Dermatologists treat actinic keratosis (AK) primarily because these lesions have the potential to progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Patients, on the other hand, generally seek treatment to remove the lesions and achieve an improved appearance of their skin following treatment. In selecting a treatment option for AK, dermatologists should consider post-treatment cosmesis, because cosmetic outcomes differ across AK treatments. Read More
"Fractionated photodynamic therapy (PDT)" is a new term being used by dermatologists to describe advances in PDT technology including fractionated light or the adjuvant use of fractional lasers. Although dermatologists have used PDT since the early 1990s for the treatment of photodamage and precancerous lesions, newer developments in technology have allowed for the treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs), in ammatory disorders, and even uses in the eld of anti-aging. Recent developments in fractionated light therapy have allowed for PDT with dark intervals and two-fold illumination schemes to increase cellular damage and apoptosis. Read More
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser in penetrating tissue and targeting the fungal overgrowth in the nail plate.
Background: Onychomycosis is the most frequent nail disorder. Current treatments include oral and topical antifungal agents, photodynamic therapy, and surgical approaches such as mechanical, chemical, or surgical nail avulsion. Read More
Actinic keratosis (AK) is a chronic skin disease in which multiple clinical and subclinical lesions co-exist across large areas of sun-exposed skin, resulting in field cancerisation. Lesions require treatment because of their potential to transform into invasive squamous cell carcinoma. This article aims to provide office-based dermatologists and general practitioners with simple guidance on AK treatment in daily clinical practice to supplement existing evidence-based guidelines. Read More
Drugs with side effects affecting vision are often used in the treatment of skin disorders. The study evaluated principal groups of medicines which may negatively influence vision and the eye itself. Antimalaric drugs may cause a number of disorders of vision and a diagnosed retinophaty is an absolute contraindication. Read More
Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally destructive form of skin cancer, mainly affecting Caucasians. In the last few years non-surgical treatments of BCC have become widely used and non-invasive methods for treatment monitoring and follow-up are therefore becoming increasingly warranted. The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of adjunct use of non-invasive optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging for the detection of recurrent BCC over clinical and dermoscopic examination alone, in a real-world setting. Read More
Introduction: Acne, a disease of pilosebaceous unit, is a common dermatologic disorder affecting about 80%-95% of people in both genders in adulthood. The available treatment options are conventional topical and/or oral medications, which are associated with adverse effects, partial response only, contraindications and reoccurrences. This necessitates the need for the introduction of novel treatment for improving acne lesions. Read More
Acne vulgaris is an extremely common skin condition. It often leads to negative psychological consequences. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using intense pulsed light has been introduced for effective treatment of acne. Read More
Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is an acquired benign vascular tumor of unknown etiology. In the present case report, PG was detected in a 49-year-old Chinese male patient with chronic plaque psoriasis. The psoriasis lesions on the finger where the granuloma had developed had been scratched excessively, as declared by the patient. Read More
Conventional PDT (c-PDT) is a widely used and approved non-invasive treatment for actinic keratosis (AK). Recent clinical, histological and immunohistochemical observations have shown that c-PDT with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) may also partially reverse the signs of photodamage. However, pain and the need for special light source equipment are limiting factors for its use, especially in the treatment of large areas. Read More
Although conventional photodynamic therapy (c-PDT) using methyl aminolevulinate cream (MAL) is effective for the treatment of grade I-II facial and scalp actinic keratosis (AK), it is associated with treatment-related pain for some patients. Daylight-mediated PDT (DL-PDT) has shown similar efficacy to c-PDT, was nearly painless, and was well tolerated. Overall, DL-PDT effectively treats AK and offers a simpler and better tolerated treatment option than c-PDT. Read More
Biological effect of a visible light depends on extend of its property to penetrate into the tissues: the greater is a wavelength the more is an effect of a radiation. An impact of a visible light on the skin is evident by wave and quantum effects. Quanta of a visible radiation carry more energy than infrared radiation, although an influence of such radiation on the skin is produced by the light spectrum on the boarder of the ultraviolet and the infrared rays and is manifested by thermal and chemical effects. Read More
Objectives: The incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) is increasing, and several treatment options are available. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and treatment patterns in patients with AK treated by Danish dermatologists.
