11,144 results match your criteria Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B Biological sciences[Journal]


The Conference of the Birds: An Old Artistic Concept Making Sense in Modern Sciences.

Basic Clin Neurosci 2018 Jul-Aug;9(4):297-305. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

In this article, we will discuss scientific aspects of an old Persian story, Simorgh, in the book of . The story is fulfilled with artistic and philosophical metaphors that make sense in two hot topics of the contemporary modern sciences i.e. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Doing philosophy effectively II: A replication and elaboration of student learning in classroom teaching.

PLoS One 2018 3;13(12):e0208128. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Methodology and Statistics, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

An important aim of teaching philosophy in Dutch secondary schools is to learn about philosophy (that is, the great philosophers) by doing philosophy. In an earlier study published in PLoS ONE, we focused on the relationship between student learning activities and teacher behavior by analyzing eight lessons. Correspondence analysis revealed that doing philosophy was more effective in some lessons than in others. Read More

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December 2018

Understanding our patients better will lead to better recognition of delirium: An opinion piece.

Australas J Ageing 2018 Dec;37(4):241-242

School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.

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December 2018

Ventricular localization in late antiquity: The philosophical and theological roots of an enduring model of brain function.

Authors:
Jessica Wright

Prog Brain Res 2018 24;243:3-22. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Philosophy and Classics, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Ventricular localization, or cell theory, is first attested in Christian texts of the fourth and fifth centuries CE. It remained dominant in learned medicine until the seventeenth century. Contrary to common representation, the earliest theorists of ventricular localization were not trying to displace the faculties of the rational soul from the substance of the brain to the empty spaces and spirit within. Read More

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November 2018

Adult student nurses' experiences of encountering perceived child abuse or neglect during their community placement: Implications for nurse education.

Nurse Educ Today 2018 Nov 14;73:60-64. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Northumbria University, Department of Nursing, Midwifery and Health, Coach Lane Benton, Newcastle upon Tyne NE7 7, XA, United Kingdom.

Introduction: While child nursing students may expect to encounter child abuse and neglect and assume a safeguarding role when they qualify, those undertaking adult nursing courses may not expect to come into contact with children and may be even less likely to expect to encounter child abuse or neglect. This paper presents the findings of an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) study. Students learn through experience and reflection and Mezirow's Transformational Learning Theory (TLT) was used to explain the various ways in which nine adult nursing students attempted to make sense of and learn from their experiences of encountering perceived child abuse and neglect during their community placement. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The theory and practice of Thomas Verner Moore's Catholic psychiatry and psychotherapy.

Authors:
Robert Kugelmann

Hist Psychol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

University of Dallas.

Thomas Verner Moore (1877-1969), a Catholic priest, psychologist, and psychiatrist, developed a Catholic psychiatry in the first half of the 20th century. Following a brief description of Moore's life, this article develops his psychiatric theory, beginning with its grounding in Thomistic philosophical thought. The relationship between reason and faith, the place of the soul in psychological theory, and a central role for Catholic moral teaching were three Thomistic principles vital to Moore's thinking. Read More

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November 2018

Understanding, choosing and applying grounded theory: part 1.

Nurse Res 2018 Dec 8;26(3):43-49. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Nursing & Midwifery, College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Grounded theory is one of the most widely used qualitative research methodologies. However, it is complex and frequently misinterpreted and misapplied.

Aim: To provide a critical overview of grounded theory, to support neophyte researchers' understanding of a methodology for systematically generating theory from data. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Self-Experiments with Psychoactive Substances: A Historical Perspective.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

The purpose of this chapter is to highlight the rich tradition of self-experiments (SEs) with psychoactive substances carried out by scientists and therapists for more than a century. Scientifically inspired controlled SEs dominated until the end of the twentieth century, when ethical requirements minimized controlled SEs and "wild" SEs expanded particularly with the emergence of new psychoactive substances. The review focuses on laughing gas (nitrous oxide), cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, entactogens, and dissociative hallucinogens. Read More

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November 2018

Just Policy? An Ethical Analysis of Early Intervention Policy Guidance.

