2,621 results match your criteria Physiology[Journal]


Hepatic Insulin Clearance: Mechanism and Physiology.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 May;34(3):198-215

Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Burgos , Burgos , Spain.

Upon its secretion from pancreatic β-cells, insulin reaches the liver through the portal circulation to exert its action and eventually undergo clearance in the hepatocytes. In addition to insulin secretion, hepatic insulin clearance regulates the homeostatic level of insulin that is required to reach peripheral insulin target tissues to elicit proper insulin action. Receptor-mediated insulin uptake followed by its degradation constitutes the basic mechanism of insulin clearance. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00048.2018DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

How Do Kidneys Adapt to a Deficit or Loss in Nephron Number?

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 05;34(3):189-197

Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California San Diego , San Diego, California.

A deficit or loss in the number of nephrons, the functional unit of the kidney, can induce compensatory growth and hyperfunction of remaining nephrons. An increase in single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) aims to compensate but may be deleterious in the long term. The increase in SNGFR is determined by the dynamics of nephron loss, total remaining GFR, the body's excretory demand, and the functional capacity to sustain single nephron hyperfunction. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00052.2018DOI Listing

A Tribute to Ewald Weibel.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 May;34(3):164-166

Oxford University, Oxford , United Kingdom.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00007.2019DOI Listing

Extracellular Vesicles: Exosomes and Microvesicles, Integrators of Homeostasis.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 May;34(3):169-177

Institut Curie, PSL Research University, CNRS, Paris , France.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), cell-derived membrane structures, are secreted after fusion of endosomes with the plasma membrane (exosomes) or shed from the plasma membrane (microvesicles). EVs play a key role both in physiological balance and homeostasis and in disease processes by their ability to participate in intercellular signaling and communication. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00045.2018DOI Listing

Physiology in Perspective: Physiology is Everywhere.

Authors:
Gary C Sieck

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 May;34(3):167-168

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00006.2019DOI Listing

A Critical Evaluation of Current Concepts in Cerebral Palsy.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 May;34(3):216-229

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine , Rochester, Minnesota.

Spastic cerebral palsy (CP), despite the name, is not consistently identifiable by specific brain lesions. CP animal models focus on risk factors for development of CP, yet few reproduce the diagnostic symptoms. Animal models of CP must advance beyond risk factors to etiologies, including both the brain and spinal cord. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00054.2018DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Sex, Oxidative Stress, and Hypertension: Insights From Animal Models.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 May;34(3):178-188

Departments of Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Mississippi Medical Center , Jackson, Mississippi.

One of the mechanisms responsible for blood pressure (BP) regulation is thought to be oxidative stress. In this review, we highlight preclinical studies that strongly support a role for oxidative stress in development and maintenance of hypertension in male animals, based on depressor responses to antioxidants, particularly tempol and apocynin. In females, oxidative stress seems to be important in the initial development of hypertension. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00035.2018DOI Listing

Exercise endurance capacity is markedly reduced due to impaired energy homeostasis during prolonged fasting in FABP4/5 deficient mice.

BMC Physiol 2019 Mar 13;19(1). Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511, Japan.

Background: Skeletal muscle prefers carbohydrate use to fatty acid (FA) use as exercise intensity increases. In contrast, skeletal muscle minimizes glucose use and relies more on FA during fasting. In mice deficient for FABP4 and FABP5 (double knockout (DKO) mice), FA utilization by red skeletal muscle and the heart is markedly reduced by the impairment of trans-endothelial FA transport, with an increase in glucose use to compensate for reduced FA uptake even during fasting. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12899-019-0038-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415495PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

The Importance of Resistance Exercise Training to Combat Neuromuscular Aging.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 03;34(2):112-122

UAB Center for Exercise Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham , Birmingham, Alabama.

Older adults undergoing age-related decrements in muscle health can benefit substantially from resistance exercise training, a potent stimulus for whole muscle and myofiber hypertrophy, neuromuscular performance gains, and improved functional mobility. With the use of advancing technologies, research continues to elucidate the mechanisms of and heterogeneity in adaptations to resistance exercise training beyond differences in exercise prescription. This review highlights the current knowledge in these areas and emphasizes knowledge gaps that require future attention of the field. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00044.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Heat Waves, the New Normal: Summertime Temperature Extremes Will Impact Animals, Ecosystems, and Human Communities.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 03;34(2):86-100

Estuary and Ocean Science Center and Department of Biology, San Francisco State University , San Francisco, California.

