure and glycolipid metabolism, but the details of the cellular localization of dopamine receptors in the PVN are not clear. The present study investigated the distribution of D and D receptor-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the subnuclei of the PVN and their co-labeling with vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) in rats by means of Nissl staining and immunofluorescence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2019.04.002DOI Listing

Activation of liver x receptors prevents the spinal LTP induced by skin/muscle retraction in the thigh via SIRT1/NF-Κb pathway.

Neurochem Int 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Physiology and Pain Research Center, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Brain Function and Disease, Guangzhou, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

It has been reported that skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) in the thigh, produces mechanical allodynia in the hind paw, far from the site of incision/retraction. The mechanical allodynia lasts about 22 days, indicating chronic post-operative pain develops. The precise mechanisms, however, are largely unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2019.04.002DOI Listing

The Integrator Complex Prevents Dedifferentiation of Intermediate Neural Progenitors back into Neural Stem Cells.

Cell Rep 2019 Apr;27(4):987-996.e3

Neuroscience & Behavioral Disorders Programme, Duke-NUS Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857, Singapore; NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 28 Medical Drive, Singapore 117456, Singapore; Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore. Electronic address:

Mutations of the Integrator subunits are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and cancers. However, their role during neural development is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the Drosophila Integrator complex prevents dedifferentiation of intermediate neural progenitors (INPs) during neural stem cell (neuroblast) lineage development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.089DOI Listing

Molecular aspects of signalling in diabesity.

Mol Aspects Med 2019 Apr 21. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Small-Molecule-Based Fluorescent Sensors for Selective Detection of Reactive Oxygen Species in Biological Systems.

Annu Rev Biochem 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Morningside Laboratory for Chemical Biology, Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, P. R. China; email: , , , ,

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) encompass a collection of intricately linked chemical entities characterized by individually distinct physicochemical properties and biological reactivities. Although excessive ROS generation is well known to underpin disease development, it has become increasingly evident that ROS also play central roles in redox regulation and normal physiology. A major challenge in uncovering the relevant biological mechanisms and deconvoluting the apparently paradoxical roles of distinct ROS in human health and disease lies in the selective and sensitive detection of these transient species in the complex biological milieu. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-biochem-013118-111754DOI Listing

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Capping on ECM-Anchored Caspase Inhibitor-Loaded PLGA Microspheres for Intraperitoneal Injection in DSS-Induced Murine Colitis.

Small 2019 Apr 24:e1901269. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk, 38541, Republic of Korea.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as a promising alternative for the treatment of various inflammatory disorders. However, poor viability and engraftment of MSCs after transplantation are major hurdles in mesenchymal stem cell therapy. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated scaffolds provide better cell attachment and mechanical support for MSCs after transplantation. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/smll.2019012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201901269DOI Listing
April 2019
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Soil carbonate drives local adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant Cell Environ 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Plant Physiology Lab, Bioscience Faculty, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona.

High soil carbonate limits crop performance especially in semi-arid or arid climates. To understand how plants adapt to such soils, we explored natural variation in tolerance to soil carbonate in small local populations (demes) of Arabidopsis thaliana growing on soils differing in carbonate content. Reciprocal field-based transplants on soils with elevated carbonate (+C) and without carbonate (-C) over several years revealed that demes native to (+C) soils showed higher fitness than those native to (-C) soils when both were grown together on carbonate-rich soil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.13567DOI Listing

Hypoxia induced hERG trafficking defect linked to cell cycle arrest in SH-SY5Y cells.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215905. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Institute for Integrative Physiology, Center for Systems Biology of O2 Sensing, Biological Sciences Division, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.

The alpha subunit of the voltage gated human ether-a-go-go-related (hERG) potassium channel regulates cell excitability in a broad range of cell lines. HERG channels are also expressed in a variety of cancer cells and control cell proliferation and apoptosis. Hypoxia, a common feature of tumors, alters gating properties of hERG currents in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215905PLOS

Human resource primacy, dispositional optimism, and chest pain: A prospective, cross-lagged study of work, personality, and health.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215719. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Work Psychology and Physiology, National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway.

Chest pain (CP) is common, frightening, and often medically unexplained. Occupational psychological factors are associated with somatic pain. Personality may influence both perceived working conditions and somatic health, thereby confounding associations of work with health. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215719PLOS
April 2019
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Fatty acids from fish or vegetable oils promote the adipogenic fate of mesenchymal stem cells derived from gilthead sea bream bone potentially through different pathways.

