2,605 results match your criteria Physiology[Journal]


Learning to Air-Breathe: The First Steps.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 Jan;34(1):14-29

Section for Zoophysiology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University , Aarhus , Denmark.

Air-breathing in vertebrates has evolved many times among the bony fish while in water. Its appearance has had a fundamental impact on the regulation of ventilation and acid-base status. We review the physico-chemical constraints imposed by water and air, place the extant air-breathing fish into this framework, and show how that the advantages of combining control of ventilation and acid-base status are only available to the most obligate of air-breathing fish, thus highlighting promising avenues for research. Read More

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January 2019

Regulation of Ribosome Biogenesis in Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 Jan;34(1):30-42

The Center for Muscle Biology, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky , Lexington, Kentucky.

The ribosome is the enzymatic macromolecular machine responsible for protein synthesis. The rates of protein synthesis are primarily dependent on translational efficiency and capacity. Ribosome biogenesis has emerged as an important regulator of skeletal muscle growth and maintenance by altering the translational capacity of the cell. Read More

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January 2019

High-Intensity Exercise and Mitochondrial Biogenesis: Current Controversies and Future Research Directions.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 Jan;34(1):56-70

Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Monash University , Melbourne , Australia.

It is well established that different types of exercise can provide a powerful stimulus for mitochondrial biogenesis. However, there are conflicting findings in the literature, and a consensus has not been reached regarding the efficacy of high-intensity exercise to promote mitochondrial biogenesis in humans. The purpose of this review is to examine current controversies in the field and to highlight some important methodological issues that need to be addressed to resolve existing conflicts. Read More

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January 2019

Scaling of Motor Output, From Mouse to Humans.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 Jan;34(1):5-13

Physiology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine , Chicago, Illinois.

Appropriate scaling of motor output from mouse to humans is essential. The motoneurons that generate all motor output are, however, very different in rodents compared with humans, being smaller and much more excitable. In contrast, feline motoneurons are more similar to those in humans. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Mechanisms for the Resolution of Organ Fibrosis.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 Jan;34(1):43-55

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham , Birmingham, Alabama.

Fibrosis is a dynamic process with the potential for reversibility and restoration of near-normal tissue architecture and organ function. Herein, we review mechanisms for resolution of organ fibrosis, in particular that involving the lung, with an emphasis on the critical roles of myofibroblast apoptosis and clearance of deposited matrix. Read More

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January 2019

A Wake-Up Call from Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Authors:
Julie Y H Chan

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 Jan;34(1)

Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital , Kaohsiung , Taiwan.

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January 2019

Physiology in Perspective: Of Mice and Men.

Authors:
Gary C Sieck

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 Jan;34(1):3-4

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

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January 2019

Cardiac Vagus and Exercise.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 Jan;34(1):71-80

William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London , London , United Kingdom.

Lower resting heart rate and high autonomic vagal activity are strongly associated with superior exercise capacity, maintenance of which is essential for general well-being and healthy aging. Recent evidence obtained in experimental studies using the latest advances in molecular neuroscience, combined with human exercise physiology, physiological modeling, and genomic data suggest that the strength of cardiac vagal activity causally determines our ability to exercise. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Loss of Ovarian Hormones and Accelerated Somatic and Mental Aging.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Nov;33(6):374-383

Women's Health Research Center, Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

Bilateral oophorectomy in premenopausal women is a unique condition causing the abrupt and premature loss of ovarian hormones, primarily estrogen. Bilateral oophorectomy causes an alteration of several fundamental aging processes at the cellular, tissue, organ, and system levels, leading to multimorbidity, frailty, and reduced survival. However, many questions remain unanswered. Read More

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November 2018
10 Reads

APS: Moving Forward to Aid Our Membership.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Nov;33(6):370-371

Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

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November 2018

Energy Constraint as a Novel Mechanism Linking Exercise and Health.

Authors:
Herman Pontzer

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Nov;33(6):384-393

Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University , Durham, North Carolina.

Humans and other species adapt dynamically to changes in daily physical activity, maintaining total energy expenditure within a narrow range. Chronic exercise thus suppresses other physiological activity, including immunity, reproduction, and stress response. This exercise-induced downregulation improves health at moderate levels of physical activity but can be detrimental at extreme workloads. Read More

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November 2018

Conflict and Compromise: Using Reversible Remodeling to Manage Competing Physiological Demands at the Fish Gill.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Nov;33(6):412-422

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa , Ottawa, Ontario , Canada.

