7,833 results match your criteria Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B Biological sciences[Journal]


Monogamy without parental care? Social and genetic mating systems of avian brood parasites.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180201

3 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University , 106A Guyot Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 , USA.

Classic evolutionary theory predicts that monogamy should be intimately linked with parental care. It has long been assumed, therefore, that avian brood parasites-which lay their eggs in the nests of 'host' species and provide little, if any, parental care-should be overwhelmingly promiscuous. However, recent studies have revealed that the social mating systems of brood parasites are surprisingly diverse, encompassing lek polygyny, monogamy, polygamy and promiscuity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388045PMC

Inquiline social parasites as tools to unlock the secrets of insect sociality.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180193

2 Dipartimento di Biologia, Università degli Studi di Firenze , Via Madonna del Piano, 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino , Italy.

Insect societies play a crucial role in the functioning of most ecosystems and have fascinated both scientists and the lay public for centuries. Despite the long history of study, we are still far from understanding how insect societies have evolved and how social cohesion in their colonies is maintained. Here we suggest inquiline social parasites of insect societies as an under-exploited experimental tool for understanding sociality. Read More

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http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388031PMC
April 2019
1 Read

Defences against brood parasites from a social immunity perspective.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180207

3 Helsinki Institute of Life Science (HiLIFE), University of Helsinki , Helsinki , Finland.

Parasitic interactions are so ubiquitous that all multicellular organisms have evolved a system of defences to reduce their costs, whether the parasites they encounter are the classic parasites which feed on the individual, or brood parasites which usurp parental care. Many parallels have been drawn between defences deployed against both types of parasite, but typically, while defences against classic parasites have been selected to protect survival, those against brood parasites have been selected to protect the parent's inclusive fitness, suggesting that the selection pressures they impose are fundamentally different. However, there is another class of defences against classic parasites that have specifically been selected to protect an individual's inclusive fitness, known as social immunity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388036PMC

Vive la difference! Self/non-self recognition and the evolution of signatures of identity in arms races with parasites.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180206

3 Department of Life Sciences, Whitelands College, University of Roehampton , Holybourne Avenue, London SW15 4JD , UK.

In arms races with parasites, hosts can evolve defences exhibiting extensive variability within populations, which signals individual identity ('signatures'). However, few such systems have evolved, suggesting that the conditions for their evolution are uncommon. We review (a) polymorphic egg markings that allow hosts of brood-parasitic birds to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, and (b) polymorphic tissue antigens encoded in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which present self- and pathogen-derived peptides to T cells of the immune system. Read More

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http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388040PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

The brood parasite's guide to inclusive fitness theory.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180198

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney , Sydney, 2006 , Australia.

Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness provides a framework for understanding the evolution of social behaviour between kin, including parental and alloparental care. Brood parasitism is a reproductive tactic in which parasites exploit the care of other individuals of the same species (conspecific parasitism) or different species (interspecific parasitism) to rear their brood. Here, drawing from examples in birds and social insects, we identify two insights into brood parasitism that stem from inclusive fitness theory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388037PMC
April 2019
5 Reads

Under the radar: detection avoidance in brood parasitic bees.

Authors:
Jessica R Litman

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180196

Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Neuchâtel , Terreaux 14, 2000 Neuchâtel , Switzerland.

Brood parasitism is a specialized form of parasitism in which the offspring of a parasite develops on the food provisions gathered by a host species for its own young. Obligate brood parasitic lineages have lost the ability to acquire provisions for their young and thus rely entirely on the location of an appropriate host to serve as a food-provider. Solitary bees provide some of the most fascinating examples of brood parasitism in animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388046PMC

The coevolutionary biology of brood parasitism: a call for integration.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180190

6 School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Sydney , Sydney 2006 , Australia.

Obligate brood-parasitic cheats have fascinated natural historians since ancient times. Passing on the costs of parental care to others occurs widely in birds, insects and fish, and often exerts selection pressure on hosts that in turn evolve defences. Brood parasites have therefore provided an illuminating system for researching coevolution. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388032PMC

Dedication: Alexander Cruz (1941-2018).

