2,047,186 results match your criteria Physical review letters[Journal]


Insulin Pump Therapy - Influence on Body Fat Redistribution, Skeletal Muscle Mass and Ghrelin, Leptin Changes in T1D Patients.

Obes Facts 2018 Dec 11;11(6):454-464. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Clinic of Internal Medicine, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin (JFM CU), Comenius University in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Background: To report changes in body composition and biochemical parameters in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) after switching from multiple daily injection (MDI) to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).

Methods: 31 patients switched over from MDI to CSII. Body composition, biochemical parameters, glycaemic variability (GV) and level of physical activity were evaluated before and 6 months on CSII. Read More

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December 2018
6 Reads

The Effectiveness of a Virtual Reality-Based Tai Chi Exercise on Cognitive and Physical Function in Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2018 Dec 11;46(5-6):358-370. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Physical Therapy and Graduate Institute of Rehabilitation Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: Tai Chi (TC) is a Chinese mind-body exercise with proven physical and psychological benefits. A modified TC via virtual reality (VR) may be suitable for the elderly owing to the immediate guidance and feedback regarding movement accuracy. This study explored the cognitive and physical effects of a VR-based TC (VRTC) exercise program on older adults with cognitive impairment (CI). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Silurana Chromosomal Evolution: A New Piece to the Puzzle.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The African clawed frogs of the subgenus Silurana comprise both diploid and tetraploid species. The root of the polyploidization event leading to the extant Xenopus calcaratus, X. mellotropicalis, and X. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Cortisol Stress Reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test in Obese Adults.

Obes Facts 2018 Dec 11;11(6):491-500. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Objective: Approximately 600 million adults worldwide suffer from obesity. In addition to individual's eating behavior and lack of physical activity in the development of obesity and overweight, psychosocial stress as well as hormonal stress reactivity must also be considered as important contributing factors. In the current study we compared the cortisol stress response pathway in a psychosocial stress induction (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) with obese individuals and normal-weight controls. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Polymer spreading on substrates with nanoscale grooves using molecular dynamics.

Nanotechnology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, UNITED STATES.

Understanding how liquid polymer interacts with and spreads on surfaces with nanoscale texture features is crucial for designing complex nanoscale systems. We use molecular dynamics to simulate different types of polymer as they spread on substrates with a single nanoscale groove. We study how groove design affects the potential energy of a substrate and how this governs polymer spreading and orientation. Read More

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December 2018

Microfluidics for real-time direct monitoring of self- and co-assembly biomolecular processes.

Nanotechnology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, ISRAEL.

Molecular self-assembly is a major approach for the fabrication of functional supramolecular nanomaterials. This dynamic, straightforward, bottom-up procedure may result in the formation of various architectures at the nano-scale, with remarkable physical and chemical characteristics. Biological and bio-inspired building blocks are especially attractive due to their intrinsic tendency to assemble into layered well-organized structures, as well as their inherent biocompatibility. Read More

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December 2018

Piezoelectric barium titanate nanostimulators for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Dec 4;538:449-461. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Smart Bio-Interfaces, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Italy; Politecnico di Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy. Electronic address:

Major obstacles to the successful treatment of gliolastoma multiforme are mostly related to the acquired resistance to chemotherapy drugs and, after surgery, to the cancer recurrence in correspondence of residual microscopic foci. As innovative anticancer approach, low-intensity electric stimulation represents a physical treatment able to reduce multidrug resistance of cancer and to induce remarkable anti-proliferative effects by interfering with Ca and K homeostasis and by affecting the organization of the mitotic spindles. However, to preserve healthy cells, it is utterly important to direct the electric stimuli only to malignant cells. Read More

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December 2018

The association between Parkinson's disease symptom side-of-onset and performance on the MDS-UPDRS scale part IV: Motor complications.

J Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 4;396:262-265. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Emory School of Medicine, 1648 Pierce Dr. NE, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA; Atlanta VA Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, 1670 Clairmont Rd., Decatur, GA 30033, USA; Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Emory School of Medicine, 1648 Pierce Dr. NE, Atlanta, GA 30307, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition associated with aging characterized by loss of dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and a reduction in dopamine levels in the striatum. PD is commonly treated using dopamine-replacement medication called levodopa. Levodopa has decreasing efficacy over time. Read More

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December 2018

Brief reaching training with "sticky mittens" in preterm infants: Randomized controlled trial.