The structural features of the fish gill necessary for oxygen uptake also favor undesirable, passive movements of ions and water. Reversible gill remodeling is one solution to this conflict. Cell masses that limit functional surface area are lost when oxygen availability decreases in hypoxia or oxygen demand increases with exercise or high temperature. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads

Physiology in Perspective: Understanding the Aging Process.

Authors:
Gary C Sieck

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Nov;33(6):372-373

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

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November 2018

The Difference δ-Cells Make in Glucose Control.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Nov;33(6):403-411

Department of Neurobiology, Physiology & Behavior, College of Biological Sciences, University of California , Davis, California.

The role of beta and α-cells to glucose control are established, but the physiological role of δ-cells is poorly understood. Delta-cells are ideally positioned within pancreatic islets to modulate insulin and glucagon secretion at their source. We review the evidence for a negative feedback loop between delta and β-cells that determines the blood glucose set point and suggest that local δ-cell-mediated feedback stabilizes glycemic control. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Progenitors and β-Like Cells for Type 1 Diabetes Treatment.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Nov;33(6):394-402

Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University Health Network , Toronto, Ontario , Canada.

In this review, we focus on the processes guiding human pancreas development and provide an update on methods to efficiently generate pancreatic progenitors (PPs) and β-like cells in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Furthermore, we assess the strengths and weaknesses of using PPs and β-like cell for cell replacement therapy for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes with respect to cell manufacturing, engrafting, functionality, and safety. Finally, we discuss the identification and use of specific cell surface markers to generate safer populations of PPs for clinical translation and to study the development of PPs in vivo and in vitro. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Physiological Consequences of Coronary Arteriolar Dysfunction and Its Influence on Cardiovascular Disease.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Sep;33(5):338-347

Cardiovascular Center, Medical College of Wisconsin , Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

To date, the major focus of diagnostic modalities and interventions to treat coronary artery disease has been the large epicardial vessels. Despite substantial data showing that microcirculatory dysfunction is a strong predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events, very little research has gone into developing techniques for in vivo diagnosis and therapeutic interventions to improve microcirculatory function. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology of coronary arteriolar dysfunction, define its prognostic implications, evaluate the diagnostic modalities available, and provide speculation on current and potential therapeutic opportunities. Read More

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September 2018

Hypoxia Signaling in Vascular Homeostasis.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Sep;33(5):328-337

Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine , Chicago, Illinois.

Hypoxia signaling in the vasculature controls vascular permeability, inflammation, vascular growth, and repair of vascular injury. In this review, we summarize recent insights in this burgeoning field and highlight the importance of studying the heterogeneity of hypoxia responses among individual patients, distinct vascular beds, and even individual vascular cells. Read More

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September 2018
14 Reads

The Neurobiological Basis of Sleep and Sleep Disorders.

Authors:
William J Joiner

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Sep;33(5):317-327

Department of Pharmacology, Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, Neurosciences Graduate Program, and Center for Circadian Biology, University of California San Diego , La Jolla, California.

The functions of sleep remain a mystery. Yet they must be important since sleep is highly conserved, and its chronic disruption is associated with various metabolic, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. This review will cover our evolving understanding of the mechanisms by which sleep is controlled and the complex relationship between sleep and disease states. Read More

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September 2018

Defining the Rhythmogenic Elements of Mammalian Breathing.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Sep;33(5):302-316

Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, University of Washington School of Medicine , Seattle, Washington.

Breathing's remarkable ability to adapt to changes in metabolic, environmental, and behavioral demands stems from a complex integration of its rhythm-generating network within the wider nervous system. Yet, this integration complicates identification of its specific rhythmogenic elements. Based on principles learned from smaller rhythmic networks of invertebrates, we define criteria that identify rhythmogenic elements of the mammalian breathing network and discuss how they interact to produce robust, dynamic breathing. Read More

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September 2018

Monogenic Intestinal Epithelium Defects and the Development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Sep;33(5):360-369

Department of Paediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto , Toronto, Ontario , Canada ; and Department of Paediatrics and Biochemistry, SickKids Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center and Cell Biology Program, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children , Toronto, Ontario , Canada.

