12,272 results match your criteria Phobic Disorders


Life satisfaction in persons with mental disorders.

Qual Life Res 2020 Jun 16. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Life satisfaction refers to a cognitive and global evaluation of the quality of one's life as a whole. The arguably most often used measure of life satisfaction is the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Persons with mental disorders generally report lower SWLS scores than healthy controls, yet there is a lack of studies that have compared different diagnostic groups, tested measurement invariance of the SWLS across these groups, and examined effects of treatment on life satisfaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02556-9DOI Listing

Psychometric testing of a short form, 11-item Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-Arabic version: TSK-AV-11.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(24):e20292

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, the University of Jordan, Jordan.

To examine the psychometric properties of a short form TSK-AV in Arabic-speaking patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP).One hundred one CLBP patients recruited from Jordan University Hospital provided demographic information and completed the TSK-AV full version and measures of pain severity and disability. Explorative factor analysis was used to determine whether a generally accepted 2-factor model consisting of fewer TSK items applies to the TSK-AV and exhibits acceptable psychometric properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302674PMC

Electrochemical energy, primordial feelings and feelings of knowing (FOK): Mindfulness-based intervention for interoceptive experience related to phobic and anxiety disorders.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Jun 1;144:109909. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

IEEE Piscataway, 424Avenida De Jose, Redondo Beach, CA 90277, United States. Electronic address:

This article presents a hypothesis that primordial feelings (e.g., pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral) may be created by the cognizing and categorizing of brain electrochemical activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109909DOI Listing

Dose Timing of D-Cycloserine to Augment Exposure Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 Jun 1;3(6):e206777. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Findings suggest that the efficacy of D-cycloserine (DCS) for enhancing exposure therapy may be strongest when administered after sessions marked by low fear at the conclusion of exposure practice. These findings have prompted investigation of DCS dosing tailored to results of exposure sessions.

Objective: To compare tailored postsession DCS administration with presession DCS administration, postsession DCS administration, and placebo augmentation of exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.6777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273198PMC

Psychological status and behavior changes of the public during the COVID-19 epidemic in China.

Infect Dis Poverty 2020 May 29;9(1):58. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China.

Background: A cluster of pneumonia cases were reported by Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, China in December 2019. A novel coronavirus was eventually identified, and became the COVID-19 epidemic that affected public health and life. We investigated the psychological status and behavior changes of the general public in China from January 30 to February 3, 2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-020-00678-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256340PMC

Querulant delusion and post-traumatic embitterment disorder.

Authors:
Michael Linden

Int Rev Psychiatry 2020 May 19:1-7. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Injustice, breach of trust, and humiliation are social stressors which can result in embitterment, known to everybody and which has been described in the Bible (Cain and Abel) or by Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics. It has been discussed by several authors since the early days of psychiatric classification. In the textbook 'Psychiatry' by E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2020.1747410DOI Listing

Fear in the context of pain: Lessons learned from 100 years of fear conditioning research.

Authors:
Ann Meulders

Behav Res Ther 2020 Aug 30;131:103635. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Research Group Health Psychology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Experimental Health Psychology, Department of Clinical Psychological Science, Maastricht University, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Human fear conditioning research since Watson's case study on "Little Albert" has vastly evolved and its impact today is reaching far beyond phobic anxiety. This review focuses on how fear conditioning research, mainly using exteroceptive conditioned stimuli (CSs) and aversive, non-noxious stimuli as unconditioned stimuli (USs), has been extended and translated to chronic pain research. We describe the different pain-related fear conditioning paradigms using proprioceptive and interoceptive CSs and painful stimuli as USs that have been developed to study specific forms of pain-related fear (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103635DOI Listing

Evaluation of types of psychological disorders in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD).

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Jul 4;42:102128. Epub 2020 May 4.

Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD), commonly characterized by affecting optic nerves and spinal cord can be regarded as one of uncommon diseases of the central nervous system. Although the evidence presented in the literature supports cognitive impairments, psychological aspects of the disease and its association with various manifestations of the disease have not been thoroughly studied. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate psychological aspects of patients with NMOSD compared to healthy individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2020.102128DOI Listing

Social comparison modulates coping with fear in virtual environments.

J Anxiety Disord 2020 May 23;72:102226. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Institute of Psychology, Westfälische Wilhelms-University Münster, Fliednerstraße 21, 48149 Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Social comparison can guide adaptive behavior in fear-related situations. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of social comparison standards on acute anxiety levels and phobic symptoms. The sample comprised 159 individuals (M = 23. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102226DOI Listing

Network changes in patients with phobic postural vertigo.

Brain Behav 2020 Jun 18;10(6):e01622. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Graduate School of Systemic Neurosciences, Department Biology II Neurobiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Introduction: Functional dizziness comprises a class of dizziness disorders, including phobic postural vertigo (PPV), that cause vestibular symptoms in the absence of a structural organic origin. For this reason, functional brain mechanisms have been implicated in these disorders.

Methods: Here, functional network organization was investigated in 17 PPV patients and 18 healthy controls (HCs) during functional magnetic resonance imaging with a visual motion stimulus, data initially collected and described by Popp et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303402PMC

Psychological symptoms of ordinary Chinese citizens based on SCL-90 during the level I emergency response to COVID-19.

Psychiatry Res 2020 06 11;288:112992. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Institute of Safety Management & Risk Control, Institute of Safety & Emergency Management, School of Safety Science and Engineering, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, No. 58 Yanta Road, Xi'an 710054 China.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that the Corona Virus (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. This study aimed to investigate the psychological symptoms of ordinary Chinese citizens during the Level I Emergency Response throughout China. From January 31 to February 2 2020, an online questionnaire, Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) was designed, and differences in GSI T-scores among subgroups were examined by ANOVA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7151383PMC

Comparison of neurocognitive changes among newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients with and without dysglycaemia.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 Apr 3;20(1):143. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, College of Humanities, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Diabetes often occurs together with tuberculosis (TB) and both may affect each other negatively. Diabetes may be associated with neurocognitive dysfunctioning in affected patients and may negatively impact treatment adherence and outcomes. This study compared the neurocognitive status between newly diagnosed smear positive tuberculosis patients with dysglycaemia and those with normoglycaemia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02570-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7119271PMC

Glucocorticoids and cortical decoding in the phobic brain.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2020 Jun 31;300:111066. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Translational Research Center, University Hospital of Psychiatry, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in anxiety disorders and enhance psychotherapy, possibly by reducing the retrieval of fear memories and enhancing the consolidation of new corrective memories. Glucocorticoid signaling in the basolateral amygdala can influence connected fear and memory-related cortical regions, but this is not fully understood. Previous studies investigated specific pathways moderated by glucocorticoids, for example, visual-temporal pathways; however, these analyses were limited to a-priori selected regions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2020.111066DOI Listing

Efficacy and tolerability of paroxetine in adults with social anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Apr;99(14):e19573

Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Centre, The First Teaching Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, P.R. China.

Objective: The present study aimed to estimate the comprehensive efficacy and tolerability of paroxetine in adult patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD).

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials databases for eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The efficacy outcome was the mean change of different kinds of scale scores as well as response and remission rates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220791PMC

[Social anxiety disorder: diagnostic and treatment].

Rev Prat 2019 Nov;69(9):988-989

AP-HP, HU Henri-Mondor/ Albert-Chenevier, Inserm IMRB U955, Univ Paris Est Créteil.

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November 2019

[Prognosis of anxiety disorders].

Rev Prat 2019 Nov;69(9):979-980

Université de Paris, faculté de médecine Paris Descartes, Paris, France. AP-HP. Centre-Université de Paris, Hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou, service de psychiatrie et addictologie de l'adulte et du sujet âgé, Paris, France. Inserm, U1266, UMR-S 1266, Institut de psychiatrie et neurosciences de Paris, Paris, France.