Am J Bioeth 2018 Nov;18(11):43-53

a University of Oxford.

Early intervention (EI) aims to identify children or families at risk of poor health, and take preventative measures at an early stage, when intervention is more likely to succeed. EI is concerned with the just distribution of "life chances," so that all children are given fair opportunity to realize their potential and lead a good life; EI policy design, therefore, invokes ethical questions about the balance of responsibilities between the state, society, and individuals in addressing inequalities. We analyze a corpus of EI policy guidance to investigate explicit and implicit ethical arguments about who should be held morally responsible for safeguarding child health and well-being. Read More

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November 2018

Temporality in chronic diseases and adherence to long-term therapies: From philosophy to science and back.

Authors:
G Reach

Diabetes Metab 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Endocrinology, diabetes and metabolic diseases department, Avicenne hospital, AP-HP, health education and practices laboratory (LEPS), EA 3412, Paris 13 University, Paris Sorbonne Cité, Bobigny, France. Electronic address:

This narrative review exhibits the construction and validation of a hypothesis to explain how treatment non-adherence in people with chronic disease, a major issue in contemporary medicine, occurs. I propose that non-adherence to long-term therapies is at least in part due to failure to prioritize the future, which is caused by a condition I dub disruption in time projection. This article gives the rationale for this hypothesis, which is largely grounded on philosophical arguments. Read More

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November 2018

Best interest versus advance decisions to refuse treatment in advance care planning for neurodegenerative illness.

Authors:
Chris Lennard

Br J Nurs 2018 Nov;27(21):1261-1267

Registered mental health nurse, Pirton Grange Specialist Care Centre, Pirton, Worcestershire.

This article describes the role of nurses assisting people with degenerative illness in advance care planning (ACP) for a time when they may lose decision-making capacity. It looks at the concept of advance decisions to refuse treatment (ADRT), as defined in the Mental Capacity Act 2005 , exploring the legal, ethical and philosophical ramifications of carrying out, or overriding, formerly expressed wishes of someone who has subsequently lost decision-making capacity. It uses an illustrative composite case study of an individual with Huntington's disease whose prognosis includes future deterioration in swallowing, together with consideration of whether to have or refuse a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Read More

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November 2018

Interpretation and use of patient-reported outcome measures through a philosophical lens.

Qual Life Res 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

School of Nursing, Trinity Western University, Langley, Canada.

Purpose: As patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) increasingly become key outcome indicators in health care, there has been growing concern about the potential negative consequences that could result when interpretations are being made to inform clinical and policy decisions. Therefore, we explored theoretical issues, assumptions, and consequences of using PROMs from a philosophical point of view.

Methods: Our analysis of the literature was informed by Gadamerian hermeneutics, which emphasizes the dialectical processes that occur during interpretation, to provide insights as to how different users interpret and use standardized questions about health and quality of life. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Conceptualizing a Sustainable Food System in an Automated World: Toward a "Eudaimonian" Future.

Front Nutr 2018 5;5:104. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States.

The industrialized world has entered a new era of widespread automation, and although this may create long-term gains in economic productivity and wealth accumulation, many professions are expected to disappear during the ensuing shift, leading to potentially significant disruptions in labor markets and associated socioeconomic difficulties. Food production, like many other industrial sectors, has also undergone a century of mechanization, having moved toward increasingly large-scale monoculture production-especially in developed economies-with higher yields but detrimental environmental impacts on a global scale. Certain characteristics of the food sector and its products cast doubts on whether future automation will influence it in the same ways as in other sectors. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Self-reflection during first clinical practice: The experiences of nursing students.

Nurse Educ Today 2019 Jan 10;72:61-66. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

University of Maribor, Faculty of Health Sciences, Maribor, Slovenia. Electronic address:

Background: Self-reflection can be used as a tool for describing student experiences and have a significant impact on their learning. It enables nursing students to develop the ability to identify and analyse their problems and find possible solutions.