Hum Mov Sci 2018 Dec 8;63:138-147. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Physical Therapy Section, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine whether a brief reaching training with sticky mittens was effective to improve reaching behavior in newly reaching preterm infants.

Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, twenty four 5-month-old (±16-week-old corrected age) preterm infants were randomly allocated into experimental or control groups. Infants were assessed three times in a single session: pretraining (immediately before training), posttraining (immediately after training), and retention (4 min after the posttraining). Read More

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December 2018

Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence victimization: A meta-analysis.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 8;88:212-224. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institute of Psychology, Renmin University of China, No. 59 Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing, 100872, China. Electronic address:

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is a serious public health problem in the world. It is imperative to examine risk factors for IPV victimization.

Objective: This meta-analysis aimed to explore the relationship between childhood maltreatment (CM) and IPV victimization and investigate the moderating effects of gender and marital status. Read More

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December 2018

Abuse disclosures of youth with problem sexualized behaviors and trauma symptomology.

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 8;88:201-211. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, United States; The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, United States. Electronic address:

Background: The majority of youth with problem sexualized behaviors (PSB) have substantiated experiences of abuse or exposures to violence (Silovsky & Niec, 2002). Little is known about specific abuse experiences that may differentiate youth with PSB from those without. Few studies have examined the types of abuse associated with post-traumatic stress symptomology. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Cre-miR914-regulated RPL18 is involved with UV-B adaptation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

J Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 22;232:151-159. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Key Laboratory of Algal Biology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China. Electronic address:

UV radiation is a serious threat to life, and algae have developed highly efficient adaptations to UV radiation through the course of evolution. To date, studies investigating the mechanisms of UV adaptation in algae have focused on physiological regulation and associated protein coding genes, with only a few reports on associated protein non-coding genes. In a previous study, we found that Cre-miR914 was significantly down-regulated in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in response to heat shock. Read More

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November 2018

Mid-calf skeletal muscle density and its associations with physical activity, bone health and incident 12-month falls in older adults: The Healthy Ageing Initiative.

Bone 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Lower skeletal muscle density, indicating greater infiltration of adipose tissue into muscles, is associated with higher fracture risk in older adults. We aimed to determine whether mid-calf muscle density is associated with falls risk and bone health in community-dwelling older adults.

Methods: 2214 community-dwelling men and women who participated in the Healthy Ageing Initiative (Sweden) study at age 70 were included in this analysis. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Surgical Risk Stratification Based on Preoperative Risk Factors in Adult Spinal Deformity.

Spine J 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine; Keio Spine Research Group. Electronic address:

Background Context: Corrective surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD) improves health-related quality of life but has high complication rates. Predicting a patient's risk of perioperative and late postoperative complications is difficult, although several potential risk factors have been reported.

Purpose: To establish an accurate, ASD-specific model for predicting the risk of postoperative complications, based on baseline demographic, radiographic, and surgical invasiveness data in a retrospective case series. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Joint contractures and acquired deforming hypertonia in older people: Which determinants?

Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Medicine, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Ottawa, Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, ON, Canada.

Joint contractures and acquired deforming hypertonia are frequent in dependent older people. The consequences of these conditions can be significant for activities of daily living as well as comfort and quality of life. They can also negatively affect the burden of care and care costs. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Group Differences Among Caregivers of Civilians and Service Members or Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Objective: To examine group differences among caregivers of service members/veterans (SMVs) and civilians with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

Design: An observational research study examining the group differences between caregivers of SMVs and civilians with TBI. The data presented was collected as part of a larger study that calibrated and validated the TBI-CareQOL item banks. Read More

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December 2018

Protein S-glutathionylation: The linchpin for the transmission of regulatory information on redox buffering capacity in mitochondria.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Protein S-glutathionylation reactions are a ubiquitous oxidative modification required to control protein function in response to changes in redox buffering capacity. These reactions are rapid and reversible and are, for the most part, enzymatically mediated by glutaredoxins (GRX) and glutathione S-transferases (GST). Protein S-glutathionylation has been found to control a range of cell functions in response to different physiological cues. Read More

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December 2018

Concise Review: The Endothelial Cell Extracellular Matrix Regulates Tissue Homeostasis and Repair.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The Einthoven Laboratory for Vascular and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

All tissues are surrounded by a mixture of noncellular matrix components, that not only provide physical and mechanical support to cells, but also mediate biochemical signaling between cells. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of endothelial cells, also known as the perivascular matrix, forms an organ specific vascular niche that orchestrates mechano-, growth factor, and angiocrine signaling required for tissue homeostasis and organ repair. This concise review describes how this perivascular ECM functions as a signaling platform and how this knowledge can impact the field of regenerative medicine, for example, when designing artificial matrices or using decellularized scaffolds from organs. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Physical Chemistry in all its Diversity.