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANXIETY DISORDERS - The prevalence of anxiety disorders is higher in high-income countries than in middle- and low-income countries. In France, their lifetime prevalence ranges from 2.1% for panic disorder to 10. Read More

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November 2019

[Epidemiology of anxiéty disorders].

Rev Prat 2019 Nov;69(9):976-978

Université de Paris, faculté de médecine Paris Descartes, Paris, France. AP-HP. Centre-Université de Paris, Hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou, service de psychiatrie et addictologie de l'adulte et du sujet âgé, Paris, France. Inserm, U1266, UMR-S 1266, Institut de psychiatrie et neurosciences de Paris, Paris, France.

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANXIETY DISORDERS - The prevalence of anxiety disorders is higher in high-income countries than in middle- and low-income countries. In France, their lifetime prevalence ranges from 2.1% for panic disorder to 10. Read More

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November 2019

[Current nosographic classifications of anxiety disorders].

Rev Prat 2019 Nov;69(9):970-973

Centre de référence régional des pathologies anxieuses et de la dépression. Pôle de psychiatrie générale et universitaire (3/4/7), Centre hospitalier Charles-Perrens, Bordeaux, France. Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

CURRENT NOSOGRAPHIC CLASSIFICATIONS TOF ANXIETY DISORDERS. Anxiety disorders are psychiatric pathologies covering a wide range of clinical entities that are characterized by a pathological anxiety leading to severe emotional distress and marked impairment in daily functioning. They primarily differentiate from each other according to the general content of concerns, and originally included the panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, specific phobias, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Read More

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November 2019

Relationships Between Somatic Symptoms and Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum Among Frequent Attenders of the General Practice in Italy.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2020 Jul;208(7):540-548

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Frequent attenders (FAs) of general practitioners (GPs) often complain of nonspecific physical symptoms that are difficult to define according to typical medical syndromes criteria but could be acknowledged as atypical manifestations of mental disorders. We investigated the possible correlation between somatic symptoms and panic-agoraphobic spectrum symptoms in a sample of 75 FAs of GPs in Italy, with particular attention to the impact on functional impairment. Assessments included the Patient Health Questionnaire, Panic-Agoraphobic Spectrum-Self-Report (PAS-SR) lifetime version, Global Assessment of Functioning, and Clinical Global Impression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000001163DOI Listing
July 2020
1.812 Impact Factor

Function and mechanisms of memory destabilization and reconsolidation after retrieval.

Authors:
Satoshi Kida

Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci 2020 ;96(3):95-106

Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo.

Memory retrieval is not a passive process. When a memory is retrieved, the retrieved memory is destabilized, similar to short-term memory just after learning, and requires memory reconsolidation to re-stabilize the memory. Recent studies characterizing destabilization and reconsolidation showed that a retrieved memory is not always destabilized and that there are boundary conditions that determine the induction of destabilization and reconsolidation according to certain parameters, such as the duration of retrieval and the memory strength and age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2183/pjab.96.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7167366PMC

The association between fear extinction, the ability to accomplish exposure and exposure therapy outcome in specific phobia.

Sci Rep 2020 Mar 9;10(1):4288. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Mental Health Research and Treatment Center, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Great interest exists in maximizing exposure therapy efficacy in anxiety disorders. At the same time, reduced frequency and shortened duration of exposure sessions are required to meet the specific regularities in routine care settings. Extinction has emerged as the key mechanism of exposure treatment in anxiety disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61004-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062844PMC

Cortical oxygenation during exposure therapy - in situ fNIRS measurements in arachnophobia.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 Feb 19;26:102219. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; LEAD Graduate School & Research Network, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Exposure therapy is a well-studied and highly efficacious treatment for phobic disorders. Although the neurobiological model of fear is well underpinned by various studies, the mechanisms of exposure therapy are still under discussion. Partly, this is due to the fact that most neurophysiological methods like fMRI are not able to be used in the natural therapeutic settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2020.102219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7052440PMC
February 2020

Anxiety and Emotional Intelligence: Comparisons Between Combat Sports, Gender and Levels Using the Trait Meta-Mood Scale and the Inventory of Situations and Anxiety Response.