PLoS One 2019 24;14(4):e0215926. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Fish are rich in n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), such as eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, thus they have a great nutritional value for human health. In this study, the adipogenic potential of fatty acids commonly found in fish oil (EPA and DHA) and vegetable oils (linoleic (LA) and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acids), was evaluated in bone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from gilthead sea bream. At a morphological level, cells adopted a round shape upon all treatments, losing their fibroblastic form and increasing lipid accumulation, especially in the presence of the n-6 PUFA, LA. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215926PLOS

A kinetic model for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor mediated spike timing-dependent LTP.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 Apr 24;15(4):e1006975. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Institute of Biophysics, National Research Council, Palermo, Italy.

Across the mammalian nervous system, neurotrophins control synaptic plasticity, neuromodulation, and neuronal growth. The neurotrophin Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is known to promote structural and functional synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex, and many other brain areas. In recent years, a wealth of data has been accumulated revealing the paramount importance of BDNF for neuronal function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006975DOI Listing

The effect of silymarin supplementation on cognitive impairment induced by diabetes in rats.

J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Background The objective of this investigation was to examine the impact of silymarin supplementation on locomotion, anxiety-related behavior, learning, and memory via several behavioral tests, such as open field, elevated plus maze, and Morris water maze tests in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods The rats were divided into the control, diabetes, silymarin, and diabetes plus silymarin groups. On the 30th-35th days of the study, several behavioral tests were performed and blood and brain tissue samples were taken and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) levels were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-2018-0109DOI Listing

Policies or Knowledge: Priors differ between a perceptual and sensorimotor tasks.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Bioengineering and Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, United States.

If the brain abstractly represents probability distributions as knowledge, then the modality of a decision, e.g. movement vs. Read More

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https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/jn.00035.2018
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00035.2018DOI Listing

The time-course of functional changes in locomotor and sensory systems after spinal cord lesions in lamprey.

J Neurophysiol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Changes in motor and sensory properties occur either side of spinal cord lesion sites from lower vertebrates to humans. We have previously examined these changes in the lamprey, a model system for studying recovery after spinal cord injury. These analyses were performed 8-12 weeks after complete spinal cord lesions, a time when most animals have recovered good locomotor function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00120.2019DOI Listing

Revealing the Origins of Foam Cells in Atherosclerotic Lesions.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2019 May;39(5):836-838

From the Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center (K.M.O., G.F.A., G.K.O.), University of Virginia, Charlottesville.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.119.312557DOI Listing

Current Paradigms and New Perspectives on Fetal Hypoxia: Implications for Fetal Brain Development in Late Gestation.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Pharmacodynamics, University of Florida, United States.

The availability of oxygen to the fetus is limited by the route taken by oxygen from atmosphere to fetal tissues, aided or diminished by pregnancy-associated changes in maternal physiology, and ultimately a function of atmospheric pressure and composition of the mother's inspired gas. Much of our understanding of the fetal physiological response to hypoxia comes from experiments designed to elucidate the cardiovascular and endocrine responses to transient hypoxia. Complementing this work is equally impactful research into the origins of intrauterine growth restriction, using animal models designed to restrict the transfer of oxygen from maternal to fetal circulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00008.2019DOI Listing

Tissue-specific dysregulation of mitochondrial respiratory capacity and coupling control in colon-26 tumor-induced cachexia.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Florida Atlantic University, United States.

In addition to skeletal muscle dysfunction, cancer cachexia is a systemic disease involving remodeling of non-muscle organs such as adipose and liver. Impairment of mitochondrial function is associated with multiple chronic diseases. The tissue-specific control of mitochondrial function in cancer cachexia is not well-defined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00028.2019DOI Listing

Autophagy, Apoptosis, and Mitochondria: Molecular Integration and Physiological Relevance in Skeletal Muscle.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Apoptosis and autophagy are processes resulting from the integration of cellular stress and death signals. Their individual importance is highlighted by the lethality of various mouse models missing apoptosis or autophagy related genes. In addition to their independent roles, significant overlap exists with respect to the signals which stimulate these processes as well as their effector consequences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00261.2018DOI Listing

Ghrelin modulates intracellular signalling pathways that are critical for podocyte survival.

Cell Biochem Funct 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Gilbert and Rose-Marie Chagoury, School of Medicine, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon.