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180576

1 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado , Boulder, CO 80302 , USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0576DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388039PMC

Parasitic cuckoo catfish exploit parental responses to stray offspring.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180412

1 The Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Vertebrate Biology , Květná 8, 603 65 Brno , Czech Republic.

Interspecific brood parasitism occurs in several independent lineages of birds and social insects, putatively evolving from intraspecific brood parasitism. The cuckoo catfish, Synodontis multipunctatus, the only known obligatory non-avian brood parasite, exploits mouthbrooding cichlid fishes in Lake Tanganyika, despite the absence of parental care in its evolutionary lineage (family Mochokidae). Cuckoo catfish participate in host spawning events, with their eggs subsequently collected and brooded by parental cichlids, though they can later be selectively rejected by the host. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388028PMC

Early life-history features associated with brood parasitism in the cuckoo catfish, Synodontis multipunctatus (Siluriformes: Mochokidae).

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180205

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado , Boulder, CO 80302 , USA.

The cuckoo catfish, Synodontis multipunctatus, is the only known obligate brood parasite among fishes, exploiting the parental care of mouthbrooding cichlids endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Comparisons of this system to brood parasitism in birds may reveal broader principles that underlie the evolution of this life-history strategy in vertebrates. However, little is known about the features of the cuckoo catfish that enable this species to successfully parasitize cichlids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388042PMC

Host density predicts the probability of parasitism by avian brood parasites.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180204

1 Division of Ecology and Evolution, Australian National University , Australian Capital Territory, 0200 , Australia.

The spatial distribution of hosts can be a determining factor in the reproductive success of parasites. Highly aggregated hosts may offer more opportunities for reproduction but can have better defences than isolated hosts. Here we connect macro- and micro-evolutionary processes to understand the link between host density and parasitism, using avian brood parasites as a model system. Read More

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http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388038PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Brood parasitism in eusocial insects (Hymenoptera): role of host geographical range size and phylogeny.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180203

4 Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland , PO Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio , Finland.

Interspecific brood parasitism is common in many animal systems. Brood parasites enter the nests of other species and divert host resources for producing their own offspring, which can lead to strong antagonistic parasite-host coevolution. Here, we look at commonalities among social insect species that are victims of brood parasites, and use phylogenetic data and information on geographical range size to predict which species are most probably to fall victims to brood parasites in the future. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388030PMC

Patterns of host use by brood parasitic Maculinea butterflies across Europe.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180202

2 Centre for Social Evolution, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen , Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Copenhagen , Denmark.

The range of hosts exploited by a parasite is determined by several factors, including host availability, infectivity and exploitability. Each of these can be the target of natural selection on both host and parasite, which will determine the local outcome of interactions, and potentially lead to coevolution. However, geographical variation in host use and specificity has rarely been investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388033PMC

Egg retrieval versus egg rejection in cuckoo hosts.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180200

2 Ecologie Systématique Evolution, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay , F-91405 Orsay Cedex , France.

Before complex nests evolved, birds laid eggs on the ground, and egg retrieval evolved as an adaptation against accidental displacement of eggs outside the nest. Therefore, egg retrieval is an ancient, and likely ancestral, widespread behaviour in birds. However, it has received little attention in studies of avian brood parasitism, perhaps because most parasitism occurs in species with complex nests, a context in which egg retrieval seems irrelevant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388044PMC

Higher-level pattern features provide additional information to birds when recognizing and rejecting parasitic eggs.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180197

3 Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge , Cambridge CB2 3EJ , UK.

Despite a recent explosion of research on pattern recognition, in both neuroscience and computer vision, we lack a basic understanding of how most animals perceive and respond to patterns in the wild. Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide an ideal study system for investigating the mechanisms of pattern recognition. The cuckoo finch, Anomalospiza imberbis, and its host the tawny-flanked prinia, Prinia subflava, lay highly polymorphic eggs with a great deal of variation in colour and patterning, with the cuckoo finch capable of close egg mimicry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388034PMC

Variation in multicomponent recognition cues alters egg rejection decisions: a test of the optimal acceptance threshold hypothesis.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180195

5 Department of Animal Biology, School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , Urbana, IL 61801 , USA.

The optimal acceptance threshold hypothesis provides a general predictive framework for testing behavioural responses to discrimination challenges. Decision-makers should respond to a stimulus when the perceived difference between that stimulus and a comparison template surpasses an acceptance threshold. We tested how individual components of a relevant recognition cue (experimental eggs) contributed to behavioural responses of chalk-browed mockingbirds, Mimus saturninus, a frequent host of the parasitic shiny cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388043PMC

Convergent evolution of reduced eggshell conductance in avian brood parasites.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180194

1 School of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London , Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX , UK.

