5,404 results match your criteria Phencyclidine PCP-Related Psychiatric Disorders


The allosteric dopamine D1 receptor potentiator, DETQ, ameliorates subchronic phencyclidine-induced object recognition memory deficits and enhances cortical acetylcholine efflux in male humanized D1 receptor knock-in mice.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Diminished dopamine D1 stimulation may contribute to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, schizophrenia, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, orthosteric D1 receptor (D1R) agonists produce receptor desensitization and an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve, but positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) do not. We examined the cognitive effects of DETQ, a D1R PAM, in mice genetically modified to express the human D1 receptor ("hD1 mice"). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Metabolism and metabolomics of ketamine: a toxicological approach.

Forensic Sci Res 2017 20;2(1):2-10. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Department of Sciences, IINFACTS - Institute of Research and Advanced Training in Health Sciences and Technologies, University Institute of Health Sciences (IUCS), CESPU, CRL, Gandra, Portugal.

Ketamine is a phencyclidine derivative and a non-competitive antagonist of -methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor for which glutamate is the full agonist. It produces a functional dissociation between the thalamocortical and limbic systems, a state that has been termed as dissociative anaesthesia. Considerable variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between individuals that can affect dose-response and toxicological profile has been reported. Read More

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February 2017
1 Read

Metabolites to parent 3-MeO-PCP ratio in human urine collected in two fatal cases.

J Anal Toxicol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Institut de Médecine Légale, Université de Strasbourg, 11 rue Humann, Strasbourg, France.

In this article, two fatal cases related to the use of 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) are described. This compound is a new psychoactive substance that belongs to the phencyclidine family. In the recent period, this dissociative drug has gained interest because of its proposal as a legally available alternative to phencyclidine in some countries. Read More

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November 2018

The Emerging Role of Altered d-Aspartate Metabolism in Schizophrenia: New Insights From Preclinical Models and Human Studies.

Front Psychiatry 2018 6;9:559. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Laboratory of Behavioural Neuroscience, Ceinge Biotecnologie Avanzate, Naples, Italy.

Besides d-serine, another d-amino acid with endogenous occurrence in the mammalian brain, d-aspartate, has been recently shown to influence NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission. d-aspartate is present in the brain at extracellular level in nanomolar concentrations, binds to the agonist site of NMDARs and activates this subclass of glutamate receptors. Along with its direct effect on NMDARs, d-aspartate can also evoke considerable l-glutamate release in specific brain areas through the presynaptic activation of NMDA, AMPA/kainate and mGlu5 receptors. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Methoxetamine Induces Cytotoxicity in H9c2 Cells: Possible Role of p21 Protein (Cdc42/Rac)-Activated Kinase 1.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

College of Pharmacy and Medical Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 194-31 Osongsaemgmyeong 1-ro, Osong-eup, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, 28160, Republic of Korea.

The abuse of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is an emerging social problem. Methoxetamine, one of the NPS, was designed as an alternative to ketamine and it was considered an NPS candidate owing to its high addictive potential. However, cardiotoxicity of the phencyclidine analogue, methoxetamine, has not been extensively evaluated. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Methoxetamine: A foe or friend?

Neurochem Int 2018 Oct 24;122:1-7. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Uimyung Research Institute for Neuroscience, Department of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, 815 Hwarangro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 01795, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Methoxetamine (MXE) is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that is chemically and pharmacologically similar to other dissociative substances, such as ketamine and phencyclidine. There are reports on the misuse of MXE, which sometimes resulted in adverse consequences and death. Studies have also shown that MXE has abuse liability and stimulates dopamine neurotransmission in the mesolimbic reward pathway in the brain. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Comment on " In Vivo [F]GE-179 Brain Signal Does Not Show NMDA-Specific Modulation with Drug Challenges in Rodents and Nonhuman Primates".

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Oct 11. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences , King's College London , London SE1 7EH , United Kingdom.

Schoenberger and colleagues ( Schoenberger et al. ( 2018 ) ACS Chem. Neurosci. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Distinct and Dynamic ON and OFF Neural Ensembles in the Prefrontal Cortex Code Social Exploration.