A consequence of climate change is the increased frequency and severity of extreme heat waves. This is occurring now as most of the warmest summers and most intense heat waves ever recorded have been during the past decade. In this review, I describe the ways in which animals and human populations are likely to respond to increased extreme heat, suggest how to study those responses, and reflect on the importance of those studies for countering the devastating impacts of climate change. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00040.2018DOI Listing

Physiology in Perspective: Responding to a Changing Environment.

Authors:
Gary C Sieck

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 03;34(2):84-85

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00001.2019DOI Listing

Engineering Human Stasis for Long-Duration Spaceflight.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 03;34(2):101-111

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado School of Medicine , Aurora, Colorado.

Suspended animation for deep-space travelers is moving out of the realm of science fiction. Two approaches are considered: the first elaborates the current medical practice of therapeutic hypothermia; the second invokes the cascade of metabolic processes naturally employed by hibernators. We explore the basis and evidence behind each approach and argue that mimicry of natural hibernation will be critical to overcome the innate limitations of human physiology for long-duration space travel. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00046.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Electroceutical Targeting of the Autonomic Nervous System.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 03;34(2):150-162

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine , Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Autonomic nerves are attractive targets for medical therapies using electroceutical devices because of the potential for selective control and few side effects. These devices use novel materials, electrode configurations, stimulation patterns, and closed-loop control to treat heart failure, hypertension, gastrointestinal and bladder diseases, obesity/diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. Critical to progress is a mechanistic understanding of multi-level controls of target organs, disease adaptation, and impact of neuromodulation to restore organ function. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00030.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Impact of Lipotoxicity on Tissue "Cross Talk" and Metabolic Regulation.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 03;34(2):134-149

Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne , Melbourne, Victoria , Australia.

Obesity-associated comorbidities include non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. These diseases are associated with accumulation of lipids in non-adipose tissues, which can impact many intracellular cellular signaling pathways and functions that have been broadly defined as "lipotoxic." This review moves beyond understanding intracellular lipotoxic outcomes and outlines the consequences of lipotoxicity on protein secretion and inter-tissue "cross talk," and the impact this exerts on systemic metabolism. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00037.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Central and Peripheral Inflammation Link Metabolic Syndrome and Major Depressive Disorder.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 03;34(2):123-133

Department of Neuroscience, Center for Affective Neuroscience, and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai , New York.

Metabolic syndrome and major depression are two of the most common and debilitating disorders worldwide, occurring with significant rates of comorbidity. Recent studies have uncovered that each of these conditions is associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation. This is characterized by increased circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, altered leukocyte population frequencies in blood, accumulation of immune cells in tissues including the brain, and activation of these immune cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00047.2018DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Learning to Air-Breathe: The First Steps.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 01;34(1):14-29

Section for Zoophysiology, Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University , Aarhus , Denmark.

Air-breathing in vertebrates has evolved many times among the bony fish while in water. Its appearance has had a fundamental impact on the regulation of ventilation and acid-base status. We review the physico-chemical constraints imposed by water and air, place the extant air-breathing fish into this framework, and show how that the advantages of combining control of ventilation and acid-base status are only available to the most obligate of air-breathing fish, thus highlighting promising avenues for research. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00028.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Regulation of Ribosome Biogenesis in Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 01;34(1):30-42

The Center for Muscle Biology, College of Health Sciences, University of Kentucky , Lexington, Kentucky.

The ribosome is the enzymatic macromolecular machine responsible for protein synthesis. The rates of protein synthesis are primarily dependent on translational efficiency and capacity. Ribosome biogenesis has emerged as an important regulator of skeletal muscle growth and maintenance by altering the translational capacity of the cell. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00034.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383632PMC
January 2019
3 Reads

High-Intensity Exercise and Mitochondrial Biogenesis: Current Controversies and Future Research Directions.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 01;34(1):56-70

Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Monash University , Melbourne , Australia.

It is well established that different types of exercise can provide a powerful stimulus for mitochondrial biogenesis. However, there are conflicting findings in the literature, and a consensus has not been reached regarding the efficacy of high-intensity exercise to promote mitochondrial biogenesis in humans. The purpose of this review is to examine current controversies in the field and to highlight some important methodological issues that need to be addressed to resolve existing conflicts. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00038.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Scaling of Motor Output, From Mouse to Humans.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 01;34(1):5-13

Physiology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine , Chicago, Illinois.