The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, most notably in young children. The development of disease is a combination of several factors, including genetics, environment, the microbiota, and immune system. Recently, next-generation sequencing has allowed for the identification of novel genetic causes for intestinal disease, including pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Read More

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September 2018
6 Reads

Oxidative Stress, Intrauterine Growth Restriction, and Developmental Programming of Type 2 Diabetes.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Sep;33(5):348-359

Center for Research on Reproduction and Women's Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to reduced birth weight and the development of metabolic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress are commonly found in key tissues (pancreatic islets, liver, and skeletal muscle) of IUGR individuals. In this review, we explore the role of oxidative stress in IUGR-associated diabetes etiology. Read More

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September 2018

Physiology in Perspective: The Breath of Life.

Authors:
Gary C Sieck

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Sep;33(5):300-301

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

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September 2018

T Cells and Hypertension: Solved and Unsolved Mysteries Regarding the Female Rat.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Jul;33(4):254-260

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University , Washington, DC.

T-cell function in female animal models of hypertension is poorly understood since most research is conducted in males. Our findings in Dahl-salt-sensitive and Dahl salt-resistant rats support prior research showing sex-specific T-cell effects in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Further studies are needed to inform clinical studies in both sexes and to provide clues into immune mechanisms underlying susceptibility and resilience to developing hypertension and associated disease. Read More

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ORAI Channels as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Pulmonary Hypertension.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Jul;33(4):261-268

INSERM, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux , Bordeaux , France.

Pulmonary hypertension is a complex and fatal disease that lacks treatments. Its pathophysiology involves pulmonary artery hyperreactivity, endothelial dysfunction, wall remodelling, inflammation, and thrombosis, which could all depend on ORAI Ca channels. We review the knowledge about ORAI channels in pulmonary artery and discuss the interest to target them in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Physiology in Perspective: Physiology is Alive and Well.

Authors:
Gary C Sieck

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Jul;33(4):252-253

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

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Neurons and Glia in the Enteric Nervous System and Epithelial Barrier Function.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Jul;33(4):269-280

IRSD, Université de Toulouse, INSERM, INRA, ENVT, UPS, Toulouse , France.

The intestinal epithelial barrier is the largest exchange surface between the body and the external environment. Its functions are regulated by luminal, and also internal, components including the enteric nervous system. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of the digestive "neuronal-glial-epithelial unit" on epithelial barrier function. Read More

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Carotid Bodies and the Integrated Cardiorespiratory Response to Hypoxia.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Jul;33(4):281-297

Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida , Tampa, Florida.

Advances in our understanding of brain mechanisms for the hypoxic ventilatory response, coordinated changes in blood pressure, and the long-term consequences of chronic intermittent hypoxia as in sleep apnea, such as hypertension and heart failure, are giving impetus to the search for therapies to "erase" dysfunctional memories distributed in the carotid bodies and central nervous system. We review current network models, open questions, sex differences, and implications for translational research. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Dissecting the Meanings of "Physiology" to Assess the Vitality of the Discipline.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Jul;33(4):236-245

ImmunoConcept, UMR5164, CNRS & University of Bordeaux , Bordeaux , France.

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July 2018
1 Read

Consideration for Circadian Physiology in Rodent Research.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Jul;33(4):250-251

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

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Central Dogma or Central Debate?

Authors:
Denis Noble

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Jul;33(4):246-249

University of Oxford , Oxford , United Kingdom.

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Glucose Lowering Strategies for Cardiac Benefits: Pathophysiological Mechanisms.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 May;33(3):197-210

Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital , Toronto, Ontario , Canada.

Recent trials in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) have shown cardiovascular benefits with specific GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors. We discuss the landscape of outcome trials in T2D from a pathophysiology viewpoint, review current knowledge gaps in underlying mechanisms, propose a caloric fuel routing hypothesis, and highlight areas of future research. Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Impaired Autophagy in Motor Neurons: A Final Common Mechanism of Injury and Death.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 May;33(3):211-224

Department of Physiology & Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

Autophagy is a cellular digestion process that contributes to cellular homeostasis and adaptation by the elimination of proteins and damaged organelles. Evidence suggests that dysregulation of autophagy plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases, including motor neuron disorders. Herein, we review emerging evidence indicating the roles of autophagy in physiological motor neuron processes and its function in specific compartments. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

The Birth and Death of Platelets in Health and Disease.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 May;33(3):225-234

Cell Biology Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children , Toronto, Ontario , Canada.