Objective: To present students' self- reflection in their first clinical practice as their first stage of our nursing study program. Read More

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January 2019
6 Reads

God as the Good: A Critique of H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr.'s After God.

Authors:
David Bradshaw

J Med Philos 2018 Nov;43(6):650-666

University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Despite its many strengths, Engelhardt's After God displays two surprising features: an affinity for voluntaristic ethics and a tendency to oppose Eastern Orthodoxy (as a purely revealed religion) to philosophy. Neither of these is in keeping with the mainstream of Eastern Orthodox tradition. Here, I offer a modest corrective. Read More

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November 2018

[Old age in Medieval times].

Authors:
Gérard Chandès

Soins Gerontol 2018 Nov - Dec;23(134):12-15

Centre de recherches sémiotiques, université de Limoges, 39, rue Camille-Guérin, 87000 Limoges, France. Electronic address:

Europe in the Middle Ages had no experience of gerontology as we know it today. The categorisation of old age was based on symbolic relationships with the world, inherited from Antiquity, and resulted in an ambivalent image of this age. Our knowledge in the area is derived mainly from fiction, from scholarly texts of a philosophical, moralising or medical nature, each interacting with the other. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Enchanted nature, dissected nature: the case of Galen's anatomical theology.

Authors:
Kimbell Kornu

Theor Med Bioeth 2018 Dec;39(6):453-471

Albert Gnaegi Center for Health Care Ethics, Saint Louis University, 3545 Lafayette Ave, Salus Center, 5th Floor, St. Louis, MO, 63104, USA.

Through the historical portrait of Galen, I argue that even an enchanted nature does not prevent the performance of violence against nature. Galen (129-c. 216 CE), the great physician-philosopher of antiquity, is best known for his systematization and innovation of the Hippocratic medical tradition, whose thought was the reigning medical orthodoxy from the medieval period into the Renaissance. Read More

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December 2018

Nothing Much for Philosophers.

Authors:
Eric Schliesser

Philos Soc Sci 2018 Jan 15;48(1):40-46. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

In this article, I argue that by discarding the significance of philosophical methods and tools, the picture of field philosophy offered in is more akin to public interest consulting than to philosophy. Read More

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January 2018

No luck for moral luck.

Cognition 2018 Nov 11;182:331-348. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

University of Pittsburgh, 4200 Fifth Avenue, 15260 Pittsburgh, USA. Electronic address:

Moral philosophers and psychologists often assume that people judge morally lucky and morally unlucky agents differently, an assumption that stands at the heart of the Puzzle of Moral Luck. We examine whether the asymmetry is found for reflective intuitions regarding wrongness, blame, permissibility, and punishment judgments, whether people's concrete, case-based judgments align with their explicit, abstract principles regarding moral luck, and what psychological mechanisms might drive the effect. Our experiments produce three findings: First, in within-subjects experiments favorable to reflective deliberation, the vast majority of people judge a lucky and an unlucky agent as equally blameworthy, and their actions as equally wrong and permissible. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Addiction in the light of African values: Undermining vitality and community.

Authors:
Thaddeus Metz

Monash Bioeth Rev 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Philosophy, University of Johannesburg, B-706, APK, POB 524, Auckland Park, 2006, South Africa.

I address the question of what makes addiction morally problematic, and seek to answer it by drawing on values salient in the sub-Saharan African philosophical tradition. Specifically, I appeal to life-force and communal relationship, each of which African philosophers have at times advanced as a foundational value, and spell out how addiction, or at least salient instances of it, could be viewed as unethical for flouting them. I do not seek to defend either vitality or community as the best explanation of when and why addiction is immoral, instead arguing that each of these characteristically African values grounds an independent and plausible account of that. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Influence of FTO rs9939609 and Mediterranean diet on body composition and weight loss: a randomized clinical trial.

J Transl Med 2018 Nov 12;16(1):308. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Section of Clinical Nutrition and Nutrigenomic, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133, Rome, Italy.