Methods: A multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional study was conducted. Read More
Porokeratosis is an uncommon disorder that affects keratinization. Immunosuppression may favor the development of porokeratotic lesions. Patients who receive allogenic transplants represent a therapeutic challenge to dermatologists. Read More
Introduction: Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new type of PDT that is as effective as conventional PDT in grade 1 and 2 actinic keratosis but with fewer adverse effects, resulting in greater efficiency. The climatic conditions in the Iberian Peninsula require an appropriately adapted consensus protocol.
Objective: We describe a protocol for the treatment of grade 1 and 2 actinic keratosis with daylight-mediated PDT and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) adapted to the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Spanish and Portuguese patients and the climatic conditions of both countries. Read More
Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally destructive form of skin cancer, mainly affecting Caucasians. There are multiple treatment options for BCC, with excisional surgery being most widely used. Choice of treatment may be dependent on clinical guidelines, local therapeutic traditions, and/or personal experience. Read More
Introduction: Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy has been shown to be an effective therapy for actinic keratoses (AKs) and a simple and tolerable treatment procedure in three randomized Scandinavian studies and two recent Phase III randomized controlled studies in Australia and Europe.
Objectives: To establish consensus recommendations for the use of daylight photodynamic therapy (DL-PDT) using topical methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) in European patients with AKs.
Methods: The DL-PDT consensus recommendations were developed on behalf of the European Society for Photodynamic Therapy in Dermatology and comprised of 10 dermatologists from different European countries with experience in how to treat AK patients with PDT. Read More
Background: The aim of these guidelines is to review the available published literature regarding the effectiveness of phototherapy and photochemotherapy in atopic dermatitis and put forward recommendations regarding their use in atopic dermatitis.
Materials And Methods: A literature search was performed to collect data from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library published till March 2014. Keywords used were "phototherapy", "photochemotherapy", "NB-UVB", "BBUVB", "PUVA", "UVA1", "atopic dermatitis", and "atopic eczema". Read More
The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including actinic keratosis (AK), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Bowen's Disease (BD) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), is increasing. UVA and UVB radiation lead to genetic alterations in keratinocytes, which eventually result in skin cancer. In the concept of field cancerization of the skin, genetically altered keratinocytes accumulate over an area exposed to UV radiation. Read More
Background: Lmax, the maximum lesion count during treatment, is a new concept for evaluating the efficacy of field-directed treatments for actinic keratosis (AK) against clinical and subclinical lesions. Imiquimod 3.75% is a field-directed AK treatment, which can detect and clear clinical and subclinical lesions across an entire sun-exposed field such as the full face or balding scalp. Read More
Phototherapy with photochemotherapy (PUVA) is a well-known and well-studied modality for the treatment of psoriasis, which involves systemic or topical administration of chemicals known as psoralens and administration of ultraviolet light in increasing dosages after requisite time gap. PUVA is also used in the treatment of widespread vitiligo with moderately good results, though it is being surpassed by ultraviolet B (UVB), which is equally or slightly more efficacious with fewer side effects. PUVA induces repigmentation by varying mechanisms such as stimulation of melanogenesis, immunomodulation and activation of growth factors, though the exact mechanism is still speculative. Read More
Background And Aims: Photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) is effective therapy for acne vulgaris; however, relatively strong side effects limit its wide usage. We have previously demonstrated that ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX distribution with lower concentrations and shorter contact time of ALA resulted in focused damage in sebaceous glands in vivo. We have formulated a protocol for ALA-PDT using 5% ALA with 2 hours contact time. Read More
Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory dermatosis with a characteristic location (85-98%) in the anogenital region. The authors point out the main features in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of the disease and the possible approach to neoplastic development. Expanded differential diagnosis of LS sparked not only dermatologists but also gynecologists, urologists and GPs. Read More
Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with intense pulsed light (IPL) was proven effective for photorejuvenation. Recently, a new formulation of 0.5% 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) liposomal spray has been available. Read More
Aim: We report concerns toward prescription adherence and treatment effectiveness in the clinical management of actinic keratosis (AK) in Italy.
Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional web-based survey among Italian dermatologists across Italy. Physicians were asked to answer a self-administered questionnaire about their concerns around AK therapy and barriers to patients' adherence. Read More
Aim: We report dermatologists' opinions and clinical practice patterns about clinical factors driving decision making in the management of actinic keratosis (AK) in Italy.
Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional survey among 33 Italian dermatologists. Physicians were asked to report their management choices in consecutive patients with AK seen at their practice within 2 weeks since study initiation. Read More
Background: European guidelines for the management of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) prepared by the former BCC subcommittee of the Guidelines Committee of the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) were published in 2006.
Objectives: To present updated guidelines that include consensual expert definitions on various BCC types, prognosis and risk factors for BCC as well as review recommendations for diagnosis and treatment reflecting current published evidence.
Methods: These guidelines (S1 type) were prepared by the new BCC subgroup of the European Dermatology Forum (EDF)'s Guidelines Committee through extensive literature review (up to 2012) and expert experience; they were extensively discussed within the EDF subcommittee and approved by peer reviewers of the EDF. Read More
Usually solar keratoses (SK) are diagnosed clinically. However other diseases may clinically present as erythematous macules, papules or patches on sun-exposed areas; therefore the histopathology remains the gold standard diagnostic tool. Our study, which assessed the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT), showed that one in 20 clinically diagnosed SK lesions grade I-II identified by board-certified dermatologists were rosacea and only one in 40 were malignant lesions. Read More
Perioral dermatitis is a common acneiform facial eruption found in both adults and children. Its variants are periorificial and granulomatous periorificial dermatitis. The etiology of perioral dermatitis remains unknown; however, topical corticosteroid use on the face commonly precedes the manifestation of this condition. Read More
Background: Actinic keratoses (AK) are common photo-induced cutaneous lesions that may progress to invasive squamous-cell carcinoma and serve as a risk marker for skin cancer. Although numerous studies present the various therapeutic options for AK, publications that can be used to pragmatically guide dermatologists in their daily practice are limited. National and international guidelines have been published, however, they are based on clinical trials with highly selected patient populations and do not always capture the range of patients seen in everyday practice. Read More
Introduction: Photoallergic and phototoxic medications continue to be an important concern for dermatologists. In the last 5 years, the list of phototoxic and photoallergic medications has expanded, as well as the testing tools used to screen for potential allergy. Currently available testing methods include the photoprick, photoscratch and illuminated intracutaneous tests. Read More
Part two of this review series evaluates the use of lasers and laser-like devices in dermatology based on published evidence and the collective experience of the senior authors. Dermatologists can laser-treat a wide range of dermatoses, including vascular, pigmentary, textural, benign proliferative and premalignant conditions. Some of these conditions include vascular malformation, haemangioma, facial telangiectases, café-au-lait macules, naevi of Ota, lentigines, acne scarring, rhytides, rhinophyma and miscellaneous skin lesions. Read More
Objective: To determine whether field photodynamic therapy (PDT) of actinic keratoses (AKs) using a novel preparation of 5-aminolevulonic acid (ALA) would result in fewer subsequent invasive skin cancers developing on the face.
Design: A prospective multi-center randomized controlled trial. The protocol was approved by the Bond University Human Research Ethics Committee in accord with the TGA's Clinical Trial Notification Scheme. Read More
Actinic (solar) keratoses (AK) have the potential for malignant transformation and are the second most common diagnosis in dermatologic practices. No well-established clinical criteria are available to determine which AK are more likely to undergo malignant transformation; therefore, many dermatologists utilize field-directed approaches to treat all visible and subclinical AK on an affected skin surface. Current topical therapeutic agents require lengthy treatment regimens and are less well tolerated than many newer and investigational agents. Read More
Background: Patients with Gorlin syndrome develop multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCC), for which treatment is often difficult. Methylaminolevulinate-photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) is approved for the treatment of superficial and nodular BCCs in Canada and several European countries.