Neuron 2018 Nov 27;100(3):700-714.e9. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, 333 Cassell Drive, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA; The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. Electronic address:

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is important for social behavior, but the mechanisms by which mPFC neurons code real-time social exploration remain largely unknown. Here we utilized miniScopes to record calcium activities from hundreds of excitatory neurons in the mPFC while mice freely explored restrained social targets in the absence or presence of the psychedelic drug phencyclidine (PCP). We identified distinct and dynamic ON and OFF neural ensembles that displayed opposing activities to code real-time behavioral information. Read More

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November 2018
17 Reads

Chronic methamphetamine self-administration dysregulates 5-HT2A and mGlu2 receptor expression in the rat prefrontal and perirhinal cortex: Comparison to chronic phencyclidine and MK-801.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2018 Dec 18;175:89-100. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Psychology Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA; Center for Addiction Research and Education (CARE) at University of Florida, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic methamphetamine (meth) abuse often turns into a compulsive drug-taking disorder accompanied by persistent cognitive deficits and re-occurring psychosis. Possible common neurobiological substrates underlying meth-induced deficits and schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors co-regulate psychosis-like behaviors and cognitive function in animals. Read More

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December 2018

The effects of donepezil on phencyclidine-induced cognitive deficits in a mouse model of schizophrenia.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2018 Dec 12;175:69-76. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Pharmacology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:

Donepezil is the first-line of treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD), which improves cognitive impairment effectively, but whether it has an impact on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated the effects and mechanisms of donepezil on schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits induced by phencyclidine (PCP). The cognitive deficits model of schizophrenia was established by injecting PCP into mice. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Role of mGlu2 in the 5-HT receptor-dependent antipsychotic activity of clozapine in mice.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Sep 12. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, 23298, USA.

Background: Serotonin 5-HT and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) are neurotransmitter G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in the signaling mechanisms underlying psychosis and schizophrenia treatment. Previous findings in mGlu2 knockout (KO) mice suggested that mGlu2 is necessary for head-twitch behavior, a rodent phenotype characteristic of hallucinogenic 5-HT receptor agonists. However, the role of mGlu2 in the behavioral effects induced by antipsychotic drugs remains poorly understood. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Clozapine attenuates mitochondrial burdens and abnormal behaviors elicited by phencyclidine in mice via inhibition of p47 ; Possible involvements of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling.

J Psychopharmacol 2018 Nov 12;32(11):1233-1251. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

1 Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology Program, Kangwon National University, Chunchon, Republic of Korea.

Background:: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

Aims:: We investigated whether antipsychotic clozapine modulates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and mitochondrial burdens induced by phencyclidine in mice.

Methods:: We examined the effect of clozapine on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation, mitochondrial burdens (i. Read More

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November 2018
11 Reads
3.590 Impact Factor

1,2-Diarylethylamine- and Ketamine-Based New Psychoactive Substances.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Sep 9. Epub 2018 Sep 9.

School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

While phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine remain the most well-studied and widely known dissociative drugs, a number of other agents have appeared since the late 1950s and early 1960s, when the pharmacological potential of this class was first realized. For example, hundreds of compounds have been pursued as part of legitimate research efforts to explore these agents. Some of these found their way out of the research labs and onto illicit markets of the 1960s and following decades as PCP analogs. Read More

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September 2018
14 Reads

Neurological, sensorimotor and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by methoxetamine, ketamine and phencyclidine in mice.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Oct 27;141:167-180. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Department of Morphology, Surgery and Experimental Medicine, Section of Legal Medicine, University of Ferrara, Italy; Collaborative Center for the Italian National Early Warning System, Department of Anti-Drug Policies, Presidency of the Council of Ministers, Italy. Electronic address:

Novel psychoactive substances are intoxicating compounds developed to mimic the effects of well-established drugs of abuse. They are not controlled by the United Nations drug convention and pose serious health concerns worldwide. Among them, the dissociative drug methoxetamine (MXE) is structurally similar to ketamine (KET) and phencyclidine (PCP) and was created to purposely mimic the psychotropic effects of its "parent" compounds. Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

Oxytocin attenuates phencyclidine hyperactivity and increases social interaction and nucleus accumben dopamine release in rats.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Aug 7. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK.