Appropriate scaling of motor output from mouse to humans is essential. The motoneurons that generate all motor output are, however, very different in rodents compared with humans, being smaller and much more excitable. In contrast, feline motoneurons are more similar to those in humans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/physiol.00021.2018
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00021.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383635PMC
January 2019
11 Reads

Mechanisms for the Resolution of Organ Fibrosis.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 01;34(1):43-55

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham , Birmingham, Alabama.

Fibrosis is a dynamic process with the potential for reversibility and restoration of near-normal tissue architecture and organ function. Herein, we review mechanisms for resolution of organ fibrosis, in particular that involving the lung, with an emphasis on the critical roles of myofibroblast apoptosis and clearance of deposited matrix. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00033.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383633PMC
January 2019
1 Read

A Wake-Up Call from Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Authors:
Julie Y H Chan

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 01;34(1)

Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital , Kaohsiung , Taiwan.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00051.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Physiology in Perspective: Of Mice and Men.

Authors:
Gary C Sieck

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 01;34(1):3-4

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00049.2018DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Cardiac Vagus and Exercise.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2019 01;34(1):71-80

William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London , London , United Kingdom.

Lower resting heart rate and high autonomic vagal activity are strongly associated with superior exercise capacity, maintenance of which is essential for general well-being and healthy aging. Recent evidence obtained in experimental studies using the latest advances in molecular neuroscience, combined with human exercise physiology, physiological modeling, and genomic data suggest that the strength of cardiac vagal activity causally determines our ability to exercise. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00041.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383634PMC
January 2019
7 Reads

Loss of Ovarian Hormones and Accelerated Somatic and Mental Aging.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 11;33(6):374-383

Women's Health Research Center, Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

Bilateral oophorectomy in premenopausal women is a unique condition causing the abrupt and premature loss of ovarian hormones, primarily estrogen. Bilateral oophorectomy causes an alteration of several fundamental aging processes at the cellular, tissue, organ, and system levels, leading to multimorbidity, frailty, and reduced survival. However, many questions remain unanswered. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00024.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
22 Reads

APS: Moving Forward to Aid Our Membership.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 11;33(6):370-371

Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00039.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Energy Constraint as a Novel Mechanism Linking Exercise and Health.

Authors:
Herman Pontzer

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 11;33(6):384-393

Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University , Durham, North Carolina.

Humans and other species adapt dynamically to changes in daily physical activity, maintaining total energy expenditure within a narrow range. Chronic exercise thus suppresses other physiological activity, including immunity, reproduction, and stress response. This exercise-induced downregulation improves health at moderate levels of physical activity but can be detrimental at extreme workloads. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00027.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Conflict and Compromise: Using Reversible Remodeling to Manage Competing Physiological Demands at the Fish Gill.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 11;33(6):412-422

Department of Biology, University of Ottawa , Ottawa, Ontario , Canada.

The structural features of the fish gill necessary for oxygen uptake also favor undesirable, passive movements of ions and water. Reversible gill remodeling is one solution to this conflict. Cell masses that limit functional surface area are lost when oxygen availability decreases in hypoxia or oxygen demand increases with exercise or high temperature. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/physiol.00031.2018
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00031.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
7 Reads

Physiology in Perspective: Understanding the Aging Process.

Authors:
Gary C Sieck

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 11;33(6):372-373

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00042.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

The Difference δ-Cells Make in Glucose Control.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 11;33(6):403-411

Department of Neurobiology, Physiology & Behavior, College of Biological Sciences, University of California , Davis, California.

The role of beta and α-cells to glucose control are established, but the physiological role of δ-cells is poorly understood. Delta-cells are ideally positioned within pancreatic islets to modulate insulin and glucagon secretion at their source. We review the evidence for a negative feedback loop between delta and β-cells that determines the blood glucose set point and suggest that local δ-cell-mediated feedback stabilizes glycemic control. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/physiol.00029.2018
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00029.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347098PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Progenitors and β-Like Cells for Type 1 Diabetes Treatment.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 11;33(6):394-402

Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, McEwen Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University Health Network , Toronto, Ontario , Canada.