Background: The Mediterranean diet (MeD) plays a key role in the prevention of obesity. Among the genes involved in obesity, the Fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is one of the most known, but its interaction with MeD remained uncertain so far.

Methods: We carried out a study on a sample of 188 Italian subjects, analyzing their FTO rs9939609 alleles, and the difference in body composition between the baseline and a 4-weeks nutritional intervention. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

A conceptual framework for clinicians working with artificial intelligence and health-assistive Smart Homes.

Nurs Inq 2018 Nov 12:e12267. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

College of Nursing, Washington State University, Vancouver, Washington.

The Smart Home designed to extend older adults independence is emerging as a clinical solution to the growing ageing population. Nurses will and should play a key role in the development and application of Smart Home technology. Accordingly, conceptual frameworks are needed for nurse scientists who are collaborating with multidisciplinary research teams in developing an intelligent Smart Home that assists with managing older adults' health. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Paul et Virginie, or the Enigma of Evil: The Double Theodicy of Bernardin de Saint-Pierre.

Authors:
Marco Menin

J Hist Ideas 2018 ;79(4):593-612

This article aims to show how Bernardin de Saint-Pierre-whose philosophical and theological thought is generally overlooked by scholars-provides an original solution to the problem of the existence of evil. A comparative reading of the systematic discussion of Providence that animates The Studies of Nature, his major theoretical work, and Paul and Virginia, a true Romanesque application of the philosophical treatise, brings out a double theodicy. In fact, Saint-Pierre establishes a fruitful synergy between Rousseau's anthropodicy, which provides a social and historical justification of evil, and Leibniz's eschatology, aimed at its metaphysical and otherworldly justification. Read More

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January 2018

[Philosophical reflection on restraint].

Authors:
Noëlle Carlin

Rev Infirm 2018 Oct;67(244):27-28

c/o La revue de l'infirmière, 65, rue Camille-Desmoulins, 92442 Issy-les-Moulineaux cedex, France. Electronic address:

The caregiver is very much involved in implementing restraint. This act, which is not trivial, lies at the crossroads of the notion of dignity, respect, violence, consent. Restraint can be considered through the prism of philosophy questioning our own humanity. Read More

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October 2018

Rethinking the doctor-patient relationship: toward a hermeneutically-informed epistemology of medical practice.

Authors:
Paul Healy

Med Health Care Philos 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Faculty of Health, Arts, and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, John Street, Hawthorn, VIC, 3122, Australia.

Although typically implicit, clinicians face an inherent conflict between their roles as medical healers and as providers of technical biomedicine (Scott et al. in Philos Ethics Humanit Med 4:11, 2009). This conflict arises from the tension between the physicalist model which still predominates in medical training and practice and the extra-physicalist dimensions of medical practice as epitomised in the concept of patient-centred care. Read More

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November 2018

Overview of the History of the Cranial Nerves: From Galen to the 21st Century.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Throughout history the description and classification of the cranial nerves has been linked to the development and characteristics of anatomy and the role that it played as a tool in providing rationality to medicine, together with social, cultural, religious, and philosophical factors. Anatomists were interested in the cranial nerves, but they disagreed on their number and their paths. We can divide the history of the cranial nerves into three different periods: the first, early or macroscopic period; the second or microscopic period; and the third period or ontogenesis and genoarchitecture. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

What is the place for philosophy within the field of medicine? A review of contemporary issues in medical ethics.

Authors:
Richard Fenton

Philos Ethics Humanit Med 2018 11 9;13(1):16. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, NP20 2UB, UK.

This extended essay seeks to unpack some of the key aspects of philosophy which are applicable to medical thought and practice. It proceeds via an analytical discussion of the contemporary debate in three key areas of medical ethics: euthanasia, concepts of health & disease and psychiatry.The main claims are as follows: 1. Read More

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November 2018

Nurse participation in legal executions: An ethics round-table discussion.

Nurs Ethics 2018 Nov 16;25(7):841-854. Epub 2016 Dec 16.

Charles Sturt University, Australia.