The pituitary neuropeptide oxytocin promotes social behavior, and is a potential adjunct therapy for social deficits in schizophrenia and autism. Oxytocin may mediate pro-social effects by modulating monoamine release in limbic and cortical areas, which was investigated herein using in vivo microdialysis, after establishing a dose that did not produce accompanying sedative or thermoregulatory effects that could concomitantly influence behavior. The effects of oxytocin (0. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads

Phencyclidine-Based New Psychoactive Substances.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Aug 14. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

School of Pharmacy & Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.

The serendipitous discovery of phencyclidine (PCP) in 1956 sets the stage for significant research efforts that resulted in a plethora of analogs and derivatives designed to explore the biological effects of this class. PCP soon became the prototypical dissociative agent that eventually sneaked through the doors of clinical laboratories and became an established street drug. Estimations suggest that around 14 PCP analogs were identified as "street drugs" in the period between the 1960s and 1990s. Read More

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TPA-023 attenuates subchronic phencyclidine-induced declarative and reversal learning deficits via GABA receptor agonist mechanism: possible therapeutic target for cognitive deficit in schizophrenia.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Nov 23;43(12):2468-2477. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

GABAergic drugs are of interest for the treatment of anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, pain, cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS), and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Some evidence suggests that TPA-023, (7-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-6-(2-ethyl-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b] pyridazine), a GABA α2,3 subtype-selective GABA partial agonist and α antagonist, and the neurosteroid, pregnenolone sulfate, a GABA antagonist, may improve CIAS in pilot clinical trials. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of TPA-023 in mice after acute or subchronic (sc) treatment with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), on novel object recognition (NOR), reversal learning (RL), and locomotor activity (LMA) in rodents. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Lamotrigine Cross-Reactivity With Phencyclidine in Rapid Urine Toxicology in a Research Study.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018 Jul 26;20(4). Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Schizophrenia Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

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Cluster of acute poisonings associated with an emerging ketamine analogue, 2-oxo-PCE.

Forensic Sci Int 2018 Sep 24;290:238-243. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Hospital Authority Toxicology Reference Laboratory, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong; Chemical Pathology Laboratory, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Ketamine and phencyclidine are well-known drugs of abuse of the arylcyclohexylamine class, the backbone of which is used for the synthesis of new psychoactive substances (NPS). In October 2017, a cluster of acute intoxications was encountered where patients presented with ketamine-like toxidrome. Upon initial toxicology screening, however, neither ketamine nor other causative agents were detected in the patients' urine. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

5-HT parital agonism and 5-HT antagonism restore episodic memory in subchronic phencyclidine-treated mice: role of brain glutamate, dopamine, acetylcholine and GABA.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Oct 31;235(10):2795-2808. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 303 E. Chicago Ave., Ward Building 7-014, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Rationale: The effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g., lurasidone, to improve cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS), has been suggested to be due, in part, to enhancing release of dopamine (DA), acetylcholine (ACh), and glutamate (Glu) in cortex and hippocampus. Read More

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October 2018

First in human evaluation of [F]PK-209, a PET ligand for the ion channel binding site of NMDA receptors.

EJNMMI Res 2018 Jul 27;8(1):69. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Efforts to develop suitable positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for the ion channel site of human N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have had limited success. [F]PK-209 is a GMOM derivative that binds to the intrachannel phencyclidine site with high affinity and selectivity. Primate PET studies have shown that the volume of distribution in the brain was reduced by administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, consistent with substantial specific binding. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Chronic administration of quetiapine attenuates the phencyclidine-induced recognition memory impairment and hippocampal oxidative stress in rats.

Neuroreport 2018 Sep;29(13):1099-1103

Xiamen Xian Yue Hospital.