Brood parasitism has evolved independently in several bird lineages, giving rise to strikingly similar behavioural adaptations that suggest convergent evolution. By comparison, convergence of physiological traits that optimize this breeding strategy has received much less attention, yet these species share many similar physiological traits that optimize this breeding strategy. Eggshell structure is important for embryonic development as it controls the flux of metabolic gases, such as O, CO and HO, into and out of the egg; in particular, water vapour conductance ( G) is an essential process for optimal development of the embryo. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388047PMC

Ant behaviour and brain gene expression of defending hosts depend on the ecological success of the intruding social parasite.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Apr;374(1769):20180192

1 Institute of Organismic and Molecular Evolution, Johannes Gutenberg University , Mainz , Germany.

The geographical mosaic theory of coevolution predicts that species interactions vary between locales. Depending on who leads the coevolutionary arms race, the effectivity of parasite attack or host defence strategies will explain parasite prevalence. Here, we compare behaviour and brain transcriptomes of Temnothorax longispinosus ant workers when defending their nest against an invading social parasite, the slavemaking ant Temnothorax americanus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388029PMC

Cross-talking between baculoviruses and host insects towards a successful infection.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180324

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Wuhan 430071 , People's Republic of China.

Baculoviridae is a family of large DNA viruses that infect insects. They have been extensively used as safe and efficient biological agents for the control of insect pests. As a result of coevolution with their hosts, baculoviruses developed unique life cycles characterized by the production of two distinctive virion phenotypes, occlusion-derived virus and budded virus, which are responsible for mediating primary infection in insect midgut epithelia and spreading systemic infection within infected insects, respectively. Read More

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http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367156PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Genome editing for plant disease resistance: applications and perspectives.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180322

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100101 , People's Republic of China.

Diseases severely affect crop yield and quality, thereby threatening global food security. Genetic improvement of plant disease resistance is essential for sustainable agriculture. Genome editing has been revolutionizing plant biology and biotechnology by enabling precise, targeted genome modifications. Read More

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http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0322DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367152PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Signal pathways involved in microbe-nematode interactions provide new insights into the biocontrol of plant-parasitic nematodes.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180317

1 State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan and The Key Laboratory for Southwest Microbial Diversity of the Ministry of Education, Yunnan University , Kunming 650091 , People's Republic of China.

Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) cause severe damage to agricultural crops worldwide. As most chemical nematicides have negative environmental side effects, there is a pressing need for developing efficient biocontrol methods. Nematophagous microbes, the natural enemies of nematodes, are potential biocontrol agents against PPNs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367146PMC

Recent progress on the interaction between insects and Bacillus thuringiensis crops.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180316

2 The State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Disease and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences , West Yuanmingyuan Road, Beijing 100193 , People's Republic of China.

Extensive use of chemical pesticides poses a great threat to the environment and food safety. The discovery of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins with effective insecticidal activity against pests and the development of transgenic technology of plants opened a new era of pest control. Transgenic Bt crops, including maize, cotton and soya bean, have now been produced and commercialized to protect against about 30 major coleopteran and lepidopteran pests, greatly benefiting the environment and the economy. Read More

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http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367150PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

The roles of histidine kinases in sensing host plant and cell-cell communication signal in a phytopathogenic bacterium.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180311

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100101 , People's Republic of China.

It has long been known that phytopathogenic bacteria react to plant-specific stimuli or environmental factors. However, how bacterial cells sense these environmental cues remains incompletely studied. Recently, three kinds of histidine kinases (HKs) were identified as receptors to perceive plant-associated or quorum-sensing signals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367144PMC

Early signalling mechanisms underlying receptor kinase-mediated immunity in plants.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180310

State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , No. 1 West Beichen Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101 , People's Republic of China.

Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which are single transmembrane proteins belonging to the receptor-like kinase (RLK) and receptor-like protein (RLP) super families, sense microbe- and host-derived molecular patterns to activate immune responses in plants. PRRs associate with co-receptors, scaffold proteins and receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) to form immune receptor complexes at the cell surface, allowing activation of cellular responses upon perception of extracellular ligands. Recent advances have uncovered new mechanisms by which these immune receptor complexes are regulated at the levels of composition, stability and activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367159PMC

Overview: biotic signalling for smart pest management.