A paper was published in 2003 discussing the ethics of nurses participating in executions by inserting the intravenous line for lethal injections and providing care until death. This paper was circulated on an international email list of senior nurses and academics to engender discussion. From that discussion, several people agreed to contribute to a paper expressing their own thoughts and feelings about the ethics of nurses participating in executions in countries where capital punishment is legal. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads
1.090 Impact Factor

Reincarnating the Identity Theory.

Front Psychol 2018 24;9:2044. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Philosophy, Centre for Philosophical Psychology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

The mind/brain identity theory is often thought to be of historical interest only, as it has allegedly been swept away by functionalism. After clarifying why and how the notion of identity implies that there is no genuine problem of explaining how the mental derives from something else, we point out that the identity theory is not necessarily a mind/brain identity theory. In fact, we propose an updated form of identity theory, or embodied identity theory, in which the identities concern not experiences and brain phenomena, but experiences and organism-environment interactions. Read More

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October 2018

Naturalizing Phenomenology: A ?

Front Psychol 2018 22;9:1933. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Laboratory of Experimental Phenomenology, Department of Humanities, University of Trento, Trento, Italy.

Quite a few cognitive scientists are working toward a naturalization of phenomenology. Looking more closely at the relevant literature, however, the 'naturalizing phenomenology' proposals show the presence of different conceptions, assumptions, and formalisms, further differentiated by different philosophical and/or scientific concerns. This paper shows that the original Husserlian stance is deeper, clearer and more advanced than most supposed contemporary improvements. Read More

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October 2018

Comparison of philosophical concerns between professionals and the public regarding two psychiatric treatments.

AJOB Empir Bioeth 2018 Nov 6:1-15. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

b Lyman Briggs College , Michigan State University , East Lansing , Michigan , USA.

Background: Psychiatric interventions are a contested area in medicine, not only because of their history of abuses, but also because their therapeutic goal is to affect emotions, thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors that are regarded as pathological. Because psychiatric interventions affect characteristics that seem central to who we are, they raise issues regarding identity, autonomy, and personal responsibility for one's own well-being. Our study addresses two questions: (1) Do the public and academic researchers understand the philosophical stakes of these technologies in the same way? Following from this, (2) to what extent does the specific type of psychiatric technology affect the issues these two groups raise? This study compares how ethical issues regarding neurosurgical and pharmaceutical psychiatric interventions are discussed among the public and in the professional community of academic medicine and bioethics. Read More

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November 2018

Is breastfeeding 'normal'? Using the right language for breastfeeding.

Authors:
Virginia Thorley

Midwifery 2018 Oct 27;69:39-44. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Honorary Research Fellow, School of Historical and Philosophical Inquiry, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Accurate terms aid clarity in thinking and prevent confusion. In the infant feeding field 'normal' can be ambiguous as biologically normal may not equate with culturally normal in a given time or place. Similarly, the use of the term 'intervention' is appropriate if a recommended practice is not perceived as 'normal' to that culture. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

New approaches to aquatic and terrestrial animal surveillance: The potential for people and technology to transform epidemiology.

Prev Vet Med 2018 Oct 25. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Level 1, 34 Thynne St, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia. Electronic address:

Epidemiology provides insights about causes of diseases and how to control them, and is powered by surveillance information. Animal health surveillance systems typically have been designed to meet high-level government informational needs, and any incentives for those who generate data (such as animal owners and animal health workers) to report surveillance information are sometimes outweighed by the negative consequences of reporting; underreporting is a serious constraint. This problem can persist even when modern advances in information and communications technology (ICT) are incorporated into the structure and operation of surveillance systems, although some problems typical of paper-based systems (including timeliness of reporting and response, accuracy of data entry, and level of detail recorded) are reduced. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

From mind to molecules and back to mind-Metatheoretical limits and options for systems neuropsychiatry.