Chemphyschem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, ChemPhysChem, Boschstrasse 12, 69469, Weinheim, Germany.

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December 2018

Emerging Technologies for Low-Cost, Rapid Vaccine Manufacture.

Biotechnol J 2018 Nov 22:e1800376. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College London, London, UK.

To stop the spread of future epidemics and meet infant vaccination demands in low- and middle-income countries, flexible, rapid and low-cost vaccine development and manufacturing technologies are required. Vaccine development platform technologies that can produce a wide range of vaccines are emerging, including: a) humanized, high-yield yeast recombinant protein vaccines; b) insect cell-baculovirus ADDomer vaccines; c) Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) vaccines; d) RNA vaccines. Herein, existing and future platforms are assessed in terms of addressing challenges of scale, cost, and responsiveness. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Digital pathology is a practical alternative to on-site intra-operative frozen section diagnosis in thoracic surgery.

Histopathology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Thoracic Surgery, Bristol Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Telepathology uses digitised image transfer to allow off-site reporting of histopathology slides. This technology could facilitate the centralisation of pathology services, which may improve their quality and cost-effectiveness. The benefits may be most apparent in frozen section reporting, where turnaround times are vital. Read More

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December 2018

Physical activity energy expenditure and cardiometabolic health in three rural Kenyan populations.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Dec 10:e23199. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Objectives: Physical activity is beneficial for metabolic health but the extent to which this may differ by ethnicity is still unclear. Here, the objective was to characterize the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiometabolic risk among the Luo, Kamba, and Maasai ethnic groups of rural Kenya.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 1084 rural Kenyans, free-living PAEE was objectively measured using individually-calibrated heart rate and movement sensing. Read More

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December 2018

Validation of the Acetabulum As a Skeletal Indicator of Age at Death in Modern European-Americans.

J Forensic Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Anthropology, University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, Bldg. 13, Pensacola, FL, 32514.

Progressive changes in the acetabulum have been used in modern skeletal age estimation, but they have not been completely understood. If their age correlations are weakened by the influence of factors like physical activity and obesity, acetabular changes should not be used for age estimation. To investigate their utility for aging, the acetabular variables of Rissech et al. Read More

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December 2018

Virus genotyping by massive parallel amplicon sequencing: adenovirus and enterovirus in the Norwegian MIDIA study.

J Med Virol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Mental and Physical Health, Department of Chronic Diseases and Ageing, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.

Objectives: Direct genotyping of adenovirus or enterovirus from clinical material using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by Sanger sequencing is often difficult due to the presence of multiple virus types in a sample, or due to varying efficacy of PCR amplifying the capsid gene on the background of foreign nucleic acids. Here we present a simple protocol for virus genotyping using massive parallel amplicon sequencing.

Methods: The protocol utilized a set of 16 tailed degenerate primers flanking the seventh hypervariable region of the adenovirus hexon gene and 9 tailed degenerate primers targeted to the proximal portion of the enterovirus VP1 gene. Read More

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December 2018

Effectiveness of self-management program in people with chronic kidney disease: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

J Adv Nurs 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Nursing, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Australia.

Aims: To examine the effectiveness of a self-management intervention compared with usual care in adults with chronic kidney disease on self-management, knowledge, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life and blood pressure.

Design: A parallel group randomized controlled trial.

Methods: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with chronic kidney disease stages 3-5 were recruited between November 2015 - June 2016. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Food intolerance in dogs and cats.

Authors:
J M Craig

J Small Anim Pract 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Re-Fur-All Referrals, Newbury, Berkshire, UK.

Food intolerance refers to any abnormal physiological response to a food or food additive, believed not to be immunological in nature. Mechanisms include food toxicity, pharmacological reactions, metabolic reactions, dysmotility, dysbiosis, physical effects and non-specific dietary sensitivity. Food intolerance reactions are variable, typically dose-dependent, and can occur at any age. Read More

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December 2018
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Sleep condition and cognitive decline in Japanese community-dwelling older people: Data from a 4-year longitudinal study.