Authors:
Le Kang

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180306

1 State Key Laboratory for Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100101 , People's Republic of China.

Biotic signalling refers to species or phylogenetic-clade-specific signals that elicit adaptive and acceptable responses within and among organisms. It is not only the molecular basis of the ecological relationships among different species, such as parasitism, symbiosis and predation, but also serves as ideal targets that can be used to manipulate these ecological relationships. This concept was proposed by a group of scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and actively pursued in a five-year research project in 2014 funded by the CAS ($40 million), entitled 'Decoding biotic interactions and mechanism for target management of agricultural pests'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367148PMC

The oriental armyworm ( Mythimna separata) feeding induces systemic defence responses within and between maize leaves.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180307

1 Department of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Kunming 650201 , People's Republic of China.

Maize ( Zea mays) is a staple cereal crop cultivated all over the world but that is threatened by various insects. Feeding of the lepidopteran insect Mythimna separata triggers defence signalling and increases anti-herbivore benzoxazinoids (Bxs) in the insect-damaged maize leaves. However, the herbivory-elicited within-leaf and leaf-to-leaf systemic signalling in maize remains largely unexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367157PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Enhancement of oxidative stress contributes to increased pathogenicity of the invasive pine wood nematode.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180323

1 State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100101 , People's Republic of China.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in defence response of host plants versus pathogens. While generation and detoxification of ROS is well understood, how varied ability of different isolates of pathogens to overcome host ROS, or ROS contribution to a particular isolate's pathogenicity, remains largely unexplored. Here, we report that transcriptional regulation of the ROS pathway, in combination with the insulin pathway, increases the pathogenicity of invasive species Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367158PMC
March 2019
7.055 Impact Factor

Unveiling the function and regulation control of the DUF3129 family proteins in fungal infection of hosts.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180321

1 Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental and Evolutionary Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shanghai 200032 , People's Republic of China.

Many prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteins contain domains of unknown function (DUFs). A DUF3129 family of proteins is widely encoded in the genomes of fungal pathogens. A few studies in plant and insect pathogens indicated that the DUF3129 genes are required for fungal penetration of host cuticles with an unclear mechanism. Read More

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http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367153PMC
March 2019
4 Reads
7.055 Impact Factor

Interaction of viral pathogen with porin channels on the outer membrane of insect bacterial symbionts mediates their joint transovarial transmission.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180320

1 Vector-borne Virus Research Center, Fujian Province Key Laboratory of Plant Virology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University , Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 , People's Republic of China.

Many hemipteran insects that can transmit plant viruses in a persistent and transovarial manner are generally associated with a common obligate bacterial symbiont Sulcia and its β-proteobacterial partner. Rice dwarf virus (RDV), a plant reovirus, can bind to the envelope of Sulcia through direct interaction of the viral minor outer capsid protein P2 with the bacterial outer membrane protein, allowing the virus to exploit the ancient oocyte entry path of Sulcia in rice leafhopper vectors. Here, we show that RDV can hitchhike with both Sulcia and its β-proteobacterial partner Nasuia to ensure their simultaneous transovarial transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367154PMC

A gossypol biosynthetic intermediate disturbs plant defence response.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180319

2 National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shanghai 200032 , People's Republic of China.

Plant secondary metabolites and their biosynthesis have attracted great interest, but investigations of the activities of hidden intermediates remain rare. Gossypol and related sesquiterpenes are the major phytoalexins in cotton. Among the six biosynthetic intermediates recently identified, 8-hydroxy-7-keto-δ-cadinene (C234) crippled the plant disease resistance when accumulated upon gene silencing. Read More

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http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367145PMC
March 2019
3 Reads

Female adult puncture-induced plant volatiles promote mating success of the pea leafminer via enhancing vibrational signals.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180318

1 State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100080 , People's Republic of China.

Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) synergize with the sex pheromones of herbivorous insects to facilitate mate location. However, the synergism of HIPVs and acoustic signals for sexual communication remains unknown. Here, we investigated the synergy between HIPVs and vibrational duets for sexual communication and mating in the pea leafminer ( Liriomyza huidobrensis). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367149PMC

Rice black-streaked dwarf virus P10 suppresses protein kinase C in insect vector through changing the subcellular localization of LsRACK1.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180315

1 State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University , Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 , People's Republic of China.

Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) was known to be transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH) in a persistent, circulative and propagative manner in nature. Here, we show that RBSDV major outer capsid protein (also known as P10) suppresses the protein kinase C (PKC) activity of SBPH through interacting with the receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 (LsRACK1). The N terminal of P10 (amino acids (aa) 1-270) and C terminal of LsRACK1 (aa 268-315) were mapped as crucial for the interaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367142PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Armet, an aphid effector protein, induces pathogen resistance in plants by promoting the accumulation of salicylic acid.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180314

1 State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100101 , People's Republic of China.

Effector proteins present in aphid saliva are thought to modulate aphid-plant interactions. Armet, an effector protein, is found in the phloem sap of pea-aphid-infested plants and is indispensable for the survival of aphids on plants. However, its function in plants has not been investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0314DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367143PMC
March 2019
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A whitefly effector Bsp9 targets host immunity regulator WRKY33 to promote performance.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180313

1 State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing , People's Republic of China.

Whiteflies, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera), are pests causing economic damage to many crops, capable of transmitting hundreds of plant vector-borne viruses. They are believed to secrete salivary protein effectors that can improve vector colonization and reproductive fitness in host plants. However, little is known about effector biology and the precise mechanism of action of whitefly effectors. Read More

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http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367160PMC
March 2019
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Rice stripe virus hitchhikes the vector insect vitellogenin ligand-receptor pathway for ovary entry.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180312

1 State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100101 , People's Republic of China.

It is known that plant arboviruses infect insect vector cells by endocytosis; however, the cellular receptors that mediate endocytosis have not been well defined. In our recently published work and this study, by clarifying the vertical transmission mechanism of Rice stripe virus (RSV) in Laodelphax striatellus, we provide a novel paradigm for how arboviruses enter insect germ-line cells. Instead of direct interaction with a viral receptor, the virus binds to a secreted ligand protein, hitchhiking the ligand-receptor pathway to achieve cell entry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367155PMC
March 2019
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A fungal milRNA mediates epigenetic repression of a virulence gene in Verticillium dahliae.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180309

1 State Key Laboratory of Plant Genomics, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100101 , People's Republic of China.

MiRNAs in animals and plants play crucial roles in diverse developmental processes under both normal and stress conditions. miRNA-like small RNAs (milRNAs) identified in some fungi remain functionally uncharacterized. Here, we identified a number of milRNAs in Verticillium dahliae, a soil-borne fungal pathogen responsible for devastating wilt diseases in many crops. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367151PMC

A nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat receptor pair confers broad-spectrum disease resistance through physical association in rice.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Mar;374(1767):20180308

1 National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shanghai 200032 , People's Republic of China.

Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae is the most destructive fungal disease in crops, greatly threatening rice production and food security worldwide. The identification and utilization of broad-spectrum resistance genes are considered to be the most economic and effective method to control the disease. In the past decade, many blast resistance ( R) genes have been identified, which mainly encode nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptor family and confer limited race-specific resistance to the fungal pathogen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367147PMC

Function of small GTPases in Dictyostelium macropinocytosis.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Feb;374(1765):20180150

MRC-Laboratory of Molecular Biology , Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH , UK.

Macropinocytosis-the large-scale, non-specific uptake of fluid by cells-is used by Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae to obtain nutrients. These cells form circular ruffles around regions of membrane defined by a patch of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) and the activated forms of the small G-proteins Ras and Rac. When this ruffle closes, a vesicle of the medium is delivered to the cell interior for further processing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304742PMC
February 2019

Metabolic functions of macropinocytosis.

Authors:
Wilhelm Palm

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Feb;374(1765):20180285

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) , Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg , Germany.

Macropinocytosis is an evolutionarily conserved form of endocytosis that mediates non-selective uptake of extracellular fluid and the solutes contained therein. In mammalian cells, macropinocytosis is initiated by growth factor-mediated activation of the Ras and PI3-kinase signalling pathways. In malignant cells, oncogenic activation of growth factor signalling sustains macropinocytosis cell autonomously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304737PMC
February 2019

The origins and evolution of macropinocytosis.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Feb;374(1765):20180158

2 MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology , Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH , UK.