Damage to podocytes is a key event in glomerulopathies. While energy dense food can contribute to kidney damage, the role of the orixegenic hormone "ghrelin" in podocyte biology is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of ghrelin on podocyte survival as well as the signalling pathways mediating ghrelin effect in immortalized cultured rat podocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbf.3397DOI Listing

Potential for beneficial reuse of oil-and-gas-derived produced water in agriculture: physiological and morphological responses in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum).

Environ Toxicol Chem 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, USA.

Produced water (PW) from oil and gas operations is considered a potential resource for food crop irrigation due to increasing water scarcity in dryland agriculture. However, efforts to employ PW for agriculture have been met with limited success. Here, a greenhouse study was performed to evaluate the effects of PW on physiological and morphological traits of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4449DOI Listing

The Austrian UVA-Network.

Photochem Photobiol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Medical University Innsbruck, Div. of Biomedical Physics, Austria.

The ultraviolet-A (UVA) part of the solar spectrum at the Earth's surface is an essential environmental factor but continuous long-time monitoring of UVA radiation is rarely done. In Austria, three existing stations of the UV monitoring network have been upgraded with UVA broadband instruments. At each station, one instrument measures global UVA irradiance and - in parallel - a second instrument measures diffuse irradiance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/php.13111DOI Listing

Cryopreservation of Endangered Wild Species, Aster altaicus var. uchiyamae Kitam, Using Droplet-Vitrification Procedure.

Cryo Letters 2019 Mar/Apr;40(2):113-122

Dept. of Well-being Resources, Sunchon National University, Suncheon, 57922, Korea.

Background: Aster altaicus var. uchiyamae Kitam is an endemic and endangered species in urgent need of a comprehensive conservation strategy.

Objective: To develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol using in vitro shoot tips to complement traditional conservation approaches in case seeds are not available or insufficient for conservation programs. Read More

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Application of Pectin from Aloe arborescens Mill. to the Cryopreservation of Human Leukocyte Cell Suspensions.

Cryo Letters 2019 Mar/Apr;40(2):71-76

Physiology Institute at the Komi Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Komi Republic, Syktyvkar, Russian Federation.

Background: The molecular weight (MW) of pectic polysaccharide АА3 equal to 150 kDa and its structure suggest that it has a non-permeating protector action.

Objective: To study the ability of low methylesterified galacturonan АА3, extracted from Aloe arborescens Mill., to influence the cryoprotective properties of the refrigerant in the cryopreservation of leukocytes (-20°С, -80°С). Read More

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Mutant huntingtin enhances activation of dendritic Kv4 K channels in striatal spiny projection neurons.

Elife 2019 Apr 24;8. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, United States.

Huntington's disease (HD) is initially characterized by an inability to suppress unwanted movements, a deficit attributable to impaired synaptic activation of striatal indirect pathway spiny projection neurons (iSPNs). To better understand the mechanisms underlying this deficit, striatal neurons in ex vivo brain slices from mouse genetic models of HD were studied using electrophysiological, optical and biochemical approaches. Distal dendrites of iSPNs from symptomatic HD mice were hypoexcitable, a change that was attributable to increased association of dendritic Kv4 potassium channels with auxiliary KChIP subunits. Read More

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https://elifesciences.org/articles/40818
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.40818DOI Listing
April 2019
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Wheat streak mosaic virus alters the transcriptome of its vector, wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer), to enhance mite development and population expansion.

J Gen Virol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

3​Wheat, Sorghum, and Forage Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA.

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae) is an economically important wheat virus that is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (WCM; Aceria tosichella Keifer) in a persistent manner. Virus-vector coevolution may potentially influence vector gene expression to prolong viral association and thus increase virus transmission efficiency and spread. To understand the transcriptomic responses of WCM to WSMV, RNA sequencing was performed to assemble and analyse transcriptomes of WSMV viruliferous and aviruliferous mites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001256DOI Listing

Neuroprotective and long term potentiation improving effects of vitamin E in juvenile hypothyroid rats.

Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2019 Apr 24:1-13. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

8 Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Protective effects of vitamin E (Vit E) on long term potentiation (LTP) impairment, neuronal apoptosis and increase of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites in the hippocampus of juvenile rats were examined. The rats were grouped (n=13) as: (1) control; (2) hypothyroid (Hypo) and (3) Hypo-Vit E. Propylthiouracil (PTU) was given in drinking water (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/0300-9831/a000533DOI Listing

Camel Whey Protein Disrupts the Cross-Talk Between PI3K and BCL-2 Signals and Mediates Apoptosis in Primary Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

Nutr Cancer 2019 Apr 24:1-15. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

f Deanship of Scientific Research , King Saud University , Riyadh , Saudi Arabia.