Front Psychol 2020 4;11:130. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Sports, Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences-INEF, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid, Spain.

The present study compared emotional intelligence and anxiety between six combat sports of lower, intermediate and high-level female and male athletes. The sample was composed by 444 athletes (age: 24.7 ± 8. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7025486PMC
February 2020

Comparison between Full Body Motion Recognition Camera Interaction and Hand Controllers Interaction used in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Acrophobia.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Feb 25;20(5). Epub 2020 Feb 25.

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece.

Virtual Reality has already been proven as a useful supplementary treatment tool for anxiety disorders. However, no specific technological importance has been given so far on how to apply Virtual Reality with a way that properly stimulates the phobic stimulus and provide the necessary means for lifelike experience. Thanks to technological advancements, there is now a variety of hardware that can help enhance stronger emotions generated by Virtual Reality systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20051244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085665PMC
February 2020

A Virtual Reality Study of the Relationships Between Hoarding, Clutter, and Claustrophobia.

Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 2020 Feb;23(2):83-89

Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.

Hoarding disorder is characterized by difficulty discarding objects and excessive clutter. The relationship between hoarding and claustrophobia, reactions to severely cluttered spaces, and clutter preferences are all areas that are yet to be investigated. The present study used a novel virtual reality (VR) platform to examine these domains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2019.0320DOI Listing
February 2020

Gut microbiome structure and adrenocortical activity in dogs with aggressive and phobic behavioral disorders.

Heliyon 2020 Jan 29;6(1):e03311. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Medical Veterinary Science, University of Bologna, Ozzano Emilia, Italy.

Accompanying human beings since the Paleolithic period, dogs has been recently regarded as a reliable model for the study of the gut microbiome connections with health and disease. In order to provide some glimpses on the connections between the gut microbiome layout and host behavior, we profiled the phylogenetic composition and structure of the canine gut microbiome of dogs with aggressive (n = 11), phobic (n = 13) and normal behavior (n = 18). Hormones' determination was made through Radio Immuno-Assay (RIA), and next generation sequencing of the V3-V4 gene region of the bacterial 16S rRNA was employed to determine gut microbiome composition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994854PMC
January 2020

Anxiety and Fear-Related Disorders in the ICD-11: Results from a Global Case-controlled Field Study.

Arch Med Res 2019 11 1;50(8):490-501. Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Department of Psychiatry and WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Capacity Building in Global Mental Health, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA; Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: This article reports the results of one of a series of global field studies implemented by the World Health Organization (WHO) to evaluate the accuracy, clinical utility, and global applicability of the new diagnostic guidelines for Mental, Behavioural and Neurological Disorders included in the next version of WHO's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11).

Aims Of The Study: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility ratings of global clinicians implementing the ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines for Anxiety and Fear-Related Disorders, relative to those applying ICD-10 guidelines. The study also aimed to identify elements of the guidelines that required further refinement or clarification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arcmed.2019.12.012DOI Listing
November 2019
2.406 Impact Factor

Reducing Amygdala Activity and Phobic Fear through Cognitive Top-Down Regulation.

J Cogn Neurosci 2020 Jun 4;32(6):1117-1129. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

University of Basel.

The amygdala is critically involved in emotional processing, including fear responses, and shows hyperactivity in anxiety disorders. Previous research in healthy participants has indicated that amygdala activity is down-regulated by cognitively demanding tasks that engage the PFC. It is unknown, however, if such an acute down-regulation of amygdala activity might correlate with reduced fear in anxious participants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_01537DOI Listing

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and Acceptance Commitment Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Integrating Traditional with Digital Treatment Approaches.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2020 ;1191:291-329

Faculty of Psychology, Department of Health Psychology, FernUniversität in Hagen (University of Hagen), Hagen, Germany.