Blood platelets are involved in a wide range of physiological responses and pathological processes. Recent studies have considerably advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of platelet production and clearance, revealing new connections between the birth and death of these tiny, abundant cells. Key insights have also been gained into how physiological challenges such as inflammation, infection, and chemotherapy can affect megakaryocytes, the cells that produce platelets. Read More

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Is Adenosine Action Common Ground for NREM Sleep, Torpor, and Other Hypometabolic States?

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 May;33(3):182-196

Department of Biology, Williams College , Williamstown, Massachusetts.

This review compares two states that lower energy expenditure: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and torpor. Knowledge on mechanisms common to these states, and particularly on the role of adenosine in NREM sleep, may ultimately open the possibility of inducing a synthetic torpor-like state in humans for medical applications and long-term space travel. To achieve this goal, it will be important, in perspective, to extend the study to other hypometabolic states, which, unlike torpor, can also be experienced by humans. Read More

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Physiology in Perspective: Seeking Solutions to Biological Questions.

Authors:
Gary C Sieck

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 May;33(3):168-169

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

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Integrating Competing Demands of Osmoregulatory and Thermoregulatory Homeostasis.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 May;33(3):170-181

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne , Parkville , Australia.

Mammals are characterized by a stable core body temperature. When maintenance of core temperature is challenged by ambient or internal heat loads, mammals increase blood flow to the skin, sweat and/or pant, or salivate. These thermoregulatory responses enable evaporative cooling at moist surfaces to dissipate body heat. Read More

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Deficiency of the BMP Type I receptor ALK3 partly protects mice from anemia of inflammation.

BMC Physiol 2018 Feb 27;18(1). Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University Hospital Muenster, Albert-Schweitzer Campus 1, Building A1, 48149, Muenster, Germany.

Background: Inflammatory stimuli induce the hepatic iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, which contributes to anaemia of inflammation (AI). Hepcidin expression is regulated by the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling pathways. Prior results indicate that the BMP type I receptor ALK3 is mainly involved in the acute inflammatory hepcidin induction four and 72 h after IL-6 administration. Read More

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February 2018
18 Reads

Vagal Interoceptive Modulation of Motivated Behavior.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 03;33(2):151-167

Department of Psychology, Florida State University , Tallahassee, Florida.

In addition to regulating the ingestion and digestion of food, sensory feedback from gut to brain modifies emotional state and motivated behavior by subconsciously shaping cognitive and affective responses to events that bias behavioral choice. This focused review highlights evidence that gut-derived signals impact motivated behavior by engaging vagal afferents and central neural circuits that generally serve to limit or terminate goal-directed approach behaviors, and to initiate or maintain behavioral avoidance. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Circadian Etiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 03;33(2):138-150

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

The epidemic of Type 2 diabetes mellitus necessitates development of novel therapeutic and preventative strategies to attenuate expansion of this debilitating disease. Evidence links the circadian system to various aspects of diabetes pathophysiology and treatment. The aim of this review will be to outline the rationale for therapeutic targeting of the circadian system in the treatment and prevention of Type 2 diabetes mellitus and consequent metabolic comorbidities. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Physiology in Perspective: Homeostasis and Survival.

Authors:
Gary C Sieck

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 03;33(2):84-85

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

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March 2018
1 Read

Role of Astrocytic Mitochondria in Limiting Ischemic Brain Injury?

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 03;33(2):99-112

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Until recently, astrocyte processes were thought to be too small to contain mitochondria. However, it is now clear that mitochondria are found throughout fine astrocyte processes and are mobile with neuronal activity resulting in positioning near synapses. In this review, we discuss evidence that astrocytic mitochondria confer selective resiliency to astrocytes during ischemic insults and the functional significance of these mitochondria for normal brain function. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

The Metabolic Flexibility of Hovering Vertebrate Nectarivores.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 03;33(2):127-137

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough , Toronto, Ontario , Canada.