In the present study, we investigated the impact of camel whey protein (CWP) on the survival of primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells that were isolated from 20 patients diagnosed with AML. We found that CWP induced apoptosis in the primary AML cells without affecting the normal PBMCs that were isolated from healthy individuals, as determined by PI/annexin V double staining followed by flow-cytometry analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these primary AML cells exhibited aberrant phosphorylation of AKT, mTOR and STAT3. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2019.1595054DOI Listing

Serum tau fragments as predictors of death or poor neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Biomarkers 2019 Apr 24:1-24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

a Department of Cardiology , Copenhagen University Hospital , Rigshospitalet , Copenhagen , Denmark.

Background: Anoxic brain injury is the primary cause of death after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and prognostication is challenging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of two fragments of tau as serum biomarkers for neurological outcome.

Methods: Single-center sub-study of 171 patients included in the Target Temperature Management (TTM) Trial randomly assigned to TTM at 33 °C or TTM at 36 °C for 24 hours after OHCA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1354750X.2019.1609580DOI Listing

Introducing Horizons.

Authors:
Terry E Graham

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019 May;44(5):iii

Editor, Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2019-0078DOI Listing

Evolving evidences of calreticulin as a pharmacological target in neurological disorders.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Calreticulin (CALR), a lectin-like ER chaperone, was initially known only for its house-keeping function, but today it is recognized for many versatile roles in different compartments of a cell. Apart from canonical roles in protein folding and calcium homeostasis it performs a variety of non-canonical roles, majorly in CNS development. In past, studies have linked Calreticulin with various other biological components which are detrimental in deciding the fate of neurons. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00158
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00158DOI Listing

Correlating Infant Faecal Microbiota Composition and Human Milk Oligosaccharide Consumption by Microbiota of One-Month Old Breastfed Infants.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2019 Apr 24:e1801214. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

K. Borewicz, H. Smidt, Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University & Research, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Scope: Understanding biological functions of different free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in shaping gastrointestinal tract microbiota during infancy is of great interest. We examined a link between HMOs in maternal milk and infant faecal microbiota composition and investigated the role of microbiota in degrading HMOs within the GI tract of healthy, breastfed, one-month old infants.

Methods And Results: Maternal breast milk and corresponding infant faeces originated from the KOALA Birth Cohort. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201801214DOI Listing

mRNA reprogramming of T8993G Leigh's syndrome fibroblast cells to create induced pluripotent stem cell models for mitochondrial disorders.

Stem Cells Dev 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

University of Arkansas Fayetteville, 3341, Biological Sciences , Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences , Fayetteville, Arkansas, United States , 72701-4002 ;

Early molecular and developmental events impacting many incurable mitochondrial disorders are not fully understood and require generation of relevant patient and disease-specific stem cell models. In this study, we focus on the ability of a non-viral and integration-free reprogramming method for deriving clinical-grade iPSCs specific to Leigh's syndrome (LS), a fatal neurodegenerative mitochondrial disorder of infants. The cause of fatality could be due to the presence of high abundance of mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or decline in respiration levels thus affecting early molecular and developmental events in energy-intensive tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2019.0045DOI Listing

Dynamic airway constriction in rats: heterogeneity and response to deep inspiration.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Physiology, University of Kentucky, United States.

Airway narrowing due to hyper-responsiveness severely limits gas exchange in patients with asthma. Imaging studies in humans and animals have previously shown that bronchoconstriction causes patchy patterns of ventilation defects throughout the lungs, and several computational models have predicted that these regions are due to constriction of smaller airways. However, these imaging approaches are often limited in their ability to capture dynamic changes in small airways, and the patterns of constriction are heterogeneous. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00050.2019DOI Listing

Cd influences metabolism and elemental distribution in roots of Acanthus ilicifolius L.

Int J Phytoremediation 2019 Apr 24:1-12. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

a Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Division, Department of Botany , University of Calicut , Malappuram , Kerala , India.

Effect of cadmium (Cd) on the primary metabolic activities and elemental distribution in roots was explored in Acanthus ilicifolius L., a halophyte with phytostabilization potential. The rate of photosynthesis decreased in the CdCl treated plants and this reduction was mainly attributed to the reduction of leaf area, photosynthetic pigments, impaired gaseous exchange caused by the stomatal closure and tissue water status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2019.1577356DOI Listing

Effect of cadmium on the roots of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.).