Anxiety disorders are an enormous societal burden given their high lifetime prevalence among adult populations worldwide. A variety of anxiety disorders can be successfully treated with psychological treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), either as stand-alone individual or group treatment or as adjunctive treatment to pharmacotherapy. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence suggests that therapist-guided Internet-delivered CBT (iCBT) and, to some degree, digitalized mindfulness- and acceptance-based interventions may be an efficacious complement to traditional face-to-face therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-981-32-9705-0_17DOI Listing
February 2020

Changes in psychopathological symptoms during pregnancy and after delivery: A prospective-longitudinal study in women with and without anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy.

J Affect Disord 2020 Feb 23;263:480-490. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Department of Psychiatry & Psychotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background: The role of anxiety and depressive disorders prior to pregnancy for changes in peripartum psychopathological symptoms has not been resolved yet.

Methods: A regional-epidemiological sample of 306 women was prospectively followed in seven waves from early pregnancy until 16 months postpartum. Lifetime DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders were assessed at baseline with the CIDI-V. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.11.112DOI Listing
February 2020

Clinical evaluation of psychiatric and behavioral disorders in adolescents with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

Nord J Psychiatry 2020 May - Jul;74(5):352-358. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Epilepsy is a neurological disease that is often associated with psychiatric comorbidities. The aim of the study was to examine the frequency of psychic symptoms and their association with different types of epilepsy in the adolescent population. The study involved 100 adolescents with epilepsy and 100 healthy adolescents of both sexes at the age of 13-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08039488.2020.1715475DOI Listing
January 2020
1.500 Impact Factor

[The visitor : Roald Dahl on phobic anxiety of infections and delusion of hygiene].

Hautarzt 2020 Mar;71(3):251-254

, Altenberger Str. 17, 48161, Münster, Deutschland.

In his both highly amusing and thrilling story Roald Dahl describes an adventure of his fictive uncle Oswald Hendryk Cornelius, a snobby Englishman and womanizer, suffering from delusional anxiety of infections and hygienic compulsions. Forced by the breakdown of his car in the Sinai desert, he accepts the invitation of a noble Arab to spend the night in his palace, situated like a mirage in the middle of the desert. Oswald is plagued by erotic obsessions at the sight of the beautiful wife as well as the likewise beautiful daughter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00105-019-04526-wDOI Listing

[Cognition in children with social anxiety disorder experiencing stress].

Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 2020 10;48(2):145-157. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Klinik für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik Zürich, Schweiz.

Cognition in children with social anxiety disorder experiencing stress Empirical data on cognitions of children with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are inconclusive. The present study examines the significance of cognition in children with SAD. Thirty children suffering from SAD and 30 control children free of diagnosis (HC) aged between 9 and 15 years took part in an experiment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1024/1422-4917/a000702DOI Listing

Treating patients with driving phobia by virtual reality exposure therapy - a pilot study.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(1):e0226937. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Psychology 1 (Biological Psychology, Clinical Psychology, and Psychotherapy), University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Objectives: Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is a promising treatment for patients with fear of driving. The present pilot study is the first one focusing on behavioral effects of VRET on patients with fear of driving as measured by a post-treatment driving test in real traffic.

Methods: The therapy followed a standardized manual including psychotherapeutic and medical examination, two preparative psychotherapy sessions, five virtual reality exposure sessions, a final behavioral avoidance test (BAT) in real traffic, a closing session, and two follow-up phone assessments after six and twelve weeks. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226937PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946146PMC

Child maltreatment, peer victimization, and social anxiety in adulthood: a cross-sectional study in a treatment-seeking sample.