The underlying mechanism of atypical antipsychotics in treating cognitive impairment in schizophrenia is unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug, on object recognition memory and hippocampal oxidative stress in a phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia. Rats were treated with chronic quetiapine (10 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) for 16 days or acute quetiapine (10 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) on day 16. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Marijuana Use in Adults Living with Sickle Cell Disease.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2018 1;3(1):162-165. Epub 2018 Jul 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

Legal access to marijuana, most frequently as "medical marijuana," is becoming more common in the United States, but most states do not specify sickle cell disease as a qualifying condition. We were aware that some of our patients living with sickle cell disease used illicit marijuana, and we sought more information about this. We practice at an urban, academic medical center and provide primary, secondary, and tertiary care for ∼130 adults living with sickle cell disease. Read More

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July 2018
4 Reads

Investigating the role of mGluR2 versus mGluR3 in antipsychotic-like effects, sleep-wake architecture and network oscillatory activity using novel Han Wistar rats lacking mGluR2 expression.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Sep 11;140:246-259. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TD, United Kingdom.

Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2 and mGluR3) are implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders. They also control sleep-wake architecture and may offer novel therapeutic targets. However, the roles of the mGluR2 versus mGluR3 subtypes are not well understood. Read More

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September 2018
12 Reads

An optimised quadrupole mass spectrometer with a dual filter analyser for in-field chemical sniffing of volatile organic compounds.

Analyst 2018 Jul;143(15):3722-3728

BioSense Institute, University of Novi Sad, Dr Zorana Đinđića 1, 21 000 Novi Sad, Serbia.

We report a novel portable 17 kg system based on a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) with an electronic power consumption of 24 W. The system can be used for the in-field identification of gases and volatile/semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs). The mass analyser is a custom-made quadrupole mass filter with a Brubaker pre-filter that gives a mass range of m/z 1-500. Read More

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July 2018
3 Reads

LC-MS-MS Method Development and Analysis of Stimulants, Opiates, Synthetic Opiates, PCP, and Benzodiazepines in Wastewater. Preponderance of these Drugs During Football Games.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1810:149-182

ElSohly Laboratories, Inc., Oxford, MS, USA.

A method was developed for the analysis of stimulant drugs, opiates, synthetic opiates, PCP, and benzodiazepines in wastewater samples using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). A total of 33 compounds (stimulant-type drugs and metabolites of opiates, synthetic opiates, PCP, and benzodiazepines) were analyzed. These drugs included amphetamine (Amp) (1), methamphetamine (Meth) (2), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) (3), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (4), methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) (5), benzoylecgonine (BE, the major metabolite of Coc) (6), cocaine (Coc) (7), 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM, the primary urinary metabolite of heroin) (8), codeine (9), hydrocodone (10), hydromorphone (11), morphine (12), norhydrocodone (the primary urinary metabolite of hydrocodone) (13), oxycodone (14), oxymorphone (15), 2-ethylidine-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrolidine (EDDP, the primary urinary metabolite of methadone) (16), fentanyl (17), meperidine (18), methadone (19), norfentanyl (the primary urinary metabolite of fentanyl) (20), normeperidine (the primary urinary metabolite of meperidine) (21), phencyclidine (PCP) (22), tramadol (23), alprazolam (24), temazepam (25), nordiazepam (26), chlordiazepoxide (27), flurazepam (28), oxazepam (29), α-OH-alprazolam (the primary urinary metabolite of alprazolam) (30), α-OH-triazolam (the primary urinary metabolite of triazolam) (31), 2-OH-ethylflurazepam (the primary urinary metabolite of flurazepam) (32), and 7-NH-flunitrazepam (the primary urinary metabolite of flunitrazepam) (33). Read More

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January 2018
2 Reads

Pseudo-Wellens' syndrome secondary to concurrent cannabis and phencyclidine intoxication.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Jun 29;2018. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Institute for Heart and Vascular Health, Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Wellens' syndrome is an electrocardiographic pattern of T-wave changes associated with critical stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending artery, signifying imminent risk of an anterior-wall myocardial infarction. The Wellens' electrocardiographic pattern can also be noted in several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases. We chronicle here a unique case of a patient who presented with atypical left chest pain and dizziness for 6 hours. Read More

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June 2018
24 Reads

DARK Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Phencyclidine (PCP).

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Oct 17;9(10):2459-2474. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery , Vanderbilt University School of Medicine , Nashville , Tennessee 37232 , United States.