Objectives: To establish consensus recommendations for the use of MAL-PDT in patients with Gorlin syndrome. Read More
Background: Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are often seen by general practitioners, plastic surgeons, and dermatologists in the outpatient setting. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and CO2 laser when used as monotherapy have been successfully used to treat small BCC, with greatest success in the superficial histological subtype but have limitations compared to surgical excision due to a limited depth of penetration of PDT (2 mm absorption) limiting efficacy. We describe our experience of dual-modality treatment improving efficacy, cosmetic outcomes, and minimizing recurrence. Read More
Background: Sebaceous hyperplasia is a common benign proliferation of sebaceous glands. Multiple treatment methods have been applied in the past, including electrodessication, ablative and visible light lasers, applications of acids, and photodynamic therapy. Often, however, only the superficial component of the lesion is treated, leading to rapid recurrence. Read More
Introduction: Actinic keratosis (AK) represents the initial intraepidermal manifestation of abnormal keratinocyte proliferation, with the potential of progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Few visible AKs lead to the use of lesion-directed treatments, including ablative and/or surgical procedures. Multiple and/or the suspicion of subclinical (non-visible) AKs lead to the use of field-directed therapies, including topical and ablative treatments. Read More
Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequently occurring cancer in humans. Worldwide incidences rise about 10% each year, increasing the burden on dermatologists, general practitioners and pathologists as well as increasing costs for the health care system. Increasingly non-surgical treatment options are used in the treatment of BCC, without histological confirmation of BCC subtype, potentially resulting in under-treatment. Read More
Dermatologists encounter a wide range of cutaneous vascular lesions, including infantile hemangiomas, port-wine stain birthmarks, arteriovenous malformations, venous malformations, Kaposi sarcomas, angiosarcomas, and angiofibromas. Current treatment modalities to reduce these lesions include topical and/or intralesional steroids, laser therapy, surgical resection, and endovascular therapy. However, each method has limitations owing to recurrence, comorbidities, toxicity, or lesion location. Read More
Background: Oral 8-methoxypsoralen-UV-A (PUVA) and Narrowband UV-B (NB-UVB or UVB TL-01) are well established treatments for chronic plaque psoriasis but there is limited evidence regarding their respective efficacy.
Objectives: To prepare for evidence-based recommendations concerning the practical use of oral 8-methoxypsoralen-UV-A and Narrowband UV-B in psoriasis, a systematic review to assess respective response rates, remission duration and predictive factors of efficacy was performed.
Methods: A systematic search was carried out in PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases, using the key words 'Psoriasis', 'UVB therapy', 'UVA therapy' for the period from 1980 to December 2010. Read More
The management of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) in solid organ transplant recipients (OTRs) presents a variety of clinical challenges for physicians. OTRs are at a 65-fold increased risk for developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), the most common NMSC that develops after transplantation. Risk factors contributing to the development of NMSCs in OTRs include a past medical history of any previous skin cancer, a personal history of significant sun exposure and a fair skin complexion or phototype. Read More
Background: Management of facial extensive recurrent basal cell carcinoma can be a challenge for dermatologists. Although the preferred technique is usually Mohs surgery, sometimes the patient's condition or predicted aggressive surgery make other options advisable.
Methods: We describe a case of a giant recurrent basal cell carcinoma in the face of an old woman successfully treated by combined therapy with MAL-photodynamic therapy and topical 5%. Read More
Porokeratosis of Mibelli is an uncommon chronic disorder of epidermal keratinization that should be treated because it can undergo malignant change into epithelial tumors on the lesions. At the moment, it represents a therapeutic challenge for dermatologists because of the lack of standardized guidelines about the treatment. Herein, we report a case of classic porokeratosis of Mibelli treated with photodynamic therapy successfully. Read More
Spontaneous remission occurs in up to 80% of patients with limited patchy alopecia areata (AA) within 1 year. Therefore, not all patients of AA simplex/multiplex need extensive treatments, and "wait and see" is one of the choices for some patients. However, once the hair loss show progressive course, it is really difficult to manage well and may be recalcitrant to any treatment in some cases. Read More
Photodynamic therapy and imiquimod are highly regarded treatments dermatologists frequently prescribe for actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinoma, and Bowen disease. The scarcity of evidence from comparative trials prevents us from drawing well-founded conclusions about the efficacy, tolerance, and adverse effects of these therapeutic options or to recommend one over the other in any particular type of lesion or patient. On the other hand, in certain conditions (eg, actinic chelitis, immunosuppression, and basal cell carcinoma affecting the eyelids), there is evidence to support the use of photodynamic therapy or imiquimod even though they might initially seem contraindicated. Read More