BMC Psychiatry 2019 12 27;19(1):418. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Bremen, Grazer Strasse 2, 28359, Bremen, Germany.

Background: Childhood adversities, especially emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and peer victimization are considered to be crucial risk factors for social anxiety disorder (SAD). We investigated whether particular forms of retrospectively recalled childhood adversities are specifically associated with SAD in adulthood or whether we find similar links in other anxiety or depressive disorders.

Methods: Prevalences of adversities assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and a questionnaire of stressful social experiences (FBS) were determined in N = 1091 outpatients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2400-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6935074PMC
December 2019

Social anxiety changes the way we move-A social approach-avoidance task in a virtual reality CAVE system.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(12):e0226805. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Department of Psychology, Biological Psychology, Clinical Psychology, and Psychotherapy, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Investigating approach-avoidance behavior regarding affective stimuli is important in broadening the understanding of one of the most common psychiatric disorders, social anxiety disorder. Many studies in this field rely on approach-avoidance tasks, which mainly assess hand movements, or interpersonal distance measures, which return inconsistent results and lack ecological validity. Therefore, the present study introduces a virtual reality task, looking at avoidance parameters (movement time and speed, distance to social stimulus, gaze behavior) during whole-body movements. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226805PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6927627PMC

[Smoking cessation: Overcoming "nicotinophobia" in patients … and prescribers?]

Presse Med 2019 Dec;48(12):1368-1369

Clinique de rééducation cardio-vasculaire et pulmonaire de Saint-Orens, 12, avenue de Revel, 31650 Saint-Orens de Gameville, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lpm.2019.11.009DOI Listing
December 2019

The Equivalence between Virtual and Real Feared Stimuli in a Phobic Adult Sample: A Neuroimaging Study.

J Clin Med 2019 Dec 4;8(12). Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Universidad de La Laguna, 38200 La Laguna, Spain.

The clinical use of virtual reality (VR) has proven its efficacy, especially when used as an exposure technique. A prominent property of VR's utility is its equivalence with the reality it represents. In this study, we explored this equivalence in a clinical context using neuroimaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8122139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6947488PMC
December 2019

Skin fairness is a better predictor for impaired physical and mental health than hair redness.

Sci Rep 2019 12 2;9(1):18138. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Viničná 7, 128 44, Czech Republic.

About 1-2% of people of European origin have red hair. Especially female redheads are known to suffer higher pain sensitivity and higher incidence of some disorders, including skin cancer, Parkinson's disease and endometriosis. Recently, an explorative study performed on 7,000 subjects showed that both male and female redheads score worse on many health-related variables and express a higher incidence of cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54662-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6888829PMC
December 2019

Seeking Clinically Useful Pediatric Imaging Measures: Insights From Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Authors:
Daniel S Pine

Am J Psychiatry 2019 12;176(12):976-978

National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Md.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.19090983DOI Listing
December 2019

Psychiatric disorders in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Psychiatr Pol 2019 Aug 31;53(4):955-966. Epub 2019 Aug 31.

Uniwersytet Medyczny w Poznaniu, Klinika Niepłodności i Endokrynologii Rozrodu.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, affecting approximately 5-8% of females in this group. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, abnormal periods (rare periods or amenorrhea) and polycystic ovaries visualized through ultrasonography. The etiopathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome has not been elucidated in detail. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12740/PP/OnlineFirst/93105DOI Listing

Anxiety symptoms in obsessive-compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder.

Psychiatr Pol 2019 Aug 31;53(4):845-864. Epub 2019 Aug 31.

Uniwersytet Jagielloński Collegium Medicum, Katedra Psychoterapii.

Objectives: Due to the co-occurrence of symptoms of anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders, and the hypothesis about common etiopathological factors, we performed a research addressing the occurrence and severity of anxiety symptoms, the severity of groups of neurotic symptoms, and conducted factor analyses in two groups of patients: diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).