J Sleep Res 2018 Dec 9:e12803. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Preventive Gerontology, Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Japan.

This study examined whether sleep duration and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) are related to cognitive decline among community-dwelling older adults with intact cognition at baseline, using 4-year longitudinal data. A total of 3,151 community-dwelling older individuals aged ≥65 years were studied. They were assessed for cognitive function, including memory, attention, executive function and processing speed. Read More

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December 2018

Human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7)-associated dermatoses: novel molecular mechanism driven by viral activation of 4E-BP1 and MEK-ERK-cJun.

Int J Dermatol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX, USA.

A number of pruritic skin conditions arising in immunocompromised patients are associated with viral infection. Recently, human polyomavirus 7 (HPyV7) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of eruptive pruritic parakeratotic and dyskeratotic dermatoses with distinct "peacock plumage" histology. While expression of HPyV7 viral protein, namely small tumor (sT) antigen, is prominent within lesional tissue, the functional role of HPyV7 in cutaneous pathobiology is not yet known. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Determination of the Minimal Important Change in the Life-Space Assessment.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Background/objectives: The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Life-Space Assessment (LSA) is a widely used measure of community mobility. To assist clinicians and researchers with assessing the significance of changes in scores, we determined the minimal important change associated with a change in health status.

Setting: Homes of community-dwelling older adults. Read More

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December 2018

Interleukin-10 responses from acute exercise in healthy subjects: A systematic review.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Exercise and Immunometabolism Research Group, Postgraduation Program in Movement Sciences, Department of Physical Education, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil.

Purpose: Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine that plays a critical role with potent anti-inflammatory properties when produced during exercise, limiting host immune response to pathogens and preventing tissue damage. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the response of IL-10 after acute exercise session in healthy adults.

Methods: Databases of Ovid Medline (1978-2016), CINAHL (1998-2016), EMBASE (2003-2016), SportDiscus (1990-2016), and Web of Science library (1990-2016) were carefully screened. Read More

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December 2018

Reply to "Comments on the TRS-483 Protocol on Small field Dosimetry" [Med. Phys. 45(12), 5666-5668 (2018)].

Med Phys 2018 Dec;45(12):5669-5671

Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400, Vienna, Austria.

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December 2018

Psychological stress effects on myelin degradation in the cuprizone-induced model of demyelination.

Neuropathology 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is known as the most common demyelinating disease worldwide in which previous studies have shown that stress is a risk factor for the disease's onset and progression. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to investigate the consequences of stress in MS pathology. In this study, after 5 days of exposure to psychological and physical stress as a repetitive distress modality, rats were treated with cuprizone. Read More

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December 2018

Health-related behaviours of nurses and other healthcare professionals: a cross-sectional study using the scottish health survey.

J Adv Nurs 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Health & Social Care, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, EH11 4BN, Scotland, UK.

Aims: To estimate the prevalence and co-occurrence of health-related behaviours among nurses in Scotland relative to other healthcare workers and those in non-healthcare occupations.

Design: Secondary analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional data, reported following STROBE guidelines.

Methods: Five rounds (2008-2012) of the Scottish Health Survey were aggregated to estimate the prevalence and co-occurrence of health-related behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake). Read More

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December 2018

Azide Passivation of Black Phosphorus Nanosheets: Covalent Functionalization Affords Ambient Stability Enhancement.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of Science and Technology of China, CHINA.

Two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP) has been attracting ever-growing interest due to its unique band structure, but suffers from low ambient stability owing to its high reactivity to oxygen. Covalent functionalization has been demonstrated to passivate the reactive BP effectively, however the reported covalent functionalization methods are quite limited to aryl diazonium and nucleophilic additions affording P-C and P-O-C single bonds, for which the retaining of one unpaired electron in the Group-VA phosphorus atom hampers the passivation effect. Herein, we report for the first time covalent azide functionalization of BP nanosheets (BPNSs), leading to significant enhancement of the ambient stability of BP as confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopic studies. Read More

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December 2018

Cis-trans proline isomers in the catalytic domain of calcineurin.

