7,685 results match your criteria Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B Biological sciences[Journal]


Challenges and future prospects for developing Ca and Mg water quality guidelines: a meta-analysis.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1K 3M4.

Anthropogenic activities have the potential to increase water hardness (Ca + Mg) in receiving waters to toxic concentrations, and thus, water quality guidelines (WQG) for Ca and Mg are warranted. However, Ca can modify Mg toxicity in Ca-poor water and additional interactions with other major ions (Na, K, HCO/CO, SO and Cl) may occur, potentially obscuring the water hardness-effect relationship. In a meta-analysis of toxicological studies, we: (i) evaluate the performance of three WQG derivation methods, and (ii) determine the influence of several variables (acute/chronic data, anions, Ca:Mg ratios, non-geographically relevant species) on the models. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283968PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Sensitivity of freshwater species under single and multigenerational exposure to seawater intrusion.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.

Salinization of coastal freshwater ecosystems is already occurring in some regions of the world. This phenomenon raises serious concerns on the protection of coastal freshwater ecosystems, since many of them support and shelter a large number of species and are considered hotspots of biodiversity. This work intended to assess the adverse effects that salinization, caused by the intrusion of seawater (SW), may pose to freshwater organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283950PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Salinization effects on coastal ecosystems: a terrestrial model ecosystem approach.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

CFE - Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, P-3000 456 Coimbra, Portugal.

In coastal areas, intrusion/irrigation with seawater can threaten biodiversity along with crop yields, and the leaching of salts from areas affected by these processes can increase the salinity of water bodies nearby. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of salinization on coastal soil ecosystems due to saline intrusion/irrigation. Terrestrial model ecosystems were used to simulate two soil salinization scenarios: (i) seawater intrusion and irrigation with distilled water and (ii) seawater intrusion and irrigation with saline water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283962PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Temperature affects acute mayfly responses to elevated salinity: implications for toxicity of road de-icing salts.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Stroud Water Research Center, 970 Spencer Road, Avondale, PA 19311, USA.

Salinity in freshwater ecosystems has increased significantly at numerous locations throughout the world, and this increase often reflects the use or production of salts from road de-icing, mining/oil and gas drilling activities, or agricultural production. When related to de-icing salts, highest salinity often occurs in winter when water temperature is often low relative to mean annual temperature at a site. Our study examined acute (96 h) responses to elevated salinity (NaCl) concentrations at five to seven temperature treatments (5-25°C) for four mayfly species (Baetidae: , ; Heptageniidae: ; Leptophlebiidae: ) that are widely distributed across eastern North America. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283955PMC
December 2018
12 Reads

Multiple riparian-stream connections are predicted to change in response to salinization.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA.

Secondary freshwater salinization, a common anthropogenic alteration, has detrimental, lethal and sub-lethal effects on aquatic biota. Ions from secondary salinization can become toxic to terrestrial and aquatic organisms when exposed to salinized runoff that causes periodic high-concentration pulses. Gradual, low-level (less than 1000 ppm salinity) increases in salt concentrations are also commonly documented in regions with urbanization, agriculture, drilling and mining. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283969PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Drivers of spatio-temporal patterns of salinity in Spanish rivers: a nationwide assessment.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Environmental Hydraulics Institute 'IH Cantabria', University of Cantabria, PCTCAN. C/ Isabel Torres 15, 39011 Santander, Spain.

The salinization of freshwaters is a global water quality problem that leads to the biological degradation of aquatic ecosystems. However, little is known about the spatial extent of freshwater salinization and the relative contribution of each human activity (e.g. Read More

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http://www.royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283964PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Why are mayflies (Ephemeroptera) lost following small increases in salinity? Three conceptual osmophysiological hypotheses.

Authors:
Ben J Kefford

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia

The salinity of many freshwaters is increasing globally as a result of human activities. Associated with this increase in salinity are losses of Ephemeroptera (mayfly) abundance and richness. The salinity concentrations at which Ephemeroptera decline in nature are lower than their internal salinity or haemolymph osmolality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283959PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Biological interactions mediate context and species-specific sensitivities to salinity.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia.