In this review, we focus on the processes guiding human pancreas development and provide an update on methods to efficiently generate pancreatic progenitors (PPs) and β-like cells in vitro from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Furthermore, we assess the strengths and weaknesses of using PPs and β-like cell for cell replacement therapy for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes with respect to cell manufacturing, engrafting, functionality, and safety. Finally, we discuss the identification and use of specific cell surface markers to generate safer populations of PPs for clinical translation and to study the development of PPs in vivo and in vitro. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/physiol.00026.2018
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00026.2018DOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

Physiological Consequences of Coronary Arteriolar Dysfunction and Its Influence on Cardiovascular Disease.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 09;33(5):338-347

Cardiovascular Center, Medical College of Wisconsin , Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

To date, the major focus of diagnostic modalities and interventions to treat coronary artery disease has been the large epicardial vessels. Despite substantial data showing that microcirculatory dysfunction is a strong predictor of future adverse cardiovascular events, very little research has gone into developing techniques for in vivo diagnosis and therapeutic interventions to improve microcirculatory function. In this review, we will discuss the pathophysiology of coronary arteriolar dysfunction, define its prognostic implications, evaluate the diagnostic modalities available, and provide speculation on current and potential therapeutic opportunities. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00019.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230549PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Hypoxia Signaling in Vascular Homeostasis.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 09;33(5):328-337

Department of Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine , Chicago, Illinois.

Hypoxia signaling in the vasculature controls vascular permeability, inflammation, vascular growth, and repair of vascular injury. In this review, we summarize recent insights in this burgeoning field and highlight the importance of studying the heterogeneity of hypoxia responses among individual patients, distinct vascular beds, and even individual vascular cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00018.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230550PMC
September 2018
24 Reads

The Neurobiological Basis of Sleep and Sleep Disorders.

Authors:
William J Joiner

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 09;33(5):317-327

Department of Pharmacology, Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, Neurosciences Graduate Program, and Center for Circadian Biology, University of California San Diego , La Jolla, California.

The functions of sleep remain a mystery. Yet they must be important since sleep is highly conserved, and its chronic disruption is associated with various metabolic, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. This review will cover our evolving understanding of the mechanisms by which sleep is controlled and the complex relationship between sleep and disease states. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00013.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230548PMC
September 2018
2 Reads

Defining the Rhythmogenic Elements of Mammalian Breathing.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 09;33(5):302-316

Center for Integrative Brain Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, University of Washington School of Medicine , Seattle, Washington.

Breathing's remarkable ability to adapt to changes in metabolic, environmental, and behavioral demands stems from a complex integration of its rhythm-generating network within the wider nervous system. Yet, this integration complicates identification of its specific rhythmogenic elements. Based on principles learned from smaller rhythmic networks of invertebrates, we define criteria that identify rhythmogenic elements of the mammalian breathing network and discuss how they interact to produce robust, dynamic breathing. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00025.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230551PMC
September 2018
1 Read

Monogenic Intestinal Epithelium Defects and the Development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 09;33(5):360-369

Department of Paediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto , Toronto, Ontario , Canada ; and Department of Paediatrics and Biochemistry, SickKids Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center and Cell Biology Program, University of Toronto, The Hospital for Sick Children , Toronto, Ontario , Canada.

The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide, most notably in young children. The development of disease is a combination of several factors, including genetics, environment, the microbiota, and immune system. Recently, next-generation sequencing has allowed for the identification of novel genetic causes for intestinal disease, including pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00020.2018DOI Listing
September 2018
9 Reads

Oxidative Stress, Intrauterine Growth Restriction, and Developmental Programming of Type 2 Diabetes.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 09;33(5):348-359

Center for Research on Reproduction and Women's Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to reduced birth weight and the development of metabolic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress are commonly found in key tissues (pancreatic islets, liver, and skeletal muscle) of IUGR individuals. In this review, we explore the role of oxidative stress in IUGR-associated diabetes etiology. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00023.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230552PMC
September 2018
4 Reads

Physiology in Perspective: The Breath of Life.

Authors:
Gary C Sieck

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 09;33(5):300-301

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00032.2018DOI Listing
September 2018
1 Read

T Cells and Hypertension: Solved and Unsolved Mysteries Regarding the Female Rat.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 07;33(4):254-260

Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University , Washington, DC.

T-cell function in female animal models of hypertension is poorly understood since most research is conducted in males. Our findings in Dahl-salt-sensitive and Dahl salt-resistant rats support prior research showing sex-specific T-cell effects in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Further studies are needed to inform clinical studies in both sexes and to provide clues into immune mechanisms underlying susceptibility and resilience to developing hypertension and associated disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00011.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088140PMC
July 2018
1 Read

ORAI Channels as Potential Therapeutic Targets in Pulmonary Hypertension.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 07;33(4):261-268

INSERM, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux , Bordeaux , France.