Foraging hummingbirds and nectar bats oxidize both glucose and fructose from nectar at exceptionally high rates. Rapid sugar flux is made possible by adaptations to digestive, cardiovascular, and metabolic physiology affecting shared and distinct pathways for the processing of each sugar. Still, how these animals partition and regulate the metabolism of each sugar and whether this occurs differently between hummingbirds and bats remain unclear. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Mitophagy in Cardiomyocytes and in Platelets: A Major Mechanism of Cardioprotection Against Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 03;33(2):86-98

The State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing , China.

Mitophagy, a process that selectively removes damaged organelles by autolysosomal degradation, is an early cellular response to ischemia. Mitophagy is activated in both cardiomyocytes and platelets during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and heart disease conditions. We focus on the molecular regulation of mitophagy and highlight the role of mitophagy in cardioprotection. Read More

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March 2018
6 Reads

Breathing: Motor Control of Diaphragm Muscle.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 03;33(2):113-126

Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

Breathing occurs without thought but is controlled by a complex neural network with a final output of phrenic motor neurons activating diaphragm muscle fibers (i.e., motor units). Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

Regulation of Locomotor activity in fed, fasted, and food-restricted mice lacking tissue-type plasminogen activator.

BMC Physiol 2018 Jan 25;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Department of Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242, USA.

Background: Circadian rhythms of physiology and behavior are driven by a circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. This clock is synchronized to environmental day/night cycles by photic input, which is dependent on the presence of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the SCN. Mature BDNF is produced by the enzyme plasmin, which is converted from plasminogen by the enzyme tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). Read More

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January 2018
5 Reads

Claudin expression during early postnatal development of the murine cochlea.

BMC Physiol 2018 Jan 25;18(1). Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Anatomy and Physiology Department, Kansas State University, 228 Coles Hall, Manhattan, KS, 66506, USA.

Background: Claudins are major components of tight junctions, which form the paracellular barrier between the cochlear luminal and abluminal fluid compartments that supports the large transepithelial voltage difference and the large concentration differences of K, Na and Ca needed for normal cochlear function. Claudins are a family of more than 20 subtypes, but our knowledge about expression and localization of each subtype in the cochlea is limited.

Results: We examined by quantitative RT-PCR the expression of the mRNA of 24 claudin isoforms in mouse cochlea during postnatal development and localized the expression in separated fractions of the cochlea. Read More

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January 2018
4 Reads

HIV and Cardiovascular Disease: Role of Immunometabolic Perturbations.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Jan;33(1):74-82

Department of Physiological Sciences, Cardio-Metabolic Research Group (CMRG), Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa

The successful rollout of anti-retroviral therapy ensured that HIV is increasingly managed as a chronic condition. HIV-positive persons are therefore exhibiting increased cardiovascular complications. This review focuses on the emerging role of "immunometabolism" within the context of HIV-related immune dysregulation and cardiovascular disease onset. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Comparative Physiology of Nociception and Pain.

Authors:
Lynne U Sneddon

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Jan;33(1):63-73

University of Liverpool, Institute of Integrative Biology, The BioScience Building, Liverpool, United Kingdom

The study of diverse animal groups allows us to discern the evolution of the neurobiology of nociception. Nociception functions as an important alarm system alerting the individual to potential and actual tissue damage. All animals possess nociceptors, and, in some animal groups, it has been demonstrated that there are consistent physiological mechanisms underpinning the nociceptive system. Read More

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January 2018
2 Reads

The Underlying Genetics of Circadian Behaviors.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Jan;33(1):50-62

Laboratorio de Genética del Comportamiento, Fundación Instituto Leloir (FIL)-Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas-IIBBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Life is shaped by circadian clocks. This review focuses on how behavioral genetics in the fruit fly unveiled what is known today about circadian physiology. We will briefly summarize basic properties of the clock and focus on some clock-controlled behaviors to highlight how communication between central and peripheral oscillators defines their properties. Read More

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January 2018
4 Reads

Bypassing Border Control: Nuclear Envelope Rupture in Disease.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 Jan;33(1):39-49

Department of Veterinary Sciences, Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium;

Recent observations in laminopathy patient cells and cancer cells have revealed that the nuclear envelope (NE) can transiently rupture during interphase. NE rupture leads to an uncoordinated exchange of nuclear and cytoplasmic material, thereby deregulating cellular homeostasis. Moreover, concurrently inflicted DNA damage could prime rupture-prone cells for genome instability. Read More

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January 2018
7 Reads