FEBS J 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

BioNMR Laboratory, Inorganic and Organic Chemistry Department, University of Barcelona, Baldiri Reixac 10-12, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

Calcineurin is an essential calcium activated serine/threonine phosphatase. The six NMR-observable methionine methyl groups in the catalytic domain of human calcineurin Aα (CNA) were assigned and used as reporters of the presence of potential cis-trans isomers in solution. Proline 84 is found in the cis conformation in most calcineurin X-ray structures, and proline 309, which is part of a highly conserved motif in phosphoprotein phosphatases, was modeled with a cis-peptide bond in one of the two molecules present in the asymmetric unit of CNA. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Incidence, severity, longitudinal trends and predictors of acute and chronic oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy in Taiwanese patients with colorectal cancer.

Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) 2018 Dec 10:e12976. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Lin-Ko, Taiwan.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal incidence, severity, pattern of changes or predictors of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OXAIPN) in Taiwanese patients with colorectal cancer. A longitudinal repeated measures study design was employed, and 77 participants were recruited from the colorectal and oncology departments of two teaching medical centres in Taiwan. Physical examinations were performed, and self-reports regarding adverse impacts of OXAIPN and quality of life were obtained at five time points throughout 12 cycles of chemotherapy (C/T). Read More

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December 2018

A bias of self-reports among repressors: Examining the evidence for the validity of self-relevant and health-relevant personal reports.

Int J Psychol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

Studies have shown that repressors tend to respond to self-report tools in a positive fashion which distorts the findings of studies based on questionnaires. The present study aimed to examine the way repressors respond to "Self-relevant" scales (which assess variables related to adaptive self-function) in comparison to "Health-relevant" scales (which assess physical and psychological health). Iranian university students (N = 271) responded to the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (to differentiate between repressors and self-assured individuals), Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale, Self-control Scale, Integrative Self-knowledge Scale and Self-compassion Scale (to measure self-relevant variables), Bartone Symptoms checklist and the Depression and Anxiety Subscales of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Subscale (DASS-21) (to measure health-relevant variables). Read More

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December 2018

The UzcRS two-component system in Caulobacter crescentus integrates regulatory input from diverse auxiliary regulators.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, USA.

The UzcRS two-component system in Caulobacter crescentus mediates widespread transcriptional activation in response to the metals U, Zn and Cu. Unexpectedly, a screen for mutations that affected the activity of the UzcR-regulated urcA promoter (P ) revealed four previously uncharacterized proteins whose inactivation led to metal-independent induction of P . Using molecular genetics and functional genomics, we find that these auxiliary regulators control P expression by modulating the activity of UzcRS through distinct mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Social capital: Implications for neurology.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 8:e01169. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, London, UK.

Social capital (SC) is a broad term that encompasses the many resources derived from social connections. The contemporary study of SC in public health has deep roots in the related fields of sociology, economics, and politics. Its multidisciplinary nature and the varying potential ways it could affect individuals have resulted in different but overlapping models to approach SC in the health field. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Near IR Photochemistry for Biology: Exploiting the Optical Window of Tissue.

Photochem Photobiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Photoactive molecules enable much of modern biology and biochemistry - a vast library of fluorescent chromophores is used to track and label cellular structures and macromolecules. However, photochemistry is better-known to the synthetic or physical organic chemist as a "light switch" that turns on unusual excited-state reactivity, isomerization, or dynamic adjustment of structure. This review details a rapidly growing approach to bio-photochemistry that uses low-energy near-IR wavelengths not only for imaging, but for close spatial control over chemical switching events in biosystems. Read More

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December 2018

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Home Transitions Multidisciplinary Care Coordination Reduces Readmissions for Older Adults.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Community Provider Services, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Objectives: To compare rates of 30- and 90-day hospital readmissions and observation or emergency department (ED) returns of older adults using the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Health Plan Home Transitions (HT) with those of Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) controls without HT.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Analysis of home health and hospital records from 8 UPMC hospitals in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, from July 1, 2015, to April 30, 2017. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Physical exercise and non-insulin glucose-lowering therapies in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a clinical review.

Diabet Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Diabetes Research Group, Swansea University, Medical School, Swansea, UK.

In the UK the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) advocates intensive lifestyle programmes that attain the levels of daily physical activity set out by the Chief Medical Officer as a first-line strategy for improving the health of people at risk of developing diabetes or reducing the risk of development of Type 2 diabetes. For people with Type 2 diabetes, lifestyle measures complement pharmacological treatments that include both oral and injectable therapies. In line with this, NICE guidelines also support intensification of efforts to improve patient lifestyle along with these glucose-lowering therapies. Read More

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December 2018

Chilling and forcing temperatures interact to predict the onset of wood formation in Northern Hemisphere conifers.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Université de Lorraine, AgroParisTech, INRA, Silva, F-54000, Nancy, France.