Phencyclidine (PCP, "angel dust", an arylcyclohexylamine) was the first non-natural, man-made illicit drug of abuse, and was coined 'the most dangerous drug in America" in the late 1970s (amidst sensational horror stories of the drug's effects); however, few other illicit drugs have had such a significant and broad impact on society-both good and bad. Originally developed as a new class of anesthetic, PCP-derived psychosis gave way to the PCP hypothesis of schizophrenia (later coined the NMDA receptor hypofunction hypothesis or the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia), which continues to drive therapeutic discovery for schizophrenia today. PCP also led to the discovery of ketamine (and a new paradigm for the treatment of major depression), as well as other illicit, designer drugs, such as methoxetamine (MXE) and a new wave of Internet commerce for illicit drugs (sold as research chemicals, or RCs). Read More

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October 2018
11 Reads

Effects of the Dopamine Stabilizer, Pridopidine, on Basal and Phencyclidine-Induced Locomotion: Role of Dopamine D2 and Sigma-1 Receptors.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2018 ;17(7):522-527

Unitat de Farmacologia, Departament Patologia i Terapeutica Experimental, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, IDIBELL-Universitat de Barcelona, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Pridopidine, a compound in clinical trials for Huntington's disease treatment, was originally synthesized as a dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) ligand, but later found to possess higher affinity for the sigma-1 receptor (S1R). However, the putative contributions of D2R and S1R to the behavioral profile of acutely administered pridopidine have not been investigated.

Objective: The present study sought to compare the effects of acute pridopidine on wild-type vs. Read More

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January 2018
12 Reads

Attenuation of toluene-induced brain stimulation reward enhancement and behavioral disturbances by N-acetylcysteine in mice.

Toxicology 2018 Sep 21;408:39-45. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, 701, Section 3, Chung-Yang Road, Hualien, 97004, Taiwan; Center for Neuropsychiatric Research, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan; Research Center for Mind, Brain, and Learning, National Chengchi University, 64, Sec. 2, ZhiNan Road, Wenshan District, Taipei City 11605, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Toluene, a commonly used organic solvent, produces a variety of behavioral disturbances in both humans and animals comparable to noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDARs) antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP). N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is capable of reversing the psychotomimetic effects of PCP via activation of cystine-glutamate antiporters (xCT). The present study examined whether NAC is capable of attenuating the toluene-induced brain stimulation reward enhancement and behavioral manifestations. Read More

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September 2018
17 Reads

False-positive phencyclidine immunoassay results caused by metronidazole.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 Jun 12:1-2. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

a Cátedra de Toxicología y Química Legal, Laboratorio de Asesoramiento Toxicológico Analítico (CENATOXA) , Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica , Buenos Aires , Argentina.

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June 2018
16 Reads

Some distorted thoughts about ketamine as a psychedelic and a novel hypothesis based on NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Nov 6;142:30-40. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Centre for Neuroscience and Trauma, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK; School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. Electronic address:

Ketamine, a channel blocking NMDA receptor antagonist, is used off-label for its psychedelic effects, which may arise from a combination of several inter-related actions. Firstly, reductions of the contribution of NMDA receptors to afferent information from external and internal sensory inputs may distort sensations and their processing in higher brain centres. Secondly, reductions of NMDA receptor-mediated excitation of GABAergic interneurons can result in glutamatergic overactivity. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Blocking NMDAR Disrupts Spike Timing and Decouples Monkey Prefrontal Circuits: Implications for Activity-Dependent Disconnection in Schizophrenia.

Neuron 2018 Jun 31;98(6):1243-1255.e5. Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; Center for Cognitive Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; Brain Sciences Center, VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55417, USA. Electronic address:

We employed multi-electrode array recording to evaluate the influence of NMDA receptors (NMDAR) on spike-timing dynamics in prefrontal networks of monkeys as they performed a cognitive control task measuring specific deficits in schizophrenia. Systemic, periodic administration of an NMDAR antagonist (phencyclidine) reduced the prevalence and strength of synchronous (0-lag) spike correlation in simultaneously recorded neuron pairs. We employed transfer entropy analysis to measure effective connectivity between prefrontal neurons at lags consistent with monosynaptic interactions and found that effective connectivity was persistently reduced following exposure to the NMDAR antagonist. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

The Thyroid Hormone-target Gene Rhes a Novel Crossroad for Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders: New Insights from Animal Models.