Toxicants have both sub-lethal and lethal effects on aquatic biota, influencing organism fitness and community composition. However, toxicant effects within ecosystems may be altered by interactions with abiotic and biotic ecosystem components, including biological interactions. Collectively, this generates the potential for toxicant sensitivity to be highly context dependent, with significantly different outcomes in ecosystems than laboratory toxicity tests predict. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283956PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Regulations are needed to protect freshwater ecosystems from salinization.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, Darrin Fresh Water Institute, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA.

Anthropogenic activities such as mining, agriculture and industrial wastes have increased the rate of salinization of freshwater ecosystems around the world. Despite the known and probable consequences of freshwater salinization, few consequential regulatory standards and management procedures exist. Current regulations are generally inadequate because they are regionally inconsistent, lack legal consequences and have few ion-specific standards. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283961PMC
December 2018
12 Reads

Are fungal strains from salinized streams adapted to salt-rich conditions?

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

CFE, Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Calçada Martim de Freitas, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal.

Anthropogenic salinization of freshwater is a global problem with largely unknown consequences for stream functions. We compared the effects of salt addition (6 g l NaCl) in microcosms on leaf mass loss and microbial parameters in single- and multispecies assemblages of fungal strains (, HELU; , TEMA; , FLCU) isolated from a reference (R) or salinized (S) stream. Fungal growth and interactions were also assessed. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283957PMC
December 2018
13 Reads

Novel 'chemical cocktails' in inland waters are a consequence of the freshwater salinization syndrome.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

US Environmental Protection Agency (Retired).

Widespread changes in water temperatures, salinity, alkalinity and pH have been documented in inland waters in North America, which influence ion exchange, weathering rates, chemical solubility and contaminant toxicity. Increasing major ion concentrations from pollution, human-accelerated weathering and saltwater intrusion contribute to multiple ecological stressors such as changing ionic strength and pH and mobilization of chemical mixtures resulting in the freshwater salinization syndrome (FSS). Here, we explore novel combinations of elements, which are transported together as chemical mixtures containing salts, nutrients and metals as a consequence of FSS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283973PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Are sulfate effects in the mayfly driven by the cost of ion regulation?

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Nautilus Environmental, Burnaby, Burnaby, Canada.

Elevated major ion concentrations in streams are commonly observed as a consequence of resource extraction, de-icing and other anthropogenic activities. Ecologists report biodiversity losses associated with increasing salinity, with mayflies typically being highly responsive to increases of different major ions. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the mayfly reared for its entire larval phase in a gradient of sulfate concentrations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283952PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Evolved tolerance to freshwater salinization in zooplankton: life-history trade-offs, cross-tolerance and reducing cascading effects.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Darrin Fresh Water Institute, Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA.

Recent discoveries have documented evolutionary responses to freshwater salinization. We investigated if evolutionary responses to salinization exhibit life-history trade-offs or if they can mitigate ecological impacts such as cascading effects through mechanisms of tolerance and cross-tolerance. We conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment using populations of -a ubiquitous algal grazer-that were either naive or had previously experienced selection to become more tolerant to sodium chloride (NaCl). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283953PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Effects of salinity changes on aquatic organisms in a multiple stressor context.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales (ICAM), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo, Spain.

Under global change, the ion concentration of aquatic ecosystems is changing worldwide. Many freshwater ecosystems are being salinized by anthropogenic salt inputs, whereas many naturally saline ones are being diluted by agricultural drainages. This occurs concomitantly with changes in other stressors, which can result in additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects on organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283958PMC
December 2018
10 Reads

Salinity impacts on river ecosystem processes: a critical mini-review.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Quantitative Landscape Ecology, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau, Germany.