The phenology of wood formation is a critical process to consider for predicting how trees from the temperate and boreal zones may react to climate change. Compared to leaf phenology, however, the determinism of wood phenology is still poorly known. Here, we compared for the first time three alternative ecophysiological model classes (threshold models, heat-sum models and chilling-influenced heat-sum models) and an empirical model in their ability to predict the starting date of xylem cell enlargement in spring, for four major Northern Hemisphere conifers (Larix decidua, Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Picea mariana). Read More

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December 2018

Body mass index and parasympathetic nervous system reactivity and recovery following graded exercise.

Am J Hum Biol 2018 Dec 10:e23208. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Objectives: The present study sought to expand upon prior investigations examining patterns of vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and perceived exertion as a function of body mass index (BMI) in response to and recovery from exercise.

Methods: Participants underwent a resting (baseline) period, followed by a graded exercise protocol on an ergometer with ascending difficulty stages, and finally another resting (recovery) period. Individuals were stratified into three BMI groups: low, moderate, and high. Read More

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December 2018

Voxel-wise correlation of PET/CT with multiparametric MRI and histology of the prostate using a sophisticated registration framework.

BJU Int 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objectives: To develop a registration framework for correlating positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) and histology of the prostate, thereby enabling voxel-wise analysis of imaging parameters.

Patients And Methods: In this prospective proof-of-concept study, nine patients scheduled for radical prostatectomy underwent mpMRI and PET/CT imaging prior to surgery. One had PET imaging using F-fluoromethylcholine (FCH), five using Ga-labelled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-HBED-CC (PMSA-11) and three using a trial Ga-labelled THP-PSMA tracer. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Validation and investigation of reactive species yields of Geant4-DNA chemistry models.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Physics, University of Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Purpose: Indirect biological damage due to reactive species produced in water radiolysis reactions is responsible for the majority of biological effect for low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. Modelling water radiolysis and the subsequent interactions of reactive species, as well as track structures, is essential to model radiobiology on the microscale. Recently, chemistry models have been developed for Geant4-DNA to be used in combination with the comprehensive existing physics models. Read More

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December 2018

Sowing social inclusion for marginalised residents of a social housing development through a community garden.

Health Promot J Austr 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Health and Social Development, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Aim: In addition to food, physical activity, mental health and environmental benefits, community gardens (CGs) provide opportunities for social inclusion and increased social capital. These are particularly important to the socially isolated residents of Social Housing Developments (SHD). This scoping study explored the feasibility of a CG program for tenants of social housing development in inner eastern Melbourne by assessing their interest in, and requirements for, inclusively designed CGs. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Bottom-up trait-mediated indirect effects decrease pathogen transmission in a tritrophic system.

Authors:
Bret D Elderd

Ecology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 70803, USA.

A plant's induction of secondary defenses helps to decrease herbivore damage by changing resource quality. While these chemical or physical defenses may directly decrease herbivory, they can also have indirect consequences. In a tritrophic system consisting of a plant, an insect herbivore, and an insect pathogen, plant based trait-mediated indirect effects (TMIEs) can alter host-pathogen interactions and, thereby, indirectly affect disease transmission. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of short-term endurance exercise on gut microbiota in elderly men.

Physiol Rep 2018 Dec;6(23):e13935

Institute of Advanced Active Aging Research, Tokorozawa, Japan.

Regular exercise reduces the risks for cardiovascular diseases. Although the gut microbiota has been associated with fitness level and cardiometabolic risk factors, the effects of exercise-induced gut microbiota changes in elderly individuals are unclear. This study evaluated whether endurance exercise modulates the gut microbiota in elderly subjects, and whether these changes are associated with host cardiometabolic phenotypes. Read More

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December 2018
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Does a bounding exercise program prevent hamstring injuries in adult male soccer players? - A cluster -RCT.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Utrecht University, University Medical Center Utrecht, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neurosciences, Department Rehabilitation, Physical Therapy Science & Sports, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Although the Nordic Hamstring Exercise (NHE) prevents hamstring injury in soccer players effectively, the annual incidence of these injuries still increases. This may be because of poor long-term compliance with the program. Furthermore, the timing and amplitude of gluteal and core muscle activation seem to play an important role in hamstring injury prevention, the NHE program was not designed to improve activation of these muscles. Read More

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December 2018
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