Neuroscience 2018 Aug 30;384:419-428. Epub 2018 May 30.

Ceinge Biotecnologie Avanzate, Naples, Italy; Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Caserta, Italy. Electronic address:

Ras homolog enriched in striatum (Rhes) is predominantly expressed in the corpus striatum. Rhes mRNA is localized in virtually all dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-bearing medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), and cholinergic interneurons of striatum. Early studies in rodents showed that Rhes is developmentally regulated by thyroid hormone, as well as by dopamine innervation in adult rat, monkey and human brains. Read More

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August 2018
2 Reads
3.360 Impact Factor

Neurosteroid pregnenolone sulfate, alone, and as augmentation of lurasidone or tandospirone, rescues phencyclidine-induced deficits in cognitive function and social interaction.

Behav Brain Res 2018 09 24;350:31-43. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Pregnenolone sulfate (PregS), an endogenous neurosteroid, which negatively and positively modulates gamma amino butyric acid subunit A (GABA) and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (R) respectively, among other potential neuroplastic changes on synaptic processes, has shown some beneficial effects on treating cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) and negative symptoms. Lurasidone (Lur), an atypical antipsychotic drug (AAPD), and tandospirone (Tan), a 5-HT R partial agonist, have also been reported to improve cognitive or negative symptoms, or both, in some schizophrenia patients.

Methods: We tested whether PregS, by itself, and in combination with Lur or Tan could rescue persistent deficits produced by subchronic treatment with the NMDAR antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP)-in episodic memory, executive functioning, and social behavior, using novel object recognition (NOR), operant reversal learning (ORL), and social interaction (SI) tasks, in male C57BL/6 J mice. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Phencyclidine dose optimisation for induction of spatial learning and memory deficits related to schizophrenia in C57BL/6 mice.

Exp Anim 2018 Nov 4;67(4):421-429. Epub 2018 May 4.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Phencyclidine (PCP) has been used to model cognitive deficits related to schizophrenia in rats and mice. However, the model in mice is not consistent in terms of the PCP effective dose reported. Furthermore, most of the previous studies in mice excluded the presence of drug washout period in the regime. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Temporally dissociable effects of ketamine on neuronal discharge and gamma oscillations in rat thalamo-cortical networks.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Jul 24;137:13-23. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques de Barcelona IIBB-CSIC, Department of Neurochemistry and Neuropharmacology, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Sub-anesthetic doses of the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist ketamine evoke transient psychotomimetic effects, followed by persistent antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients and rodents through still poorly understood mechanisms. Since phencyclidine (PCP) disinhibits thalamo-cortical networks by blocking NMDA-Rs on GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus (RtN), we examined ketamine's actions in the same areas.

Methods: Single units and local field potentials were recorded in chloral hydrate anesthetized male Wistar rats. Read More

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Enhancement of 5-HT receptor function and blockade of Kv1.5 by MK801 and ketamine: implications for PCP derivative-induced disease models.

Exp Mol Med 2018 04 27;50(4):47. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Department of Physiology, KU Open Innovation Center, Research Institute of Medical Science, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Chungju, Chungbuk, 27478, South Korea.

MK801 and ketamine, which are phencyclidine (PCP) derivative N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) blockers, reportedly enhance the function of 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)-2A receptors (5-HTRs). Both are believed to directly affect the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, as well as hypertension. 5-HTR signaling involves the inhibition of Kv conductance. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Pridopidine Reverses Phencyclidine-Induced Memory Impairment.

Front Pharmacol 2018 10;9:338. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Unitat de Farmacologia, Departament Patologia i Terapèutica Experimental, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, IDIBELL-Universitat de Barcelona, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Pridopidine is in clinical trials for Huntington's disease treatment. Originally developed as a dopamine D receptor (DR) ligand, pridopidine displays about 100-fold higher affinity for the sigma-1 receptor (sigma-1R). Interestingly, pridopidine slows disease progression and improves motor function in Huntington's disease model mice and, in preliminarily reports, Huntington's disease patients. Read More

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April 2018
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Phencyclidine and Scopolamine for Modeling Amnesia in Rodents: Direct Comparison with the Use of Barnes Maze Test and Contextual Fear Conditioning Test in Mice.

Neurotox Res 2018 Oct 21;34(3):431-441. Epub 2018 Apr 21.

Department of Pharmacodynamics, Chair of Pharmacodynamics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 9 Medyczna St., 30 - 688, Krakow, Poland.

Nowadays cognitive impairments are a growing unresolved medical issue which may accompany many diseases and therapies, furthermore, numerous researchers investigate various neurobiological aspects of human memory to find possible ways to improve it. Until any other method is discovered, in vivo studies remain the only available tool for memory evaluation. At first, researchers need to choose a model of amnesia which may strongly influence observed results. Read More

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October 2018
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Effects of cariprazine on extracellular levels of glutamate, GABA, dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in the medial prefrontal cortex in the rat phencyclidine model of schizophrenia studied by microdialysis and simultaneous recordings of locomotor activity.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 May 11;235(5):1593-1607. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Allergan, Madison, NJ, USA.

Rationale: Aberrant glutamatergic, dopaminergic, and GABAergic neurotransmission has been implicated in schizophrenia. Cariprazine reverses the behavioral effects observed in the rat phencyclidine (PCP)-induced model of schizophrenia; however, little is known about its in vivo neurochemistry.

Objectives: The study aims to compare the effects of cariprazine and aripiprazole on PCP-induced changes in the extracellular levels of glutamate, dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, and GABA in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and on locomotor activation. Read More

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May 2018
6 Reads

Computed tomography angiography-negative aortic dissection in a patient using Phencyclidine.

World J Emerg Med 2018 ;9(2):144-148

Advocate Christ Medical Center, 4440 95th St, Oak Lawn, IL 60453, USA.

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January 2018

Functional mechanism of ASP5736, a selective serotonin 5-HT receptor antagonist with potential utility for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 05 21;28(5):620-629. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Department of Neuroscience, Drug Discovery Research, Astellas Pharma Inc., 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8585, Japan.

The 5-HT receptor is arguably the least understood 5-HT receptor. Despite widespread expression in human and rodent brains it lacks specific ligands. Our previous results suggest that 5-HT receptor antagonists may be effective against cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Read More

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May 2018
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Estradiol and luteinizing hormone regulate recognition memory following subchronic phencyclidine: Evidence for hippocampal GABA action.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2018 May 27;91:86-94. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Oberlin College, Neuroscience Department, 119 Woodland St, Oberlin, OH 44074, USA.

The cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are poorly understood and difficult to treat. Estrogens may mitigate these symptoms via unknown mechanisms. To examine these mechanisms, we tested whether increasing estradiol (E) or decreasing luteinizing hormone (LH) could mitigate short-term episodic memory loss in a phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia. Read More

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May 2018
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Metabotropic glutamate receptor modulation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens shell is unaffected by phencyclidine pretreatment: In vitro assessment using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry rat brain slices.

Brain Res 2018 May 7;1687:155-161. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK. Electronic address:

The non-competitive glutamate antagonist, phencyclidine is used in rodents to model behavioural deficits see in schizophrenia. Importantly, these deficits endure long after the cessation of short-term chronic treatment (sub-chronic), indicating that the drug treatment causes long-term changes in the physiology and/or chemistry of the brain. There is evidence that this may occur through glutamatergic modulation of mesolimbic dopamine release, perhaps involving metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). Read More

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May 2018
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Cerebellar α -subunit-containing GABA receptors: a novel therapeutic target for disrupted prepulse inhibition in neuropsychiatric disorders.

Br J Pharmacol 2018 Jun 10;175(12):2414-2427. Epub 2018 May 10.

Department of Chemical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan.

Background And Purpose: The pathophysiological role of α -subunit-containing GABA receptors, which are mainly expressed in cerebellar granule cells, remains unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that hispidulin, a flavonoid isolated from a local herb that remitted a patient's intractable motor tics, attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice as a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of cerebellar α GABA receptors. Here, using hispidulin and a selective α GABA receptor PAM, the pyrazoloquinolinone Compound 6, we revealed an unprecedented role of cerebellar α GABA receptors in disrupted prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI), which reflects sensorimotor gating deficits manifested in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

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June 2018
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