Int J Phytoremediation 2019 Apr 24:1-5. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

b Faculty of Biology and Soil Sciences, Irkutsk State University , Irkutsk , Russia.

The article dwells upon identifying the effect of cadmium on the roots of beetroot. The exposure effects of various concentrations of cadmium were studied at different levels of the plant organization (tissue pieces, organelles, membrane vesicles). The effect was noted only at a concentration of 100 μm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2019.1583722DOI Listing

Essential contributions of enhancer genomic regulatory elements to microglial cell identity and functions.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med 2019 Apr 23:e1449. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

CHU de Québec Research Center - Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Microglia are the specialized macrophages of the brain and play essential roles in ensuring its proper functioning. Accumulating evidence suggests that these cells coordinate the inflammatory response that accompanies various clinical brain conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, investigating the functions of these cells and how these are regulated have become important areas of research in neuroscience over the past decade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wsbm.1449DOI Listing

Altered vascular function in chronic kidney disease: evidence from passive leg movement.

Physiol Rep 2019 Apr;7(8):e14075

Department of Kinesiology and Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease and is characterized by reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and vascular dysfunction, typically assessed using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). It has been previously reported that passive leg movement (PLM)-induced hyperemia, an assessment of lower extremity vascular function, is highly dependent on NO, but has not yet been utilized to assess vascular function in patients with CKD. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively assess vascular function in patients with CKD using PLM, in addition to the traditional FMD technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14075DOI Listing

Significant changes in hepatic transcriptome and circulating miRNAs are associated with diet-induced metabolic syndrome in apoE3L.CETP mice.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Division of Basic Sciences, University of Crete Medical School, Heraklion, Greece.

Long-term exposure to excess dietary fat leads to obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of the present study was to identify global changes in liver gene expression and circulating miRNAs in a humanized mouse model of diet-induced MetS. Male apoE3L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28649DOI Listing

Insufficient sleep is associated with a proatherogenic circulating microRNA signature.

Exp Physiol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Integrative Vascular Biology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado, 80309.

New Findings: What is the central question of the study Is habitual short sleep associated with altered circulating levels of specific inflammation and vascular-related miRNAs? What is the main finding and its importance? Circulating levels of miR-125a, miR-126 and miR-146a were significantly lower in the short compared with normal sleep group. Altered circulating profiles of these vascular-related miRNAs have been linked to vascular inflammation, dysfunction and increased CVD events. Sleep related changes in these miRNAs are consistent with, and may play a role in, the aberrant vascular physiology and increased vascular risk associated with short sleep ABSTRACT: Habitual short sleep duration (< 7 hours/night) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality due, in large part, to increased inflammatory burden and endothelial dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/EP087469DOI Listing

IL-6 counteracts the inhibitory effect of IL-4 on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Fracture repair is characterized by cytokine production and hypoxia. To better predict cytokine modulation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-aided bone healing, we investigated whether interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-6, and their combination, affect osteogenic differentiation, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production, and/or mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation by MSCs under normoxia or hypoxia. Human adipose stem cells (hASCs) were cultured with IL-4, IL-6, or their combination for 3 days under normoxia (20% O ) or hypoxia (1% O ), followed by 11 days without cytokines under normoxia or hypoxia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28652DOI Listing

Commentaries on field-laboratory collaborations in primatology: Introduction to a special section of the American Journal of Primatology.

Am J Primatol 2019 Apr 24:e22979. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Anthropology, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio.

Finding better approaches to bridge field and laboratory primate research was identified as an important goal in a recent (2017) member survey of the American Society of Primatologists. Collaborative field-captive research was identified by >60% of respondents as somewhat or very underrepresented in the Society. In this introductory essay for a special section of American Journal of Primatology, I review commonalities and differences in the papers that were requested from field-captive primate collaborative teams. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajp.22979DOI Listing

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) Protects PC12 Cells Against Cisplatin-Induced Neurotoxicity by Activating the AMPK/SIRT1, MAPK/Erk, and PI3k/Akt Signaling Pathways.