Material And Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on two groups of patients: 76 - diagnosed with OCD, and 186 - diagnosed with GAD. The source of information about the presence and severity of symptoms was the Symptom Checklist "O" (KO"O"). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12740/PP/105378DOI Listing

Devaluation of threat memory using a dual-task intervention does not reduce context renewal of fear.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jan 17;124:103480. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Many patients who benefit from exposure-based therapy for anxiety disorders fail to maintain their gains. Learned fear may return when they encounter phobic stimuli in a different context than the one in which extinction occurred. In the current pre-registered experiment, we tested whether threat memory devaluation reduces context renewal of fear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2019.103480DOI Listing
January 2020

Visual attention to emotional faces in adolescents with social anxiety disorder receiving cognitive behavioral therapy.

PLoS One 2019 22;14(11):e0225603. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, & Stockholm Health Care Services, Stockholm County Council, CAP Research Center, Gävlegatan, Stockholm, Sweden.

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a psychiatric condition that often onsets in childhood. Cognitive models underline the role of attention in the maintenance of SAD, but studies on youth populations are few, particularly those using eye tracking to measure attention. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for SAD includes interventions targeting attention, like exposure to eye contact, but the link between CBT and attention bias is largely unexplored. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225603PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874383PMC

'Excess anxiety' and 'less anxiety': both depend on vestibular function.

Curr Opin Neurol 2020 Feb;33(1):136-141

German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders.

Purpose Of Review: To present evidence of a functional interrelation between the vestibular and the anxiety systems based on a complex reciprocally organized network. The review focuses on the differential effects of various vestibular disorders, on psychiatric comorbidity, and on anxiety related to vertigo.

Recent Findings: Episodic vertigo syndromes such as vestibular migraine, vestibular paroxysmia, and Menière's disease are associated with a significant increase of psychiatric comorbidity, in particular anxiety/phobic disorders and depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000771DOI Listing
February 2020

Examining Positive and Negative Affect as Outcomes and Moderators of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

Behav Ther 2019 11 11;50(6):1112-1124. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

University of California, Los Angeles.

Traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders has been designed to target reductions in negative affect (NA) associated with defense-related processes. However, a subset of anxiety disorders, including social anxiety disorder (SAD), are also characterized by low positive affect (PA) resulting from separate deficits in appetitive-related processes. In contrast to CBT, "third-wave" approaches, such as acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), align more consistently with motivational processes and, as a result, PA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2019.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6866675PMC
November 2019

Changes in Empathy Mediate the Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy but Not Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Social Anxiety Disorder.

Behav Ther 2019 11 18;50(6):1098-1111. Epub 2019 May 18.

Stanford University.

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has been shown to be associated with difficulty in the ability to vicariously share others' positive emotions (positive affective empathy). Mixed evidence also suggests potentially impaired recognition of the positive and negative emotions of others (cognitive empathy) and impaired or enhanced sharing of the negative emotions of others (negative affective empathy). Therefore, we examined whether two efficacious treatments for SAD, cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), improve empathy in SAD relative to a wait-list condition and whether improvements in empathy mediate improvements in social anxiety. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2019.05.005DOI Listing
November 2019

Examining the Interrelation Among Change Processes: Decentering and Anticipatory Processing Across Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder.

Behav Ther 2019 11 23;50(6):1075-1086. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

University of Massachusetts Boston.

As evidence grows supporting certain mechanisms of change in psychological treatments and we improve statistical approaches to measuring them, it is important that we also explore how mechanisms and processes are related to each other, and how they together affect treatment outcomes. To answer these questions about interrelating processes and mechanisms, we need to take advantage of frequent assessment and modeling techniques that allow for an examination of the influence of one mechanism on another over time. Within cognitive behavioral therapy, studies have shown support for both decentering, the ability to observe thoughts and feelings as objective events in the mind, and anticipatory processing, the repetitive thinking about upcoming social situations, as potentially related mechanisms of change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2019.03.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6866667PMC
November 2019