In many dry parts of the world, salinization of water resources threatens freshwater biodiversity and the livelihood of people. However, ecological impact studies remain scarce. Here, we review field-observations of salinity impacts on ecosystem processes such as leaf decomposition, metabolism, biomass production and nutrient cycling, with a special emphasis on dryland ecosystems. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283965PMC
December 2018
9 Reads

Do all roads lead to Rome? Exploring community trajectories in response to anthropogenic salinization and dilution of rivers.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Grup de Recerca Freshwater Ecology, Hydrology and Management (FEHM-Lab), Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona (UB), 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Abiotic stress shapes how communities assemble and support ecological functions. However, it remains unclear whether artificially increasing or decreasing stress levels would lead to communities assembling predictably along a single axis of variation or along multiple context-dependent trajectories of change. In response to stress intensity alterations, we hypothesize that a single trajectory of change occurs when trait-based assembly prevails, while multiple trajectories of change arise when dispersal-related processes modify colonization and trait-filtering dynamics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283960PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Insect communities in saline waters consist of realized but not fundamental niche specialists.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Ecology and Hydrology, University of Murcia, 30100 Murcia, Spain

Considering how organisms adapt to stress is essential if we are to anticipate biological responses to global change in ecosystems. Communities in stressful environments can potentially be assembled by specialists (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283954PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Lost in translation: the German literature on freshwater salinization.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Freshwater Ecology and Management (FEM) Research Group, Departament de Biologia Evolutiva, Ecologia i Ciències Ambientals, Institut de Recerca de l'Aigua (IdRA), Universitat de Barcelona (UB), Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

Human activities have globally increased and altered the ion concentration of freshwater ecosystems. The proliferation of potash mines in Germany (especially intense in the early 1900s) constitutes a good example of it. The effluents and runoff coming from potash mines led to extreme salt concentrations (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283970PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Naturalizing pollution: a critical social science view on the link between potash mining and salinization in the Llobregat river basin, northeast Spain.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Departament de Geografia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalunya, Spain.

The scientific literature distinguishes between primary or natural and secondary or human-induced salinization. Assessing this distinction is of vital importance to assign liabilities and responsibilities in pollution cases and for designing the best policy and management actions. In this context, actors interested in downplaying the role of certain drivers of human-induced salinization can attempt to neglect its importance by referring to natural salinization, in a similar fashion to other pollution and health-related cases, from tobacco smoke to climate change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283971PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Predicting combined effects of land use and climate change on river and stream salinity.

Authors:
John R Olson

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

California State University Monterey Bay, School of Natural Sciences, 100 Campus Center, Seaside, CA 93955, USA

Agricultural, industrial and urban development have all contributed to increased salinity in streams and rivers, but the likely effects of future development and climate change are unknown. I developed two empirical models to estimate how these combined effects might affect salinity by the end of this century (measured as electrical conductivity, EC). The first model predicts natural background from static (e. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283963PMC
December 2018
13 Reads

Predicting current and future background ion concentrations in German surface water under climate change.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute for Environmental Sciences, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, 76829 Landau, Germany.

Salinization of surface waters is a global environmental issue that can pose a regional risk to freshwater organisms, potentially leading to high environmental and economic costs. Global environmental change including climate and land use change can increase the transport of ions into surface waters. We fit both multiple linear regression (LR) and random forest (RF) models on a large spatial dataset to predict Ca (266 sites), Mg (266 sites), and [Formula: see text] (357 sites) ion concentrations as well as electrical conductivity (EC-a proxy for total dissolved solids with 410 sites) in German running water bodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283972PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Species of freshwater invertebrates that are sensitive to one saline water are mostly sensitive to another saline water but an exception exists.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute for Applied Ecology, University of Canberra, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2601, Australia

Coal mining and extraction of methane from coal beds generate effluent with elevated salinity or major ion concentrations. If discharged to freshwater systems, these effluents may have adverse environmental effects. There is a growing body of work on freshwater invertebrates that indicates variation in the proportion of major ions can be more important than salinity when determining toxicity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283951PMC
December 2018
3 Reads

Salt in freshwaters: causes, effects and prospects - introduction to the theme issue.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Dec 3;374(1764). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Quantitative Landscape Ecology, University Koblenz-Landau, Fortstr. 7, 76829 Landau, Germany.

Humans are globally increasing the salt concentration of freshwaters (i.e. freshwater salinization), leading to significant effects at the population, community and ecosystem level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283966PMC
December 2018
8 Reads

Using insect natural history collections to study global change impacts: challenges and opportunities.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Département de Biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada J1 K 2R1.

Over the past two decades, natural history collections (NHCs) have played an increasingly prominent role in global change research, but they have still greater potential, especially for the most diverse group of animals on Earth: insects. Here, we review the role of NHCs in advancing our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary responses of insects to recent global changes. Insect NHCs have helped document changes in insects' geographical distributions, phenology, phenotypic and genotypic traits over time periods up to a century. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282079PMC
November 2018
7 Reads

Using museum specimens to track morphological shifts through climate change.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Biology, University of Washington, 24 Kincaid Hall, Seattle, WA 98195, USA

Museum specimens offer a largely untapped resource for detecting morphological shifts in response to climate change. However, morphological shifts can be obscured by shifts in phenology or distribution or sampling biases. Additionally, interpreting phenotypic shifts requires distinguishing whether they result from plastic or genetic changes. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282086PMC
November 2018
12 Reads

Specimen-based analysis of morphology and the environment in ecologically dominant grasses: the power of the herbarium.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, 975 North Warson Road, St Louis, MO 63132, USA

Herbaria contain a cumulative sample of the world's flora, assembled by thousands of people over centuries. To capitalize on this resource, we conducted a specimen-based analysis of a major clade in the grass tribe Andropogoneae, including the dominant species of the world's grasslands in the genera , , and several others. We imaged 186 of the 250 named species of the clade, georeferenced the specimens and extracted climatic variables for each. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282083PMC
November 2018
1 Read

The use and misuse of herbarium specimens in evaluating plant extinction risks.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond TW9 3BW, UK.

Herbarium specimens provide verifiable and citable evidence of the occurrence of particular plants at particular points in space and time, and are vital resources for assessing extinction risk in the tropics, where plant diversity and threats to plants are greatest. We reviewed approaches to assessing extinction risk in response to the Convention on Biological Diversity's Global Strategy for Plant Conservation Target 2: an assessment of the conservation status of all known plant species by 2020. We tested five alternative approaches, using herbarium-derived data for trees, shrubs and herbs in five different plant groups from temperate and tropical regions. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282085PMC
November 2018
12 Reads

Bookkeeping of insect herbivory trends in herbarium specimens of purple loosestrife ().

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Département des Sciences de l'environnement; Chaire de Recherche du Canada en Intégrité Écologique, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, 3351 Boul. des Forges, CP 500, Trois-Rivières (Qc), Canada G9A 5H7

The potential use of herbarium specimens to detect herbivory trends is enormous but largely untapped. The objective of this study was to reconstruct the long-term herbivory pressure on the Eurasian invasive plant, purple loosestrife (), by evaluating leaf damage over 1323 specimens from southern Québec (Canada). The hypothesis tested is that that the prevalence of herbivory damage on purple loosestrife is low during the invasion phase and increases throughout the saturation phase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282091PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Facets of phylodiversity: evolutionary diversification, divergence and survival as conservation targets.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Integrative Biology, University and Jepson Herbaria/University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA.

Biodiversity is often described as having multiple facets, including species richness, functional diversity and phylogenetic diversity. In this paper, we argue that phylogenetic diversity itself has three distinct facets-lineage diversification, character divergence and survival time-that can be quantified using distinct branch length metrics on an evolutionary tree. Each dimension is related to different processes of macroevolution, has different spatial patterns and is tied to distinct goals for conserving biodiversity and protecting its future resilience and evolutionary potential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282076PMC
November 2018
17 Reads

A novel proof of concept for capturing the diversity of endophytic fungi preserved in herbarium specimens.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

School of Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

Herbarium specimens represent important records of morphological and genetic diversity of plants that inform questions relevant to global change, including species distributions, phenology and functional traits. It is increasingly appreciated that plant microbiomes can influence these aspects of plant biology, but little is known regarding the historic distribution of microbes associated with plants collected in the pre-molecular age. If microbiomes can be observed reliably in herbarium specimens, researchers will gain a new lens with which to examine microbial ecology, evolution, species interactions. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282087PMC
November 2018
10 Reads

Herbarium specimens reveal substantial and unexpected variation in phenological sensitivity across the eastern United States.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology and Harvard University Herbaria, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

Phenology is a key biological trait that can determine an organism's survival and provides one of the clearest indicators of the effects of recent climatic change. Long time-series observations of plant phenology collected at continental scales could clarify latitudinal and regional patterns of plant responses and illuminate drivers of that variation, but few such datasets exist. Here, we use the web tool to crowdsource phenological data from over 7000 herbarium specimens representing 30 diverse flowering plant species distributed across the eastern United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0394DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282088PMC
November 2018
9 Reads

Museum specimens provide novel insights into changing plant-herbivore interactions.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Departments of Botany, Forest, and Conservation Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z4.

Mounting evidence shows that species interactions may mediate how individual species respond to climate change. However, long-term anthropogenic effects on species interactions are poorly characterized owing to a lack of data. Insect herbivory is a major ecological process that represents the interaction between insect herbivores and their host plants, but historical data on insect damage to plants is particularly sparse. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282078PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Fungarium specimens: a largely untapped source in global change biology and beyond.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Section for Genetics and Evolutionary Biology (EVOGENE), Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1066 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway

For several hundred years, millions of fungal sporocarps have been collected and deposited in worldwide collections (fungaria) to support fungal taxonomy. Owing to large-scale digitization programs, metadata associated with the records are now becoming publicly available, including information on taxonomy, sampling location, collection date and habitat/substrate information. This metadata, as well as data extracted from the physical fungarium specimens themselves, such as DNA sequences and biochemical characteristics, provide a rich source of information not only for taxonomy but also for other lines of biological inquiry. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282084PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

The history and impact of digitization and digital data mobilization on biodiversity research.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, 1659 Museum Road, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.

The first two decades of the twenty-first century have seen a rapid rise in the mobilization of digital biodiversity data. This has thrust natural history museums into the forefront of biodiversity research, underscoring their central role in the modern scientific enterprise. The advent of mobilization initiatives such as the United States National Science Foundation's Advancing Digitization of Biodiversity Collections (ADBC), Australia's Atlas of Living Australia (ALA), Mexico's National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO), Brazil's Centro de Referência em Informação (CRIA) and China's National Specimen Information Infrastructure (NSII) has led to a rapid rise in data aggregators and an exponential increase in digital data for scientific research and arguably provide the best evidence of where species live. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282090PMC
November 2018
11 Reads

Botanic gardens are an untapped resource for studying the functional ecology of tropical plants.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Biology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146, USA

Functional traits are increasingly used to understand the ecology of plants and to predict their responses to global changes. Unfortunately, trait data are unavailable for the majority of plant species. The lack of trait data is especially prevalent for hard-to-measure traits and for tropical plant species, potentially owing to the many inherent difficulties of working with species in remote, hyperdiverse rainforest systems. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282089PMC
November 2018
8 Reads

Historical collections as a tool for assessing the global pollination crisis.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Andrena Iniciativas y Estudios Medio Ambientales, Valladolid, Spain.

There is increasing concern about the decline of pollinators worldwide. However, despite reports that pollinator declines are widespread, data are scarce and often geographically and taxonomically biased. These biases limit robust inference about any potential pollinator crisis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282077PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Fossil Atmospheres: a case study of citizen science in question-driven palaeontological research.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Paleobiology, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, 10th & Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20560, USA.