Authors:
Felix Tretter

Chaos 2018 Oct;28(10):106325

Bertalanffy Center for the Study of Systems Science, Paulanergasse 13 / door 5, A 1040 Vienna, Austria.

like dementia are increasingly relevant for public health affairs. promises progress in diagnosis and treatment of these illnesses and exhibits a rapid increase of knowledge by new neurotechnologies. In order to find generic patterns in huge neurobiological data sets and by exploring formal brain models, offers many examples of fruitful insights into the complex dynamics of neuronal information processing. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Naturopathic Medicine for the Management of Endometriosis, Dysmenorrhea, and Menorrhagia: A Content Analysis.

J Altern Complement Med 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

1 Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney , Ultimo, New South Wales, Australia .

Objectives: To explore the recommendations of naturopathic medicine for the management of endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia, drawing on traditional and contemporary sources.

Design: Content analysis.

Setting: Australia, Canada, and the United States of America (USA). Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

A Knowledge Framework for the Philosophical Underpinnings of Research: Implications for Music Therapy.

Authors:
Bill Matney

J Music Ther 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

University of Kansas.

Current music therapy studies suggest great diversity and complexity in research approaches. Authors note the importance of increased clarity in many facets of research reporting. Some authors have also encouraged increased understanding and reporting of the philosophical underpinnings of knowledge generation in research. Read More

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October 2018

A Philosophical Approach to Addressing Uncertainty in Medical Education.

Acad Med 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

M.R. Tonelli is professor of medicine and adjunct professor of bioethics and humanities, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. R.E.G. Upshur is professor, Department of Family and Community Medicine and the Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Conveying the uncertainty inherent in clinical practice has rightly become a focus of medical training. To date, much of the emphasis aims to encourage trainees to acknowledge and accept uncertainty. Intolerance of uncertainty is associated with medical student distress and a tendency in clinicians toward overtreatment. Read More

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October 2018

Understanding human enhancement technologies through critical phenomenology.

Nurs Philos 2018 Oct 30:e12229. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of English Language and Literature, Department of Health Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Human enhancement technologies raise serious ethical questions about health practices no longer content simply to treat disease, but which now also propose to "optimize" human beings' physical, cognitive and psychological abilities. These technologies call for a reassessment of our relationship to health, the human body and the body's organic, identity and social functions. In nursing, such considerations are in their infancy. Read More

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October 2018

Oliver Heaviside's electromagnetic theory.

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 2018 Oct 29;376(2134). Epub 2018 Oct 29.

School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Merz Court, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK.

The year 2018 marks the 125th anniversary of the first of three published volumes on electromagnetic theory by the eminent Victorian electrical engineer, physicist and mathematician, Oliver Heaviside FRS. This commemorative issue of celebrates the publication of this work by collecting papers on a broad spectrum across the field of electromagnetic theory, including innovative research papers interspersed between historical perspectives and relevant reviews. Heaviside was a remarkable man, an original thinker with brilliant mathematical powers and physical insight who made many significant contributions in his fields of interest, though he is remembered primarily for his 'step function', commonly used today in many branches of physics, mathematics and engineering. Read More

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October 2018

When Queerness Meets Intersectional Thinking: Revolutionizing Parallels, Histories, and Contestations.

J Homosex 2018 Oct 29:1-21. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

b Department of Educational Leadership , George Washington University , Washington, DC , USA.

Intuitively distinguishing the myriad of critically informed paradigms requires an in-depth analysis of genealogies, histories, and philosophical underpinnings grounding each paradigm. Despite significant parallels between queer theory and intersectionality theory, the distinction of these two paradigms acts in both complicated and complementary manners that necessitate a dialogue on the contributions emanating from both paradigms to LGBTQ studies. This article targets the following goals: (1) explicate genealogy, history, and philosophical tenets of intersectionality and queer theory; (2) dialogue about the complementary yet complex relationships between the two paradigms; and (3) illustrate the promise of the complex relationship and distinction for LGBTQ studies. Read More

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October 2018

Curriculum Development Discourse and Practice.