Neurotox Res 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Peripheral sensory neuropathy (PSN) is a well-known side effect of cisplatin characterized by axonal damage. In the early stage of neurotoxicity, cisplatin affects proteins that modulate neurite outgrowth and neuroplasticity, without inducing mitochondrial damage or apoptosis. There are no preventive therapies for cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy; therefore, measures to improve axonal growth and connectivity would be beneficial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-019-00042-wDOI Listing

Ex Vivo Model in Cholestasis Research.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1981:351-362

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, Groningen Research Institute of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

To mimic (human) cholestasis in vitro requires multiple triggers to establish a diseased phenotype. However, this is currently not simulated by existing in vitro models. Therefore, there is a high need for multicellular systems similar to the human physiology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9420-5_23DOI Listing
January 2019

Unveiling Stem Cell Heterogeneity Toward the Development of Salivary Gland Regenerative Strategies.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1123:151-164

Center of Excellence in Regenerative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Epithelial damage in the salivary gland (SG) resulting in irreversible dry mouth can be commonly induced by gamma radiation therapy. This radiation depletes the SG stem/progenitor cell niche slowing healing and natural gland regeneration. Biologists have been focused in understanding the development and differentiation of epithelial stem and progenitor cell niches during SG organogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11096-3_9DOI Listing
January 2019

Sarcoma Stem Cell Heterogeneity.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1123:95-118

Central University Hospital of Asturias-Health Research Institute of Asturias, Oviedo, Spain.

Sarcomas represent an extensive group of divergent malignant diseases, with the only common characteristic of being derived from mesenchymal cells. As such, sarcomas are by definition very heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity does not manifest only upon intertumoral comparison on a bulk tumor level but can be extended to intratumoral level. Whereas part of this intratumoral heterogeneity could be understood in terms of clonal genetic evolution, an essential part includes a hierarchical relationship between sarcoma cells, governed by both genetic and epigenetic influences, signals that sarcoma cells are exposed to, and intrinsic developmental programs derived from sarcoma cells of origin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11096-3_7DOI Listing
January 2019

Progenitor Cell Heterogeneity in the Adult Carotid Body Germinal Niche.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1123:19-38

Dpto. de Fisiología Médica y Biofísica, Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/CSIC/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.

Somatic stem cells confer plasticity to adult tissues, permitting their maintenance, repair and adaptation to a changing environment. Adult germinal niches supporting somatic stem cells have been thoroughly characterized throughout the organism, including in central and peripheral nervous systems. Stem cells do not reside alone within their niches, but they are rather accompanied by multiple progenitor cells that not only contribute to the progression of stem cell lineage but also regulate their behavior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11096-3_3DOI Listing
January 2019

Chronic exposure to 35% carbamide peroxide tooth bleaching agent induces histological and hematological alterations, oxidative stress, and inflammation in mice.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Physiology Division, Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Salah Salim St., Beni-Suef, 62514, Egypt.

Previous studies have demonstrated the side effects of tooth whiteners on the gastric mucosa. However, the impact of dental bleaching products on the liver, kidney, and heart remains obscure. The present study investigated the toxic potential of 35% carbamide peroxide (CPO) containing tooth whitening product (TWP) on the liver, kidney, heart, and stomach of mice, pointing to the role of oxidative stress and inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05100-6DOI Listing

Application of nisin as biopreservative of pork meat by dipping and spraying methods.

Braz J Microbiol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Comparison between dipping and spraying methods to inhibit bacterial growth on artificially contaminated pork meat showed greater effectiveness of the latter method during the whole low-temperature one-week storage of product. These results suggest that the spraying method could be successful in directly applying antimicrobials to food products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-019-00080-8DOI Listing

Clinical and physiological risk factors for fecal incontinence in chronically constipated women.

Tech Coloproctol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Gastroenterology, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel.

Background: Fecal incontinence (FI) and chronic constipation (CC) are disabling symptoms that cause a significant public health problem. The pathophysiology of combined constipation and FI is not fully understood. Our aim was to delineate the clinical, physiological and anatomical factors that may contribute to the association of FI and CC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10151-019-01985-0DOI Listing

Efficacy of Long-term Selenium Supplementation in the Treatment of Chronic Keshan Disease with Congestive Heart Failure.

Curr Med Sci 2019 Apr 23;39(2):237-242. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Human Anatomy and Histo-Embryology, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710061, China.

Few effective treatments for chronic Keshan disease have been available till now. The efficacy of long-term selenium supplementation in the treatment of chronic Keshan disease with congestive heart failure is inconclusive. This study aimed to determine whether selenium supplementation is associated with a decreased risk of cardiac death in chronic Keshan disease with congestive heart failure by ten years of follow-up. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-019-2025-3DOI Listing
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