Pulmonary hypertension is a complex and fatal disease that lacks treatments. Its pathophysiology involves pulmonary artery hyperreactivity, endothelial dysfunction, wall remodelling, inflammation, and thrombosis, which could all depend on ORAI Ca channels. We review the knowledge about ORAI channels in pulmonary artery and discuss the interest to target them in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/physiol.00016.2018
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00016.2018DOI Listing
July 2018
17 Reads

Physiology in Perspective: Physiology is Alive and Well.

Authors:
Gary C Sieck

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 07;33(4):252-253

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00022.2018DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Neurons and Glia in the Enteric Nervous System and Epithelial Barrier Function.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 07;33(4):269-280

IRSD, Université de Toulouse, INSERM, INRA, ENVT, UPS, Toulouse , France.

The intestinal epithelial barrier is the largest exchange surface between the body and the external environment. Its functions are regulated by luminal, and also internal, components including the enteric nervous system. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of the digestive "neuronal-glial-epithelial unit" on epithelial barrier function. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00009.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088142PMC
July 2018
2 Reads

Carotid Bodies and the Integrated Cardiorespiratory Response to Hypoxia.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 07;33(4):281-297

Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida , Tampa, Florida.

Advances in our understanding of brain mechanisms for the hypoxic ventilatory response, coordinated changes in blood pressure, and the long-term consequences of chronic intermittent hypoxia as in sleep apnea, such as hypertension and heart failure, are giving impetus to the search for therapies to "erase" dysfunctional memories distributed in the carotid bodies and central nervous system. We review current network models, open questions, sex differences, and implications for translational research. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00014.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088141PMC
July 2018
2 Reads

Dissecting the Meanings of "Physiology" to Assess the Vitality of the Discipline.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 07;33(4):236-245

ImmunoConcept, UMR5164, CNRS & University of Bordeaux , Bordeaux , France.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00015.2018DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

Consideration for Circadian Physiology in Rodent Research.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 07;33(4):250-251

Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00012.2018DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Central Dogma or Central Debate?

Authors:
Denis Noble

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 07;33(4):246-249

University of Oxford , Oxford , United Kingdom.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00017.2018DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Glucose Lowering Strategies for Cardiac Benefits: Pathophysiological Mechanisms.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 05;33(3):197-210

Leadership Sinai Centre for Diabetes, Mount Sinai Hospital , Toronto, Ontario , Canada.

Recent trials in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) have shown cardiovascular benefits with specific GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors. We discuss the landscape of outcome trials in T2D from a pathophysiology viewpoint, review current knowledge gaps in underlying mechanisms, propose a caloric fuel routing hypothesis, and highlight areas of future research. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00004.2018DOI Listing
May 2018
2 Reads

Impaired Autophagy in Motor Neurons: A Final Common Mechanism of Injury and Death.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 05;33(3):211-224

Department of Physiology & Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.

Autophagy is a cellular digestion process that contributes to cellular homeostasis and adaptation by the elimination of proteins and damaged organelles. Evidence suggests that dysregulation of autophagy plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases, including motor neuron disorders. Herein, we review emerging evidence indicating the roles of autophagy in physiological motor neuron processes and its function in specific compartments. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00008.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5966659PMC
May 2018
4 Reads

The Birth and Death of Platelets in Health and Disease.

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 05;33(3):225-234

Cell Biology Program, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children , Toronto, Ontario , Canada.

Blood platelets are involved in a wide range of physiological responses and pathological processes. Recent studies have considerably advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of platelet production and clearance, revealing new connections between the birth and death of these tiny, abundant cells. Key insights have also been gained into how physiological challenges such as inflammation, infection, and chemotherapy can affect megakaryocytes, the cells that produce platelets. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00005.2018DOI Listing
May 2018
1 Read

Is Adenosine Action Common Ground for NREM Sleep, Torpor, and Other Hypometabolic States?

Physiology (Bethesda) 2018 05;33(3):182-196

Department of Biology, Williams College , Williamstown, Massachusetts.

This review compares two states that lower energy expenditure: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and torpor. Knowledge on mechanisms common to these states, and particularly on the role of adenosine in NREM sleep, may ultimately open the possibility of inducing a synthetic torpor-like state in humans for medical applications and long-term space travel. To achieve this goal, it will be important, in perspective, to extend the study to other hypometabolic states, which, unlike torpor, can also be experienced by humans. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiol.00007.2018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5966658PMC
May 2018
1 Read