Authors:
Fiona O'Riordan

Stud Health Technol Inform 2018 ;256:561-571

Teaching Enhancement Unit, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

Curricula in higher education is under increasing pressure to contribute to economic and societal enhancement. Educators are the primary source of curricula development and thus most centrally placed to help deliver on these significant requirements for higher education. Given their central role, the aim of this research was to elucidate the voice of educators with regard to their experience of curriculum development practice and discourse, in the context of higher education. Read More

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January 2018

Have Causal Claims About the Gut Microbiome Been Over-Hyped?

Authors:
Pierrick Bourrat

Bioessays 2018 Dec 29;40(12):e1800178. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Philosophy, Macquarie University, Building W6A, North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia 2109.

Microbiome research attributes to whole microbiomes a causal role in the occurrence of different health outcomes. I argue, following some distinctions about causal relationships and explanations made within a philosophical account of causation, the "interventionist account," that such claims need more scrutiny. Read More

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December 2018

From Practice to Principle and Back: Applying a New Realist Method to the European Union's Democratic Deficit.

Authors:
Jan Pieter Beetz

Polit Stud (Oxf) 2018 May 11;66(2):339-355. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The prospect of a Brexit illustrates that the European Union's legitimacy deficit can have far-reaching political consequences. In normative political theory, realists take a keen interest in questions of legitimacy. Building on Bernard Williams' realist writings, I propose a two-step method of normative political theorization. Read More

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A Sharing Meanings Approach for Interdisciplinary Hazards Research.

Authors:
R Dean Hardy

Risk Anal 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Hazards researchers frequently examine complex socioenvironmental problems, a difficult undertaking that is further compounded by the challenge of navigating the many disciplinary approaches in the field. This article draws on key insights from studies of the interdisciplinary process and proposes the "sharing meanings approach" for improving interdisciplinary collaboration in hazards research. The sharing meanings approach addresses common challenges to interdisciplinary teamwork and organizes them into four focal areas: (1) worldviews (including ontological, epistemological, and philosophical perspectives), (2) language, (3) research design, and (4) project goals. Read More

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October 2018

Too much medicine: not enough trust?

J Med Ethics 2018 Oct 26. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Faculty of Philosophy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

As many studies around the theme of 'too much medicine' attest, investigations are being ordered with increasing frequency; similarly the threshold for providing treatment has lowered. Our contention is that trust (or lack of it) is a significant factor in influencing this, and that understanding the relationship between trust and investigations and treatments will help clinicians and policymakers ensure ethical decisions are more consistently made. Drawing on the philosophical literature, we investigate the nature of trust in the patient-doctor relationship, arguing that at its core it involves a transfer of discretion. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Perception of drug users on family: a phenomenological study.

Rev Bras Enferm 2018 ;71(suppl 5):2094-2100

Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia. Jequié, Bahia, Brazil.

Objective: to understand the perception of drug users about "being a family" in the context of their psychosocial rehabilitation.

Method: based on the theoretical-philosophical reference of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. It was carried out with eleven users of the Center for Psychosocial Care Alcohol and other Drugs (CAPS AD) in a municipality in the South of Bahia, Brazil, through the Focal Group, in August 2015. Read More

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January 2018
9 Reads

Commentary: Paradigms, Axiology, and Praxeology in Medical Education Research.

Acad Med 2018 Nov;93(11S Association of American Medical Colleges Learn Serve Lead: Proceedings of the 57th Annual Research in Medical Education Sessions):S1-S7

Z. Zaidi is associate professor and associate chief of faculty development, Division of General Internal Medicine, director of scholarship, Department of Medicine, and director of longitudinal portfolios, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4328-5766. D. Larsen is associate professor of neurology and pediatrics, Department of Neurology, and director of medical student education, Division of Pediatric and Developmental Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

This supplement includes 11 research papers accepted by the 2018 Research in Medical Education Committee. In this Commentary, the authors draw the attention of medical educators and researchers to questions about the researcher's philosophical paradigm. Such questions fundamentally guide research-the choice of conceptual frameworks, methods, and methodology. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads