33 results match your criteria Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences[Journal]

  • Page 1 of 1

Royal Society Scientific Meeting: Extracellular vesicles in the tumour microenvironment.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2018 Jan;373(1737)

Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK

Cancer cells do not grow as an isolated homogeneous mass; tumours are, in fact, complex and heterogeneous collections of cancer and surrounding stromal cells, collectively termed the tumour microenvironment. The interaction between cancer cells and stromal cells in the tumour microenvironment has emerged as a key concept in the regulation of cancer progression. Understanding the intercellular dialogue in the tumour microenvironment is therefore an important goal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5717444PMC
January 2018
9 Reads

Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2016 11 10;371(1708). Epub 2016 Oct 10.

Psychiatry Group, Department of Neuroscience, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Universities of Sussex and Brighton, Brighton BN1 9PX, UK.

Interoception refers to the sensing of the internal state of one's body. Interoception is distinct from the processing of sensory information concerning external (non-self) stimuli (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5062092PMC
November 2016
4 Reads

Perspectives on the history of evo-devo and the contemporary research landscape in the genomics era.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2017 02;372(1713)

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK

A fundamental question in biology is how the extraordinary range of living organisms arose. In this theme issue, we celebrate how evolutionary studies on the origins of morphological diversity have changed over the past 350 years since the first publication of the Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society Current understanding of this topic is enriched by many disciplines, including anatomy, palaeontology, developmental biology, genetics and genomics. Development is central because it is the means by which genetic information of an organism is translated into morphology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2015.0473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5182407PMC
February 2017
3 Reads

Percussive technology in human evolution: an introduction to a comparative approach in fossil and living primates.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Nov;370(1682)

Kumamoto-Sanctuary of Wildlife Research Center, Kyoto University, 990 Ohtao, Misumi, Uki, Kumamoto 869-3201, Japan.

Percussive technology is part of the behavioural suite of several fossil and living primates. Stone Age ancestors used lithic artefacts in pounding activities, which could have been most important in the earliest stages of stone working. This has relevant evolutionary implications, as other primates such as chimpanzees and some monkeys use stone hammer-and-anvil combinations to crack hard-shelled foodstuffs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4614711PMC
November 2015
7 Reads

Memory, modelling and Marr: a commentary on Marr (1971) 'Simple memory: a theory of archicortex'.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Centre for Cognitive and Neural Systems, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, UK

David Marr's theory of the archicortex, a brain structure now more commonly known as the hippocampus and hippocampal formation, is an epochal contribution to theoretical neuroscience. Addressing the problem of how information about 10 000 events could be stored in the archicortex during the day so that they can be retrieved using partial information and then transferred to the neocortex overnight, the paper presages a whole wealth of later empirical and theoretical work, proving impressively prescient. Despite this impending success, Marr later apparently grew dissatisfied with this style of modelling, but he went on to make seminal suggestions that continue to resonate loudly throughout the field of theoretical neuroscience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360131PMC
April 2015
3 Reads

Medawar's legacy to cellular immunology and clinical transplantation: a commentary on Billingham, Brent and Medawar (1956) 'Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. III. Actively acquired tolerance'.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Division of Immunology and Inflammation, Department of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK

'Quantitative studies on tissue transplantation immunity. III. Actively acquired tolerance', published in Philosophical Transactions B in 1956 by Peter Medawar and his colleagues, PhD graduate Leslie Brent and postdoctoral fellow Rupert Billingham, is a full description of the concept of acquired transplantation tolerance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360130PMC
April 2015
6 Reads

Foreseeing fates: a commentary on Manton (1928) 'On the embryology of a mysid crustacean, Hemimysis lamornae'.

Authors:
Michael Akam

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK

Sidnie Manton became best known for her work on arthropod locomotion, and for proposing radical views on the evolution of arthropods that were accepted for a generation. However, her early training was as an embryologist, and the work that she carried out at the beginning of her career still stands as one of the major twentieth century contributions to the study of crustacean embryology. Here, I review her first major paper, largely completed while she was a graduate student, describing embryonic development in Hemimysis lamornae, a small shrimp-like animal found in the seas around the UK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360129PMC
April 2015
5 Reads

Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies'.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Newcastle University Institute for Ageing, Campus for Ageing and Vitality, Newcastle upon Tyne NE4 5PL, UK

In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies', to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0379DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360127PMC
April 2015
8 Reads

The prevention and eradication of smallpox: a commentary on Sloane (1755) 'An account of inoculation'.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Sir Hans Sloane's account of inoculation as a means to protect against smallpox followed several earlier articles published in Philosophical Transactions on this procedure. Inoculation (also called 'variolation') involved the introduction of small amounts of infectious material from smallpox vesicles into the skin of healthy subjects, with the goal of inducing mild symptoms that would result in protection against the more severe naturally acquired disease. It began to be practised in England in 1721 thanks to the efforts of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu who influenced Sloane to promote its use, including the inoculation of the royal family's children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360126PMC
April 2015
8 Reads

From high symmetry to high resolution in biological electron microscopy: a commentary on Crowther (1971) 'Procedures for three-dimensional reconstruction of spherical viruses by Fourier synthesis from electron micrographs'.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Division of Physical Biochemistry, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK

Elucidation of the structure of biological macromolecules and larger assemblies has been essential to understanding the roles they play in living processes. Methods for three-dimensional structure determination of biological assemblies from images recorded in the electron microscope were therefore a key development. In his paper published in Philosophical Transactions B in 1971, Crowther described new computational procedures applied to the first three-dimensional reconstruction of an icosahedral virus from images of virus particles preserved in negative stain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360125PMC
April 2015
6 Reads

The unseen world: reflections on Leeuwenhoek (1677) 'Concerning little animals'.

Authors:
Nick Lane

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK

Leeuwenhoek's 1677 paper, the famous 'letter on the protozoa', gives the first detailed description of protists and bacteria living in a range of environments. The colloquial, diaristic style conceals the workings of a startlingly original experimental mind. Later scientists could not match the resolution and clarity of Leeuwenhoek's microscopes, so his discoveries were doubted or even dismissed over the following centuries, limiting their direct influence on the history of biology; but work in the twentieth century confirmed Leeuwenhoek's discovery of bacterial cells, with a resolution of less than 1 µm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360124PMC
April 2015
6 Reads

The early evolution of land plants, from fossils to genomics: a commentary on Lang (1937) 'On the plant-remains from the Downtonian of England and Wales'.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Department of Earth Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK.

During the 1920s, the botanist W. H. Lang set out to collect and investigate some very unpromising fossils of uncertain affinity, which predated the known geological record of life on land. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360123PMC
April 2015
5 Reads

From plant extract to molecular panacea: a commentary on Stone (1763) 'An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of the agues'.

Authors:
John N Wood

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, Gower St., London WC1E 6BT, UK Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea

The application of aspirin-like drugs in modern medicine is very broad, encompassing the treatment of inflammation, pain and a variety of cardiovascular conditions. Although anecdotal accounts of willow bark extract as an anti-inflammatory drug have occurred since written records began (for example by Hippocrates), the first convincing demonstration of a potent anti-pyretic effect of willow bark containing salicylates was made by the English cleric Edward Stone in the late eighteenth century. Here, we discuss the route to optimizing and understanding the mechanism of action of anti-inflammatory drugs that have their origins in Stone's seminal study, 'An account of the success of the bark of the willow in the cure of agues'. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360122PMC
April 2015
8 Reads

A model model: a commentary on DiFrancesco and Noble (1985) 'A model of cardiac electrical activity incorporating ionic pumps and concentration changes'.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Institute for Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK

This paper summarizes the advances made by the DiFrancesco and Noble (DFN) model of cardiac cellular electrophysiology, which was published in Philosophical Transactions B in 1985. This model was developed at a time when the introduction of new techniques and provision of experimental data had resulted in an explosion of knowledge about the cellular and biophysical properties of the heart. It advanced the cardiac modelling field from a period when computer models considered only the voltage-dependent channels in the surface membrane. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royptb/370/16
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360121PMC
April 2015
9 Reads

Extraordinary fossils reveal the nature of Cambrian life: a commentary on Whittington (1975) 'The enigmatic animal Opabinia regalis, Middle Cambrian, Burgess Shale, British Columbia'.

Authors:
Derek E G Briggs

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Department of Geology and Geophysics and Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, PO Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109, USA

Harry Whittington's 1975 monograph on Opabinia was the first to highlight how some of the Burgess Shale animals differ markedly from those that populate today's oceans. Categorized by Stephen J. Gould as a 'weird wonder' (Wonderful life, 1989) Opabinia, together with other unusual Burgess Shale fossils, stimulated ongoing debates about the early evolution of the major animal groups and the nature of the Cambrian explosion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360120PMC
April 2015
11 Reads

Gas valves, forests and global change: a commentary on Jarvis (1976) 'The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field'.

Authors:
David J Beerling

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK

Microscopic turgor-operated gas valves on leaf surfaces-stomata-facilitate gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, and respond to multiple environmental and endogenous cues. Collectively, stomatal activities affect everything from the productivity of forests, grasslands and crops to biophysical feedbacks between land surface vegetation and climate. In 1976, plant physiologist Paul Jarvis reported an empirical model describing stomatal responses to key environmental and plant conditions that predicted the flux of water vapour from leaves into the surrounding atmosphere. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360119PMC
April 2015
8 Reads

The beginning of connectomics: a commentary on White et al. (1986) 'The structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans'.

Authors:
Scott W Emmons

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA

The article 'Structure of the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans' (aka 'The mind of a worm') by White et al., published for the first time the complete set of synaptic connections in the nervous system of an animal. The work was carried out as part of a programme to begin to understand how genes determine the structure of a nervous system and how a nervous system creates behaviour. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360118PMC
April 2015
10 Reads

Focusing by shape change in the lens of the eye: a commentary on Young (1801) 'On the mechanism of the eye'.

Authors:
Michael Land

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QG, UK

In his Bakerian Lecture paper of 1801, Thomas Young provided the best account up to that time of the eye's optical system, including refraction by the cornea and the surfaces of the lens. He built a device, an optometer, for determining the eye's state of focus, making it possible to prescribe appropriate correction lenses. His main contribution, however, was to show that accommodation, the eye's focusing mechanism, was not the result of changes to the curvature of the cornea, nor to the length of the eye, but was due entirely to changes in the shape of the lens, which he described with impressive accuracy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360117PMC
April 2015
7 Reads

How mathematical epidemiology became a field of biology: a commentary on Anderson and May (1981) 'The population dynamics of microparasites and their invertebrate hosts'.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Institute of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study and the Infectious Disease Research Centre, Massey University, Private Bag 102 904, North Shore Mail Centre, Auckland, New Zealand.

We discuss the context, content and importance of the paper 'The population dynamics of microparasites and their invertebrate hosts', by R. M. Anderson and R. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360116PMC
April 2015
6 Reads

Every inch a finch: a commentary on Grant (1993) 'Hybridization of Darwin's finches on Isla Daphne Major, Galapagos'.

Authors:
Graham Bell

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

Biology Department, McGill University, 1205 avenue Docteur Penfield, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 1B1

One of the most familiar features of the natural world is that most animals and plants fall into distinct categories known as species. The attempt to understand the nature of species and the origin of new species was the enterprise that drove the early development of evolutionary biology and has continued to be a major focus of research. Individuals belonging to the same species usually share a distinctive appearance and way of life, and they can mate together successfully and produce viable offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360115PMC
April 2015
6 Reads

Forging patterns and making waves from biology to geology: a commentary on Turing (1952) 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis'.

Authors:
Philip Ball

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2015 Apr;370(1666)

18 Hillcourt Road, East Dulwich, London SE22 0PE, UK

Alan Turing was neither a biologist nor a chemist, and yet the paper he published in 1952, 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis', on the spontaneous formation of patterns in systems undergoing reaction and diffusion of their ingredients has had a substantial impact on both fields, as well as in other areas as disparate as geomorphology and criminology. Motivated by the question of how a spherical embryo becomes a decidedly non-spherical organism such as a human being, Turing devised a mathematical model that explained how random fluctuations can drive the emergence of pattern and structure from initial uniformity. The spontaneous appearance of pattern and form in a system far away from its equilibrium state occurs in many types of natural process, and in some artificial ones too. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360114PMC
April 2015
8 Reads

Changing the light environment: chloroplast signalling and response mechanisms.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2014 Apr 3;369(1640):20130220. Epub 2014 Mar 3.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, , PO Box 461, Gothenburg 40530, Sweden.

Light is an essential environmental factor required for photosynthesis, but it also mediates signals to control plant development and growth and induces stress tolerance. The photosynthetic organelle (chloroplast) is a key component in the signalling and response network in plants. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biology provides updates, highlights and summaries of the most recent findings on chloroplast-initiated signalling cascades and responses to environmental changes, including light and biotic stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3949385PMC
April 2014
4 Reads

African rainforests: past, present and future.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2013 22;368(1625):20120312. Epub 2013 Jul 22.

Environmental Change Institute, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, UK.

The rainforests are the great green heart of Africa, and present a unique combination of ecological, climatic and human interactions. In this synthesis paper, we review the past and present state processes of change in African rainforests, and explore the challenges and opportunities for maintaining a viable future for these biomes. We draw in particular on the insights and new analyses emerging from the Theme Issue on 'African rainforests: past, present and future' of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3720030PMC
March 2014
5 Reads

Vaccines and global health.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2011 Oct;366(1579):2733-42

Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, 'New vaccines for global health', was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing vaccines against some of the world's remaining major infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malaria and tuberculosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2011.0076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3146775PMC
October 2011
5 Reads

Biogeography and ecology: two views of one world.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2011 Aug;366(1576):2331-5

Department of Biology, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2368, USA.

Both biogeography and ecology seek to understand the processes that determine patterns in nature, but do so at different spatial and temporal scales. The two disciplines were not always so different, and are recently converging again at regional spatial scales and broad temporal scales. In order to avoid confusion and to hasten progress at the converging margins of each discipline, the following papers were presented at a symposium in the International Biogeography Society's 2011 meeting, and are now published in this issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. Read More

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http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royptb/366/15
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2011.0064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3130434PMC
August 2011
3 Reads

The evolving biology of cell reprogramming.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2011 Aug;366(1575):2183-97

MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Chancellor's Building, 49 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4SB, Scotland, UK.

Modern stem cell biology has achieved a transformation that was thought by many to be every bit as unattainable as the ancient alchemists' dream of transforming base metals into gold. Exciting opportunities arise from the process known as 'cellular reprogramming' in which cells can be reliably changed from one tissue type to another. This is enabling novel approaches to more deeply investigate the fundamental basis of cell identity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2011.0051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3130426PMC
August 2011
2 Reads

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. Preface.

Authors:
Irving Kirsch

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2011 Jun;366(1572):1781-2

Harvard Medical School, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3130410PMC
June 2011
7 Reads

The biology of spermatogenesis: the past, present and future.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2010 May;365(1546):1459-63

The Mary M. Wohlford Laboratory for Male Contraceptive Research, Population Council, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA.

The physiological function of spermatogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and mammals is to produce spermatozoa (1n, haploid) that contain only half of the genetic material of spermatogonia (2n, diploid). This half number of chromosomes from a spermatozoon will then be reconstituted to become a diploid cell upon fertilization with an egg, which is also haploid. Thus, genetic information from two parental individuals can be passed onto their offspring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2871927PMC
May 2010
11 Reads

The evolution of organellar metabolism in unicellular eukaryotes.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2010 Mar;365(1541):693-8

School of Health and Medicine, Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK.

Metabolic innovation has facilitated the radiation of microbes into almost every niche environment on the Earth, and over geological time scales transformed the planet on which we live. A notable example of innovation is the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis which was a prelude to the gradual transformation of an anoxic Earth into a world with oxygenated oceans and an oxygen-rich atmosphere capable of supporting complex multicellular organisms. The influence of microbial innovation on the Earth's history and the timing of pivotal events have been addressed in other recent themed editions of Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society B (Cavalier-Smith et al. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2817233PMC
March 2010
3 Reads

Our plastic age.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2009 Jul;364(1526):1973-6

Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, Marine Institute, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, UK.

Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production. In this Theme Issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, we describe current and future trends in usage, together with the many benefits that plastics bring to society. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2874019PMC
July 2009
7 Reads

Neuromuscular control: introduction and overview.

Authors:
J L van Leeuwen

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1999 May;354(1385):841-7

Department of Physiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, The Netherlands.

This paper introduces some basic concepts of the interdisciplinary field of neuromuscular control, without the intention to be complete. The complexity and multifaceted nature of neuromuscular control systems is briefly addressed. Principles of stability and planning of motion trajectories are discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.1999.0436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1692592PMC
May 1999
2 Reads
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