In macropinocytosis, cells take up micrometre-sized droplets of medium into internal vesicles. These vesicles are acidified and fused to lysosomes, their contents digested and useful compounds extracted. Indigestible contents can be exocytosed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304743PMC
February 2019

Macropinosomes as units of signal transduction.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Feb;374(1765):20180157

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School , Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5620 , USA.

Macropinosome formation occurs as a localized sequence of biochemical activities and associated morphological changes, which may be considered a form of signal transduction leading to the construction of an organelle. Macropinocytosis may also convey information about the availability of extracellular nutrients to intracellular regulators of metabolism. Consistent with this idea, activation of the metabolic regulator mechanistic target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) in response to acute stimulation by growth factors and extracellular amino acids requires internalization of amino acids by macropinocytosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304739PMC
February 2019

Using macropinocytosis for intracellular delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to tumour cells.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Feb;374(1765):20180156

AstraZeneca, IMED Biotech Unit, Pharmaceutical Sciences , Aaron Klug Building, Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6GH , UK.

Nucleic acids are a rapidly emerging therapeutic modality with the potential to become the third major drug modality alongside antibodies and small molecules. Owing to the unfavourable physico-chemical characteristics of nucleic acids, such as large size and negative charge, intracellular delivery remains a fundamental challenge to realizing this potential. Delivery technologies such as lipids, polymers and peptides have been used to facilitate delivery, with many of the most successful technologies using macropinocytosis to gain cellular entry; mostly by default rather than design. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304741PMC
February 2019
2 Reads

Macropinocytosis and autophagy crosstalk in nutrient scavenging.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Feb;374(1765):20180154

2 Cell Biology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center , New York, NY 10065 , USA.

Adaptive strategies used by cells to scavenge and recycle essential nutrients are important for survival in nutrient-depleted environments such as cancer tissues. Autophagy and macropinocytosis are two major mechanisms that promote nutrient recycling and scavenging, which share considerable, yet poorly understood, cross-regulation. Here we review recent findings that connect these starvation response mechanisms and discuss the implications of their crosstalk. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304738PMC
February 2019

The pervasiveness of macropinocytosis in oncological malignancies.

Authors:
Cosimo Commisso

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Feb;374(1765):20180153

Tumor Initiation and Maintenance Program, NCI-Designated Cancer Center, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute , La Jolla, CA 92037 , USA.

In tumour cells, macropinocytosis functions as an amino acid supply route and supports cancer cell survival and proliferation. Initially demonstrated in oncogenic KRAS-driven models of pancreatic cancer, macropinocytosis triggers the internalization of extracellular proteins via discrete endocytic vesicles called macropinosomes. The incoming protein cargo is targeted for lysosome-dependent degradation, causing the intracellular release of amino acids. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304744PMC
February 2019

Macropinosome formation, maturation and membrane recycling: lessons from clathrin-independent endosomal membrane systems.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Feb;374(1765):20180148

Cell Biology and Physiology Center, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health , Building 50, Room 2503, Bethesda, MD 20892 , USA.

Macropinocytosis is a form of endocytosis that brings large fluid-filled endosomes into the cell interior. Macrophages and dendritic cells are especially active in this process, but all cells can be stimulated to initiate this remarkable form of endocytosis. Although much is known about the membrane lipid and actin requirements for initiating macropinocytosis, less is known about the membrane that forms the macropinosome and the fate of that membrane once the macropinosome enters the cell interior. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304735PMC
February 2019
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Constitutive and stimulated macropinocytosis in macrophages: roles in immunity and in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Feb;374(1765):20180147

3 Program in Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children , 686 Bay Street, Toronto, ON , Canada M5G 0A4.

Macrophages respond to several stimuli by forming florid membrane ruffles that lead to fluid uptake by macropinocytosis. This type of induced macropinocytosis, executed by a variety of non-malignant and malignant cells, is initiated by transmembrane receptors and is involved in nutrient acquisition and mTOR signalling. However, macrophages also perform a unique type of constitutive ruffling and macropinocytosis that is dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304734PMC
February 2019

The breadth of macropinocytosis research.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2019 Feb;374(1765):20180146

2 Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield , Sheffield S10 2TT , UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304736PMC
February 2019