Palaeontologists increasingly use large datasets of observations collected from museum specimens to address broad-scale questions about evolution and ecology on geological timescales. One such question is whether information from fossil organisms can be used as a robust proxy for atmospheric carbon dioxide through time. Here, we present the citizen science branch of 'Fossil Atmospheres', a project designed to refine stomatal index of leaves as a palaeo-CO proxy by involving citizen scientists in data collection through the Zooniverse website. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282081PMC
November 2018
12 Reads

Museum specimens of terrestrial vertebrates are sensitive indicators of environmental change in the Anthropocene.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Museum of Comparative Zoology and Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA

Natural history museums and the specimen collections they curate are vital scientific infrastructure, a fact as true today as it was when biologists began collecting and preserving specimens over 200 years ago. The importance of museum specimens in studies of taxonomy, systematics, ecology and evolutionary biology is evidenced by a rich and abundant literature, yet creative and novel uses of specimens are constantly broadening the impact of natural history collections on biodiversity science and global sustainability. Excellent examples of the critical importance of specimens come from their use in documenting the consequences of environmental change, which is particularly relevant considering the alarming rate at which we now modify our planet in the Anthropocene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282080PMC
November 2018
2 Reads

Biological collections for understanding biodiversity in the Anthropocene.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 19;374(1763). Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

Global change has become a central focus of modern biology. Yet, our knowledge of how anthropogenic drivers affect biodiversity and natural resources is limited by a lack of biological data spanning the Anthropocene. We propose that the hundreds of millions of plant, fungal and animal specimens deposited in natural history museums have the potential to transform the field of global change biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6282082PMC
November 2018
1 Read

The role of 3' end uridylation in RNA metabolism and cellular physiology.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 5;373(1762). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Central European Institute of Technology (CEITEC), Masaryk University, Kamenice 5/A35, Brno 625 00, Czech Republic

Most eukaryotic RNAs are posttranscriptionally modified. The majority of modifications promote RNA maturation, others may regulate function and stability. The 3' terminal non-templated oligouridylation is a widespread modification affecting many cellular RNAs at some stage of their life cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232591PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Role of oligouridylation in normal metabolism and regulated degradation of mammalian histone mRNAs.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 5;373(1762). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA

Metazoan replication-dependent histone mRNAs are the only known cellular mRNAs that are not polyadenylated. Histone mRNAs are present in large amounts only in S-phase cells, and their levels are coordinately regulated with the rate of DNA replication. In mammals, the stemloop at the 3' end of histone mRNA is bound to stemloop binding protein, a protein required for both synthesis and degradation of histone mRNA, and an exonuclease, 3'hExo (ERI1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232589PMC
November 2018
7 Reads
7.055 Impact Factor

The multitasking polyA tail: nuclear RNA maturation, degradation and export.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 5;373(1762). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, C. F. Møllers Allé 3, building 1130, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark

A polyA (pA) tail is an essential modification added to the 3' ends of a wide range of RNAs at different stages of their metabolism. Here, we describe the main sources of polyadenylation and outline their underlying biochemical interactions within the nuclei of budding yeast , human cells and, when relevant, the fission yeast Polyadenylation mediated by the Trf4/5 enzymes, and their human homologues PAPD5/7, typically leads to the 3'-end trimming or complete decay of non-coding RNAs. By contrast, the primary function of canonical pA polymerases (PAPs) is to produce stable and nuclear export-competent mRNAs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232593PMC
November 2018
12 Reads

Fidelity in RNA-based recognition of transposable elements.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 5;373(1762). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Gene Center, LMU Munich, 81377 Munich, Germany

Genomes are under constant threat of invasion by transposable elements and other genomic parasites. How can host genomes recognize these elements and target them for degradation? This requires a system that is highly adaptable, and at the same time highly specific. Current data suggest that perturbation of transcription patterns by transposon insertions could be detected by the RNAi surveillance pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232588PMC
November 2018
1 Read

mRNAs biotinylated within the 5' cap and protected against decapping: new tools to capture RNA-protein complexes.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 5;373(1762). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Centre of New Technologies, University of Warsaw, Banacha 2c, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland

The 5'-terminus of eukaryotic mRNAs comprises a 7-methylguanosine cap linked to the first transcribed nucleotide via a 5'-5' triphosphate bond. This cap structure facilitates numerous interactions with molecules participating in mRNA processing, turnover and RNA translation. Here, we report the synthesis and biochemical properties of a set of biotin-labelled cap analogues modified within the triphosphate bridge and increasing mRNA stability while retaining biological activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232584PMC
November 2018
6 Reads
7.055 Impact Factor

RNA polyadenylation and its consequences in prokaryotes.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 5;373(1762). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Immunology, Microbiology and Parasitology, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48940 Leioa, Spain

Post-transcriptional addition of poly(A) tails to the 3' end of RNA is one of the fundamental events controlling the functionality and fate of RNA in all kingdoms of life. Although an enzyme with poly(A)-adding activity was discovered in more than 50 years ago, its existence and role in prokaryotic RNA metabolism were neglected for many years. As a result, it was not until 1992 that poly(A) polymerase I was purified to homogeneity and its gene was finally identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232592PMC
November 2018
10 Reads

mRNA decapping: finding the right structures.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 5;373(1762). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Laboratoire de Biochimie, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau cedex, France

In eukaryotes, the elimination of the mGpppN mRNA cap, a process known as decapping, is a critical, largely irreversible and highly regulated step of mRNA decay that withdraws the targeted mRNAs from the pool of translatable templates. The decapping reaction is catalysed by a multi-protein complex formed by the Dcp2 catalytic subunit and its Dcp1 cofactor, a holoenzyme that is poorly active on its own and needs several accessory proteins (Lsm1-7 complex, Pat1, Edc1-2, Edc3 and/or EDC4) to be fully efficient. Here, we discuss the several crystal structures of Dcp2 domains bound to various partners (proteins or small molecules) determined in the last couple of years that have considerably improved our current understanding of how Dcp2, assisted by its various activators, is recruited to its mRNA targets and adopts its active conformation upon substrate recognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232594PMC
November 2018
4 Reads

RNA uridylation and decay in plants.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 5;373(1762). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Institut de biologie moléculaire des plantes (IBMP), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Université de Strasbourg, 12 rue Zimmer, 67000 Strasbourg, France

RNA uridylation consists of the untemplated addition of uridines at the 3' extremity of an RNA molecule. RNA uridylation is catalysed by terminal uridylyltransferases (TUTases), which form a subgroup of the terminal nucleotidyltransferase family, to which poly(A) polymerases also belong. The key role of RNA uridylation is to regulate RNA degradation in a variety of eukaryotes, including fission yeast, plants and animals. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232585PMC
November 2018
17 Reads

Terminal nucleotidyl transferases (TENTs) in mammalian RNA metabolism.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 5;373(1762). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Laboratory of RNA Biology and Functional Genomics, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5a, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland

In eukaryotes, almost all RNA species are processed at their 3' ends and most mRNAs are polyadenylated in the nucleus by canonical poly(A) polymerases. In recent years, several terminal nucleotidyl transferases (TENTs) including non-canonical poly(A) polymerases (ncPAPs) and terminal uridyl transferases (TUTases) have been discovered. In contrast to canonical polymerases, TENTs' functions are more diverse; some, especially TUTases, induce RNA decay while others, such as cytoplasmic ncPAPs, activate translationally dormant deadenylated mRNAs. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/lookup/doi/10.1098/rs
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232586PMC
November 2018
11 Reads

Human RNA cap1 methyltransferase CMTr1 cooperates with RNA helicase DHX15 to modify RNAs with highly structured 5' termini.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Nov 5;373(1762). Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Laboratory of Bioinformatics and Protein Engineering, International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, ul. ks. Trojdena 4, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland

The 5'-cap structure, characteristic for RNA polymerase II-transcribed RNAs, plays important roles in RNA metabolism. In humans, RNA cap formation includes post-transcriptional modification of the first transcribed nucleotide by RNA cap1 methyltransferase (CMTr1). Here, we report that CMTr1 activity is hindered towards RNA substrates with highly structured 5' termini. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6232587PMC
November 2018
14 Reads